Searchable Index Diachronica: All sections (10.2)

(Note that I did not make the Index, I only converted it to HTML and made the search tool.)

1 Preface

On September 18, 2003, jburke created a topic on the Zompist Bulletin Board with the aim of allowing conlangers to examine trends in sound changes within natlang families. It has since expanded to provide conlangers with a general gist of plausible sound changes in general. The thread, in its current iteration, is available here: http://www.incatena.org/viewtopic.php?f=10&t=1533. Many of the compilations of sound changes have either come from pages in the thread or from pages on the KneeQuickie Correspondence Library archives (available at http://kneequickie.com/archive/The_Correspondence_Library; the page at http://www.kneequickie.com/kq/The_Correspondence_Library has not yet been updated with subpages for sound changes); if an entry in this list has no known contributor listed, it is from KneeQuickie’s Correspondence Library.

The intended purpose of this document is to provide a tool in PDF form for conlangers interested in diachronic conlanging and linguistic change to be able to get a feel for what sorts of changes might plausibly occur. To that end, this document features a compilation of various historical series of diachronic sound changes (and on occasion some synchronic processes as well) that have occurred in natural languages. It is hoped that the changes featured within this document will be of use in these endeavors.

No warrant is made that the entirety of the information herein is complete or correct. The ZBB was migrated over to a different setup some years back causing many special characters to disappear. Further, not all sources use IPA transcription, and may be unclear or missing information. Additionally, when listing sources, Wikipedia pages may be given with https:\\ instead of http:\\, even though the page may have been accessed using http:\\ instead of https:\\; this is for security, although doing so may in reality be pointless.

Due to the limits of the LaTeX software (and the skills of its user), full nesting is not possible. It is hoped that readers will understand and it is one of the goals of this project to provide correct nesting as far as is possible. Additionally, some overlap or multiple versions of changes may be present due to the nature of submitted sound-change lists.

Finally, many thanks to all individuals who contributed to the Library. Without you, this document would not exist.

3 Contact Information

Questions, comments, corrections, suggestions, missing authors for those changes taken from KneeQuickie, or other feedback may be sent to Pogostick Man at the Zompist Bulletin Board or the New Conlang Bulletin Board, Pan Pogostick at Polskie Forum Językowe, the CONLANG mailing list, or to mailto:satorarepotenetoperarotas3@gmail.com. Submitting corrections or lists of sound changes, preferably sourced, is encouraged.

4 Changelog

5 Key to Abbreviations

Unless otherwise noted, the symbols below stand for:

” = Stress
! = Except when…
(…X) = For any number of X remaining
X0 = The same/an identical X
Xn = X with a given tone
Xn = The nth X of a sequence or series
Xx = All X of a sequence or series
X̣ = Retroflex/emphatic X
# = Word boundary
$ = Stem boundary
% = Syllable boundary (or if X is one syllable away, or just representing a syllable in some changes from KneeQuickie or the ZBB)
∅ = Nothing/Null/Zero
A = Affricate
B = Back vowel
C = Consonant
D = Voiced plosive
E = Front vowel
F = Fricative
H = Laryngeal
J = Approximant
K = Velar
Ḱ = Palatovelar
L = Liquid
M = Diphthong
N = Nasal
O = Obstruent
P = Labial/Bilabial
Q = Uvular consonant; click consonant (Khoisan)
R = Resonant/Sonorant
S = Plosive
T = Voiceless plosive
U = Syllable
V = Vowel
W = Semivowel
Z = Continuant

6 Afro-Asiatic

For these Afro-Asiatic changes, s1, s2, s3, h1, and h2 are consonants, believed to have most likely been fricatives, of indeterminate reconstruction. Dashes denote stem boundaries.

The phonemic inventory of Proto-Afro-Asiatic has been reconstructed as follows:

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Pharyngeal Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p pʼ b t tʼ tˡʼ d dˡ c cʼ ɟ k kʷ kʼ kʷʼ ɡ ɡʷ ʔ
Fricative f s sʼ z x xʷ ɣ ɣʷ ħ ʕ h
Lat. Fric. ɬ
Affricate t͜s d͜z
Trill r
Approximant l j w
Front Central Back
Close i u
Open a

(From Fallon, Paul D. (2009), “The Velar Ejective in Proto-Agaw”. In Selected Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference on African Linguistics, Ojo, Akinloye and Lioba Moshi (Eds.), 10 – 22. Sommerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. http://www.lingref.com, document #2182, citing Ehret, Christopher (1995), Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afrasian): Vowels, Tone, Consonants, and Vocabulary (Voices from Asia); and from http://starling.rinet.ru/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=config&morpho=0&basename=\data\semham\afaset&first=1)

6.1 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Omotic

Mecislau, from Ehret, Christopher (1995), Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afrasian): Vowels, Tone, Consonants, and Vocabulary (Voices from Asia)

dz ʃ tʃ → ʒ s1 s2

dʒ → tʃ → ʃ

t → ∅ / _s#

ɬ → l

f → p

a(ː) → e(ː) / _{ʕ,q}$

q ʕ → ʔ h

a → o / #Cw_{(d)l,s3}

w → ∅ / #C_V, except _i(ː)

ʃ → s2 / {i,j}_

VNC → VːC[+voiced]

6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North Omotic

Mecislau, from Ehret, Christopher (1995), Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afrasian): Vowels, Tone, Consonants, and Vocabulary (Voices from Asia)

u o → i e

e → i / #N_C

e → i / #l_{P,C[+voiced]}

e → i / #b_

e → i / p_r

e → i / #{s,ʃ,tsʼ}_{k(w),ʔ}

e o → i u / #C_P

e o → i u / #(ʔ)_C

e o → i u / #{k(ʼ),x}_{t(ʼ),tsʼ}

e o → i u / #(ʔ)_C$

e o → i u / #P_{tsʼ,tʃʼ}

a → o / #{z,dʒ}_P

e(ː) → i(ː) / #C[+sibilant]_{d,n,r}

Cw → C

Vː → V / #K[-voice]_C

u → uː / #S[+voice]_P[-voice]

Vː → V / #C_C$ + $(V)C$ suffix

N → ∅ / V_{C[+sibilant],p}

6.1.1.1 North Omotic to Bench

Mecislau, from Ehret, Christopher (1995), Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afrasian): Vowels, Tone, Consonants, and Vocabulary (Voices from Asia)

x1 → k

x2 → k / #_

x2 s3 → ∅ ʃ / V_V

tʃ → ts

sx → ʃ

{ʔ,hx} → ∅

l → d / #_VC

l → n / #_VN

dʼ → tʼ

6.1.1.2 North Omotic to Dizin

Mecislau, from Ehret, Christopher (1995), Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afrasian): Vowels, Tone, Consonants, and Vocabulary (Voices from Asia)

pʼ → b

z → d / Vj_

tsʼ → ʒ / V_

x1 → k

x2 → k / _#

x2 → ∅ / V_V

ʒ → {tʃ,ts}

ts → tʃ / _i

sx → tʃ

s1 → ʃ

ʔ → ∅

{h1,h2} → h

dʼ → tʼ

6.1.1.3 North Omotic to Kafa

Mecislau, from Ehret, Christopher (1995), Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afrasian): Vowels, Tone, Consonants, and Vocabulary (Voices from Asia)

b → w / _$#

p → f / V_

z zː → j dʒː

s → ʃ / !V_

tsʼ → tʃʼ

x1 → k

x2 → k / #_

x2 → ∅ / V_V

{s3,ʒ} → ʃ / #_

{ts,ʒ} → tʃ / V_

s3 → ʃ / V_V

s3 → s / V_$#

tsʼ → tʃʼ

ɲ → n

h2 → w / #_

l → d / #_VC

l → n / #_Vb

dʼ → tʼ

6.1.1.4 North Omotic to Maale

Mecislau, from Ehret, Christopher (1995), Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afrasian): Vowels, Tone, Consonants, and Vocabulary (Voices from Asia)

b → w / V_V

p → f / V_

z → d / V_

z → ts / Vj_

x1 → k

x2 → h / #_

x2 → ɡ / V_V

ts tsː → s ts / V_

sx → ʃ

tsʼ → tʃʼ / #_

tsʼ → s / V_

ɲ → n

h2 → w / #_

6.1.1.5 North Omotic to Shekkacho

Mecislau, from Ehret, Christopher (1995), Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afrasian): Vowels, Tone, Consonants, and Vocabulary (Voices from Asia)

b → w / V_V

pʼ → p / V_

pʼ → b

z → j / {#,V}_

z → dʒː / Vj_

zː → dʒː

s → ʃ / ! V_

tsʼ → tʃʼ

x1 → k

x2 → ∅ / V_V

ʒ → ʃ / #_

{s3,ts,ʒ} → s / _$#

ts → ʃ / V_

s3 → ʃ / #_

s3 → s / V_$#

s2 → ʃ

s2 → {s,tʃː} / V_

h1 → {h,∅} / #_

h2 → w / #_

l → d / #_VC

l → n / #_Vb

dʼ → tʼ

6.1.1.6 North Omotic to Wolaytta

Mecislau, from Ehret, Christopher (1995), Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afrasian): Vowels, Tone, Consonants, and Vocabulary (Voices from Asia)

b → w / V_V

p → f

x1 → k

x2 → ∅ / V_V

x2 s3 → k ʃ / V_$#

s → s3 / V_(V)

s1 → ʃ

s2 → s / V_

ɲ → n

l → n / #_VN

dʼ → tʼ / #_

6.1.1.7 North Omotic to Yemsa

Mecislau, from Ehret, Christopher (1995), Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afrasian): Vowels, Tone, Consonants, and Vocabulary (Voices from Asia)

b → w / V_V

p → f

pʼ → b

z → d / V_

x1 → k

x2 → k / #_

x2 → ∅ / V_V

kʼ → k / #

tʃ ʒ → ʔj s

ts → s / #_

sx → ʃ

tʃʼ → tʃ

ɲ → n

h1 → {h,∅} / #_

h2 → w / #_

l → n / #_VC

dʼ → t

r → {r,lː} / V_

6.1.1.8 North Omotic to Zayse-Zergulla

Mecislau, from Ehret, Christopher (1995), Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afrasian): Vowels, Tone, Consonants, and Vocabulary (Voices from Asia)

b → w / V_V

pʼ → ʔp

z → ts / Vj_

tsʼ → sʼ

x1 → k

x2 → h / #_

x2 → ∅ / V_V

x2 → ɡ / n_

x3 → ɡ / V_#

tsː → ts / V_

{s1,s3} → ʃ

s2 → tʃ / V_

tsʼ → {tʃʼ,s}

ɲ → n

l → n / #_VN

6.1.2 South Omotic

6.1.2.1 South Omotic to Aari

Mecislau, from Ehret, Christopher (1995), Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afrasian): Vowels, Tone, Consonants, and Vocabulary (Voices from Asia)

pʼ → {b,p}ʼ

z → {d,z} / V_

{x1,x2} → ɡ

kʼ → q

tʃ → ts

s1 s2 s3 → ʃ z tʃ

h1 → ∅

6.1.2.2 South Omotic to Dime

Mecislau, from Ehret, Christopher (1995), Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afrasian): Vowels, Tone, Consonants, and Vocabulary (Voices from Asia)

p → f

z → {d,z} / V_

kʼ → ɡʼ / #_

tʃ → ts

ts → ʃ / _i

s1 → ʃ

s2 s3 → tʃː tʃ / V_

6.2 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Erythrean

Mecislau, from Ehret, Christopher (1995), Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afrasian): Vowels, Tone, Consonants, and Vocabulary (Voices from Asia)

tʃ dʒ → ts dz

6.2.1 Proto-Erythrean to Proto-Cushitic

Mecislau, from Ehret, Christopher (1995), Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afrasian): Vowels, Tone, Consonants, and Vocabulary (Voices from Asia)

b → m / #_Vn

ɡ → k / #{d,w}V_

ɣ → ɡ / #_Vx$

6.2.1.1 Agaw

6.2.1.1.1 Proto-Agaw to Awngi

Pogostick Man, from Fallon, Paul D. (2009), “The Velar Ejective in Proto-Agaw”. In Selected Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference on African Linguistics, Ojo, Akinloye and Lioba Moshi (Eds.), 10 – 22. Sommerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. <http://www.lingref.com>, document #2182, citing Appleyard, David L. (2006), A comparative dictionary of the Agaw languages. (Cushitic Language studies, 24.) Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.

NB: Does not include vowel developments.

{x,ɢ}(ʷ) → ∅ / at word boundaries

z dz ɡ → ɡ {z,dz} ɡ(ʷ)

{x,ɢ}(ʷ) → ɣ(ʷ)

kʼ kʷʼ → {ɣ,q} ɣʷ

ʔ → ∅

6.2.1.1.2 Proto-Agaw to Blin

Pogostick Man, from Fallon, Paul D. (2009), “The Velar Ejective in Proto-Agaw”. In Selected Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference on African Linguistics, Ojo, Akinloye and Lioba Moshi (Eds.), 10 – 22. Sommerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. <http://www.lingref.com>, document #2182, citing Appleyard, David L. (2006), A comparative dictionary of the Agaw languages. (Cushitic Language studies, 24.) Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.

NB: Does not include vowel developments.

{x,ɢ}(ʷ) → ∅ / at word boundaries

ɢ(ʷ) → x(ʷ) / else

{ts,tʃ} z dz → ʃ d dʒ

t → r / medially

6.2.1.1.3 Proto-Agaw to Kemantney

Pogostick Man, from Fallon, Paul D. (2009), “The Velar Ejective in Proto-Agaw”. In Selected Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference on African Linguistics, Ojo, Akinloye and Lioba Moshi (Eds.), 10 – 22. Sommerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. <http://www.lingref.com>, document #2182, citing Appleyard, David L. (2006), A comparative dictionary of the Agaw languages. (Cushitic Language studies, 24.) Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.

NB: Does not include vowel developments.

{x,ɢ}(ʷ) → ∅ / at word boundaries

x → ∅

xʷ ɢʷ → w ɣʷ

{ts,tʃ} dz → ʃ dʒ

t → j / medially

kʼ → χʷ / #_

kʷʼ → χʷ

ʔ → ∅

6.2.1.1.4 Proto-Agaw to Xamtanga

Pogostick Man, from Fallon, Paul D. (2009), “The Velar Ejective in Proto-Agaw”. In Selected Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference on African Linguistics, Ojo, Akinloye and Lioba Moshi (Eds.), 10 – 22. Sommerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. <http://www.lingref.com>, document #2182, citing Appleyard, David L. (2006), A comparative dictionary of the Agaw languages. (Cushitic Language studies, 24.) Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.

NB: Does not include vowel developments.

{x,ɢ} → ∅

{xʷ,ɢʷ} → ∅ / at word boundaries

{xʷ,ɢʷ} → w / else

ts tʃ dz → sʼ tʃʼ z

k → {k(ʼ),q}

kʼ → {χʷ,qʷ} / #_

kʼ → q / else

ʔ → ∅

6.2.2 Proto-Erythrean to Proto-North Erythrean

Mecislau, from Ehret, Christopher (1995), Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afrasian): Vowels, Tone, Consonants, and Vocabulary (Voices from Asia)

V{j,w} → Vː / C_C

eː oː → i u

{e,o} {i,u} → a ə

$VC$ → $CV$ “(This last rule turned all VC roots into CV)”

in → ŋ / #_C

6.2.2.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-Chadic

Mecislau, from Ehret, Christopher (1995), Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afrasian): Vowels, Tone, Consonants, and Vocabulary (Voices from Asia)

aː → a

ħ ʕ → h ʔ

ts dz {t,ts}ʼ tʃʼ → s z sʼ ʃʼ

ŋ → ∅ / V_{ts,q}

6.2.2.1.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-Boreafrasian

Mecislau, from Ehret, Christopher (1995), Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afrasian): Vowels, Tone, Consonants, and Vocabulary (Voices from Asia)

sʼ → s

h → ħ / #_Vs

z → d / “when another sibilant is in the word nearby” and (word-finally?) when “noun-stem final”

{ɲ,ŋw} → n

V → ∅ / _# “in nominals”

ŋ → ∅ / #_CV

6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berber

Mecislau, from Ehret, Christopher (1995), Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afrasian): Vowels, Tone, Consonants, and Vocabulary (Voices from Asia)

ə → i

h → ħ / _Vz

l → ∅ / #{d,tʼ}_VC

ɬ → s / #_VC

{ʃ,ts,z} dz tʃ {tʼ,tʃʼ} dʒ → s z ts tsʼ dʒ

f → p / #_V{Z,C[-voice],r}

pʼ → p

p → b / #dlV_

xw → ɣw → ħ

k → ɡ / _{w,j}

CVʕ → ħʔ / ! C = ɡw

ɡwVq → ʕ

k(w) → tʃ / #_Vt

ɡ(w) → dʒ / #_Vd

xV → k / _h

Kʷ → K

q → ∅ / _i

q → i / #_V{Z,C[+dental]}

ʕ → i / #_VR

qu → w / _{f,s} (sporadic)

ʔ → ʕ / _V{n,r,ɡ}

{h,ħ,q} → ʕ / C[+voice]_V

q → ʔ / _C[+dental]

{h,ħ} → ʔ / KV_

q → ʔ / h_

qh → ʕħ

ɣ → ʕ / ħ_

tlʼ → dl / #_Vħr

O[+lateral] → O[+palatal]

r → l / #_V(V)O[+labial]

r → ʔ / C_{t,w,j}# ! C = {ɡ,m,n,r,w,ʃ,x}

l → j / #_iC ?

l → r / #nV_C

l → n

6.2.2.1.3 Ancient Egyptian to Coptic

Mecislau, from Ehret, Christopher (1995), Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afrasian): Vowels, Tone, Consonants, and Vocabulary (Voices from Asia)

n → l / #_Vb

n → l / #_(V){s,ʃ,h}V{m,b}#

n → l / #_V{m,b}{s,ʃ,h}

n → l / #_Vk

n → l / mV_C

n → l / CV_m

r → l / #(C)_c(C)# ?

r → l / #o_#

6.2.2.1.4 Proto-Boreafrasian to Proto-Semitic

Mecislau, from Ehret, Christopher (1995), Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afrasian): Vowels, Tone, Consonants, and Vocabulary (Voices from Asia)

q → ʕ

{i,u} → ə

tlʼ → ɬ / _C[+sibilant]

ɣ → ɡ / #_VCH

ɣ(w) → ɡ / #_Vx

kʼ(w) → k / #dlV_

w → ∅ / _C

ʔ → ʕ / #K_r#

6.2.2.1.5 Proto-Semitic to Classical Arabic

Khavaragh

p → f

θˤ kˤ → ðˤ q

ɡ → ɡʲ → dʒ

s → {ʃ,h} / in “anaphora and certain derivational prefixes. . .[t]his is common to many other Semitic languages as well”

ʃ → s

ɬ → ʃ

ɬˤ → dɬˤ → dˤ

m → n / “in certain contexts, notably in the nunation”

V{j,w}V → aː / some sequences

“assimilation in some of the longer vowels”

6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabic

Pogostick Man, from Borg, Alexander (1985), Cypriot Arabic

NB: Changes may not be in chronological order.

S[+ voice] → S[- voice]

q → k

S → [+ voice] / {V,R}_V

S → [+ voice] / V_R

{θ,ð} {f,v} {x,ɣ} voicing neutralized “in contact with other fricatives”

S → F / _S

f θ → p t / F_

k x → c ç / _{j,E}

{l,n}j → jː

j → c / {O,r}

j → ∅ / Ck_$

nx → xː

∅ → F / N_{O,r} ! m_f

{ðˤ,dˤ} → ð

tˤ sˤ → s t

ʔ h → ∅ x

∅ → i / #al$_z

dʒ → z

ɣ ħ → ʕ x

w → v / _%

wː → v

j(ː) → ∅ / V_E

uː iː → oː eː / _ʕ

uː iː → oː eː / ʕ_

i → a / Cˤ_{q,ɣ,ʕ}

i → a / {q,ɣ,ʕ}_Cˤ

a → i / _C(C), when stressed

u → o / _{ʕ,ɣ,x,r}

u → o / {ʕ,ɣ,x,r}_

{u,a,i} → ∅ / _%, when stressed (short only)

Epenthesis in medial CCC clusters, often so that the syllable break is between the second and third consonants

uː iː → u i

a → a / _C[+ dorsal]

a → e / _(C)(C)i(ː)

aː → a / ! _#

a → {u,o} / P_

a → {u,o} / _P

a → ∅ / _t, in the feminine ending

aːʔ → e / E(C)(C)_#

aː → a / {Cˤ,w}_#

6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Egyptian Arabic

Pogostick Man, from Brustad, Kristen, Mahmoud Al-Batal, and Abbas Al-Tonsi (2010), Alif Baa: Introduction to Letters and Sounds, 3rd. Ed.; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_Arabic; At-Tonsi, Abbas, Heba Salem, and Nevenka Korica Sullivan (2013), Umm al-Dunya: Advanced Egyptian Colloquial Arabic; and from correspondence with my own Arabic professor, who is a native speaker of this dialect

θ ð → t d / “usually in numbers or cases where a short vowel has been deleted and it’s in contact with another stop, e.g. CA/MSA kaˈθiːr → EA ktiːr

θ ð → s z

ðˤ → zˤ, occasionally tˤ

dˤ → zˤ (seems to be a sporadic change only affecting a few words, e.g. CA/MSA ˈdˤaːbitˤ → EA ˈzˤaːbitˤ)

dʒ → ɡ

i u → e o / only when short, ! _#

u → {o,u} / short only, _#

aj aw → eː oː / in U[+closed]

Vː → V / C_C{ː,C}V

V → Vː / C_CV in U[-stress]

V → Vː / _# + suffix

{i,u} → ∅ / VC_CV when unstressed (short only)

Some other short-vowel deletions

∅ → e / CVCC_CVCV (applies across word boundaries)

Resyllabification across word boundaries to prevent vowel-initial syllables
r gains emphatic status except when next to i, and even then it’s becoming more common in that environment

a(ː) → ɑ(ː) / near emphatics

a(ː) → ɑ(ː) / if ɑ(ː) is elsewhere in the word

a(ː) → æ(ː) / else (sometimes it seems more like ɛ(ː) to me)

q → ʔ / except in several words, two of which are al-Qâhira and musîqâ

Two consecutive consonants assimilate to the voicing of the second (obstruents only?)

{{s,z}(ˤ),ʒ}ʃ → ʃː

ʕ → {ʕ̞,ħ} / _h

Final short vowel loss

h → ∅ / in coda

6.2.2.1.8 Classical Arabic to Coastal Hadhrami Arabic

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia Contributors (2013), “Hadhrami Arabic”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hadhrami_Arabic&oldid=580700095>

dʒ → j, occasionally ɟ or dʒ in educated speech

θ ð ðˤ → t d dˤ

q → ɡ

aː → eː / in Form VI (tafā‘ala) verbs, though these apparently coexist with forms having the original vowel as well, with semantic distinctions

aː → æː / when not near emphatics

Epenthesis (it seems i is preferred) breaking up final consonant clusters

V[-long] → ∅ / #C_C, in some words

6.2.2.1.9 Classical Arabic to Wādı̄ Hadhrami Arabic

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia Contributors (2013), “Hadhrami Arabic”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hadhrami_Arabic&oldid=580700095>

dʒ → j, occasionally ɟ or dʒ in educated speech

θ ð ðˤ → t d dˤ

dˤ q → ðˤ ɡ

aː → eː / in Form VI (tafā‘ala) verbs, though these apparently coexist with forms having the original vowel as well, with semantic distinctions

aː → æː / when not near emphatics

Epenthesis (it seems i is preferred) breaking up final consonant clusters

V[-long] → ∅ / #C_C (sporadic?)

6.2.2.1.10 Classical Arabic to Hassāniyya Arabic

Pogostick Man, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hass%C4%81n%C4%ABya

NB: Words borrowed directly from CA/MSA seem to be immune to these changes. Also, unless otherwise noted, changes also apply to geminate consonants.

dˤ q → ðˤ ɡ

f θ → v z̪ (the article isn’t exactly clear on what this second phone is)

ʔ → {∅,j,w} / depending on the environment; again, the article is unclear

x → χ (conjectured based upon the following but not outright stated in the article)

ɣː → ʁː → qː

ɣ → {ʁ,q}

V[-long] → ∅ / C_{C,#} (except for the feminine marker)

aj aw → eː(ʲ) oː(ʷ) (sometimes, the article is unclear)

The conditioning on these next two changes is conjectured based upon the source:

— j w → i u / #_CV

— j w → iː uː / #_CC

6.2.2.1.11 Classical Arabic to Iraqi Arabic

Pogostick Man, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Varieties_of_Arabic

k q → tʃ {ɡ,q} (ɡ is more common)

ɡʲ → j / in southern regions

ʕ → ʔˤ

aj aw → eː oː

6.2.2.1.12 Classical Arabic to Eastern Libyan Arabic

Pogostick Man, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libyan_Arabic

dˤ dʒ q → ðˤ ʒ ɡ

aj aw → e(ː,j) o(ː,w)

∅ → ə / C_CV(ː,V)CC

6.2.2.1.13 Classical Arabic to Western Libyan Arabic

Pogostick Man, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libyan_Arabic

q dʒ → ɡ ʒ

θ ð(ˤ) → t d(ˤ)

aj aw → eː oː

∅ → ə / CCV(ː,V)C_C

6.2.2.1.14 Classical Arabic to Moroccan Arabic

Pogostick Man, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moroccan_Arabic

t → t͜s / plain t only, distinguishable from the sequence ts

{a,i} → ə / short only; the change of short a blocked for some speakers before ħ ʕ

u → ə / short only, except near “a labial or velar consonant”

C[+labial/+velar] → ʷ / adjacent to short u

{u,ə} → ∅ / ! C_C(C)#

ə → a / near ħ ʕ

ə → ɐ / near emphatics

ə → ɪ / else

u → ʊ / short only

aː iː uː → ɑː eː oː / near emphatics

aː → æː / else

C1ˤC2 → C1C2ˤ

Cˤ → C / {#,V}_V

q → {q,ɡ}

dʒ → {d,ɡ} / if s or z occur somewhere else in the word

dʒ → ʒ / else

s → ʃ / if ʃ is somewhere in the stem after it

z → ʒ / if ʒ is somewhere in the stem after it

6.2.2.1.15 Classical Arabic to Sa‘idi Arabic

Pogostick Man, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sa%27idi_Arabic

NB: This is probably highly incomplete.

q x ɣ → ɡ χ ʁ

6.2.2.1.16 Classical Arabic to Sudanese Arabic

Pogostick Man, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudanese_Arabic

dʒ q → ɡʲ ɢ

u(ː) → {ɵ,o}(ː)

6.2.2.1.17 Classical Arabic to Tunisian Arabic

Pogostick Man, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tunisian_Arabic

a → ɑ / near emphatics

a → ɛ (sometimes)

dˤ q → ðˤ {ɡ,q}

dʒ x ɣ → ʒ χ ʁ

aj aw → {aj,eː,iː aw,oː,uː}

Vː → V[-long] / _# (except as below)

V(ː) → Vː / in accented or stressed monosyllables

6.2.2.1.18 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrew

Maknas, from http://www.adath-shalom.ca/history_of_hebrew.htm “and other sources”

NB: ə could be realized as an ultrashort [a], [e], or [o] depending on its surroundings.

θ θˤ ð ɬ ɬˤ → ʃ ʃˤ z s sˤ

x ɣ kˤ → ħ ʕ q

Some mergers involving j and w
Frequent h-dropping

Stressed-vowel correspondences:

— aː → oː / ! _#

— i iː u uː → eə iːə oə uːə / _R

— iː → eː / _#

— a → aː / _$

— a → {a,ɛ} (not common)

— i u → e a / _R{$,#} (in verbs)

— i u → e o / _C{$,#} (in verbs)

— i → eː oː / else

— aw → aːw

— aj → eː / _$

— aj → ɛː / _#

Unstressed-vowel correspondences:

— {o,u}(ː) → iː / _$%oː

— oː → uː

— a → ∅ / _#

— a → _$%%(…)”

— a → ə / _R if ə in an adjacent syllable

— a → ə / R_ if ə in an adjacent syllable

— i → ə / _R if a frontal allophone of ə in an adjacent syllable

— i → ə / R_ if a frontal allophone of ə in an adjacent syllable

— u → ə / _R if a backed allophone of ə in an adjacent syllable

— u → ə / R_ if a backed allophone of ə in an adjacent syllable

— i → a / _R

— i → a / R_

— a i → aː eː / _%”

— u → ɔ / _C{$,#}

— u → ∅ / ! _Cː

— aj aw → eː oː

p b t d k ɡ → b v θ ð x ɣ / non-intial singletons

ʕ → ∅ / _{$,#}

j → ∅ / E_ (not clear whether only short E or long also)

at → aː / _# (in feminine noun endings)

6.2.2.1.19 Biblical Hebrew to Modern Israeli Hebrew

Maknas, from http://www.adath-shalom.ca/history_of_hebrew.htm “and other sources”

NB: These aren’t all true sound changes per se, since Modern Israeli Hebrew was artificially revived and is an amalgamation of dialects.

{e(ː),ɛ} → ɛ

Vː → V[-long]

ə → a / near gutturals

ə → ɛ / #R_C or when breaking up what would otherwise be a three-consonant cluster; in the case of two schwas, only the first one is dropped

ə → ∅ / else

w θ ð ɣ → v t d ɡ (sometimes)

x ʕ → χ ʔ

sˤ tˤ ħ q → s t χ k

h → ∅ / _#

ʔ → ∅ / ! in onset of U[+stress] (colloquial)

h → ∅ (colloquial)

Cː → C[-long]

r → ʁ

7 Algonquian

Proto-Algonquian is believed to have had the following phonology, as provided for by the Wikipedia:

Labial Alveolar Palatal/Postalveolar Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p t k ʔ
Fricative θ s ʃ h
Affricate t͜ʃ
Rhotic r
Approximant w j
Front Central Back
Close i iː
Mid e eː o oː
Open a aː

The phoneme denoted as /θ/ may well have been actually /ɬ/ instead. Also, some debate exists as to whether or not /r/ was originally an /l/.

(From Wikipedia contributors (2011), “Proto-Algonquian language”. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Algonquian_language&oldid=440788532>)

7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenaki

Pogostick Man with acknowledgment to dhok, from Warne, Janet Leila (1973), “A Historical Phonology of Abenaki”. <http://digitool.library.mcgill.ca/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=46078&local_base=GEN01-MCG02>

hl → sː

ʔ → h / _l

l → n / #_

l → r

nr → rː

N → ∅ / _O

aː → a / _OO

a → e / #C_OO

a → ∅ / #_OO

V → ∅ / _#

iw → o / _#

w → ∅ / _# ! k(ː)_

j → ∅ / _# ! P_

w → ∅ / C_ ! C = K

j → ∅ / _C

i → ∅ / #w_

θ → n / #_

θ → s / _k

θ → r

ʃ tʃ → s ts

{x,h}S → Sː

sk → kː / ! _a

ʔs ʔts → sː tsː

oː aː eː iː → o ɔ̃ a i

7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenaki

Pogostick Man with acknowledgment to dhok, from Warne, Janet Leila (1973), “A Historical Phonology of Abenaki”. <http://digitool.library.mcgill.ca/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=46078&local_base=GEN01-MCG02>

nθ nl → sː {sː,hl}

ʔ → h / _l

N → ∅ / _RO

aː → a / _OO

aː → ɔ̃

V[- high - long] → ∅ / #C_OO

a → ∅ / #_OO

V → ∅ / _#

iw → o / _#

w → ∅ / _# ! k(ː)_

j → ∅ / _# ! p_

w → ∅ / C_ ! C = K

j → ∅ / C_

{R,h} → ∅ / V_V (sporadic?)

θ → n / #_

θ → s / _k

θ → l

ʃ tʃ → s ts

nj → i / #_

{x,h}S → Sː

ʔs ʔts → sː tsː

sk → kː / ! _a

i → e / _R

oː eː iː → o a i

7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-Atsina

Whimemsz, from Goddard, Ives (1974), “An Outline of the Historical Phonology of Arapaho and Atsina”. International Journal of American Linguistics, 40:102 – 116

(W)V → ∅ / _#

we → o

o(ː) → i(ː)

W → ∅ / C_i(ː)

e → i / #_

θ → ʃ / C_

θ h {s,m,n,r} → ʃ ∅ ʔ / _C

tʃ → ʃ / _p

W → j / C_

W → n / {#,V}_

p k → k ∅

s → n / #_

s → h / {V,C}_

r → n / {#,V}_

r → h / C_

tʃ → θ

Vː → V[-long] / _CC

a(ː) → o(ː)

7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapaho

Whimemsz, from Goddard, Ives (1974), “An Outline of the Historical Phonology of Arapaho and Atsina”. International Journal of American Linguistics, 40:102 – 116

hʔ → ʔh

({C,#}V)ʔ → ({C,#}Vː)∅ / _C

i(ː) → u(ː) / o(ː)(C[-dental])(C[-dental])_

∅ → ʔ / CV[-long]_#

ʃ m → x w / _B

ʃ m → x w / B_#

ʃ m → x b / o(ː)_e(ː)

ʃ k m → s tʃ b / _{E,j}

ʃ k m → s tʃ b / E_#

(V[-long])N → ∅ / _#

∅ → h / #_V

eː → ei / j_

o(ː) → e(ː) / Cj_ (sporadic)

n → ∅ / _j

j → ∅ / C_

h → ∅ / _#

7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventre

Whimemsz, from Goddard, Ives (1974), “An Outline of the Historical Phonology of Arapaho and Atsina”. International Journal of American Linguistics, 40:102 – 116

hʔ → ʔh

({C,#}V[-long])ʔ → ({C,#}Vː[+falling tone])∅ / _C

j → ∅ / {ʃ,θ}

i → u / o(ː)_

ʃ θ m → θ t w / _o(ː)

ʃ θ m k → θ t b tʃ / _e(ː)

ʃ {θ,t} m k → s ts tʲ bʲ / _{i(ː),j,#}

(V[-long])N → ∅ / _#

∅ → ʔ / #_V

n → ∅ / _j

7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfoot

Whimemsz, from Proulx, Paul (1989), “A Sketch of Blackfoot Historical Phonology”. International Journal of American Linguistics, 55:43 – 82

{θ,tʃ,ʃ,r} → t / unless adjacent to another consonant

∅ → x / _s ! _C{C,#}

j → s / ! C_

h → ∅ / ! _C

{ʃ,tʃ} → s / #_

{ʔθ,ʔr} → {ʔ,j,∅}

nr → s

h → x / _{p,k}

hkw → ʔk

nθ hs → sːt sː

m → ʔ / _p

nkw → ʔː

{n,s} → x / _t

ntʃ → ʔt

ns sk → {x,s} {x,sː}

θp tʃp ʃp → {x,sː} ʔp sːp

ʃ → x / _k

x → sː / {i,#e,ja,ke}_

x → sː / e(ː)_s

∅ → s / {i(ː),#e}_t

t → ts / _{i,e(ː),a}

∅ → s / k_i(ː)

sːː → sː

e → i / {#,k}_

{a,e,i} → o / _kʷ

∅ → j / {oːw,iːj}_i#

w → j / {r,k}_i#

∅ → i / r_w

w → ∅ / C_

{jiː,ja,ahi} {owaː,awa,awe} awi {iːwa,eːwa,aji,aje,ani} → i oː o(ji) iː / C_C

hi → ∅ / aː_

∅ → i / #_jC

∅ → i / C_jV#

a → o / _w

eLwi → iː

i(ː)wi → iː / medially

i(ː)wi → i / _#

j → s

w → j / _i

{iː,ij,j} → j / C_B

iji → iː

w → ∅ / {a,o}_iC

on → u / _iC

tem {k,p}en → mː nː

ket → tː (→ sː?)

ke(h) → tː ?

{k(ʷ)es,keθ} → sː

e → ∅ / O_ in #U (not universal)

{me,ne} → ∅ / #_O “(followed by truncation of following x)”

{we,wiː} → o / #_

tsi → ∅ / $_OO “(before a prefix; the first obstruent of the follow[ing] cluster then becomes ʔ)

aː → aa / W_ ! when _{C{C,ː},#}

aː → a / else

oː → o

a → i / ! at word boundaries

e → a / _#

{eː,iː} → i

7.5 Proto-Algonquian to Cheyenne

jburke, from “Bloomfield and Leman”

o a → e o

e i → a e

p t k → {hp,∅} ht {hk,∅}

{(t)l,θ} → t

s → h

ʃ tʃ → {ʃ,x} s

w j → {v,o} {t,e}

{kC,Ck} → ʔ

C[- nasal] → ∅ / near nasals

m → ∅ / near nasals

p → {t,∅} / near consonants

W → ∅ / near nasals or t

7.6 Proto-Algonquian to Northern East Cree

Pogostick Man, from http://home.kpn.nl/cvkolmes/ojibwe/CorrCrOj.pdf and Wikipedia contributors (2015), “Cree language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cree_language&oldid=690521189>

we → o

e eː → i aː

ja → aː / C_

ʃjeː → seː

lwi → jo

wi → o / C_

{n,q,h} → ∅ / _s

q → h / _tʃ

N → h / _S

(t)ʃp → sp

{q,ʃ} → s / _t

θ → s / _k

l → h / _k

{n,q,h}ʃ {n,q,h}l → s {h,j,hj}

k → tʃ / _i

a → i / in some unaccented syllables (short only)

θ → t

l → j

7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East Cree

Pogostick Man, from http://home.kpn.nl/cvkolmes/ojibwe/CorrCrOj.pdf and Wikipedia contributors (2015), “Cree language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cree_language&oldid=690521189>

we → o

e → i (short only)

ja → aː / C_

ʃjeː → ʃeː

lwi → jo

wi → o / C_

{n,q,h} → ∅ / _s

q → h / _tʃ

N → h / _S

(t)ʃp → sp

{q,ʃ} → s / _t

θ → s / _k

l → h / _k

{n,q,h}ʃ {n,q,h}l → ʃ l

ʃ → {ʃ,s} / in inland varieties; remains /ʃ/ in coastal varieties

k → tʃ / _i

tʃ → ts

θ → t

l → j

7.8 Proto-Algonquian to Plains Cree

Pogostick Man, from http://home.kpn.nl/cvkolmes/ojibwe/CorrCrOj.pdf and Wikipedia contributors (2015), “Cree language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cree_language&oldid=690521189>

we → o

e → i (short only in southern dialects, both short and long in northern dialects)

ja → aː / C_

ʃjeː → seː

lwi → jo

wi → o / C_

{n,q,h} → ∅ / _s

q → h / _tʃ

N → h / _S

(t)ʃp → sp

{q,ʃ} → s / _t

θ → s / _k

l → h / _k

{n,q,h}ʃ {n,q,h}l → s {h,j,hj}

ʃ tʃ → s ts

θ → t

l → j

7.9 Proto-Algonquian to Swampy Cree

Pogostick Man, from http://home.kpn.nl/cvkolmes/ojibwe/CorrCrOj.pdf and Wikipedia contributors (2015), “Cree language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cree_language&oldid=690521189>

we → o

e → i (short only)

ja → aː / C_

ʃjeː → ʃeː

lwi → jo

wi → o / C_

{n,q,h} → ∅ / _s

q → h / _tʃ

N → h / _S

(t)ʃp → sp

{q,ʃ} → s / _t

θ → s / _k

l → h / _k

{n,q,h}ʃ {n,q,h}l → ʃ l

ʃ → s / in West Swampy Cree (remains /ʃ/ in East Swampy Cree)

tʃ → ts

θ → t

l → n

7.10 Proto-Algonquian to Woods Cree

Pogostick Man, from http://home.kpn.nl/cvkolmes/ojibwe/CorrCrOj.pdf and Wikipedia contributors (2015), “Cree language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cree_language&oldid=690521189>

we → o

e(ː) → i(ː)

ja → aː / C_

lwi → jo

wi → o / C_

{n,q,h} → ∅ / _s

q → h / _tʃ

N → h / _S

(t)ʃp → sp

{q,ʃ} → s / _t

θ → s / _k

l → s / _k

{n,q,h}ʃ {n,q,h}l → s {h,j,hj}

ʃ tʃ → s ts

θ → t

l → {r,ð}

7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delaware

Pogostick Man, from Goddard, Ives (1982), “The Historical Phonology of Munsee”. International Journal of American Linguistics, 48:16 – 48

tʃ → t / in nouns

t s → tʃ ʃ / in diminutives

{θ,l} → r → l

{θ,ʃ} → {r,l}

w → ∅ / m_C

w → ∅ / {p,m}_#

w → ∅ / ! {k,p,m}_

Cʷ → C / _ə{(C){p,kʷ},m,w}

kw pw mw → kʷ pʷ mʷ

we → wə → oː / ! adjacent to {p,m,k}

j → ∅ / C_

ʔ → h / _C ! C = l, or when reduplicated

h → ∅ / _{s,x}

{nθ,nl} → hl

k → ∅ / h_ (sometimes restored via analogy, e.g., in verbs)

θ ʃ x → x s h / _{p,k}

{tʃ,ç} → h / _k

i o → iː oː

Vː → V[-long] / _hC

V → ∅ / _# ! some monosyllables and analogical developments, in the latter of which long vowels were shortened

{a,ə} → ∅ / _{x,h} “in the odd-numbered of any sequence of one or more short-vowel open syllables”; such vowels are considered “weak”

ə[+weak] → ∅ / #_C

ə[+weak] → ∅ / _C[+voiced] (sporadic)

a[+weak] ə[+weak] → ə ∅ / a_Z[+voiced]

NC sequences assimilate the nasal to the POA of the following consonant, which is then voiced

Synchronic alterations:

ə → o / _h{p,kʷ,w,m}

ə → i / _hC

ə → o / _x{p,kʷ,V[+round]}

ə → o / {p,m}_x

x → χʷ / o(ː)_{V,#}

ə → a / _x “[i]n a nonrounding environment”

ə → o / _ŋkʷ

V[+high] → ə / _j

V[+high] → ə / _w (sporadic)

7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menominee

Whimemsz, from Hockett, C. F. (1981), “The Phonological History of Menominee”. Anthropological Linguistics 23(2): 51-87; and Miner, Kenneth L. (1979), “Theoretical Implications of the Great Menominee Vowel Shift”. Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics 4(1): 7-25.

we je → o i / _C

we → o / #_

θ → s / _O

θ → r

V[-long] → ∅ / _# “[does not apply in disyllabic words containing two short vowels]”

∅ → h / V[-long]_#

H → ∅ / _m

{s,r} → h / _O

w → ∅ / h_V

a → o / $am_w

V → Vː “when V is the second vowel of a word and follows a short-vowel syllable. Does not apply in glottal words”

e → i / Vː%_ ! _H

N → h / _{O,r}

e → i / #(C)_ ! _H

e → i / _{k,m} “when in the second syllable of glottal words”

{w,j} → ∅ / C_#

C → ∅ / C_#

wi(ː) → o(ː) / C_w

ʃ tʃ → s ts

Vː → V[-long] / CC(G)_C{V,#} “[i.e., when following a cluster but not followed by a cluster. Only applies ‘after the first long vowel of a nonglottal word, and everywhere in a glottal word’]”

V → Vː / _CC in even syllables

Vː → V[-long] / _C{V,#} in even syllables; “does not apply in the second syllable of a non-glottal word”

e(ː) i → æ(ː) e

iː oː oʔ → eː uː uʔ “[blocked when or a C+G sequence follows anywhere in the word, but does apply if æ(ː) intervenes before any following or C+G]”

{wiː,jiː,weː,jeː,wæː,jæː} {wi,ji,we,je,wæ,jæ} → iː i / C_

æ → e / in odd syllables ! _{w,j,H}

r → n

wa ja → uə̯ iə̯ / C_

7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-Illinois

Pogostick Man, from Costa, David J. (1991), “The Historical Phonology of Miami-Illinois Consonants”. International Journal of American Linguistics, 57:365 – 393

tʃ → t / in nominal suffixes

t → tʃ / in diminutives

s → ʃ / _i (not universal)

s → ʃ / _iV

{θ,l} → r → l / V_V

{θ,l} → r → n / #_ (and possibly in other places as well)

{θ,l} → r → l

mV[-long] → ∅ / #_{ʰC,s,ʃ} (allophonic, “optional”)

{ʔ,h}{ɬ,l} → hs

{θ,l} → t / n_

{θ,ʃ,tʃ,ç,x,ʔ} → h / _C

C[-nas] → h / _k

h → ʔ / _{s,ʃ}

hs hʃ → sː ʃː / sporadic, usually {#,V[+front]}_

C[-voiced] → C[+voiced] / N_

VNs VNʃ → V[+nas]z V[+nas]ʒ / not universal?

S → ⁿS / #NV_ (sporadic)

s ʃ → ⁿs ⁿʃ / U[-nas] (highly sporadic)

{h,ʔ} → ∅ / _m

7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaq

Pogostick Man with acknowledgment to dhok and Alex Fink, the former citing Audrey Marie (1986), The Fundamentals of Micmac Historical Morphology, citing Hewson, John (1973), “Proto-Algonkian Reflexes in Micmac”, and Hewson, John (1983), “Some Micmac Etymologies”, and the latter citing Hewson, John (1973), “Proto-Algonkian Reflexes in Micmac”

tʃ → ʃ / ! C_

n{θ,l} h{θ,ʃ} → ∅ s

{ʔ,h,N} → ∅ / _C

ʔ{θ,ʃ} ʔl → s ∅

x → ∅ / _{p,k}

ʃ → s

θ → l

k → χ / _(w)a(ː) ! #_

k → χ / a(ː)_

eːk → oχ / _w

o(ː) waː eː iː → u o e i

aː → a

(aw)aha → aː

{awa,iwa,iwi} → uː

{o,a}wi → oː

ehi → eː

{aja,iha,iji,ihi,ija} → iː

7.15 Proto-Algonquian to Ojibwe

Whimemsz, from his own work; http://home.kpn.nl/cvkolmes/ojibwe/corrCrOj.htm; Bloomfield, Leonard (1946), “Algonquian”; and “various asides and statements in dozens of different journal articles and conference papers dealing with Ojibwe or PA”

NB: For this sound-change set, H is “either an */h/ or */ʔ/, but we don’t know which”.

we e → o i

w → ∅ / {t,r}_i

{θ,s,h,ʔ} → ∅ / _{p,t,tʃ,k}

θ → r

{ʔ,h}{s,r} → s

{ʔ,h} → ∅ / _ʃ

{n,r} → ∅ / _r

H → ∅ / _m

r → s / _k

{j,w}V[-long] → ∅ / C_# in disyllables with Vː or in tri(-plus-)syllables

{w,j}V[-long] → ∅ / Vː_# (Whimemsz is unsure if this change is across-the-board or not)

V[-long] → ∅ / V[-long]{w,j}_# (Whimemsz is unsure if this change is across-the-board or not)

jeː → iː / C_

ja → iː / C_C

j → ∅ / C_

r → n

7.16 Proto-Algonquian to Piscataway

Pogostick Man, from Mackie, Lisa (2006), “Fragments of Piscataway: A Preliminary Description”

NB: This is very incomplete, partially because it seems that the only source we have on Piscataway is a single document in rather poor condition.

*#we- retained

{θ,ʃ} → ɬ (conjectured based on 〈z〉 in the Piscataway source and on the lack of voicing in the original reconstructed sounds)

k → x

e → o / unclear conditioning

ʔ → h / _C

7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawnee

Whimemsz, from bin Muzaffar, Towhid, Computer Simulation of Shawnee Historical Phonology, plus “other corrections based on a few other papers plus my limited knowledge of comparative Algonquian”

we → o

θ r / ! _O

r → s / H_

r → ∅ / n_

N → ∅ / _O

{h,s,tʃ,θ} → ʔ / _O

r → ʃ / _O

e → i / #(C)_ “(but remains e in a few cases?)”

iː → i / _j

j → ∅ / C_i(ː)

je → i / C_

j → ∅ / {tʃ,ʃ}_eː

j → ∅ / {tʃ,ʃ,w}_aː

w → ∅ / t_i

wa → o / #_

V[-long] → ∅ / _{ʃp,ʃk}

V[-long] → ∅ / C_ʔC

V[-long] → ∅ / _hV

Vː → V[-long] / _#

Vː → V[-long] / _{ʔC,ʃp,ʃk,hV}

ʔ → ∅ / C{v,l,s}_C

ʔ → ∅ / _CC

∅ → ʔ / C{v,d}_{ʃp,ʃk,hV}

∅ → h / #_V

s → θ

r → l

∅ → i / #C_jVː “(for some speakers)”

ʃ → s “(for many speakers)”

8 Altaic

The Wikipedia gives the following reconstruction, slightly adapted, for a hypothetical Proto(-Macro)-Altaic language, citing Blažek (2006) citing Sarostin et al. (2003) and porting over into IPA:

Bilabial Alveolar/Dental Alveolopalatal Postalveolar Paltal Velar
Nasal m n
Plosive p pʰ b t tʰ d k kʰ ɡ
Fricative s z ʃ
Affricate t͜ʃ t͜ʃʰ d͜ʒ
Trill r
Approximant l
Front Central Back
Close i y u
Mid e ø o
Near-Open æ
Open a

*z would only have ever existed word-initially; *r and *j would only have been medial. In addition, Proto-(Macro-)Altaic also is thought to have had a bitonal pitch-accent system, with the syllable carrying the tone.

It is important to note that the Altaic grouping is highly controversial and is not accepted by many mainstream linguists.

(From Wikipedia contributors (2011), “Altaic languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Altaic_languages&oldid=453651228>)

8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonic

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2011), “Altaic languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Altaic_languages&oldid=453651228>, citing Sarostin, Sergei A., Anna V. Dybo, and Oleg A. Mudrak (2003), Etymological Dictionary of the Altaic Languages. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers

NB: Does not include clusters.

a → ə / _Ce

a → i / _Ci

a → u / _Cu

V → a / _Ca

u → a / P_Ce

{a,e,o,æ} i u y ø → ə i ua {u,ə} {ə,u} / _Ce

{a,æ,e,ø,i,y} o → i u / _Ci

e i {o,u} æ ø y → {ə,a} {i,ə} ə a {ə,u} {u,ə} / _Co

V → u / _Cu

pʰ tʰ kʰ → p t k

b → p / #_

b → w / ! _{a,ə,Vj}

tʃʰ → t

tʃ dʒ → t d / #_

tʃ → s / maybe ! _#?

dʒ → j

ɡ → ∅ / iV_

ɡ → k / else

{ʃ,z} → s

n → m / #_

ŋ → m / #_{æ,ø,y}

ŋ → {∅,n} #_ else

N → {m,n}

r → t / _{i,u}

rʲ → {r,t}

l(ʲ) → n / #_

l lʲ → r s / else

j → {j,∅}

U[+long] → U[-long]

8.1.1 Early Middle Japanese to Modern Japanese

Zhen Lin

NB: The ordering of these changes may be slightly anachronic.

p → ɸ

ɸ → w / V_V

(w)e → je

∅ → w / _o

w → ∅ / ! _{a,o}

au iu uu eu ou → ɔː juː uː joː oː

j → ∅ / _e

w → ∅ / _o

w → ∅ / k_a

ɸ → h / ! _u

ɔː → oː

“Affrication of /ti di/ probably happened very early. Denasalization of the prenasalized stops happened relatively later. Final /m/ merged with /n/ at some point, and [dʒ] (from */dj/) and [ʒ] (< */zj/) also merged.”

8.2 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Korean

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2011), “Altaic languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Altaic_languages&oldid=453651228>, citing Sarostin, Sergei A., Anna V. Dybo, and Oleg A. Mudrak (2003), Etymological Dictionary of the Altaic Languages. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers

NB: Does not include clusters.

{tʰ,d} {k,ɡ} → r {h,∅} / {C,V}_{C,V}

pʰ tʰ kʰ → p t {k,h}

b → p / #_

d → t

{tʃʰ,dʒ} → tʃ

ɡ → k / #_

{ʃ,z} → s

{nʲ,ŋ} → n / #_

ŋ → {ŋ,∅}

rʲ → r

l(ʲ) → n / #_

l(ʲ) → r / else

j → {j,∅}

U[+long] → U[-long]

Syllable pitches reverse, basically, for whatever reason

8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolic

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2011), “Altaic languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Altaic_languages&oldid=453651228>, citing Sarostin, Sergei A., Anna V. Dybo, and Oleg A. Mudrak (2003), Etymological Dictionary of the Altaic Languages. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers

NB: Does not include clusters.

a → {a,i} / _Ce

a → {a,e} / _Ci

a → {a,i,e} / _Co

a → {a,o,u} / _Cu

e o u æ ø y → {a,e} {o,u} {a,o,u a {a,o,u} {o,u,i} / _Ca

a e i o u æ ø y → {a,i} {e,ja} {e,i} {ø,y,o} {o,u,y} {i,a,e} {e,ø} {ø,y,o,u} / _Ce

i → e / P_Ci

a e u æ ø y → {a,e} {e,i} {y,ø} {i,e} {i,e,ø} {ø,y,o,u} / _Ci

e → {y,ø} / P_Co

e → {y,ø} / C_Po

e → o / P_Cu

e → o / C_Pu

a e o i æ ø y → {a,i,e} {a,e} u {o,u} e {ø,y,o,u} {o,u} / _Co

a e {o,u} æ ø y → {a,o,u} {e,a} {o,u} {a,o,u} {e,i,u} {i,o,u,y,ø} / _Cu

b → h / medially, ! {r(ʲ),l(ʲ)}_ or _ɡ

pʰ → {h,j} / #_

pʰ → {b,h} / medially

pʰ → b / #_U[+high pitch]

p → h (sporadic)

p → b

tʰ → d / _#

t(ʰ) d → tʃ dʒ / _i

tʰ → t / else

tʃ → dʒ / #_i

tʃ → d / #

tʃʰ → tʃ

ɡ → h / ! {C,V}_h

k → ɡ / ! #_

kʰ → ɡ / {C,V}_h

kʰ → k / else

z → s

ʃ → tʃ / #_a

ʃ → s / else

nʲ → dʒ / #_

nʲ → {j,n} / else

ŋ → ɡ / #_u

ŋ → n / #_{a,o,e}

ŋ → {∅,j} / #_

ŋ → {m,n,ŋ,h}

rʲ → r

l → {n,l} / #_

lʲ → dʒ / #_i

lʲ → d / #_

lʲ → l

j → {j,h}

Loss of syllable pitch and length

8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusic

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2011), “Altaic languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Altaic_languages&oldid=453651228>, citing Sarostin, Sergei A., Anna V. Dybo, and Oleg A. Mudrak (2003), Etymological Dictionary of the Altaic Languages. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers

NB: Does not include clusters.

o → {o,u} / _CV

æ → i / {s,ʃ,x}_Ca

{u,ø,y} æ → {o,u} ia / _Ca

y → u / P_C{e,i}

æ ø → i {o,u} / _Ce

æ → i / {s,ʃ,x}_Ci

æ ø y → ia {o,u} i / _Ci

{u,æ} ø → {o,u} i / _Co

ø → i / {s,ʃ,x}_Cu

{u,æ,y} ø → {o,u} ia / _Cu

p → b / medially

pʰ → p

t → dʒ / #_{æ,ø,y}

t → d / #_

tʰ tʃʰ → t tʃ

k → {k,ɡ} / #_

k → ɡ

kʰ → x / #_

kʰ → {x,k}

z → s

rʲ lʲ → r l

U[-long +low pitch] U[+long -low pitch] → U[+long] U[-long]

8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkic

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2011), “Altaic languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Altaic_languages&oldid=453651228>, citing Sarostin, Sergei A., Anna V. Dybo, and Oleg A. Mudrak (2003), Etymological Dictionary of the Altaic Languages. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers

NB: Does not include clusters.

a ø → {a,ʌ} a / P_Ca

a e i u æ ø y → a {a,ʌ,e} {ɯ,i} {u,o} {ia,ja,ɛ} {ia,ja} ɯ / _Ca

y → i / {r(ʲ),l(ʲ)}_e

e → ja / #_C{e,i}

ø → ʌ / P_Ce

i → e / {r(ʲ),l(ʲ)}_e

a {e,i} o u æ ø y → {ɛ,a} ɛ {ø,o} {y,u} {ia,ja,ɛ} {ia,ja} {y,ø} / _Ci

æ → a / P_Co

æ → ʌ / P_Cu

a e i æ ø y → {o,ja,aj} {ʌ,ɜ} ɯ {ia,ja} {o,u} {u,o} / _Co

e i æ ø y → {ɛ,a,ʌ} {ɯ,i} {e,a} {u,o} ɯ / _Cu

{pʰ,ŋ} → {∅,j} / #_

pʰ → p

tʰ → d / #_(V){lʲ,r(ʲ)}

tʰ → t

{t,tʃ} → d / #_

k → ɡ / _(V)r

kʰ → k

ʃ → tʃ / #_a

ʃ → s

m n(ʲ) → b j / #_

Loss of syllable pitch

The wiki at Firespeaker.org gives the following alternate list of sound changes from Proto-Altaic to (Pre-)Proto-Turkic.

Pogostick Man, from Firespeaker.org wiki contributors (2014), “Turkic sound changes”. <http://wiki.firespeaker.org/Turkic_sound_changes>

{ʒ,dʒ} → j / #_ (marked as to Pre-Proto-Turkic)

{d,n} → j / #_ (?) (marked as to Pre-Proto-Turkic)

{N,l,r,ʃ,z} → ∅ / #_

p → ɸ → h / #_

d ɡ → t k (may have been part of a more sweeping merger; Firespeaker calls it “lenis-fortis”)

{d,n}ʲ sʲ → j ʃ / #_

rʲ → z

8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchak

Pogostick Man, from Firespeaker.org wiki contributors (2014), “Turkic sound changes”. <http://wiki.firespeaker.org/Turkic_sound_changes>

V[- long] → ∅ (shared with Old Turkic)

h → ∅ (shared with Old Turkic)

nʲ → j

b…n → m…n

d ɣ → t x / _#

d → t / #_ (“kind of”, something about evidence from borrowings)

V → V[- round] / U_

b → v / V_

v → w

ɡm rɡ → mɡ ɡr (this second one is listed as → rɡ but it might be a typo)

rd → dr (possibly sporadic and/or confined to Kazakh)

ɣ → w / {a,u,i,o}_

{e,æ}b ub → ew uw

{d,ɡ} → j / ø_

d → ð → j / V_

ɡ → w / V_

ew (→ øj) → yj

æ → e

s → tʃ / _Vtʃ

s → ç / _Vç

a → æ / ! _B

f → w / _V

f → p / else

ŋ → ɡ / syllable-final

8.5.1.1 Proto-Kypchak to Kazakh

Pogostick Man, from Firespeaker.org wiki contributors (2014), “Turkic sound changes”. <http://wiki.firespeaker.org/Turkic_sound_changes>

NB: Most likely incomplete; all changes listed are stated as being “[s]hared with Nogay and Karakalpak”.

tʃ → ʃ

j → dʒ / #_ (did not occur in Qara Nogay)

dʒ → ʒ (did not occur in Qara Nogay or Central Nogay)

w → ∅ / ɯ_

8.5.1.2 Proto-Kypchak to Kyrgyz

Pogostick Man, from Firespeaker.org wiki contributors (2014), “Turkic sound changes”. <http://wiki.firespeaker.org/Turkic_sound_changes>

j → ∅ / _l (sporadic?)

b → m / V_V (sporadic?)

{u,ɯ}w {i,y}w aw {æ,e}w → uː yː oː øː

ɣ → ∅ / V_V

æ Vh {ʕ,h} → ɑː Vː ∅ (seems to have largely been confined to loanwords from Persian)

j → dʒ / #_

x → q

nj → jn

∅ → U / #_{l,r} (not sure what 〈U〉 represents here; maybe just some sort of back vowel?)

e → i / _ɡ

e → i / k_y (maybe they mean k_j?)

8.5.2 Proto-Turkic to Sakha

Pogostick Man, from Firespeaker.org wiki contributors (2014), “Turkic sound changes”. <http://wiki.firespeaker.org/Turkic_sound_changes>

{e,ɤ}ː → je (the second one is conjectured based on my admittedly sparse knowledge of Turkish; I can only guess that 〈ė〉 is some sort of back unrounded vowel)

o oɡ ø øɡ iɡ → wo ɥø oː øː iː

a{ɡ̌(ɯ),b} {o{ɡ̌,b},aɡ̌u} u{ɡ̌,b} → ɰa wo uː

iɡ̌ → ɯː → iː (but original ɯː unaffected?)

eɡ → {je,iː,ji}

d s {ʃ,z} → t ∅ s / V_V

s → ∅ / #_

{z,ʃ} → h

j → s (possibly only initially?)

9 Austroasiatic

9.1 Vietic

Thompson reconstructs the following phonetic system for Proto-Viet-Muong:

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m̥ m n̥ n ɲ̊ ɲ ŋ ŋ̊
Plosive p b t t* d d* c ɟ k ɡ ʔ
Liquid ʍ w l̥ l r̥ r j̊ j
Front Center Back
High i iə̯ ɨ ɨə̯ u uə̯
High-Mid e ə əː o
Low-Mid ɛ ɔ
Low a aː

Further, Thompson reconstructs Proto-Vietic as having had four tones, *A, *B, *C, and *D. In the development of Vietnamese, *B and *D merged.

Thompson lists a few occasional alterations between Muong Khen and Vietnamese, but I’m not sure exactly which two languages were being compared, so I’m shunting the alterations here.

-o : *-əw
-u : *-əw
-i : *-əj
-e : *-əj
a : ɨa

The -e : *-əj correspondence was listed as being rarer than the others.

(From Thompson, Laurence C. (1976), “Proto-Viet-Muong Phonology”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications 13, Austroasiatic Studies II:1113 – 1203; Wikipedia contributors (2012). “Hanoi”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hanoi&oldid=509052974>; Wikipedia contributors (2012), “Vietnamese Language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Cite&page=Vietnamese_language&id=509331797>; Gage, William W. (1985), “Glottal Stops and Vietnamese Tonogenesis”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications 20:21 – 36; and Thompson, Laurence C. (1979?), “More on Viet-Muong Tonal Developments”)

9.1.1 Proto-Vietic to Muong Khen

Pogostick Man, from Thompson, Laurence C. (1976), “Proto-Viet-Muong Phonology”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications 13, Austroasiatic Studies II:1113 – 1203; Wikipedia contributors (2012). “Hanoi”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hanoi&oldid=509052974>; Wikipedia contributors (2012), “Vietnamese Language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Cite&page=Vietnamese_language&id=509331797>; Gage, William W. (1985), “Glottal Stops and Vietnamese Tonogenesis”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications 20:21 – 36; and Thompson, Laurence C. (1979?), “More on Viet-Muong Tonal Developments”

Tonogenesis

Reg A B C d
1 mid level low rising1 high rising high rising
2 low falling high-mid2 high-mid2 high-mid2

1. “Constricted” (laryngealized?)
2. Terminates in a glottal stop if no final stop

Presyllables don’t seem to have affected Muong much.

Initials:

s → h

cʰ → s

tʰ → h (Only seems to have occurred with first-register tones)

{kʰ,ɡʱ} → x (Presyllables don’t seem to have affected this much)

m n → b d (Only seems to have occurred with first-register tones)

{pj,bj} {tj,dj} {cj,ɟj} → b d j

ɓ ɗ → b d (Only seems to have occurred with first-register tones)

{n̥j,nj,ɲ̊j,ɲj} → ɲ j

N[-voiced] W[-voiced] → N[+voiced] W[+voiced]

(h)ə{p,b} → t / _l

m → ∅ / _l

tɹ → tʰ

Miscellanea:

w → ∅ / tʰV_k (conjectured)

9.1.2 Proto-Vietic to Middle Vietnamese

Pogostick Man, from Thompson, Laurence C. (1976), “Proto-Viet-Muong Phonology”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications 13, Austroasiatic Studies II:1113 – 1203; Wikipedia contributors (2012). “Hanoi”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hanoi&oldid=509052974>; Wikipedia contributors (2012), “Vietnamese Language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Cite&page=Vietnamese_language&id=509331797>; Gage, William W. (1985), “Glottal Stops and Vietnamese Tonogenesis”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications 20:21 – 36; and Thompson, Laurence C. (1979?), “More on Viet-Muong Tonal Developments”

Initials:

bʱ {tʰ,dʱ} {t*ʰ,d*ʱ} {kʰ,ɡʱ} → pʰ t tʰ kʰ (after *kʰ *ɡʱ, only first-register tones may occur)

(h)ə{p,b} (h)ə{t,d} (h)ə{c,ɟ} (h)ə{k,ɡ} → β dʲ ɟ ɡ

{pj,bj} {tj,dj} {cj,ɟj} → {β,w} dʲ ɟ

ɓ ɗ → m n (For some reason it seems that only first-register tones can occur in this environment)

{n̥j,nj,ɲ̊j,ɲj} → ɲ (Thompson appears to me to have hedged a bit on the last one; based on other evidence in the paper I’m sticking this one as a palatal nasal)

tʃ → Ω (This is my own notation. I don’t have a clue what the intermediate form was; became something else in different dialects)

N[-voiced] W[-voiced] → N[+voiced] W[+voiced]

((h)ə)p d → b t / _l

t → ∅ / _ɹ (only first-register tones can occur in this environment)

t*ʰ d ɡ → tʰ t k / _w

s → t(ʰ?)

{əkʰ,əɡɦj} → ɟ (I think Thompson implied this was just a bit of a kludge)

Finals:

l → ∅ / {i,e}_

l → j / else

c ɲ → t n / ! E_ (apparently the precursor to Vietnamese short *a was treated as a short vowel here)

Thompson seems to list some changes as affecting Modern Vietnamese but I was unsure of where to put them so they’ll go here:

a ɔ → ɨə uə

In the original those first vowels were underlined.

9.1.2.1 Middle Vietnamese to Hanoi Vietnamese

Pogostick Man, from Thompson, Laurence C. (1976), “Proto-Viet-Muong Phonology”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications 13, Austroasiatic Studies II:1113 – 1203; Wikipedia contributors (2012). “Hanoi”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hanoi&oldid=509052974>; Wikipedia contributors (2012), “Vietnamese Language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Cite&page=Vietnamese_language&id=509331797>; Gage, William W. (1985), “Glottal Stops and Vietnamese Tonogenesis”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications 20:21 – 36; and Thompson, Laurence C. (1979?), “More on Viet-Muong Tonal Developments”

Tonogenesis

Reg A B/D C
1 mid trailing high rising dipping
2 low trailing low dropping1 high rising2

1. Tense when _S#; laryngealized elsewhere
2. Laryngealized

Initials:

pʰ → f

kʰ → x (only seems to have occurred with first-register tones)

{β,w} {dʲ,ɟ} → v z

ɹ → z (only seems to have occurred with first-register tones)

bl → z

ml → mɲ → ɲ (Thompson seems to indicate that this may have become [l] as well; only seems to have occurred with second-register tones)

Ω cʰ → s tɕ

Vowels:

ɨ → i / _(ə)w

ɛ → a / _C[+palatal]

Miscellanea:

w → ∅ / tV_wk (conjectured)

9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnamese

Pogostick Man, from Thompson, Laurence C. (1976), “Proto-Viet-Muong Phonology”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications 13, Austroasiatic Studies II:1113 – 1203; Wikipedia contributors (2012). “Hanoi”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hanoi&oldid=509052974>; Wikipedia contributors (2012), “Vietnamese Language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Cite&page=Vietnamese_language&id=509331797>; Gage, William W. (1985), “Glottal Stops and Vietnamese Tonogenesis”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications 20:21 – 36; and Thompson, Laurence C. (1979?), “More on Viet-Muong Tonal Developments”

Tonogenesis

Reg A B/D C
1 mid trailing high rising mid rising
2 low trailing low1 high rising2

1. Level when _S#; dipping otherwise
2. Laryngealized

Initials:

pʰ → f

kʰ → x (only seems to have occurred with first-register tones)

{β,w} → bj~vj~v

{bl,tl} → ʈ (?)

dʲ ɟ → z j

m → ∅ / _l

Ω cʰ → ʂ ʈʂ

ɹ → ʐ (sometimes?)

Finals:

c ɲ t n → t n k ŋ / a_ (short /a/ only)

c ɲ → t n / {i,e}_

{c,ɲ} → ∅ / else

Vowels:

ə → ∅ / {i,ɨ}_{p,m.w}

ə → ∅ / ɨ_j

ə → ∅ / u_{m,j}

The contrast between short /a/ and short /ə/ is neutralized when _w{k,ŋ}

a → aː / _{w,j}

ə(ː) ɛ → ɨ ɛə / _K

ɛ → a / _C[+palatal]

Miscellanea:

w → ∅ / tV_wk (conjectured)

10 Austronesian

Wikipedia gives the following reconstruction of Proto-Austronesian created by Robert Blust:

Labial Alveolar Palatal Retroflex Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ɳ ŋ (q,ʔ)
Plosive p b t d k ɡ ɡʲ
Fricative s ç h
Affricate t͜s cç͡ ɟʝ͜
Lateral l
Tap/Trill (ɾ,r,ʀ)
Approximant w j
Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid ə
Open a
Front Central Back
Close iw uj
Open aj aw

Points of this phonology are in great dispute; Blust himself states this.

(From Wikipedia contributors (2011), “Proto-Austronesian language”. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Austronesian_language&oldid=453318098>)

10.1 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Malayo-Polynesian

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2011), “Proto-Austronesian lanuage”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Austronesian_language&oldid=453318098>

e → a / _s

s ts lʲ → h t n

10.1.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan

TinyMusic, from Adelaar, Alexander (2005), “Malayo-Sumbawan”. Oceanic Linguistics 44(2):357 – 388

j → {d,t} / #_

j z → d j

w → ∅ / #_

R → r

q → h / _#

{q,h} → ∅

iw uj → {i,?} i / _#

A:

— aj aw → ej ow / _#

B:

— aj aw → e ow / _#

C[+ voice] → C[- voice] / _#

HəS → (h)ə(N)S / #_

10.1.1.1 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Balinese

TinyMusic, from Adelaar, Alexander (2005), “Malayo-Sumbawan”. Oceanic Linguistics 44(2):357 – 388

r → {r,h} → {∅,h}

h → {∅,h}

w → b / i_#

ej ow → i u

“ə assimilated to the following vowel after the loss of *-r-”

a → ə

10.1.1.2 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sasak

TinyMusic, from Adelaar, Alexander (2005), “Malayo-Sumbawan”. Oceanic Linguistics 44(2):357 – 388

h → q / _# (might’ve been a retention?)

h → ∅

iw ow ej → i o e / _#

“*i and *u often become mid-vowels”

V(h) → V(q) / _# (again, might’ve been a retention?)

a →ə / _# (Meno-mene and Mriak-mriku only)

d → r / medial (Meno-mene and Mriak-mriku only)

r → h / _# (Meno-mene and Mriak-mriku only)

10.1.1.3 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sumbawan

TinyMusic, from Adelaar, Alexander (2005), “Malayo-Sumbawan”. Oceanic Linguistics 44(2):357 – 388

h → q / _# (might’ve been a retention?)

h → ∅

w → ∅ / i_#

ej ow → e o / _#

u i → o e / sometimes

V(h) → V(q) / _# (again, might’ve been a retention?)

S[+ voice] → ∅ / _N

S[+ voice] → ∅ / N_

u → i / _{s,t,r,n,l} (blocked in Pusu)

“[C]ontraction of adjacent vowels” (not in Besar)

b → ∅ / medial (sporadic)

10.1.1.4 Polynesian

10.1.1.5 Proto-Polynesian to Luangiua

thetha, from Blust, Robert (2013), The Austronesian Languages, Revised Edition

{q,h} → ∅

r → l

f → h

k t → ʔ k

n → ŋ

w → v

10.1.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Philippine

Pogostick Man, from Llamzon, Teodoro A. (1975), “Proto-Philippine Phonology”. Archipel 9(1):29 – 42; and from other changes and information from this document

*T → t

{*D,*Z,z} → d / #_

*D → d / _#

*R → ɡ / #_

*R → {l,ɡ} / _#

ɲ → n

c → s

10.1.2.1 Proto-Philippine to Bicol

Pogostick Man, from Llamzon, Teodoro A. (1975), “Proto-Philippine Phonology”. Archipel 9(1):29 – 42; and from other changes and information from this document

ə → a / V_V

ə → u / _#

*j {*D,z} → r d / V_V

*j → ɡ / #_

h *j → ∅ d / _#

*R → ɡ

q → ∅

iw → uj

10.1.2.2 Proto-Philippine to Cebuano

Pogostick Man, from Llamzon, Teodoro A. (1975), “Proto-Philippine Phonology”. Archipel 9(1):29 – 42; and from other changes and information from this document

ə → u

*D d → l r / V_V

*j → d / #_

{*j,*Z} z → l r / V_V

h *j → ∅ d / _#

*R → ɡ

q → ∅

h → ∅ / _#

iw → uj

10.1.2.3 Proto-Philippine to Hiligaynon

Pogostick Man, from Llamzon, Teodoro A. (1975), “Proto-Philippine Phonology”. Archipel 9(1):29 – 42; and from other changes and information from this document

ə → u

*D → l

*j → d / #_

{*Z,*j} z → l r / V_V

*j → d / _#

h → ∅ / _#

q → ∅

iw → uj

10.1.2.4 Proto-Philippine to Ibanag

Pogostick Man, from Llamzon, Teodoro A. (1975), “Proto-Philippine Phonology”. Archipel 9(1):29 – 42; and from other changes and information from this document

ə → a

Something happens to final voiceless stops but it isn’t clear in the paper

*D → r

*j → ɡ / possible exception in word-initial position?

*Z → r

z → r / V_V

*R → ɡ

r → d / #_ (?)

{s,c} → t

{q,h} → ∅

uj → i

iw → uj

10.1.2.5 Proto-Philippine to Ifugao

Pogostick Man, from Llamzon, Teodoro A. (1975), “Proto-Philippine Phonology”. Archipel 9(1):29 – 42; and from other changes and information from this document

ə → o

*j → ɡ / _#

{z,*Z,*D,*j} → d

*R seems to have had a few different reflexes, mainly one of /l ɡ j/; if /ɡ j/ occurred, /ɡ/ was more probable at word boundaries and /j/ was more probable medially

{q,h} → ∅

{s,c} → h

∅ → j / _iw#

ay → e / _#

10.1.2.6 Proto-Philippine to Ilocano

Pogostick Man, from Llamzon, Teodoro A. (1975), “Proto-Philippine Phonology”. Archipel 9(1):29 – 42; and from other changes and information from this document

*D → d

{z,*Z,*j} → d / V_V

*j → ɡ

R → {ɡ,r} / _#

R → r

{q,h} → ∅

iw → uj

10.1.2.7 Proto-Philippine to Proto-Kalamian

Pogostick Man, from Himes, Ronald (2006), “The Kalamian Microgroup of Philippine Languages”. Paper presented at Tenth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics. 17­ – 20 January 2006. Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines. <http://www.sil.org/asia/philippines/ical/papers.html>

{h,ʔ} → ∅

{z,j} → d

*R ɲ → l n

e → u / _Cu

e → i / _Ci

e → u / uC_

e → a / _C[- voice]#

d → r / V_V

Contrastive stress lost

10.1.2.7.1 Proto-Kalamian to Agutaynen

Pogostick Man, from Himes, Ronald (2006), “The Kalamian Microgroup of Philippine Languages”. Paper presented at Tenth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics. 17­ – 20 January 2006. Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines. <http://www.sil.org/asia/philippines/ical/papers.html>

O[- voice] → ʔ / _C

k → ∅ / _{V,#}

q → k

aɪ ai → ɪɪ ii (not sure if there’s a long vowel or hiatus here)

t → s / _i

s → t / _V ! _E

s → t / _#

∅ → ʔ / #_

∅ → ʔ / V_#

10.1.2.7.2 Proto-Kalamian to Karamiananen

Pogostick Man, from Himes, Ronald (2006), “The Kalamian Microgroup of Philippine Languages”. Paper presented at Tenth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics. 17­ – 20 January 2006. Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines. <http://www.sil.org/asia/philippines/ical/papers.html>

{t,k} q → ʔ k / _C

s → ʔ / _C

k → ∅ / _{V,#}

q → k

aɪ ai → ɪɪ ii (not sure if there’s a long vowel or hiatus here)

t → s / _i

s → t / _V ! _E

s → t / _#

s → c& _ (the paper doesn’t explain what this represents)

b → β / V_V

β → w / V[+ high]_a

ɡ → h / V_V

∅ → ʔ / #_

∅ → ʔ / V_#

10.1.2.7.3 Proto-Kalamian to Kalamian Tagbanwa

Pogostick Man, from Himes, Ronald (2006), “The Kalamian Microgroup of Philippine Languages”. Paper presented at Tenth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics. 17­ – 20 January 2006. Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines. <http://www.sil.org/asia/philippines/ical/papers.html>

{t,k,q,s} → k / _C

k → ∅ / _{V,#}

q → k

aɪ ai → ɪɪ ii (not sure if there’s a long vowel or hiatus here)

b ɡ → β V / V_V

∅ → ʔ / #_

∅ → ʔ / V_#

10.1.2.8 Proto-Philippine to Kankanay

Pogostick Man, from Llamzon, Teodoro A. (1975), “Proto-Philippine Phonology”. Archipel 9(1):29 – 42; and from other changes and information from this document

{*D,*Z} → d

{z,*j} → d / V_V

*j → ɡ / _#

*R seems to have had a few different reflexes, mainly one of /l ɡ j/; if /ɡ j/ occurred, /ɡ/ was more probable at word boundaries and /j/ was more probable medially

c → s

{h,q} → ∅

Something seems to have changed to əw finally but the paper may have an error here

iw → uj

10.1.2.9 Proto-Philippine to Tagalog

Pogostick Man, from Llamzon, Teodoro A. (1975), “Proto-Philippine Phonology”. Archipel 9(1):29 – 42; and from other changes and information from this document

ə → i

u → o / _#

{*D,*j} {d,z} → l r / V_V

*j → d / #_

h *j → ∅ d / _#

*R → ɡ

q → ∅ (not sure what happens word-finally to it)

uj iw → oj uj / _#

10.1.2.10 Proto-Philippine to Waray

Pogostick Man, from Llamzon, Teodoro A. (1975), “Proto-Philippine Phonology”. Archipel 9(1):29 – 42; and from other changes and information from this document

h → ∅ / _#

ə → u

*T → t

{*D,*Z} → r / V_V

{*D,*Z,z} → d

*j → r / V_V

*j → d

*R → ɡ

r → l / _#

*c → s

q → ∅

iw → uj

10.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Batak

TinyMusic, from Adelaar, K.A. (1981), “Reconstruction of Proto-Batak Phonology”. In Blust, Robert (ed.), Historical Linguistics in Indonesia I:1 – 20.

TinyMusic notes that this particular set of sound changes is with respect to the reconstruction of Proto-Austronesian by Dyen (1965), and that he had some trouble with *j.

w → ∅ / i_#

{a,e} → o / _w#

a → e / _j#

{ts,ʈ} {ɟʝ͡,ɖ} {lʲ,ɲ} {ʔ,x,s,h} ʀ → t d n ∅ r (velar fricative is conjectured; changes → d “unsure”)

q → ∅ / #_ (sometimes; “represented by *h in PB”)

z → j (fricative changes to approximant)

10.2.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Chamic

TinyMusic, from Adelaar, Alexander (2005), “Malayo-Sumbawan”. Oceanic Linguistics 44(2):357 – 388

z j → j d

wa → u / #_

w → ∅ / #_

R q → r h

i iw u → ɔj ? ɔw / _#

C1C2 → C2

Nasal + stop clusters assimilate in POA

C[+ voice] → C[- voice] / _#

l n → r l / #_ (sporadic)

d j → r ɭ (sporadic)

“Sometimes a reduction of [the] penultimate vowel”

a → aː / _C# (sometimes)

10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorro

Whimemsz, from Blust, Robert (2000), “Chamorro Historical Phonology”. Oceanic Linguistics 39(1):83 – 122

ə → u

ə → ∅ / VC_CV

V → ∅ / VC_CV (sporadic)

i u → e o / _C{C,#}

i u → e o / CC# (sporadic)

a → æ “(in some forms; environment and conditioning unclear)”

uj → {i,u}

iw → u

p c q → f s ʔ

k → ∅ / _# (sporadic)

k → h / ! _#

h → ∅

V0V0 → V0

b dz → p ts

d → ∅ / _#

ɟ → ʔ

l → d / _{C,#}

ɾ → ɡ

O → O[-voiced] / _{C,#}

∅ → j / i_a

∅ → w / u_a

∅ → w / a_u

∅ → w / #_V

j w → dz ɡʷ

ɡʷ → ɡ / _V[+round]

10.2.3 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Malayic

TinyMusic, from Adelaar, Alexander (2005), “Malayo-Sumbawan”. Oceanic Linguistics 44(2):357 – 388

j → t / _#

j → d

z → j

w → ∅ / #_

R → r

h → ʔ / _# (sometimes)

h → ∅ / else

{iw,uj} → i / _#

A:

— aj aw → i u / _#

B:

— aj aw → aj aw / _#

C1C2 → C2

C[+ A POA]C[+ B POA] → C[+ B POA]C[+ B POA]

C[+ voice] → C[- voice] / _#

H → {∅,h} / _əNS / #_

10.2.3.1 Proto-Malayic to (Standard) Malay

TinyMusic, from Tryon, Darrell (1995), Comparative Austronesian Dictionary

V → ə / _(C…)UU#

ə → a / _(C…)#

n → ɲ / “in the environment of i (sporadic)”

h → ∅ / ! _# (sporadic)

10.2.4 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Malayo-Javanic

TinyMusic, from Adelaar, Alexander (2005), “Malayo-Sumbawan”. Oceanic Linguistics 44(2):357 – 388

j → l

q h → h ∅

A:

— aw aj → əw əj / _#

B:

— aw aj → aw aj / _#

10.2.4.1 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Javanese

TinyMusic, from Adelaar, Alexander (2005), “Malayo-Sumbawan”. Oceanic Linguistics 44(2):357 – 388

{l,d} z → r d

b → w / ! adjacent to another consonant

ə → u / _h#

R → ∅

h → ∅ / #_

h → {o,h,w} / V_V

iw uj → ju i / _#

A:

— əw əj → i u / _#

B:

— aw aj → e ó / _#

C1C2 → C2

Nasal + stop clusters “become homorganic”

HəS → (h)əNS

10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Madurese

TinyMusic, from Adelaar, Alexander (2005), “Malayo-Sumbawan”. Oceanic Linguistics 44(2):357 – 388

ɭ → lʔ / _#

ɭ → l

z → jʰ

w j fortite when non-final

b → {w,∅} / #_

R → ʔ / _#

R → r

h → ʔ / V0V0

h → ∅

“Aspiration of initial and intervocalic voiced stops and *z”

{p,t,k} b d ɡ → ʔ p t k / _#

ij uw → uj {uj,ój} / _#

V → Vː / ə(C…?)_

C[+ voice] → C[- voice] / _#

HəS → (h)əNS / #_

10.2.4.3 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Sundanese

TinyMusic, from Adelaar, Alexander (2005), “Malayo-Sumbawan”. Oceanic Linguistics 44(2):357 – 388

{l,j} z → r j

w → {∅,c} / #_

R → {∅,r,j}

iw uj → {ju,i} oj / _#

A:

— əw əj → o e / _#

B:

— aw aj → o aj / _#

10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauan

Whimemsz, from Blust, Robert (2009), “Palauan Historical Phonology: Whence the Intrusive Velar Nasal?”. Oceanic Linguistics 48(2):307 – 336

aj aw uj → e o i

∅ → w / u_V

∅ → j / i_V

ə → ∅ / #_

∅ → ə / C_C “(for certain consonant combinations, which the paper doesn’t specify)”

h → ∅

ə → {e,o} / stressed; “(result of /e/ or /o/ unpredictable)”

p → w

wa → o / #_ when unstressed

V → ə / unstressed

{aw,əw} → o / _#

wə → u / #_

j l → r j

ə → ∅ / _j

j → ∅ / C_i

ə → ∅ / _#

ə → ∅ “(sporadic)”

t → ð / ! adjacent to S

s → t

ʀ → r / _C[+dental]

ʀ → s

d → r

ɖ → ɽ “(only one example)”

ɲ → n (except possibly to n when #_)

n dz → l r

rl → lː

ɟ → k / _C#

ɟ → s

ŋ → ∅ / C_#

t → {s,ð} / “unpredictably, to eliminate sV(C)t and tV(C)s sequences”

∅ → ŋ / #_V

q → χ (→ ʕ)

10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North Sarawak

Whimemsz, from Blust, Robert (2002), “Kiput Historical Phonology”. Oceanic Linguistics 41(2):384 – 438; and Blust, Robert (2007), “Òma Lóngh Historical Phonology”. Oceanic Linguistics 46(1):1 – 53

q → ʔ

{ʔ,h} → ∅ / #_

{ʔ,h} → ∅ / V1[+high]_V2

h → ∅ / _#

h → ʔ / V0_V0

h → ʔ / a_{i,u}

ə → ∅ / adjacent to a vowel

a → ə / _UU(U…)#

ə → ∅ / _V

ə → ∅ VC_CV

Nasal assimilation to following stops in some words; in other words it results in a geminate stop
Postvocalic obstruents with different POAs become geminates of the second when “in reduplicated monosyllabic roots” and “in non-reduplicated bases which had undergone the change of schwa syncope in medial syllables”

C → Cː / ə_V (?)

ɟ(ː) → d(ː)

bː dː dzː ɡː → bʱ dʱ dzʱ ɡʱ (Whimemsz says these become “voiced stops with voiceless releases. . .treated as unit phonemes, not clusters)”

ə → ∅ / #_UU(U…)# “(i.e., in word-initial position in prepenultimate syllables)

pː tː cː kː → p t c k

c → s

10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiput

Whimemsz, from Blust, Robert (2002), “Kiput Historical Phonology”. Oceanic Linguistics 41(2):384 – 438

Stress reassignment to the final syllable

ʔ → ∅ / V_V

k → ∅ / V_V “(in some forms)”

ai au → ai̯ au̯ / _#

ə → a / _ʔ#

ai au → ɛː ɔː / _…#

i u → əi̯ əu̯ / _#

∅ → h / a_#

s → ∅ / V_V (sporadic)

V0V0 → V0

ə → ∅ / adjacent to a vowel

V[+stress] → Vː / _C# ! V = ə and/or C = h “(applies to diphthongal nuclei as well a[s] monophthongs)”

ʀ → {l,ɾ} / ! _# (the latter is more common)

l → ∅ / ! _# (irregular)

u → əw / _V “(also cases of (C)u → w /__V)”

i → əj / _V “(also cases of (C)i → j /__V)”

w j → v ɟ

iu̯ → ui̯

s → ∅ / _#

i u → ɛ ɔ / _C# ! _P (sporadic)

ʀ → ʔ / _# “(in a handful of forms)”

ʀ → ɾ

a → i / O[+voiced]…_(C)# “(blocked if there was an intervening nasal, and sometimes if there was an intervening voiceless stop or liquid)”

i u → əi̯ əu̯ / _(ʔ)#

əi̯ əu̯ → ai̯ au̯ / ! O[+voiced] earlier in the word

bʱ {dʱ,dzʱ} ɡʱ → f s k

f → s

v ɡ ɟ → f k c / V_V

v ɟ → f c / #_

{i,ɛ} {u,ɔ} → iə̯ uə̯ / _{k,ŋ}# “(and also sporadically before final *t and *n and some other consonants)

k ŋ → ʔ ∅ / Və̯_#

ə → {ə,a} / _C# “(free variants)”

NS[-voice] → Sː

“Numerous different possible reflexes of NS[+voice] clusters”

(C)V → ∅ / #_C… “(irregular)”

n → l / #_

ə → ∅ / #_

{l,ɾ} → n / _#

dz → d / #_ (though sometimes → {s,ɟ})

{s,c} → t / _V{s,c}V

b d → p t / _#

10.2.6.2 Proto-North Sarawak to Proto-Kenyah

Whimemsz, from Blust, Robert (2007), “Òma Lóngh Historical Phonology”. Oceanic Linguistics 46(1):1 – 53

d → l / #_ (sporadic)

ʀ →h / V_V(C)#

ʀ → h / _#

ɻ → ∅

s → h / _#

i u → e o / _h#

h → ∅ / _#

S → S[-voice] / _#

l → n / _#

s → t / _VsVC

CV → ∅ / _NCVC “(in reduplications)”

Word-initial nasals assimilate to the POA of a following consonant

10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lóngh

Whimemsz, from Blust, Robert (2007), “Òma Lóngh Historical Phonology”. Oceanic Linguistics 46(1):1 – 53

bʱ dʱ dzʱ ɡʱ → p t c k

i → e / _k#

i → iə / _ŋ#

p → k / u_#

u → o / _k#

u → o / _ŋ# “(sporadically failed to occur)”

u → ɯ / _(C)# ! _ʔ#

a → o / _# “(not in all forms)”

ʔ → ∅ / _# “(but aʔ → əʔ in some forms)”

k → ʔ / _#

a → ɛ / {t,n}_#

{p,t} n → c̚ ɲ / {i,ɛ}_#

m → ɲ / i_#

ai̯ au̯ → ɛ ɔ

{ui̯,iu̯} → e

i u → e o / _CV[+close-mid](C)# “(iə is treated as close mid for this change)”

i u → ɛ ɔ / _CV[+open-mid](C)#

i u → e o / _Cɯ#

ŋ → ŋ̊ / _#

{p,t} {m,n} → k ŋ / ɯ_#

i u → əj əw / _V(C)#

j w → z v

p → f / #_

ə → ∅ / #_

p k → f ɣ / V_V ! ”ə_V

d → r / V_V “(irregular)”

dz → ɟ / V_V

b d dz ɡ → p t c k / N_

N → ∅ / _S “(sporadic)”

h → ∅ / V_V

10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabau

TinyMusic, from Tryon, Darrell (1995), Comparative Austronesian Dictionary

n → ɲ / “in the environment of i

h → ∅ / ! _# (some exceptions)

a → o / _(C…)#

u i → o e (sporadic)

Chronologically-ordered changes:

— ə → a / _(C…)# (eventually spread to everywhere)

— m p → n t / {u,i}_

— a u → e uj / _{t,s}#

— a → o / _p#

— u i → uə iə / _{k,ŋ,h,l,r}#

— {p,t,k} s → ʔ h / _#

— {l,r} → ∅ / _# (retained across morpheme boundaries)

10.3 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Oceanic

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2011), “Proto-Austronesian language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Austronesian_language&oldid=453318098>

mb → p

{nts,ns,nz,nɡʲ} {ts,z,ɡʲ} → ɡʲ s

{ŋk,ŋɡ} ɡ → ɡ k

d → r

e {uj,iw} → o i

aw → o / _#

10.3.1 Proto-Oceanic to Hawai’ian

Chris Zoller, from Trask, R.L. (1996), Historical Linguistics

NB: Zoller states that these changes are “[s]implified”.

{h,ʔ} → ∅

{s,f} → h

k t → ʔ k

ŋ r v → n l w

10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiw

thetha, from François, Alexander (2005), “Unraveling the history of the vowels of seventeen north Vanuatu languages”, and François, Alexander (2010), “Phonotactics and the prestopped velar lateral of Hiw”

p pʷ {c,*j} k q → β βʷ s ɣ ∅

β b m → βʷ bʷ mʷ / typically near *u

dr *r → d r

C → ∅ / _#

ɲ → n

b d ɡ → p t k

βʷ bʷ mʷ → w kʷ ŋʷ

l → j

s → h → ∅ (sporadic)

r → ɡʟ

”V[+ high(er)] → ∅ / _CV

”V → ə / _CV

”ə sometimes assimilates to a following vowel

a → e / _CV[+ mid] (sporadic)

a → e / _Ci (sporadic)

a(C)V[+ high] a(C)V[+ mid] aCa → ɔ(C) a(C) {ɔ,a}(C)ə

e(C){V[- low]} e(C)a → e(C) e(C)ə

i(C)V[+ high] i(C)V[+ mid] i(C)a → i(C) i(C)ə {e,i}(C)ə

o(C)V[+ high] o(C)V[+ mid] o(C)a → ɵ(C) o(C) ɔ(C)ə

u(C)V[+ high] u(C)e u(C)o u(C)a → {u,i}(C) u(C)ə e(C)ə {u,ɵ}(C)ə

u → ʉ / ! Cw_

{e,i} → ɪ (sporadic)

V0V0 → V0

“[W]hen pretonic u was lost, its labialness was usually absorbed onto the previous consonant”

10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerig

thetha, from François, Alexander (2005), “Unraveling the history of the vowels of seventeen north Vanuatu languages”

p pʷ k q → β w ɣ ∅

VV → V

ndr *R → d r

{c,*j} ɲ → s n

t → ʔ “often”

b bʷ d ɡ → p kpʷ t k

mʷ → ŋmʷ

thetha says “intervening consonants sometimes optional in the [following] sound changes”:

— iCV[- high] → aC

— eCV[+ mid] → ɛC

— eCV[+ low] → aC

— aCV[+ high] → {ɛ,œ}C

— aCa → {ɘ,a}C

— oCV[+ high] → øC

— oCo → œC (sporadic)

— oCV[- high] → ɔC

— uCV[- high] → oC

o e → ʊ ɪ

ia → ɪ “(only somoetimes?)”

V → ∅ / #_C”V

V → ∅ / CVC_C”V

CV1C”V2 → CV2C”V2

10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to Mwotlap

thetha, from François, Alexander (2005), “Unraveling the history of the vowels of seventeen north Vanuatu languages”

q → ∅

V0V0 → V0

ndr → d

R → r

d → r (sporadic)

p pʷ bʷ k ɡ → β w kpʷ ɣ k

mʷ ɲ → ŋmʷ n

{c,*j} → s

s → h “(often)”

r → j

o e i → ɔ ɛ ɪ / C_V[- high]

V[- high] → ∅ / {ɔ,ɛ,ɪ}C_

oCV[+ high] / ɪC (sporadic)

uCi → iC (sporadic)

u a → ʊ ɛ / _CV[+ high]

V[+ high] / {ʊ,ɛ}C_

o e → ʊ ɪ

aCV[+ high] → ɪ / when stressed unless primarily stressed

(C)V1C”V2 → (C)V2V2

V1 → ∅ / _”V2

V → ∅ / (C)V_VC”V

b β d → m p n / _{C,#}

kpʷ → k / _C (sporadic)

*u *o “sometimes offload their labialization onto the previous labial consonant” when they change to something else

10.3.5 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-New Caledonia

thetha, from Ozanne-Rivierre, Françoise (1992), “The Proto-Oceanic Consonantal System and the Languages of New Caledonia”. Oceanic Linguistics 31(2):191 – 207; and Ozanne-Rivierre, Françoise (1995), “Structural Changes in the Languages of Northern New Caledonia”. Oceanic Linguistics 34(1):44 – 72

c → s

{l,ɲ} → n

*R → ∅

r → ʈ

V → ∅ / _C”V

NS → ⁿS

CC → Cː (fortis)

10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to Caaàc

thetha, from Ozanne-Rivierre, Françoise (1992), “The Proto-Oceanic Consonantal System and the Languages of New Caledonia”. Oceanic Linguistics 31(2):191 – 207; and Ozanne-Rivierre, Françoise (1995), “Structural Changes in the Languages of Northern New Caledonia”. Oceanic Linguistics 34(1):44 – 72

pː pwː tː ʈː qː kː → pʰ pwʰ cʰ tʰ h jʰ

q {k,t} {s,ʈ} → k c t

k → ∅ / _{o,a}

N → ∅ / _#

V → ∅ / #(C)V(C)(C)_#

jʰ → h / _i

{p,pw,k} → ∅ / V_V

t c → l j / V_V

VnV → ṼlṼ

ⁿS → N / _#

u → i (typical)

u i → o e (not always)

10.3.5.2 Proto-New Caledonia to Jawé

thetha, from Ozanne-Rivierre, Françoise (1992), “The Proto-Oceanic Consonantal System and the Languages of New Caledonia”. Oceanic Linguistics 31(2):191 – 207; and Ozanne-Rivierre, Françoise (1995), “Structural Changes in the Languages of Northern New Caledonia”. Oceanic Linguistics 34(1):44 – 72

q k {ʈ,s} → k c t̪

pː pwː t̪ː tː kː cː → pʰ hʷ t̪ʰ tʰ h jʰ

t̪ → l / V_V

Cː → Cʰ

t̪ t̪ʰ t tʰ → t tʰ c s

jʰ → h / _i

10.3.5.3 Proto-New Caledonia to Nemi-Pije-Fwai

thetha, from Ozanne-Rivierre, Françoise (1992), “The Proto-Oceanic Consonantal System and the Languages of New Caledonia”. Oceanic Linguistics 31(2):191 – 207; and Ozanne-Rivierre, Françoise (1995), “Structural Changes in the Languages of Northern New Caledonia”. Oceanic Linguistics 34(1):44 – 72

q k {ʈ,s} → k c t̪

pː pwː tː t̪ː kː cː → f hʷ t̪ʰ tʰ h jʰ

t̪ → l / V_V

Cː → Cʰ

t tʰ → c h / _E

t̪ t̪ʰ → t tʰ

jʰ → h / _i

bw mw → ɡ ŋ

n n̥ → ɲ ɲ̊ / _E

ONV → SʰṼ / Pije and Fwai

f → ɸ / Pije and Fwai

10.3.5.4 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Northern

thetha, from Ozanne-Rivierre, Françoise (1992), “The Proto-Oceanic Consonantal System and the Languages of New Caledonia”. Oceanic Linguistics 31(2):191 – 207; and Ozanne-Rivierre, Françoise (1995), “Structural Changes in the Languages of Northern New Caledonia”. Oceanic Linguistics 34(1):44 – 72

q qː k kː s sː → k kː c cː t̪ t̪ː

Cː → Cʰ

Velars were in the process of palatalizing

C → ∅ / _$(possessive suffix)#

∅ → j / #_a

10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-Nêlêmwa

thetha, from Ozanne-Rivierre, Françoise (1992), “The Proto-Oceanic Consonantal System and the Languages of New Caledonia”. Oceanic Linguistics 31(2):191 – 207; and Ozanne-Rivierre, Françoise (1995), “Structural Changes in the Languages of Northern New Caledonia”. Oceanic Linguistics 34(1):44 – 72

V → ∅ / _#, often

k → c / V_V

k → c / _#

t → k

t̪ → t

k → ∅ / _{o,a}

cʰ → {ʃ,jʰ}

kʰ → h / _a

pw p t ʈ k c → (v)w v r l ɣ j / V_V

pw → w

ʈ → t

VnV → ṼlṼ

ⁿS → N / _#

SN → N[- voice]

pwʰ pʰ tʰ kʰ → fw f rʰ x / in Nelemwa

uCu → iCi

V[+ mid] → a / near nasals?

u i → o e / “in monosyllabic forms almost always”

”V → Vː (usually)

/ɨ ə/ gained

ŋ → n

10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to Nyelâyu

thetha, from Ozanne-Rivierre, Françoise (1992), “The Proto-Oceanic Consonantal System and the Languages of New Caledonia”. Oceanic Linguistics 31(2):191 – 207; and Ozanne-Rivierre, Françoise (1995), “Structural Changes in the Languages of Northern New Caledonia”. Oceanic Linguistics 34(1):44 – 72

V → ∅ / #(C)V(C)(C)_#

C → ∅ / _# “sometimes”

k → c

k t s → j c t̪

p pw t̪ ʈ c → v (v)w r l j / V_V

t̪ ʈ → r l / _#

pw → w (sporadic)

{t̪,ʈ} → t

ɴq → ŋk

pː pwː tː qː cː → pʰ pwʰ tʰ h cʰ

q → ∅

jʰ j → h ∅ / _i

w → ɣ (sporadic, conditioning unknown)

ⁿS → N / _#

SN → N[- voice]

VnV → ṼlṼ

V → Ṽ / _N

ⁿS → N / _Ṽ

u → i “often”

u i → o e (not always)

ŋ → n

10.3.5.6 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwaamei

thetha, from Ozanne-Rivierre, Françoise (1992), “The Proto-Oceanic Consonantal System and the Languages of New Caledonia”. Oceanic Linguistics 31(2):191 – 207; and Ozanne-Rivierre, Françoise (1995), “Structural Changes in the Languages of Northern New Caledonia”. Oceanic Linguistics 34(1):44 – 72

V → ∅ / _# (sporadic?)

q k t s → k j c t

pː pwː tː ʈ kː cː → f hʷ tʰ lʰ h s

ʈ → l / V_V

k c → ∅ {j,∅} / V_V

Cː → Cʰ

jʰ j → s z

s → h / _i

bw mw → ɡ ŋ

10.3.5.7 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwapwâ

thetha, from Ozanne-Rivierre, Françoise (1992), “The Proto-Oceanic Consonantal System and the Languages of New Caledonia”. Oceanic Linguistics 31(2):191 – 207; and Ozanne-Rivierre, Françoise (1995), “Structural Changes in the Languages of Northern New Caledonia”. Oceanic Linguistics 34(1):44 – 72

V → ∅ / _# (sporadic?)

q k {ʈ,s} → k c t̪

pː pwː t̪ː tː kː cː → pʰ xʷ t̪ʰ tʰ x s

t̪(ʰ) t(ʰ) → cʰ tʰ

Cː → Cʰ

p pw t {k,c} → {v,∅} w l ∅ / V_V

j → z

bw mw → ɡw ŋw (→ ɡ ŋ / _V[+ rounded])

10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Yunaga

thetha, from Ozanne-Rivierre, Françoise (1992), “The Proto-Oceanic Consonantal System and the Languages of New Caledonia”. Oceanic Linguistics 31(2):191 – 207; and Ozanne-Rivierre, Françoise (1995), “Structural Changes in the Languages of Northern New Caledonia”. Oceanic Linguistics 34(1):44 – 72

q k s → k c t̪

pː pwː t̪ː tː ʈː cː kː → pʰ pwʰ t̪ʰ tʰ ʈʰ jʰ h

Cː → Cʰ

k → ∅ / _{o,a}

t(ʰ) → k(ʰ)

jʰ → h / _i

p pw t̪ ʈ k c → v w ð l ∅ j / V_V

V → ∅ / _#

SN → N[- voice]

ⁿS → N / _#

u i → o e / in monosyllables

au ai → ɔ ɛ

o → ɔ “sometimes”

a → {ɛ,e} “in some words”

ŋ → n

10.3.5.8.1 Proto-Yunaga to Yunaga 1

thetha, from Ozanne-Rivierre, Françoise (1992), “The Proto-Oceanic Consonantal System and the Languages of New Caledonia”. Oceanic Linguistics 31(2):191 – 207; and Ozanne-Rivierre, Françoise (1995), “Structural Changes in the Languages of Northern New Caledonia”. Oceanic Linguistics 34(1):44 – 72

V → Ṽ / _N#

C → ∅ / _#

jʰ → θ

j → {ð,z} ?

10.3.5.8.2 Proto-Yunaga to Yunaga 2

thetha, from Ozanne-Rivierre, Françoise (1992), “The Proto-Oceanic Consonantal System and the Languages of New Caledonia”. Oceanic Linguistics 31(2):191 – 207; and Ozanne-Rivierre, Françoise (1995), “Structural Changes in the Languages of Northern New Caledonia”. Oceanic Linguistics 34(1):44 – 72

{t̪,ʈ} → t

ð → l

10.3.6 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz

Pogostick Man, from Ross, Malcolm, and Åshlid Næss (2007), “An Oceanic Origin for Äiwoo, the Language of the Reef Islands?”. Oceanic Linguistics 46(II):456 – 498

p → ∅ / _B

p → v

r → ∅ / d_

r → l

C → ∅ / _#

10.3.6.1 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Äiwoo

Pogostick Man, from Ross, Malcolm, and Åshlid Næss (2007), “An Oceanic Origin for Äiwoo, the Language of the Reef Islands?”. Oceanic Linguistics 46(II):456 – 498

{t,k} → ∅ / V_V

k → {k,∅} / #_

q → {k,∅}

*R → l

10.3.6.2 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Nagu

Pogostick Man, from Ross, Malcolm, and Åshlid Næss (2007), “An Oceanic Origin for Äiwoo, the Language of the Reef Islands?”. Oceanic Linguistics 46(II):456 – 498

mʷ → m

t → l / V_V

k → {k,∅} / #_

ŋ → n / _i

q *R → ∅ {l,∅}

10.3.6.3 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Natügu

Pogostick Man, from Ross, Malcolm, and Åshlid Næss (2007), “An Oceanic Origin for Äiwoo, the Language of the Reef Islands?”. Oceanic Linguistics 46(II):456 – 498

mʷ → m

t → {t,l} / #_

t → l / _{u,i}

t k → l ∅ / V_V

r → l / _{u,#}

ŋ → n / _i

q *R → ∅ {l,∅}

10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bay

thetha, from Guy, Jacques (1978), “Proto-North New Hebridean Reconstructions”

C → ∅ / _#

q → ∅

*R → {∅,r}

ɲ c *j → n s z

p pʷ k → v vʷ ɣ

b bʷ ɡ → p pʷ k

V[+ high] → ∅ / _# ! {p,z,d(r)}_

v t l r → p dr n w / _#

t → ts / _V[+ high]

”a → i / _CV[- high]

”a → e / _CV[+ high]

p ŋ → f ∅ / ”V_V

ɣ s d → ∅ {j dr} / _#

ɣ s d → ∅ {j dr} / “before a post-tonic vowel”

V → e / C_# ! C = j

V → ∅ / {”V,j}_

p v m → t θ n / _{a,e,i}

z → s

∅ → h / #_V (“it isn’t clear if this happens unconditionally”)

An /o ɔ/ distinction is gained somehow

10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to Tolomako

thetha, from Lynch, John (2005), “The Apicolabial Shift in Nese”. Oceanic Linguistics 44(2):389 – 403; and http://language.psy.auckland.ac.nz/austronesian/

C → ∅ / _#

q → ∅

*R → {∅,r} (the former seems more common)

ɲ c *j → n s z

m b → n̼ t̼ → n t / _{a,e,i}

p(ʷ) k → v(ʷ) ɣ

mʷ b(ʷ) vʷ → m p b

d ɡ → r k

{z,dr} → ts

u → i (“sporadic”)

a → e (rare?)

10.3.9 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Utupua

Pogostick Man, from Ross, Malcolm, and Åshlid Næss (2007), “An Oceanic Origin for Äiwoo, the Language of the Reef Islands?”. Oceanic Linguistics 46(II):456 – 498

p q → v ∅ (in general, seems like there was something going on with conditioning in the case of *p?)

w → ∅ (? Tanibili [w] may just be phonetically determined)

C → ∅ / _# (except for *k?)

10.3.9.1 Proto-Utupua to Asuboa

Pogostick Man, from Ross, Malcolm, and Åshlid Næss (2007), “An Oceanic Origin for Äiwoo, the Language of the Reef Islands?”. Oceanic Linguistics 46(II):456 – 498

PU *p had occasional reflexes of p or ∅

p → w / _B

pʷ mʷ → w m

dr s l → {d,ɟ} {∅,s} {n,∅}

c ɲ → ∅ {ɲ,j}

t r l → {j,s} {j,∅} j / _u

t → s / _i

k → {k,∅} / #_

k → {∅,s} / _#

r → {l,n,∅}

*R → {l,∅}

10.3.9.2 Proto-Utupua to Nebao

Pogostick Man, from Ross, Malcolm, and Åshlid Næss (2007), “An Oceanic Origin for Äiwoo, the Language of the Reef Islands?”. Oceanic Linguistics 46(II):456 – 498

PU *p had occasional h or ∅ reflexes

pʷ → vʷ

t k → r ∅ / #_ (though *t seems to have occasionally survived?)

t → {r,t} / _B

t → {r,t} / V_V

r → {l,∅} / _u

r *R → l ∅

l → ∅ (occasionally?)

c ɲ → ∅ n

ŋ → n / _i

10.3.9.3 Proto-Utupua to Tanibili

Pogostick Man, from Ross, Malcolm, and Åshlid Næss (2007), “An Oceanic Origin for Äiwoo, the Language of the Reef Islands?”. Oceanic Linguistics 46(II):456 – 498

PU *p seems to have remained; PU *w is listed as having both ∅ and w as reflexes although the latter may just be an epenthetic glide between vowels of unlike rounding

{s,*R} → ∅

p t {r,l} → ∅ s j / _u

pʷ bw → p b

t → {t,r,kʷ} / #_ (I’m not kidding. That’s what’s listed as the reflexes.)

k → {k,∅} / #_

t k → {t,r,kʷ,∅} ∅ / V_V

k → {∅,j} / _#

dr → ɟ / _i

d c ɲ → ɟ {s,∅} n

{r,l} → l (occasionally → ∅?)

10.3.10 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Vanikoro

Pogostick Man, from Ross, Malcolm, and Åshlid Næss (2007), “An Oceanic Origin for Äiwoo, the Language of the Reef Islands?”. Oceanic Linguistics 46(II):456 – 498

p → ∅ / _u

p q → {v,p} ∅

r → ∅ / d_

k → ∅ / V_V

{s,*R} → r / _#

10.3.10.1 Proto-Vanikoro to Buma

Pogostick Man, from Ross, Malcolm, and Åshlid Næss (2007), “An Oceanic Origin for Äiwoo, the Language of the Reef Islands?”. Oceanic Linguistics 46(II):456 – 498

p t → ∅ {s,k} / _u

p → ∅ / _#

k → ∅ / #_

r → l / ! _#

pʷ bw mʷ → p b m

c *R → ∅ {l,∅}

ŋ → {ŋ,ɡ} (ŋ remains when _i)

10.3.10.2 Proto-Vanikoro to Tanema

Pogostick Man, from Ross, Malcolm, and Åshlid Næss (2007), “An Oceanic Origin for Äiwoo, the Language of the Reef Islands?”. Oceanic Linguistics 46(II):456 – 498

p → v / _#

pʷ w → b ∅

t → {∅,t} / #_

t → s / _u

r → l / ! _#

c *R → ∅ {l,∅}

s → {s,d,c}

10.3.10.3 Proto-Vanikoro to Vano

Pogostick Man, from Ross, Malcolm, and Åshlid Næss (2007), “An Oceanic Origin for Äiwoo, the Language of the Reef Islands?”. Oceanic Linguistics 46(II):456 – 498

w → {∅,w}

pʷ mʷ → p m

t → l / #_, in nouns

t → s / _{u,i}

t → l / V_V

r → l / ! _{u,#}

s → r / _#

c *R → {j,∅} l

10.3.11 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Southern Vanuatu

thetha, from Lynch, John (2001), The Linguistic History of Southern Vanuatu

m b → mʷ bʷ / _u

p → b(ʷ) (sporadic)

p → vʷ / _u (a change thetha reconstructs in order to account for phenomena in later posts about this group of languages)

p → v

k *R → ɣ r “(frequently)”

*R → ∅

dr → {d,r}

ɲ → j

n → ŋ / qV[- stress]_

n → ŋ / _V[- stress]q

c → s

t → c / _E

q (→ kw ?) → v (rare)

a → e / _(C)i

a → ə / _Ca

10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejom

thetha, from Lynch, John (2001), The Linguistic History of Southern Vanuatu

C → ∅ / _# ! C = t

t → s / _#

v(ʷ) → h

k → ∅ / V_V (sporadic?)

b(ʷ) ɡ → p(ʷ) k

s → h / “rarely”

s → θ / ! _i, occasionally

d {c,*j} → tʃ s

{n,ŋ} → ɲ / _E

w → v

l → tʃ / _{o,E}

q → ∅

V → ∅ / _# (with very few exceptions)

{r,h} → ∅ / _#

“a lot of word medial vowels get elided, sometimes even when they should be stressed”

{i,o} → e

u → o

i → o / {u,w}_

u → e / {θ,ɣ}_

u → e / _θ

ai → i / _C

ei → i

ua → ou

au → {u,o} “sometimes”

e → i / Ḱ_ “[tendency]”

e → i / _Ḱ “[tendency]”

a → o / P_ “[tendency]”

a → o / _P “[tendency]”

10.3.11.2 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Erromango

thetha, from Lynch, John (2001), The Linguistic History of Southern Vanuatu

mʷ pʷ bʷ vʷ → m p b v

v → p / #_

v → f / C[+ sibilant]%

v → f / %C[+ sibilant]

r → *L (some sort of lateral?) / occasionally

s {c,*j} → h s

o → a

u i → o e (sporadic)

a → i / _CV[+ high]

“many word medial vowels lost”

10.3.11.2.1 Proto-Erromango to Sye

thetha, from Lynch, John (2001), The Linguistic History of Southern Vanuatu

*L → r

b d ɡ → p t k / {#,C}_

b d ɡ → m n ŋ / _#

b d ɡ → mp nt ŋk

f → p / #_

f → v / V_V

k → ɣ

ɣ → k / _i

s → h “often”

s → ∅ / _C (occasionally blocked)

i → e / O[+ labial]_

i → e / _O[+ labial]

e → o / K_

e → o / _K

a → o / {w,m,ŋ}_

a → e / _#

ə → {o,e}

10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Ura

thetha, from Lynch, John (2001), The Linguistic History of Southern Vanuatu

h → ∅

*L → l

nr → d

b d ɡ → m n ŋ / _C

b d ɡ → p t k / _#

p → b / V_V

u → e / ɣ_# (? this change is a bit unclear)

ɣ → ∅ / _#

k → ∅ (perhaps doesn’t always happen but happens often)

{s,t} → h / _{n,l,r}

t → r / ! at word boundaries

ə → i

10.3.11.3 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Tanna

thetha, from Lynch, John (2001), The Linguistic History of Southern Vanuatu

{vʷ,w} → kʷ

s c *J → {h,z} {s,z} z

ɡ q → k ∅

l → r

o e → {u,ə} i

a → o / _{P,Cu}

a → o / P_

a → e / _Ci

a → ə / _Ca

“vowels tend to lower near h”

10.3.11.3.1 Proto-Tanna to Kwamera

thetha, from Lynch, John (2001), The Linguistic History of Southern Vanuatu

t → r

b(ʷ) d → p(ʷ) t

ɣ → ∅

s → h “irregularly”

{p(ʷ),v}Vh → fV

/fʷ/ gained

u → {e,i} / _Cu

ə → a / in U#

ə → e / else

10.3.11.3.2 Proto-Tanna to Lenakel

thetha, from Lynch, John (2001), The Linguistic History of Southern Vanuatu

r → {l,i}

t → r

b(ʷ) d → p(ʷ) t

kʷ → {w,u}

ɣ → ∅ / E_

ɣ → ∅ / _E

ɣ → k

r → l / _Vl

c *j → s {z,s}

z → t

s → h “irregularly”

{p(ʷ),v}Vh → fV

10.3.11.3.3 Proto-Tanna to North Tanna

thetha, from Lynch, John (2001), The Linguistic History of Southern Vanuatu

kʷ → p / _#

kʷ → ∅ / _u

kʷ → ∅ / _a (rare)

kʷ → {w,u}

v → ∅ / _i

v → {w,u} (“sporadically”)

ɣ → ∅ / #_

ɣ → ∅ / _E

ɣ → ŋ

r → l / _{o,E}

r → i

d → t (often)

d → k / _ŋ

z → r

{s,c} → {h,s}

10.3.11.3.4 Proto-Tanna to Southwest Tanna

thetha, from Lynch, John (2001), The Linguistic History of Southern Vanuatu

t → r

b(ʷ) d → p(ʷ) t

ɣ → ∅ / #_

ɣ → k

r → l

{c,*j} → s

s → h “irregularly”

{p(ʷ),v}Vh → fV

u → {e,i} / _Cu

ə → a / in U#

10.3.11.3.5 Proto-Tanna to Whitesands

thetha, from Lynch, John (2001), The Linguistic History of Southern Vanuatu

r → {l,i}

d → r / _ŋ (occasionally elsewhere as well)

b(ʷ) d → p(ʷ) t

kʷ → ∅ / u_

kʷ → ∅ / _u

kʷ / {w,u}

ɣ → ∅ / {#,E}_

ɣ → ∅ / _E

ɣ → ŋ

c *j → s {z,s}

s → h “often”

z → r

10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’a

thetha, from François, Alexander (2005), “Unraveling the history of the vowels of seventeen north Vanuatu languages”

p pʷ k q → β w ɣ ∅

VV → V

ndr *R → d r

{c,*j} ɲ → s n

t → ʔ “often”

β → f / #_ (usually)

β → f / else (rarely)

bʷ ɡ → kpʷ k

mʷ → ŋmʷ

i(C)V[+ high] → i(C)

i(C)V[- high] → i(C)ɪ

e(C)V[- low] → e(C)

e(C)V[+ low] → ɛCɛ

a(C)i a(C)u → {a,ɛ}(C) {ɔ,a,ɛ}(C)

a(C){o,e} → a(C)

oCa → ɔCɔ

uCV[+ high] → iC “sometimes”

uCV[- high] → uCʊ

oa {ae,ea} → uɔ iɛ

o e → ʊ ɪ

V → ∅ / #_C”V

V → ∅ / CVC_C”V

CV1C”V2 → CV2C”V2

b d → m n / _{C,#}

10.4 Micronesian

10.4.1 Proto-Micronesian to Marshallese

Ketsuban, from Hale, Mark, Historical Linguistics: Theory and Method

NB: “. . .the precise contrast between *s and *S, and *t and *T is unknown, as is the precise phonetic nature of *c and *Z.” Blust (v.s.) rejected *T and *D; according to his reconstruction. . .*s and *S were /ç s/, respectively. The substitution of /ts/ for *T is inferred from the Wikipedia article but may be incorrect.

K → Kʷ / _{C[+round],V[+round]}

V[+high] → ɘ / _C[-high]

V → ∅ / _#

V[+mid] → ɘ / _C[+high] when stressed

V → ∅ / ”VC_

V → ∅ / “in CV reduplications”

a → ɜ / _wo

f → ∅ / #_{C[-low],V[-low]}

f → ɰ / #_aCo

f → j / else

∅ → ɰ / #_aC[-low]

∅ → j / #_{aC[+low],V[-back],C[-back]}

∅ → w / #_{C[+round],V[+round]}

{i,u} {e,o} → ɨ ɜ

p {t,ts} c → pʲ tʲ rʲ

{ç,s} x → tᵚ ∅

m ɲ → mʲ nʲ

“The author does not elaborate on the complex development of vowels without an onset consonant, other than to say that a glide is inserted (*Saa > tᵚaɰ), nor does he go into more detail than to say that l and n generally develop into lʲ and nʲ before Proto-Micronesian front vowels, and l, r, and n turn into lᶬ, rᶬ, and nᶬ before a and lʷ, rʷ, and nʷ before Proto-Micronesian round vowels, but the author does not elaborate.”

10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Ongan

Pogostick Man, from Blevins, Juliette (2007), “A Long Lost Sister of Proto-Austronesian? Proto-Ongan, Mother of Jarawa and Onge of the Andaman Islands”. Oceanic Linguistics 46(I):154 – 198

NB: Blevins floats the idea that Proto-Ongan was a sister of rather than a daughter of Proto-Austronesian, but for reasons of simplicity in editing this document it is placed here.

b → ∅ / #_{u,i}

q → ∅ / #_V

q → k

{qʷ,ku,qu} → kʷ (note that PAn might have had *qʷ *kʷ → q {k,w} instead; may be a change from POn-PAn, if it existed)

{c,*C,s,*S} → c (again, possibly a change from POn-PAn, if it existed)

S → ∅ / _#

u a ə → {u,o} {a,e} e

ɟ ɡ *N *R → {ɟ,j} {ɟ,ɡ} {l,j} {l,r}

z → c (again, possibly evidence of a change from POn-PAn, if it existed)

h → {h,j,∅} (Blevins has marked what apparently is *ɟ but I’m assuming it’s an error)

e → ə / _N when unstressed ! Ḱ_ (?; included here based on a comment earlier in the paper, but not listed on the correspondence list)

{m,ɲ} n → {ɲ,∅} {ŋ,∅} / _# (first change marked “in progress?”)

aj → e

10.5.1 Proto-Ongan to Jarawa

Pogostick Man, from Blevins, Juliette (2007), “A Long Lost Sister of Proto-Austronesian? Proto-Ongan, Mother of Jarawa and Onge of the Andaman Islands”. Oceanic Linguistics 46(I):154 – 198

e → ə / _N, when unstressed (?)

n → ŋ / _# (?)

k(ʷ) → h(ʷ)

∅ → a / h#_ (that’s not a typo; this happens across the word boundary)

ɡ → j

e → {e,ə,o} / _V

e → ∅ / _# (?)

p → b / #_ (change seems to be ongoing)

/a e/ reduce when unstressed (change seems to be ongoing?)

10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to Onge

Pogostick Man, from Blevins, Juliette (2007), “A Long Lost Sister of Proto-Austronesian? Proto-Ongan, Mother of Jarawa and Onge of the Andaman Islands”. Oceanic Linguistics 46(I):154 – 198

e → ə / _N, when unstressed (?)

n → ŋ / _# (?)

d → r / V_{V,#}

{w,r} → ∅ / {a,e}_#

∅ → e / C_#

p → b

aw → o

e → {e,ə,o} / _V

N → n / _{d,l}

ɡd ɡl → dː lː

10.6 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Paiwan

Pogostick Man, from Chen, Chun-Mei (2006), A Comparative Study on Formosan Phonology: Paiwan and Budai Rukai 313 – 320

t1 d1 d3 Z → t d ɖ ɟ

l *L → ɭ ʎ

b d2 → {v,b} z

S1 s c → s t ts

Vː → V[- long]

10.6.1 Proto-Paiwan to Northern Paiwan

Pogostick Man, from Chen, Chun-Mei (2006), A Comparative Study on Formosan Phonology: Paiwan and Budai Rukai 313 – 320

c ɟ q ɭ → t d ʔ l

Something about final stress and preceding /ə/

10.6.2 Proto-Paiwan to Central Paiwan

Pogostick Man, from Chen, Chun-Mei (2006), A Comparative Study on Formosan Phonology: Paiwan and Budai Rukai 313 – 320

w → v / _#

Something about final stress and preceding /ə/

10.6.3 Proto-Paiwan to Southern Paiwan

Pogostick Man, from Chen, Chun-Mei (2006), A Comparative Study on Formosan Phonology: Paiwan and Budai Rukai 313 – 320

k r → ʔ ɣ

Something about final stress and preceding /ə/

10.7 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Rukai

Pogostick Man, from Chen, Chun-Mei (2006), A Comparative Study on Formosan Phonology: Paiwan and Budai Rukai 313 – 320

{t1,c} {d1,z} d3 → t d ɖ

R l L → {r,ʔ} ɭ l

S1 s d2 *C → s θ ð ts (not sure what *C stands for here)

Something about echo-vowel epenthesis and stress that isn’t really clear from skimming it

10.7.1 Proto-Rukai to Budai Rukai

Pogostick Man, from Chen, Chun-Mei (2006), A Comparative Study on Formosan Phonology: Paiwan and Budai Rukai 313 – 320

{v,ʔ} ð → ∅ j

Long vowels acquire a high-low contour, but it looks like this is more prosodic than anything

10.8 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Tsouic

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2016), “Tsouic languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tsouic_languages&oldid=602917078>

{*C,d} j *R → c z r

11 Northeast Caucasian

Proto-Northeast Caucasian is reconstructed as having had the following consonant inventory. Phonemes in parentheses or braces are so marked on User:Petusek’s page. Due to the inventory, the usual table format is modified.

Nasal Plosive Fricative Affricate Cluster Resonant
Bilabial m (p) b
Alveolar n t tʼ (d) s (sː) ts tsː tsʼ tsːʼ dz st stː r
Lateral ɬ ɬː tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ (dɮ) l
Postalveolar ʃ ʃː tʃ tʃː tʃʼ tʃːʼ dʒ
Velar (x) (xː) k (kː) kʼ (kʼː) ɡ
Uvular q qː (qʼ) qːʼ (ɢ)
Pharyngeal {ʕ}
Glottal {ʔ}

My guess is that what I’ve transcribed here as length (it’s represented by doubled consonants in the source) is probably supposed to represent some sort of fortis-lenis distinction, given that in other places I think I’ve seen these doubled consonants in initial position, although I might be wrong, as I’m not very familiar with the morphology of the languages in question. Consonants such as *tsː are written 〈tts〉 in the source; unless it’s the actual fricative that is geminate, the stop is the doubled consonant.

The citation format for Nichols (2003) is modified from that found in Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Northeast Caucasian languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Northeast_Caucasian_languages&oldid=610673712>, and is assumed to be the same article. The publication date for User:Petusek’s page is taken from the revision history at https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast_Caucasian&oldid=351133322.

(From User:Petusek (2010), “User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast Caucasian”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast_Caucasian&oldid=351133322>, apparently citing Nichols, Johanna (2003), “The Nakh-Daghestanian Consonant Correspondences”, in Tuite, Kevin, and Dee Ann Holisky, Current Trends in Caucasian, East European, and Inner Asian Linguistics: Papers in Honor of Howard I. Aronson 207 – 251)

11.1 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Proto-Avar-Andic

Pogostick Man, from User:Petusek (2010), “User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast Caucasian”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast_Caucasian&oldid=351133322>, apparently citing Nichols, Johanna (2003), “The Nakh-Daghestanian Consonant Correspondences”, in Tuite, Kevin, and Dee Ann Holisky, Current Trends in Caucasian, East European, and Inner Asian Linguistics: Papers in Honor of Howard I. Aronson 207 – 251

l → {l,r}

*b is “[p]rone to change to *m”

11.1.1 Proto-Avar-Andic to Akhvakh

Pogostick Man, from User:Petusek (2010), “User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast Caucasian”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast_Caucasian&oldid=351133322>, apparently citing Nichols, Johanna (2003), “The Nakh-Daghestanian Consonant Correspondences”, in Tuite, Kevin, and Dee Ann Holisky, Current Trends in Caucasian, East European, and Inner Asian Linguistics: Papers in Honor of Howard I. Aronson 207 – 251

p → h

dz dʒ → {tsːʼ,z} {tsːʼ,dʒ}

{ts,st} → tʃ

tɬː dɮ → tɬ(ː) tɬː

kː ɢ → xʲ {qːʼ,ɣ}

{l,r} → ∅ (sometimes, only from original *l)

11.1.2 Proto-Avar-Andic to Andi

Pogostick Man, from User:Petusek (2010), “User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast Caucasian”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast_Caucasian&oldid=351133322>, apparently citing Nichols, Johanna (2003), “The Nakh-Daghestanian Consonant Correspondences”, in Tuite, Kevin, and Dee Ann Holisky, Current Trends in Caucasian, East European, and Inner Asian Linguistics: Papers in Honor of Howard I. Aronson 207 – 251

{ts,st} dz → s {tsːʼ,z}

stː → sː

dʒ → {tʃːʼ,dʒ}

tɬ tɬ(ː) tɬ(ː)(ʼ) dʒ → ɬ tɬ(ː) tɬ(ː)(ʼ) tɬː

q ɢ → x {qːʼ,ɣ}

11.1.3 Proto-Avar-Andic to Avar

Pogostick Man, from User:Petusek (2010), “User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast Caucasian”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast_Caucasian&oldid=351133322>, apparently citing Nichols, Johanna (2003), “The Nakh-Daghestanian Consonant Correspondences”, in Tuite, Kevin, and Dee Ann Holisky, Current Trends in Caucasian, East European, and Inner Asian Linguistics: Papers in Honor of Howard I. Aronson 207 – 251

ts tsː tsʼ tsːʼ dz → sh ts tʃʼ ts(ː)ʼ tsʼ

st(ː) → ts

tʃ tʃː tʃːʼ dʒ → ts(?) tʃ tʃ(ː)ʼ tsʼ

tɬ tɬʼ tɬː tɬːʼ → ɬ tʼ tɬ tɬ(ː)ʼ

q qːʼ ɢ → x {q(ː)ʼ,ɡh} qʼ (not sure if that last 〈gh〉 should be ɣ)

s sː ɬː x xː → {s,ʃ} x ɬ {x,h} x

m → {m,n}

11.2 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Dargi

Pogostick Man, from User:Petusek (2010), “User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast Caucasian”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast_Caucasian&oldid=351133322>, apparently citing Nichols, Johanna (2003), “The Nakh-Daghestanian Consonant Correspondences”, in Tuite, Kevin, and Dee Ann Holisky, Current Trends in Caucasian, East European, and Inner Asian Linguistics: Papers in Honor of Howard I. Aronson 207 – 251

*b is “[p]rone to change to *m”

{tsː,st} tsːʼ dz stː → ts z tsː s

tʃ tʃː dʒ → {tsʼ,tʃʼ} ʒ ts

tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ → k {xʲː,kː} kʰ {ɡ,q}(?)

qːʼ → ʕ

ʃ ʃː ɬ ɬː → {s,ʃ} ʃ xʲ {xʲ,ʃ}

11.3 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Khinalug

Pogostick Man, from User:Petusek (2010), “User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast Caucasian”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast_Caucasian&oldid=351133322>, apparently citing Nichols, Johanna (2003), “The Nakh-Daghestanian Consonant Correspondences”, in Tuite, Kevin, and Dee Ann Holisky, Current Trends in Caucasian, East European, and Inner Asian Linguistics: Papers in Honor of Howard I. Aronson 207 – 251

b d → {b,v} z

The development of *tsʼ is unclear; in the user page there’s a slash but it might be a typo for an apostrophe

{tsː,st} {tsːʼ,dz} → ts tsʼ

{tʃ(ː),dʒ} → tʃʼ

tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → k {k,xʲ} {kʼ,ɡ} {kʼ,kː} kʼ

kː kʼ ɡ → k {kʼ,ɡ} {kʼ,kː}

{qːʼ,ɢ} → qʼ

sː ɬ(ː) xː → h xʲ x

r → n / _C

r → {r,∅}

11.4 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Lak

Pogostick Man, from User:Petusek (2010), “User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast Caucasian”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast_Caucasian&oldid=351133322>, apparently citing Nichols, Johanna (2003), “The Nakh-Daghestanian Consonant Correspondences”, in Tuite, Kevin, and Dee Ann Holisky, Current Trends in Caucasian, East European, and Inner Asian Linguistics: Papers in Honor of Howard I. Aronson 207 – 251

b d → {pː,b} {tː,d} (but *b is “[p]rone to change to *m”)

{tsː,stː} dz st → sː {tsː,z} ts

tʃ tʃː dʒ → {ts,tʃ} {tsʼ,tʃʼ} tʃ(ː)ʼ

tɬ tɬː tɬ(ː)ʼ dɮ → xʲ xː kʼ {kː,l}

ɡ → kː

qʼ qʼː ɡ → {qʼ,j} qʼ {qː,ɣ}

ʃ ɬ ɬː → s {xʲ,ʃ} xː

m l → {m,n} {l,∅}

11.5 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Proto-Lezgic

Pogostick Man, from User:Petusek (2010), “User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast Caucasian”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast_Caucasian&oldid=351133322>, apparently citing Nichols, Johanna (2003), “The Nakh-Daghestanian Consonant Correspondences”, in Tuite, Kevin, and Dee Ann Holisky, Current Trends in Caucasian, East European, and Inner Asian Linguistics: Papers in Honor of Howard I. Aronson 207 – 251

NB: These changes here probably aren’t “proper” sound changes, whatever that’s supposed to mean, but there doesn’t seem to be any particular sound change or set of sound changes that defines this family, so I’ve elected to go with something that seems to nearly work and note the exceptions.

q ɢ → {x,q} ɣ

11.5.1 Proto-Lezgic to Agul

Pogostick Man, from User:Petusek (2010), “User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast Caucasian”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast_Caucasian&oldid=351133322>, apparently citing Nichols, Johanna (2003), “The Nakh-Daghestanian Consonant Correspondences”, in Tuite, Kevin, and Dee Ann Holisky, Current Trends in Caucasian, East European, and Inner Asian Linguistics: Papers in Honor of Howard I. Aronson 207 – 251

b d → {b,w} {d,z}

{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ stː dz → {s,ts} {ts,tʃ} tː s z

tʃːʼ → tʃː

tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ x kʼ kː {,j,xʲ}

qːʼ → qː

ɬ(ː) xː → xʲ x

m → {m,b}

11.5.2 Proto-Lezgic to Archi

Pogostick Man, from User:Petusek (2010), “User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast Caucasian”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast_Caucasian&oldid=351133322>, apparently citing Nichols, Johanna (2003), “The Nakh-Daghestanian Consonant Correspondences”, in Tuite, Kevin, and Dee Ann Holisky, Current Trends in Caucasian, East European, and Inner Asian Linguistics: Papers in Honor of Howard I. Aronson 207 – 251

d → r / _#

d → {d,tː}

{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ stː dz → s {s,ʃ} tsʼ sː ts

tʃ(ː) dʒ → ʃ tʃ

tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → ɬ ɬ(ː) kʼ tɬʼ tɬː

kː ɡ → x {kː,ɡ}

ɣ → q (more likely, *ɢ → q instead of → ɣ)

q qːʼ → x q(ː)ʼ

sː xː → {sː,h} x

11.5.3 Proto-Lezgic to Lezghi

Pogostick Man, from User:Petusek (2010), “User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast Caucasian”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast_Caucasian&oldid=351133322>, apparently citing Nichols, Johanna (2003), “The Nakh-Daghestanian Consonant Correspondences”, in Tuite, Kevin, and Dee Ann Holisky, Current Trends in Caucasian, East European, and Inner Asian Linguistics: Papers in Honor of Howard I. Aronson 207 – 251

b d → {pː,b} {tː,d}

{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ dz → {ʃ,tʃ} tʃ(ʼ) {tʃː,dʒ}

tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ {ɣʲ,ɡ} qʼ k(ʼ) {kː,ɣʲ}

kː ɡ → ɣ kː

ɣ → {qː,ɣ} (again, probably a difference in the development of *ɢ than this strict sound change)

qːʼ → q(ʼ)

ʃː ɬ ɬː x xː → ɣʲ j ʃ ɣ x

11.5.4 Proto-Lezgic to Rutul

Pogostick Man, from User:Petusek (2010), “User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast Caucasian”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast_Caucasian&oldid=351133322>, apparently citing Nichols, Johanna (2003), “The Nakh-Daghestanian Consonant Correspondences”, in Tuite, Kevin, and Dee Ann Holisky, Current Trends in Caucasian, East European, and Inner Asian Linguistics: Papers in Honor of Howard I. Aronson 207 – 251

b d → {b,w} {d,z}

{ts,st} tsːʼ dz → {s,ts} {d,t} z

tʃ tʃː tʃːʼ → {ʃ,tʃ} ʃ tʃ

tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ qʼ q(ʼ) {w,xʲ,j}

kː → x

qːʼ → q(ʼ)

sː ɬ(ː) xː → {ħ,xʲ} {sː,h} x

m → {m,b}

11.5.5 Proto-Lezgic to Tabassaran

Pogostick Man, from User:Petusek (2010), “User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast Caucasian”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast_Caucasian&oldid=351133322>, apparently citing Nichols, Johanna (2003), “The Nakh-Daghestanian Consonant Correspondences”, in Tuite, Kevin, and Dee Ann Holisky, Current Trends in Caucasian, East European, and Inner Asian Linguistics: Papers in Honor of Howard I. Aronson 207 – 251

b d → {b,w} {d,z}

{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ → {s,ts} {ts,tʃ} tsː

tʃ tʃː tʃːʼ → {ʃ,tʃ} {tʃ,dʒ} {tʃː,tʃʼ}(?)

tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ {ɣʲ,ɡ} k kː ɣʲ

kː → q

ɬ {ʃː,ɬː} xː → xʲ ʃ x

m → {m,b}

11.5.6 Proto-Lezgic to Udi

Pogostick Man, from User:Petusek (2010), “User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast Caucasian”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast_Caucasian&oldid=351133322>, apparently citing Nichols, Johanna (2003), “The Nakh-Daghestanian Consonant Correspondences”, in Tuite, Kevin, and Dee Ann Holisky, Current Trends in Caucasian, East European, and Inner Asian Linguistics: Papers in Honor of Howard I. Aronson 207 – 251

ts tsː tsʼ tsːʼ dz → {∅,s} tʃ {∅,tsʼ} {tsʼ,tʃʼ} z

t → ∅ / s_

tʃ tʃː tʃʼ tʃːʼ dʒ → {∅,ʃ} tʃ ∅ tʃʼ {dʒ,tʃ}

tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → {∅,x} q {∅,qʼ} qʼ {ɣ,l}

kː → q

q qʼ qːʼ ɢ → ∅(?) ∅ qʼ ɣ

{ɬ(ː),xː} → x

11.6 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Nakh

Pogostick Man, from User:Petusek (2010), “User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast Caucasian”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast_Caucasian&oldid=351133322>, apparently citing Nichols, Johanna (2003), “The Nakh-Daghestanian Consonant Correspondences”, in Tuite, Kevin, and Dee Ann Holisky, Current Trends in Caucasian, East European, and Inner Asian Linguistics: Papers in Honor of Howard I. Aronson 207 – 251

st stː → st(ʼ) st

tsː tʃː → ts tʃ / #_

tsːʼ → tsː

{tsː,tʃː,dz,dʒ} → tː / _#

tɬ(ː) tɬʼ tɬːʼ → x qʼ ʕ

kː qːʼ → xk(?) qʼ

ʃː ɬː xː → ʃ ɬ x

l → r / _#

r → d / #_

11.7 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Proto-Tsezic

Pogostick Man, from User:Petusek (2010), “User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast Caucasian”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast_Caucasian&oldid=351133322>, apparently citing Nichols, Johanna (2003), “The Nakh-Daghestanian Consonant Correspondences”, in Tuite, Kevin, and Dee Ann Holisky, Current Trends in Caucasian, East European, and Inner Asian Linguistics: Papers in Honor of Howard I. Aronson 207 – 251

*b is “[p]rone to change to *m”

{ts,st} {tsːʼ,dz} → s ts

tʃ {tʃː,dʒ} → ʃ tʃ (the change of *tʃːʼ is conjectured for Bezhta, as the change is only listed in Tsez, but given the development of *tsːʼ I don’t find it unreasonable to put it here)

tɬ tɬːʼ → ɬ tɬ

ɢ → q

s xː → z x

l → {l,r}

11.7.1 Proto-Tsezic to Bezhta

Pogostick Man, from User:Petusek (2010), “User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast Caucasian”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast_Caucasian&oldid=351133322>, apparently citing Nichols, Johanna (2003), “The Nakh-Daghestanian Consonant Correspondences”, in Tuite, Kevin, and Dee Ann Holisky, Current Trends in Caucasian, East European, and Inner Asian Linguistics: Papers in Honor of Howard I. Aronson 207 – 251

*ɬ may have remained ɬ
*r remained when intervocalic

11.7.2 Proto-Tsezic to Tsez

Pogostick Man, from User:Petusek (2010), “User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast Caucasian”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Petusek/Drafts/Northeast_Caucasian&oldid=351133322>, apparently citing Nichols, Johanna (2003), “The Nakh-Daghestanian Consonant Correspondences”, in Tuite, Kevin, and Dee Ann Holisky, Current Trends in Caucasian, East European, and Inner Asian Linguistics: Papers in Honor of Howard I. Aronson 207 – 251

tsː tɬː → z l / V_V

tsː tɬː → s ɬ

kːʼ ɡ → k kʼ

q qːʼ → x(?) q

sː ʃ ʃː ɬ ɬː x → s ʒ ʃ l ɬ ɣ

r → {r,l,∅}

12 Northwest Caucasian

Wikipedia contributors (2014) give the following reconstruction for Proto-Northwest Caucasian consonants; due to the size of the reconstructed inventory, the usual table format has been modified:

Stop Fricative Affricate Resonant
Plain Labial p pː pʼ b f
Palatalized Labial pʲ pʲː pʲ bʲ
Labialized Labial pʷ bʷ
Palatalized Labialized Labial pʷʲ pʷʲʼ bʷʲ
Pharyngealized Labial pˤ pˤː pˤʼ bˤ
Plain Coronal t tː tʼ d s z ts tsː tsʼ dz r n
Palatalized Coronal sʲ zʲ tsʲ tsʲː tsʲ dzʲ
Labialized Coronal tʷ tʷː tʷʼ dʷ tsʷ tsʷʼ dzʷ
Palatalized Labialized Coronal tʲʷ tʷʲʼ tsʲʷ tsʲʷ dzʲʷ
Plain Lateral ɬ ɬː tɬ tɬː tɬʼ dɮ l
Palatalized Lateral ɬʲ(~ɬʲʼː) ɮ tɬʲ tɬʲʼ dɮʲ
Labialized Lateral ɬʷ ɬʷː tɬʷ tɬʷː tɬʷʼ dɮʷ
Palatalized Labialized Lateral ɬʲʷ(~ɬʷː) ɮʲʷ tɬʲʷ tɬʲʷː tɬʲʷʼ dɮʲʷ
Plain Postalveolar ʃ(~ʃː) ʒ tʃ tʃʼ dʒ
Labialized Postalveolar ʃʷ ʃʷː ʒʷ tʃʷ tʃʷː tʃʷʼ dʒʷ
Plain Palatal ɕ ɕː ʑ tɕ tɕː tɕʼ dʑ j
Labialized Palatal ɕʷ ɕʷː ʑʷ tɕʷ tɕʷː tɕʷʼ
Plain Velar k kʼ ɡ x ɣ
Palatalized Velar kʲ ɡʲ xʲ ɣʲ
Labialized Velar kʷ kʷː kʷʼ ɡʷ
Palatalized Labialized Velar kʲʷʼ ɡʲʷ xʲʷ ɣʲʷ(?)
Plain Uvular q qː qʼ ɢ χ ʁ
Palatalized Uvular qʲː qʲ ɢʲ χʲ ʁʲ
Labialized Uvular qʷ qʷː qʷʼ ɢʷ χʷ ʁʷ
Labialized Palatalized Uvular qʲʷ qʲʷː qʲʷʼ ɢʲʷ χʲʷ ʁʲʷ
Pharyngealized Uvular qˤː qˤʼ χˤ ʁˤ
Pharyngealized Palatalized Uvular qˤʲ qˤʲː qˤʲʼ χˤʲ ɾˤʲ
Pharyngealized Labialized Uvular qˤʷ qˤʷː qˤʷʼ χˤʷ ʁˤʷ
Pharyngeal Labialized Palatal Uvular qˤʲʷ qˤʲʷː qˤʲʷʼ ʁˤʲʷ

(From Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Proto-Northwest Caucasian language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Northwest_Caucasian_language&oldid=596995618>, presumably citing Starostin, Sergei A. and Sergei L. Nikolayev (1994), A North Caucasian Etymological Dictionary)

12.1 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Abazgi

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Proto-Northwest Caucasian language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Northwest_Caucasian_language&oldid=596995618>, presumably citing Starostin, Sergei A. and Sergei L. Nikolayev (1994), A North Caucasian Etymological Dictionary

{pʷ,pʲ} {p(ʲ)ː,bˤ} bʷ pʷʲ bʷʲ → p b f tsʲ dzʲ

mˤ → m

rʲ → r

tʷː tʷʲ(ʼ) → d(w) tʷ(ʼ)

tsʲː → dzʲ (marked as dubious in the source)

sʷʲ zʲ → sʲ z

tsʷː tsʷʲ → tsʷ (tʃ)

zʷʲ tsʷʲʼ dzʷʲ → dzʲ~zʲ tʃʼ dʒ~ʒ

tʃ(ʼ) dʒ → tsʲ(ʼ) dzʲ

ʃ(~ʃː) ʒ → sʲ sʲ

tɕː → dzʲ(~tɕ)

ɕ(ː) ʑ → ʃ ʒ (the change of singleton *ɕ to ʃ is marked as dubious)

tʃʷ(ʼ) tʃʷː dʒʷ → tʃ(ʼ) zʷ dzʷ~zʷ

ʃʷ ʃʷː ʒʷ → sʷ ʃ zʲ (this final change is marked as dubious)

tɕʷ(ʼ) tɕʷː → tʃ(ʼ) dʒ~ʒ

ɕʷ ɕʷː ʑʷ → ʃʷ ʃ ʒʷ

tɬ tɬː tɬʼ dɮ → x ts {x,tsʼ} l

ɬː → x

tɬʲ tɬʲʼ dɮʲ → xʲ ɕ ɣʲ

ɬʲ(~ɬʲʷː) ɮʲ → ɕ ʑ

lʲ → r / #_

lʲ → l~ɣʲ

tɬʷ(ː) tɬʼ dɮʷ → tsʷ tsʼ(ʷ) l

ɬʷ(ː) → ʃ

tɬʷʲ tɬʷʲː tɬʷʲʼ dɮʷʲ → tʃʷ ʒʷ tʃʷʼ dʒʷ

ɬʷʲ(~ɬʷː) → ʃ

ɮʷʲ → ʒ

kʷː → ɡʷ

kʷʲʼ → kʷʼ

xʷʲ ɣʷʲ → sʷ zʷ (*ɣʷʲ is marked as dubious)

q qː ɢ → (ħ) q ɣ (*ɢ is marked as *G in the document)

χ(ʲ) ʁ(ʲ) → ħ ʕ

qʲː ɢʲ → q ɣʲ

qʷ qʷː ɢʷ → ħʷ qʷ ɣʷ

χʷ ʁʷ → ħʷ ʕʷ

qʷʲ ɢʷʰ → ħ(ʷ) ɣ(ʷ)

qʷʲʼ → ʕʷ (qʷʼ?)

χʷʲ ʁʷʲ → ħ(ʷ) ʕ(ʷ)

qˤː qˤʼ → ʕ ħ (this latter is marked as dubious)

ʁʕ → ʕ

qˤʲ qˤʲː qˤʲʼ → q ʔ ħ(?)

χˤʲ ʁˤʲ → ħ ʕ

qˤʷ qˤʷː qˤʷʼ χˤʷ ʁˤʷ → ħʷ ʕʷ qʷ(ʼ) ħʷ (ħʷ?)

qˤʷʲ qˤʷʲ qˤʷʲʼ ʁˤʷʲ → qʷ ʕʷ ħʷ ʕʷ

12.1.1 Proto-Abazgi to Ashkharywa Abaza

Nortaneous, from Chirikba, Viacheslav A. (2003), “Abkhaz”. Languages of the World/Materials 119.

tʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) v dz

ɕ ʑ → s z

”Vʕ ʕ”V → ”aa a”a (but stays /ʕ/ sometimes?)

ʕʷ → ɥ

tʷ(ʼ) dʷ → {tʷ(ʼ),p(ʼ)} {dʷ,b}

12.1.2 Proto-Abazgi to Tapanta Abaza

Nortaneous, from Chirikba, Viacheslav A. (2003), “Abkhaz”. Languages of the World/Materials 119.

{tʃʷ(ʼ),tɕ} {dʒʷ,dʑ} → ts(ʼ) dz

tɕʷ(ʼ) dʑʷ → {tɕ(ʷ)(ʼ),tʃʷ(ʼ)} {dʑ(ʷ),dʒʷ}

ɕ ʑ → s z

ʃʷ ʒʷ ɕʷ ʑʷ → {ɕ(ʷ),ʃ(ʷ)} {ʑ(ʷ),ʒ(ʷ)} {ɕ(ʷ),ʃʷ} {ʑ(ʷ),ʒʷ}

{tʷ(ʼ),dʷ} → {tɕ(ʷ)(ʼ),tʃ(ʷ)(ʼ)} {dʒ(ʷ),dʑ(ʷ)}

12.1.3 Proto-Abazgi to Ahchypsy Abkhaz

Nortaneous, from Chirikba, Viacheslav A. (2003), “Abkhaz”. Languages of the World/Materials 119.

tʃʷ tʃʷʼ dʒʷ tɕ(ʼ) dʑ → f pʼ ts(ʼ) v dz

ɕ ʑ → s z

”Vʕ ʕ”V → ”aa a”a

ʕ ʕʷ → aː ɥ

q qʷ → χˤ χˤʷ

12.1.4 Proto-Abazgi to Bzyp Abkhaz

Nortaneous, from Chirikba, Viacheslav A. (2003), “Abkhaz”. Languages of the World/Materials 119.

tʃʷ tʃʷʼ dʒʷ → pʼ f v

”Vʕ ʕ”V → ”aa a”a

ʕʷ → ɥ

q qʷ → χˤ χˤʷ

12.1.5 Proto-Abazgi to Abzhywa Proper

Nortaneous, from Chirikba, Viacheslav A. (2003), “Abkhaz”. Languages of the World/Materials 119.

tʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑ

ɕ ɕʷ ʑ ʑʷ → s ʃʷ z ʒʷ

”Vʕ ʕ”V → ”aa a”a

ʕ ʕʷ → aː ɥ

q qʷ → χ χʷ

12.1.6 Proto-Abazgi to Tsabal Abzhywa

Nortaneous, from Chirikba, Viacheslav A. (2003), “Abkhaz”. Languages of the World/Materials 119.

tʃʷ tʃʷʼ tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f pʼ ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑ

ɕ ɕʷ ʑ ʑʷ → s ʃʷ z ʒʷ

”Vʕ ʕ”V → ”aa a”a

ʕ ʕʷ → aː ɥ

q qʷ → χˤ χˤʷ

12.1.7 Proto-Abazgi to Khaltsys Sadz

Nortaneous, from Chirikba, Viacheslav A. (2003), “Abkhaz”. Languages of the World/Materials 119.

tʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑʷ

ɕ ɕʷ ʑ ʑʷ → s {ʃʷ,ɕʷ} z {ʒʷ,ʑʷ}

”Vʕ ʕ”V → ”aa a”a

ʕʷ → ɥ

q qʷ → χ χʷ

12.1.8 Proto-Abazgi to Tswydzhy Sadz

Nortaneous, from Chirikba, Viacheslav A. (2003), “Abkhaz”. Languages of the World/Materials 119.

tʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑʷ

ɕ ʑ → s z

”Vʕ ʕ”V → ”aa a”a

ʕʷ → ɥ

q qʷ → χˤ χʷ

12.2 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Circassian

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Proto-Northwest Caucasian language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Northwest_Caucasian_language&oldid=596995618>, presumably citing Starostin, Sergei A. and Sergei L. Nikolayev (1994), A North Caucasian Etymological Dictionary

f → xʷ

pʲ(ː) pʲʼ bʲ → t(ː) tʼ d

pʷ pʷʲ pʷʲʼ bʷ bʷʲ → p tʷ tʷʼ b d

pˤ(ː) pˤ bˤ → p(ː) pʼ b

mˤ → m

r l → tː tħ / #_

l → ɮ

tʷ(ː) tʷʼ dʷ → t(ː) tʼ d

tʷʲ tʷʲʼ → ts tsʼ

ts tsː dz → {s,c} tsː dz~z

tsʲ tsʲː tsʲʼ dzʲ → (s) tsː tsʼ dz~z

sʲ zʲ → s z

tsʷ lʲ {qʲʷ,qˤʷ} → sʷ d qʷ / #_ (data not given for non-initial forms)

tsʲʷ tsʲʷ dzʲʷ → tsʲ tsʲʼ dzʲ

sʲʷ zʲʷ → sʲ zʲ

tʃ tʃʼ dʒ dʑ → s tsʲʼ(?) dz~z dʑ~ʑ

ʃ(~ʃː) → s

ɕ(ː) ʑ → ʃ(ː) ʒ

tʃʷ(ː) tʃʷʼ dʒʷ → tɕ(ː) tɕʼ dʑ~ʑ

ʃʷ(ː) ʒʷ → ʃ(ː) ʒ

tcʷ(ː) tɕʷʼ → tʃ(ː) tʃʼ

ɕʷ ɕʷ ʑʷ → sʲ ʃː zʲ

ɬ(ː) tɬ(ː) tɬʼ dɮ → ɕ(ː) tɕ(ː) tɕʼ tħ

tɬʲ tɬʲʼ dɮʲ → tɕ tɬʼ ɣ

tɬʷ(ː) tɬʷʼ dɮʷ → tʃ(ː) tʃʼ ħ

ɬʷ ɬʷː → x(ʷ) ɕː

tɬʲʷ tɬʲʷ tɬʲʷ dɮʲʷ → x tɕː tɕʼ ɮ

ɬʲʷ(~ɬʷː) ɮʲʷ → x(ʷ) ɣʲ

k kʼ ɡ → kʲ kʲʼ ɡʲ

xʲ ɣʲ → ɕ ʑ

xʷ → x(ʷ)

ɡʲʷ xʲʷ ɣʲʷ(?) → ɡʷ xʷ ʁʷ

ɢ → ʁ

qʲʼ ʁʲ → ʔ ʁ

qʷ → qʷː / !_

qʷʼ ɢʷ → qʷː ʁʷ

qʲʷː qʲʷ ɢʲʷ,ʁʲʷ} χʲʷ → qʷː ʔʷ ʁʷ χʷ

{qˤː,qˤʼ} χˤ ʁˤ → qː χ ʁ

{qˤʲ,χˤʲ} qˤʲ ʁˤʲ {qˤʲː qˤʲʼ} → ħ ʔ j

{qˤʷː,qˤʷʼ} χˤʷ ʁˤʷ → qʷː χʷ ʁʷ

qˤʲʷ {qˤʲʷː,qˤʲʷ} ʁˤʲʷ → ħ ʔʷ w~ʁʷ

12.2.1 Proto-Circassian to Adyghe

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Proto-Circassian language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Circassian_language&oldid=591849172>; and Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Adyghe language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Adyghe_language&oldid=593857358>

— Stress changes:

”Ca.CaCaːC
”Ca.CəCaC
”Cə.CaCəC
”Cə.CəCəC
Ca.”CaCaː.Ca
Ca.”CəCa.Cə
Cə.”CaCə.Ca
Cə.”CəCə.Cə

— Consonant correspondences:

tsʲ → tɕ

tsʷ → tsʲʷ

tʃ tɕ → ʃ ʂ

ʔ(ʷ)~qʼ(ʷ) → ʔ(ʷ)

dɮ → ɣ

dzʲ dzʷ → dʑ ʑʷ

tsʲʼ → ɕʼ~ʃʼ

sʷ ɕ → ɕʷ~ʃʷ ɕ~ʃ

xʷ χʲ → f~ɸ? ħ

ɮ → l

zʷ → ʑʷ~ʒʷ

12.2.1.1 Adyghe to Abadzekh Adyghe

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Proto-Circassian language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Circassian_language&oldid=591849172>; and Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Adyghe language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Adyghe_language&oldid=593857358>

tsʲ(ː) → tɕ

tsʷ → tʃʷ

pː tː tsː tsʷ ʃː tʃː tɕː kʲː kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → p t ts tʃʷ ʃ ɕ tɕ tʃ kʷ qː qʷ

tʃʼ tɬʼ → ʔaj~ʔ ɬʼ

tʃʷʼ~ʃʷʼ → ɕʷʼ~ʃʷʼ

kʲʼ → tʃʼ

ʂː ʃː → ʂ ʃ

sʼ ʃʼ~ɕʼ → tsʼ ʃʼ

12.2.1.2 Adyghe to Bzhedug Adyghe

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Proto-Circassian language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Circassian_language&oldid=591849172>; and Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Adyghe language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Adyghe_language&oldid=593857358>

tsʲ tsʲː → tɕ tɕː

kʲ(ː) kʲʼ ɡʲ → tʃ(ː) tʃʼ dʑ

tsʷː → tsʲʷː

qː~χ qʷː~qχʷ → qː qʷː

tsʷʼ~ʃʷʼ → ɕʷʼ~ʃʷʼ

tɬʼ → ɬʼ

sʼ ʃʼ~ɕʼ → tsʼ ʃʼ

12.2.1.3 Adyghe to Shapsug Adyghe

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Proto-Circassian language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Circassian_language&oldid=591849172>; and Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Adyghe language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Adyghe_language&oldid=593857358>

tsʲ(ː) tsʷ tʃ tɕ → tɕ tʃʷ ʃ ʂ

pː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː tsː tcː kʲː kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → p t ts tʃʷ ʃ tʃ tɕ kʲ kʷ χ~q χʷ~qʷ

p(ʷ)ʼ t(ʷ)ʼ tsʼ tsʷʼ~ʃʷʼ → pˤ tˤ tsˤ ʂʷ

tɬʼ → ɬˤ

ʂː ʃː → ʂ ʃ

sʼ ʃʼ~ɕʼ → sˤ ʂ

12.2.1.4 Adyghe to Temirgoy Adyghe

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Proto-Circassian language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Circassian_language&oldid=591849172>; and Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Adyghe language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Adyghe_language&oldid=593857358>

tsʲ(ː) tsʷ → tɕ tsʲʷ

kʲ(ː) kʲʼ kʷː ɡʲ → tʃ tʃʼ kʷ dʑ

q qʷ → qː qʷː / ! #_

pː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː tʃː tɕː → p t ts tsʷʲ ʃ tʃ tɕ

qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → qː qʷː

tsʲʼ tsʷʼ~ʃʷʼ → ɕʼ~ʃʼ ɕʷʼ~ʃʷʼ

tɬʼ → ɬʼ

ʂː ʃː → ʂ ʃ

ɣ → ɣ~ɡ

sʼ ʃʼ~ɕʼ → tsʼ ʃʼ

12.2.2 Proto-Circassian to Kabardian

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Proto-Circassian language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Circassian_language&oldid=591849172>

— Stress changes:

”Ca.CaCaː.Ca
”Ca.CəCaC
”Cə.CaCə.Ca
”Cə.CəCəC
Ca.”CaCaː.Ca
Ca.”CəCaC
Cə.”CaCə.Ca
Cə.”CəCəC

— Consonant correspondences:

tsʲ(ː) tsʷ {tʃ,tɕ} → ɕ f ʃ

kʲ → tʃ

ʔ~qʼ → ʔʷ

pː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː {tʃː,tɕː} kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → b d dz v ɕ ʒ dʒ ɡʷ qʼ~qχ qʷʼ~qχʷ

dɮ dzʲ dzʷ dʑ ɡʲ → ʒ ʑ {v,w} ʒ dʒ

tsʲʼ tʃʷʼ~ʃʷʼ tʃʼ tɕʼ tɬʼ kʲʼ → ɕʼ fʼ ɕʼ {ɕʼ,cçʼ} ɬʼ tʃʼ

sʷ zʷ {ʃ,ʂ} {ʑ,ʐ,ɣʲ} ʑ χʲ → f v ɕ ʑ ʑ~ʒ χ

ʂː ʃː → ɕ ʒ

sʼ(?) ʃʼ~ɕʼ → tsʼ ɕʼ

12.3 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Ubykh

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Proto-Northwest Caucasian language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Northwest_Caucasian_language&oldid=596995618>, presumably citing Starostin, Sergei A. and Sergei L. Nikolayev (1994), A North Caucasian Etymological Dictionary

pʲ(ː) bʲ → t(ː) d

pʲʼ → tʷʼ

{pʷ,bʷ} → f

pʲː → tʷ~dʷ

pʷʲ bʷʲ → tʷ dʷ

pʷʲʼ pˤ pˤː pˤʼ bˤ → tʷʼ vˤ bˤ pˤʼ bˤ

t(ʷ)ː tʷʲʼ → t(ʷ) tʷʼ

{r,l} lʲ → d r / #_

l lʲ → ∅~j l~ɣʲ

r rʲ → r~ʁ ɮ

ts(ʲ)ː tsʷː dzʲ → ts tsʷ dz

z(ʲ) zʷ → dz(ʲ)~z(ʲ) dzʷ~zʷ

sʷʲ zʷʲ tsʷʲʼ dzʷʲ → tʃʷ ʒʷ tʃʲʼ dʒʲ

tʃ(ʼ) dʒ → ts(ʼ) dz

ʃ(~ʃː) ʒ → s z

ɕː tɕː → ɕ tɕ

ʃʷ(ː) ʒʷ tʃʷ(ʼ) dʒ → ʃ ʒ tʃ(ʼ) dʒ

tɕʷ(ː) tɕʷʼ → tɕ tɕʼ

ɕʷ ɕʷː ʑʷ → ʃʷ sʷ ʒʷ

tɬ tɬː tɬʼ dɮ → ɕ (sʲ) tsʲʼ ɮ

ɬ(ː) → sʲ

tɬʲ tɬʲʼ dɮʲ → ɕ tɬʼ ɕ ʁ(~zʲ)

ɬʲ(~ɬʲʼː) → ɬ

ɮ → ʑ

tɬʼ → tsʲʼ

{ɮʲ,lʲ} → ɮ

tɬʷ(ː) tɬʷʼ dɮʷ → tsʷ ts(ʷ)ʼ w

ɬʷ ɬʷː → sʷ s(ʷ)

tɬʷʲ tɬʷʲː tɬʷʲʼ dɮʷʲ → f dʑ tsʼ dʒ

ɬʷʲ(~ɬʷː) ɮʷʲ → ʃʷ ʒʷ

k kʼ ɡ x ɣ → kʲ kʲʼ ɡʲ ɕ ɣ~ʁ

xʲ ɣʲ → sʲ zʲ

kʷː xʷ → ɡʷ x

kʲʷː xʲʷ ɣʲʷ(?) → ɡʲ kʲʼ xʲ ʁʲ

ɣ → ʁ

qʲː(ʼ) ɢʲ χʲ → qʲ(ʼ) ʁʲ xʲ

qʷː ɢʷ → qʷ ʁʷ

qʲʷ qʲʷː qʲʷʼ ɢʲʷ χʲʷ ʁʲʷ → xʲ qʲ qʲʼ ʁʲ χʲ ʁʲ

qˤʲ → q(ˤ)

qˤʲʷ {qˤʲʷː,qˤʲʷ} ʁˤʲʷ → χʷ qʷʼ w

13 Chumashan

Klar (1977) reconstructs the following phonemic inventory for Proto-Chumashan:

Bilabial Dental Palatoalveolar Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m ˀm n ˀn
Stop p pʼ t tʼ k kʼ q qʼ ʔ
Affricate ts tsʼ tʃ tʃʼ
Fricative s (sʼ) ʃ (ʃʼ) h
Approximant w ˀw l ˀl j ˀj
Front Central Back
High i ɨ u
Mid e o
Low a

Ablaut and vowel harmony appear to have been productive in the proto-language; it is possible that consonant harmony affecting sibilants was also productive. *ɨ may have been a loan phoneme.

(CatDoom, from Klar, Kathryn (1977), Topics in Historical Chumash Grammar. <http://linguistics.berkeley.edu/~survey/documents/dissertations/klar-1977.pdf>)

13.1 Proto-Chumash to Barbareño

CatDoom, from Klar, Kathryn (1977), Topics in Historical Chumash Grammar. <http://linguistics.berkeley.edu/~survey/documents/dissertations/klar-1977.pdf>

R[- glottalized]VˀR → ˀRVR[- glottalized] / _$

R[- glottalized]VOʼ → ˀRVO[- ejective] / _$

13.2 Proto-Chumash to Cruzeño

CatDoom, from Klar, Kathryn (1977), Topics in Historical Chumash Grammar. <http://linguistics.berkeley.edu/~survey/documents/dissertations/klar-1977.pdf>

k → tʃ “(‘in certain cases’)”

13.3 Proto-Chumash to Inseño

CatDoom, from Klar, Kathryn (1977), Topics in Historical Chumash Grammar. <http://linguistics.berkeley.edu/~survey/documents/dissertations/klar-1977.pdf>

tʼ qʼ → t q

ˀN ˀw → N w

13.4 Proto-Chumash to Obispeño

CatDoom, from Klar, Kathryn (1977), Topics in Historical Chumash Grammar. <http://linguistics.berkeley.edu/~survey/documents/dissertations/klar-1977.pdf>

Sʼ → ʔ

q k → {q,k} {k(ʃ),tʲ} (allophonic)

{ˀm,ˀn} → {∅,ʔ} (the former is more likely)

ˀw → w (may have remained glottalized)

ˀj → ∅

13.5 Proto-Chumash to Purisimeño

CatDoom, from Klar, Kathryn (1977), Topics in Historical Chumash Grammar. <http://linguistics.berkeley.edu/~survey/documents/dissertations/klar-1977.pdf>

ˀj → ∅

qʼ → q

13.6 Proto-Chumash to Ventureño

CatDoom, from Klar, Kathryn (1977), Topics in Historical Chumash Grammar. <http://linguistics.berkeley.edu/~survey/documents/dissertations/klar-1977.pdf>

ʔ → ∅ / _#

pʼ kʼ qʼ → p k q

ˀm ˀn ˀl ˀj → m n l j

14 Elamo-Dravidian

McAlpin (1974) reconstructs Proto-Elamo-Dravidian as having the following phonemic inventory; the following table is slightly modified for reasons to be explained.

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m mː n nː
Plosive p t tː c cː k kː
Fricative v (?) s
Liquid r̀ ŕ l lː j w
Front Center Back
High i u
Mid e o
Low a

What here is denoted *s the author has *š for, but no other sibilant is readily identifiable in his paper. He makes mention of language written in cuneiform which may have influenced this convention. The phonemes *r̀ and *ŕ seem to have been contrastive rhotics. In *NS clusters, the nasal appears to have assimilated to the following stop.

(From McAlpin, David W. (1974), “Toward Proto-Elamo-Dravidian”. Language 50(1):89 – 101)

14.1 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Proto-Dravidian

Pogostick Man, from McAlpin, David W. (1974), “Toward Proto-Elamo-Dravidian”. Language 50(1):89 – 101

w → v / #_{i,e}lV

w → v / V_

k ʃk → k* kː / V_V (the asterisk-marked k is what McAlpin terms “weak k”, which tends to drop out in morphology)

t → ∅ / #_VrC

t → {t,ʈ} / V_V

rt → ʈ / V_V

p → v / V_V

s → t / #_VLV

s → j / V_{V,#}

s → ∅ / #V_{r̀,l}

s → ∅ / C_V

s → ∅ / V_C

r̀ → r̲

ŕ → r / V_V

n nː rn → {n̲,r} n̲(ː) ɳ / V_V

nː → n̲(ː)

nr̀ → n̲r̲

l lː → {l,ɭ} ɭ(ː) / V_V

l → ɭ / V_#

Proto-Dravidian retained long vowels, possibly from the simplification of consonant clusters and/or deletion of intervocalic consonants with compensatory lengthening and/or the resulting vowels in hiatus merging

14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamite

Pogostick Man, from McAlpin, David W. (1974), “Toward Proto-Elamo-Dravidian”. Language 50(1):89 – 101

{i,e,u} → ∅ / #_{t,n}a

e → {e,i} / #C_C

w → ú / V_ (McAlpin uses the accented-vowel notation due to some apparent height-contrast neutralizations before /a/)

k ŋk ŋkː → ∅ k kː / V_V

mp → p(ː) / V_V

c → s / #_{a,u}

ɲc → ns / V_V

r̀ → r / V_{V,C}

ŕ → rː / V_V

nr̀ → nr

l → n / V_#

v → m / #_V (?)

14.3 Tamil

14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamil

schwatever, from Shiffman, Harold F. A Reference Grammar on Spoken Tamil

aj → eː “(exception: never finally in monosyllables, never initially in multisyllabic words)”

avu aji → aw aj

i u → e o / _Ca

{k,v} → ∅ / V_V

aː eː iː oː uː → a ɛ i o u / _#

am an {aːm,aːn} → õ æ̃ ã / _#

{om,on} {em,en} {oːm,oːn} {eːm,eːn} → ɔ̃ ɛ̃ õ ẽ

um → ũ / _#

∅ → ɨ / _N#

{ɭ,ɽ} → ∅ (sporadic, the latter very much so and contributing some compensatory lengthening)

l ɭ → lːʉ ɭːʉ / _#(C)V[-long]

∅ → ʉ / {l,ɭ}_# if {M,Vː} previously in the lexeme

r → ɾ “in most dialects”

ɽ → ɭ

{ɾ,l,ɭ} → ∅ / V_S

i u → ɨ ʉ / short only when unstressed ! in #U

ɨ ʉ → ∅ / ! _#

∅ → {ɨ,ʉ} / to break up clusters

n → ŋ / _{k,ɡ}

i(ː) e(ː) → u(ː) o(ː) / {m,v,p}_C̣

j → ∅ / V[-front]_#

j → jːi / E_#

tː nt → cː ɲc / {i,j}_

ʈk → kː

n tː → n̪ t̪ː

ɳ → n “(sporadic and dialect development)”

ɭ → l “(again, sporadic)”

c → s / _{a,o,u,e}

cː → tʃː “(most dialects)”

o e → u i / _C{u,i} “(highly sporadic)”

“There’s also only a few changes necessary to turn this into the British dialect (which didn’t merge retroflexes with alveolars):”

— i(ː) e(ː) → u(ː) o(ː) / _ɭ

— eCə oCə → Ceː Coː / #_

15 Eskimo-Aleut

The following phonological reconstruction of Proto-Eskimo-Aleut is adapted from Wikipedia.

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal m n (nʲ) ŋ
Plosive p t tʲ k q
Fricative/Affricate v ð c sʲ ɣ ʁ
Lateral Fricative (ɬ)
Approximant l j
Front Central Back
High i u
Mid ə
Low a

It is noted that *n and *nʲ may not have been distinct phonemes; the article cites Fortescue mentioning that Sirilenski Eskimo has instances of initial /j/ whereas others have /n/; that *c *sʲ may have been either fricatives (*s *sʲ) or affricates (*ts *tsʲ), the source being unclear; and that *ɬ may have actually arisen from *l + plosive combinations.

(From Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Proto-Eskimo–Aleut language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Eskimo%E2%80%93Aleut_language&oldid=573345407>)

15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Aleut

Pogostick Man, from Marsh, Gordon and Morris Swadesh (1951), “Kleinschmidt Centennial V: Eskimo Aleut Correspondences”, International Journal of American Linguistics, Vol. 17, No. 4 (Oct., 1951), pp. 209 – 216

a → i / i_

u → a / a_

p → h / #_

v → m / medial

v → w / a_a (in eastern dialects)

{t,ð} → n / _#

ð → t / else

∅ → t / #_s

z → s / #_

z → ð / medial

l̥ → l

m → w / #_

n → t / #_ (except, maybe, “in exclamations”)

dʒ → ð / i_ (in eastern and central dialects)

dʒ → ð / u_a (in eastern dialects)

i →∅ / #_{z,dʒ}

ə → ∅ / #_, “under certain conditions not yet discovered”

Deletion of medial vowels as per stress rules, “mostly affecting vowels before the accented syllable”

nV1nV2 → nV2nV2

15.2 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Eskimo

Pogostick Man, from Marsh, Gordon and Morris Swadesh (1951), “Kleinschmidt Centennial V: Eskimo Aleut Correspondences”, International Journal of American Linguistics, Vol. 17, No. 4 (Oct., 1951), pp. 209 – 216

ð z → t s

ɣ ʁ → k q / #_

ə → ∅ / t_, “in certain positions”

15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow Iñupiaq

Pogostick Man, from Swadesh, Morris (1952), “Unaaliq and Proto Eskimo IV: Diachronic Notes”, International Journal of American Linguistics, Vol. 18, No. 3 (Jul., 1952), pp. 166–171

l̥ → l / medial

t → s / i_

ə → i / at word boundaries

ə → u / u_

ə → a / a_

ə → ∅ / else

ɣ ʁ → k q / _#

C0VC0 → C0ː

Regressive MOA assimilation and progressive voicing assimilation in consonant clusters (at least, when C2 is either /l/ or /l̥/)

m n ŋ → v t ɣ / _C[-nasal]

l̥ → t / _C

v → p / _s

v ʁ → p q / S_

v ɣ ʁ → p k q / _C (unless C = one of /l dʒ m n ŋ)

{p,v} t {k,ɣ} → m n ŋ / _N

v → ∅ / u_i

dʒ → ʁ / i_u

ədʒ → i / _{a,u} (except in #U)

adʒ → i / _a (except in #U?)

15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic Iñupiaq

Pogostick Man, from Swadesh, Morris (1952), “Unaaliq and Proto Eskimo IV: Diachronic Notes”, International Journal of American Linguistics, Vol. 18, No. 3 (Jul., 1952), pp. 166–171

ə → u / u_

ə → a / a_

Cː → C / except when CV_V in U1U2

t → s / i_

ə → i / else

dʒ → tʃ → s / “in certain positions” (except for Thule Greenlandic, where dʒ → tʃ and stayed there, apparently)

m n ŋ t {{ɣ,ʁ} → {k,q}} → p t k n ŋ / _#

m n ŋ → v t ɣ / _C[-nasal]

l̥ → ʁ / _C

v ʁ → p q / S_

v ɣ ʁ → p k q / _C (except where C = /l dʒ m n ŋ/)

{p,v} t {k,ɣ} → m n ŋ / _N

S1S2 → F1F2

Some metathesis in consonant clusters, the conditions of which are not elaborated upon; the given example cited within the text is lʁ → ʁl

v → ∅ / u_a

iv → uj / _u

dʒ → tʃ / i_{u,i}

ədʒ → i / _{a,u} (except in #U)

adʒ → i / _a (except in #U?)

15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie Iñupiaq

Pogostick Man, from Swadesh, Morris (1952), “Unaaliq and Proto Eskimo IV: Diachronic Notes”, International Journal of American Linguistics, Vol. 18, No. 3 (Jul., 1952), pp. 166–171

ə → u / u_

ə → a / a_

ə → i / else

ɣ ʁ → k q / _#

C0VC0 → Cː

Regressive MOA assimilation and progressive voicing assimilation in consonant clusters, at least when C2 is either /l/ or /l̥/

m n ŋ → v t ɣ / _C[-nasal]

l̥ → t / _C

v → p / _s

v ʁ → p q / S_

{p,v} t {k,ɣ} → m n ŋ / _N

v → ∅ / u_i

ədʒ → i / _{a,u} (except in #U)

adʒ → i / _a (except in #U?)

15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales Iñupiaq

Pogostick Man, from Swadesh, Morris (1952), “Unaaliq and Proto Eskimo IV: Diachronic Notes”, International Journal of American Linguistics, Vol. 18, No. 3 (Jul., 1952), pp. 166–171

ə → u / u_

ə → a / a_

ə → i / else

v → u

ɣ → u / “in some positions”

p k q s → v ɣ ʁ z / V_V

ɣ ʁ → k q / _#

Regressive MOA assimilation and progressive voicing assimilation in consonant clusters, at least where C2 is either /l/ or /l̥/

m n ŋ → v t ɣ / _C[+nasal]

l̥ → t / C_

v → p / _s

v ʁ → p q / S_

v ɣ ʁ → p k q / _C (except if C = /l dʒ m n ŋ/)

{p,v} t {k,ɣ} → m n ŋ / _N

v → u / V_V

v → ∅ / u_V

v → ∅ / V_u

dʒ → ʁ / i_u

ədʒ → i / _{a,u} (except in #U)

adʒ → i / _a (except in #U?)

ɣ → ∅ / V_u

ɣ → ∅ / u_V

ɣ → u / {i,ə}_V

15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’ik

Pogostick Man, from Swadesh, Morris (1952), “Unaaliq and Proto Eskimo IV: Diachronic Notes”, International Journal of American Linguistics, Vol. 18, No. 3 (Jul., 1952), pp. 166–171

Cː → C

C → Cː / _V(…V) except in #U

S → ∅ / #_F

s → ts / in certain situations?

C[+voice] → C[-voice] / adjacent to {S,s,l̥}

ɣ ʁ → k q / _#

ə → a / _#

ə → ∅

i → ∅ / #C[+dental]_C[+dental]V

F[+voice] → F[-voice] / adjacent to {S,ts}

F[+voice] → S[+same POA] / l̥_

t → s / _{k,q}

i a u → ii aa uu / C_ in U[+open -initial -final] such that U[+open]_

ə → i / u_

v → ∅ / u[+short]_V[+short]

v → ∅ / V[+short]_u[+short]

u → ∅ / #_vV

iv → j / #_u

s → dʒ / {i,u}_V

dʒ → ∅ / i_i

ə → ∅ / _dʒ{a,u}, except in #U

a → ∅ / _dʒa, except in #U

in → dʒ / _u (possibly only word-initially?)

15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’ik

Pogostick Man, from Swadesh, Morris (1952), “Unaaliq and Proto Eskimo IV: Diachronic Notes”, International Journal of American Linguistics, Vol. 18, No. 3 (Jul., 1952), pp. 166–171

Cː → C

C → Cː / _V(…V) except in #U

S → ∅ / #_F

s → ts / in certain situations?

C[+voice] → C[-voice] / adjacent to {S,s,l̥}

ɣ ʁ → x χ / _#

ə → a / _#

ə → ∅

i → ∅ / #C[+dental]_C[+dental]V

a → ∅ / C[+velar]_C[+velar]

Regressive MOA and voicing assimilation in consonant clusters, at least when C2 is either /l/ or /l̥/

v ʁ → f χ / S_

F[+voice] → F[-voice] / adjacent to {S,ts}

F[+voice] → S / l̥_

t → s / _{k,q}

i a u → ii aa uu / C_ in U[+open -initial -final] such that U[+open]_

ə → i / {u,a}_ (though aə seems to have become i in some circumstances)

v → ∅ / u[+short]_V[+short]

v → ∅ / V[+short]_u[+short]

u → ∅ / #_vV

iv → j / #_u

s → dʒ / {i,u}_V

dʒ → ∅ / i_i

ə → ∅ / _dʒ{a,u} except in #U

a → ∅ / _dʒa (except in #U?)

in → dʒ / _u (possibly only word-initially?)

15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’ik

Pogostick Man, from Swadesh, Morris (1952), “Unaaliq and Proto Eskimo IV: Diachronic Notes”, International Journal of American Linguistics, Vol. 18, No. 3 (Jul., 1952), pp. 166–171

Cː → C

S → ∅ / #_F

s → ts → tʃ / in some dialects?

C[+voice] → C[-voice] / next to {S,s,l̥}

ɣ ʁ → k q / _#

ə → a /

ə → ∅ / #_

i → ∅ / #C[+dental]_C[+dental]V

a → ∅ / C[+velar]_C[+velar]

F[+voice] → F[-voice] / adjacent to {S,ts}

F[+voice] → S / l̥_

∅→ n / #_iN (This one is sort of a guess, given a singular example in the text that isn’t really commented upon)

t → s / _{k,q}

u → a / a_

ə → i / {u,a}_

v → ∅ / u[+short]_V[+short]

v → ∅ / V[+short]_u[+short]

u → ∅ / #_vV

iv → j / #_u

s → dʒ / {i,u}_V

dʒ → ∅ / i_i

ə → ∅ / _dʒ{a,u} except in #U

a → ∅ / _dʒa (except in #U?)

in → dʒ / _u (possibly only word-initially?)

15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’ik

Pogostick Man, from Swadesh, Morris (1952), “Unaaliq and Proto Eskimo IV: Diachronic Notes”, International Journal of American Linguistics, Vol. 18, No. 3 (Jul., 1952), pp. 166–171

Cː → C

C → Cː / _V(…V), after #U

S → ∅ / #_F

s → ts / in certain situations?

C[+voice] → C[-voice] / next to {S,s,l̥}

ɣ ʁ → k q / _#

ə → a / _#

ə → ∅ / #_

i → ∅ / #C[+dental]_C[+dental]V

a → ∅ / C[+velar]_C[+velar]

v → ft / _s

F[+voice] → F[-voice] / adjacent to {S,ts}

F[+voice] → S / l̥_

t → s / _{k,q}

i a u → ii aa uu / C_ in U[+open -initial -final] such that U[+open]_

ə → i / {u,a}_ (though aə seems to have become i in some circumstances)

v → ∅ / u[+short]_V[+short]

v → ∅ / V[+short]_u[+short]

u → ∅ / #_vV

iv → j / #_u

dʒ → ∅ / i_i

ə → ∅ / _dʒ{a,u} except in #U

a → ∅ / _dʒa (except in #U?)

s → dʒ / {i,u}_V

in → dʒ / _u (possibly only word-initially?)

16 Extended West Papuan

16.1 Tabla-Sentani

Proto-Tabla-Sentani is reconstructed by Gregerson and Hartzler (1987) as having had the following phonology:

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d k
Approximant j w
Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid e ə o
Open a

(From Gregerson, Kenneth, and Margaret Hartzler (1987), “Towards a Reconstruction of Proto-Tabla-Sentani Phonology”. Oceanic Linguistics, Vol. 26, No. 1/2 (Summer – Winter, 1987), 1 – 29.)

16.1.1 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Nafri

Pogostick Man, from Gregerson, Kenneth, and Margaret Hartzler (1987), “Towards a Reconstruction of Proto-Tabla-Sentani Phonology”. Oceanic Linguistics, Vol. 26, No. 1/2 (Summer – Winter, 1987), 1 – 29.

p k → b ɡ / V_V

p t → f {s,h} / #_

N → ŋ / _#

e → i / _(C)i

e → æ / {P,K}_

e → æ / _P

e → ə / _C{a,ə,u} (seems to have become a in a few instances)

ə → o / _(C)o

ə → e / _{C[+palatal],E}

ə → æ / ! _{B,K,H}

a → æ / _(C)e

a → æ / i(C)_

o → e (sporadic, highly unusual)

16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central Sentani

Pogostick Man, from Gregerson, Kenneth, and Margaret Hartzler (1987), “Towards a Reconstruction of Proto-Tabla-Sentani Phonology”. Oceanic Linguistics, Vol. 26, No. 1/2 (Summer – Winter, 1987), 1 – 29.

p k → b ɡ / V_V

p b t → f p {s,h} / #_

d → l / medially

N → m / _#

e → i / _(C)i

e → æ / {P,K}_

e → æ / _P

e → ə / _C{a,ə,u} (seems to have become a in a few instances)

ə → o / _(C)o

ə → e / _{C[+palatal],E}

ə → æ / ! _{B,K,H}

a → æ / _(C)e

a → æ / i(C)_

o → e (sporadic, highly unusual)

16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern Sentani

Pogostick Man, from Gregerson, Kenneth, and Margaret Hartzler (1987), “Towards a Reconstruction of Proto-Tabla-Sentani Phonology”. Oceanic Linguistics, Vol. 26, No. 1/2 (Summer – Winter, 1987), 1 – 29.

p k → b ɡ / V_V

p t → f {s,h} / #_

d → l / medially

N → m / _#

e → i / _(C)i

e → æ / {P,K}_

e → æ / _P

e → ə / _C{a,ə,u} (seems to have become a in a few instances)

ə → o / _(C)o

ə → e / _{C[+palatal],E}

ə → æ / ! _{B,K,H}

a → æ / _(C)e

a → æ / i(C)_

o → e (sporadic, highly unusual)

16.1.4 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Western Sentani

Pogostick Man, from Gregerson, Kenneth, and Margaret Hartzler (1987), “Towards a Reconstruction of Proto-Tabla-Sentani Phonology”. Oceanic Linguistics, Vol. 26, No. 1/2 (Summer – Winter, 1987), 1 – 29.

p k → b ɡ / V_V

s → t / #_

N → ŋ / _#

e → i / _(C)i

e → æ / {P,K}_

e → æ / _P

e → ə / _C{a,ə,u} (seems to have become a in a few instances)

ə → o / _(C)o

ə → e / _{C[+palatal],E}

ə → æ / ! _{B,K,H}

a → æ / _(C)e

a → æ / i(C)_

o → e (sporadic, highly unusual)

16.1.5 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Tabla

Pogostick Man, from Gregerson, Kenneth, and Margaret Hartzler (1987), “Towards a Reconstruction of Proto-Tabla-Sentani Phonology”. Oceanic Linguistics, Vol. 26, No. 1/2 (Summer – Winter, 1987), 1 – 29.

d → r / medially

N → ŋ / _#

i → ∅ / V_ (with a few exceptions)

Some allophony triggered where p~ɸ, and probably some others

e → ə / unstressed (possibly only in disyllables?)

oi → oe

Some vowel assimilations, mostly dealing with central vowels

o → e (sporadic, highly unusual)

17 Indo-European

Wikipedia gives the following phonological reconstruction for Proto-Indo-European, reproduced here with some slight adjustments for presentation’s sake:

Labial Coronal Palatovelar Plain Velar Labiovelar Laryngeal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b bʱ t d dʱ ḱ ɡ́ ɡ́ʱ k ɡ ɡʱ kʷ ɡʷ ɡʷʱ
Fricative s h1 h2 h3
Approximant ɹ j w
Lat. Approx. l

There is some debate as to whether the voiced and voiced aspirate stops were actually glottalized and plain voiced, respectively; the status of the palatovelars, plain velars, and labiovelars as possible plain velar, uvular, and labialized uvular consonants, or as to whether the labiovelars existed at all, are also subjects of much contention.

Front Central Back
Mid e eː o oː
Back (a) (aː)

It is noted in the source that the nasals, approximants, and potentially laryngeals could also act as vowels; such allophones of /j w/ would then be [i u]. There is some debate over the presence of /a aː/ in the language, although the Wikipedia does mention that if Stang’s law holds, /aː/ at least must have been phonemic.

The accentual system was apparently a sort of free pitch accent, heavily related to ablaut and the vestiges of which may be best seen in Vedic Sanskrit, Ancient Greek, and Lithuanian and some West South Slavic tongues.

(From Wikipedia contributors (2011), “Pitch accent”. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pitch_accent&oldid=451210103>; and Wikipedia contributors (2011), “Proto-Indo-European language”. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Indo-European_language&oldid=455124616>)

17.1 Albanian

17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanian

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Albanian language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Albanian_language&oldid=582390175>

d dʱ → ð / V_V

d dʱ → ð / r_

ḱ → s / _{u̯,u,i̯,i}

ḱ → k / _R

ḱ → {ts,tʃ} (“[a]rchaic relic”)

ḱ → θ

kʷ → s / _”E?

kʷ → c / _B?

kʷ → k / else?

ɡ́(ʱ) → d / %_C[+sibilant]

ɡʷ(ʱ) → {ɡ,z}

bʱ dʱ ɡ́(ʱ) → b d dh

s → ɟ / #_

s → ʃ / V{i̯,u̯,r,k}_V

sd → θ / medial

sḱ → h / medial

sp → f / medial

st → ʃt / medial

s → θ / sometimes, involving “[d]issimilation with following vowel”

s → h / V_V

i̯ → ɟ / {a,e,i}_

i̯ → j / _B

i̯ → ∅ / E_

i̯ → h / V_

u̯ → v

Vn → V[+nasal] / _C?

n → ɲ (sometimes?)

l r → l(ː) r(ː)

{m̩,n̩} l̩ r̩ → e uj {ri,ir}

Loss of laryngeals, with the possible exception of h4, if it existed; h3 and h4 seem to have possibly fronted a following back vowel

eː iː oː uː → o i e {y,i}

a e i o → {a,e} (j)e {e,i} a

Gheg seems to have maintained or innovated vowel length whereas Tosk has not

ə → ∅ / _#

c ɟ → tʃ dʒ (for most speakers)

17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanian

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Albanian language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Albanian_language&oldid=582390175>

d dʱ → ð / V_V

d dʱ → ð / r_

ḱ → s / _{u̯,u,i̯,i}

ḱ → k / _R

ḱ → {ts,tʃ} (“[a]rchaic relic”)

ḱ → θ

kʷ → s / _”E?

kʷ → c / _B?

kʷ → k / else?

ɡ́(ʱ) → d / %_C[+sibilant]

ɡʷ(ʱ) → {ɡ,z}

bʱ dʱ ɡ́(ʱ) → b d dh

s → ɟ / #_

s → ʃ / V{i̯,u̯,r,k}_V

sd → θ / medial

sḱ → h / medial

sp → f / medial

st → ʃt / medial

s → θ / sometimes, involving “[d]issimilation with following vowel”

s → h / V_V

i̯ → ɟ / {a,e,i}_

i̯ → j / _B

i̯ → ∅ / E_

i̯ → h / V_

u̯ → v

n → ∅ / V_C?

n → ɲ (sometimes?)

n → ɾ

l r → {l,ɫ} {ɾ,r}

{m̩,n̩} l̩ r̩ → e uj {ri,ir}

Loss of laryngeals, with the possible exception of h4, if it existed; h3 and h4 seem to have possibly fronted a following back vowel

eː iː oː uː → o i e {y,i}

a e i o → {a,e} (j)e {e,i} a

c ɟ → tʃ dʒ (much less widespread than in Gheg)

17.2 Proto-Indo-European to Common Anatolian

Alces, from http://www.unc.edu/~melchert/anathistphon.pdf (link is dead)

eh2 → æː / “tautosyllabic”

ei eu → ɛː uː

Dʱ → D

H → R / VR_V

h1 → ∅

h3 → ∅ / “medially”

T h2 → D h3 / _#

T h2 → D h3 / V[-stress]_V[-stress]

T h2 → D h3 / ”Vː

T h2 → D h3 / ”W

t → z / j “(allophonic)”

r → ∅ / #_ (unclear)

j → ∅ / #_e (not widely attested)

{{h1,h3}s,s{h1,h3}} → sː (contested)

17.2.1 Common Anatolian to Hittite

Alces, from http://www.unc.edu/~melchert/anathistphon.pdf (link is dead)

D T → T T[+lenis] / #_

T D → T[+fortis] T[+lenis]

h2 h3 → hh h

Ḱ → K

V → Vː / in ”U[+open]

e o → eː oː / in ”U[+stress]

o(ː) æː → a(ː) eː

e → i / _{m,ŋ} when posttonic in U[+closed] or when pretonic

e → a / _n in U[+open +posttonic]

e → a / _{r,l} (sporadic)

t → ts / _i ! s_

d → s / #_{i,j}

w → m / _u

w → m / u_

j → ∅ / V_V

aj aw → ɛː uː / !_{s,n,r,l}

17.2.2 Common Anatolian to Luwian

Alces, from http://www.unc.edu/~melchert/anathistphon.pdf (link is dead)

D T → T T[+lenis] / #_

T D → T[+fortis] T[+lenis]

h2 h3 → hh h

ḱː → z

kʷ → w

{ḱ,k} → j / _e(ː)

{ḱ,k} → ∅ / _i(ː)

k → ∅ / V_V

k → ∅ / _N

ɡ → dʒ (sporadic)

e → i / j_

e → a

V → Vː / in ”U[+open]

V → Vː / in #”U

o(ː) → a(ː)

{d,l} → r “in Hieroglyphic Luwian, occasionally”

j → ∅ / z_

hh h → h ∅ / ”Vː_u

hh h → h ∅ / u_”Vː

h → ∅ / _w ! at word boundaries

hh → ∅ / _{w,m,n,r,l} “medially, and sporadically”

D R → Dː Rː / ”e_ in U[+open]

{ɛ,e}ː æː → iː aː

17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lycian

Alces, from http://www.unc.edu/~melchert/anathistphon.pdf (link is dead)

D → T / #_

D → F[+voice]

N{F[+voice],T} → nD

d → k / _w

kʷ → t / _E

kʷ → k / _E, in Milyan

{ɡ́,ɡ} → j / _e(ː)

{ɡ́,ɡ} → ∅ / _i(ː)

ɡ → ∅ / V_V

j → ∅ / ts_

s → z / _{R,j,w} “(in Milyan, this happened after the change of ḱ to s)”

s → h

ḱ → s

h3 → ɡ / _B

h2 → k / E_E (probably a palatal stop)

h2 → q / _E (possibly plain velar stop)

h2 → x / else (possibly a uvular stop)

w → b / C_

ɡ → dʒ (sporadic)

e → i / j_

{ɛ,e}ː o æː → iː e aː

Vː → V[-long]

e → a / _U[+u,a]

a → e / _U[+e,i]

“[P]lus lots of syncope which he doesn’t elaborate on”

17.2.4 Common Anatolian to Lydian

Alces, from http://www.unc.edu/~melchert/anathistphon.pdf (link is dead)

d → tʃ / _{i,u}

d → t / {#,N}_

p d D → f ð T

T → D / N_

Ḱ → K

Kʷ → K / _V[+round]

ʃ → s

s → ʃ / _{i,e}

s → ʃ / i_

{h2,h3} → ∅

{m,n} → ʋ / _# “(that’s a Greek nu, I’m not sure what it’s supposed to represent)”

l → ʎ / _{i,j}

w (→ v?) → f / s_

j → ∅ / C_

j u → ð w / #_

j → ð / V_V

e → i / j_

{e,a,o} → ē / _N in ”U[+closed]

{e,a,o} → ā / _N in ”U[+open]

{e,o} → a / in U[-stress]

n → ∅ / _P “(leaves nasalization on the previous vowel)”

o(ː) eː æː → a(ː) iː aː

Vː → V[-long]

“[P]lus lots of syncope which he doesn’t elaborate on”

17.2.5 Common Anatolian to Palaic

Alces, from http://www.unc.edu/~melchert/anathistphon.pdf (link is dead)

D T → T T[+lenis] / #_

T D → T[+fortis] T[+lenis]

h2 h3 → hh h

Ḱ → K

V → Vː / ”U[+open]

e → i / pretonic

e → a / posttonic in U[+open]

o(ː) → a(ː)

a e → aː eː / in ”U[+closed]

æː → eː

ɡʷ → hʷ / medially

hhy → “something like /ʒ/”

h → ∅ / ”Vː_u

h → ∅ / u_”Vː

w → j / “in *díwots > Tiyaz ‘sun-god’; conditioning unknown”

ɛː → iː

17.3 Armenian

17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenian

Mecislau & Pogostick Man, the latter citing Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Armenian Language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Armenian_language&oldid=582063933>

NB: The changes in plosives are the most contentious; the Wikipedia article gives differences between the seven dialects in initial position for only the alveolar series by way of comparison, so take plosive changes with a huge grain of salt.

{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u

{e,o}j ɛw → ɛj ow

{e,o} → a (rare)

aː → a

e → ɛ

ɛ o → i u / _N

ej ia → e ɛa

{i,u} → ə / in some unstressed syllables

e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed

p t → h tʰ / #_ (?)

t → tʰ / {aw,ow}_

kʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}

t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_

p ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ

ɡ́ → ts (?)

b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k

bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʷʱ → p t j k / #_

bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ

j → w / _o

j → ?

{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)

{sr,rs} → rː

r → rː / _N

l → ɫ / {C,lV}_

l → ɫ / V_V

Ns sN → s N

N → w / S_S

VN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables

N → n / _#, in monosyllables

N̩ → n / _#

m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ

V → (?) / _(C)#

17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenian

Mecislau & Pogostick Man, the latter citing Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Armenian Language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Armenian_language&oldid=582063933>

NB: The changes in plosives are the most contentious; the Wikipedia article gives differences between the seven dialects in initial position for only the alveolar series by way of comparison, so take plosive changes with a huge grain of salt.

{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u

{e,o}j ɛw → ɛj ow

{e,o} → a (rare)

aː → a

e → ɛ

ɛ o → i u / _N

ej ia → e ɛa

{i,u} → ə / in some unstressed syllables

e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed

p t → h tʰ / #_ (?)

t → tʰ / {aw,ow}_

kʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}

t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_

p ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ

ɡ́ → ts (?)

b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k

ɡʷʱ → ɡʱ / #_

bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ

j → w / _o

j → ?

{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)

{sr,rs} → rː

r → rː / _N

l → ɫ / {C,lV}_

l → ɫ / V_V

Ns sN → s N

N → w / S_S

VN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables

N → n / _#, in monosyllables

N̩ → n / _#

m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ

V → (?) / _(C)#

17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenian

Mecislau & Pogostick Man, the latter citing Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Armenian Language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Armenian_language&oldid=582063933>

NB: The changes in plosives are the most contentious; the Wikipedia article gives differences between the seven dialects in initial position for only the alveolar series by way of comparison, so take plosive changes with a huge grain of salt.

{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u

{e,o}j ɛw → ɛj ow

{e,o} → a (rare)

aː → a

e → ɛ

ɛ o → i u / _N

ej ia → e ɛa

{i,u} → ə / in some unstressed syllables

e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed

t → tʰ / {aw,ow}_ ! #_

kʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}

t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_

p ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ

ɡ́ → ts (?)

b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k

ɡʷʱ → dʒ / #_{e,i}

bʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡ(ʷ)ʱ → b j k / #_

bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ

j → w / _o

j → ?

{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)

{sr,rs} → rː

r → rː / _N

l → ɫ / {C,lV}_

l → ɫ / V_V

Ns sN → s N

N → w / S_S

VN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables

N → n / _#, in monosyllables

N̩ → n / _#

m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ

V → (?) / _(C)#

17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenian

Mecislau & Pogostick Man, the latter citing Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Armenian Language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Armenian_language&oldid=582063933>

NB: The changes in plosives are the most contentious; the Wikipedia article gives differences between the seven dialects in initial position for only the alveolar series by way of comparison, so take plosive changes with a huge grain of salt.

{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u

{e,o}j ɛw → ɛj ow

{e,o} → a (rare)

aː → a

e → ɛ

ɛ o → i u / _N

ej ia → e ɛa

{i,u} → ə / in some unstressed syllables

e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed

p t → h tʰ / #_ (?)

t → tʰ / {aw,ow}_

kʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}

t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_

p ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ

ɡ́ → ts (?)

b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k

bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡ(ʷ)ʱ → p t j k / #_

bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ

j → w / _o

j → ?

{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)

{sr,rs} → rː

r → rː / _N

l → ɫ / {C,lV}_

l → ɫ / V_V

Ns sN → s N

N → w / S_S

VN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables

N → n / _#, in monosyllables

N̩ → n / _#

m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ

V → (?) / _(C)#

17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenian

Mecislau & Pogostick Man, the latter citing Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Armenian Language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Armenian_language&oldid=582063933>

NB: The changes in plosives are the most contentious; the Wikipedia article gives differences between the seven dialects in initial position for only the alveolar series by way of comparison, so take plosive changes with a huge grain of salt.

{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u

{e,o}j ɛw → ɛj ow

{e,o} → a (rare)

aː → a

e → ɛ

ɛ o → i u / _N

ej ia → e ɛa

{i,u} → ə / in some unstressed syllables

e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed

p t → h tʰ / #_ (?)

t → tʰ / {aw,ow}_

kʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}

t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_

p ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ

ɡ́ → ts (?)

b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k

bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ / ! _#

j → w / _o

j → ?

{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)

{sr,rs} → rː

r → rː / _N

l → ɫ / {C,lV}_

l → ɫ / V_V

Ns sN → s N

N → w / S_S

VN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables

N → n / _#, in monosyllables

N̩ → n / _#

m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ

V → (?) / _(C)#

17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenian

Mecislau & Pogostick Man, the latter citing Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Armenian Language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Armenian_language&oldid=582063933>

NB: The changes in plosives are the most contentious; the Wikipedia article gives differences between the seven dialects in initial position for only the alveolar series by way of comparison, so take plosive changes with a huge grain of salt.

{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u

{e,o}j ɛw → ɛj ow

{e,o} → a (rare)

aː → a

e → ɛ

ɛ o → i u / _N

ej ia → e ɛa

{i,u} → ə / in some unstressed syllables

e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed

p t → h tʰ / #_ (?)

t → tʰ / {aw,ow}_

kʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}

t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_

p ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ

ɡ́ → ts (?)

b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k

ɡʷʱ → dʒ / #_{e,i}

bʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʷʱ → b j ɡ / #_

bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡ(ʷ)ʱ → p t j k / #_

bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ

j → w / _o

j → ?

{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)

{sr,rs} → rː

r → rː / _N

l → ɫ / {C,lV}_

l → ɫ / V_V

Ns sN → s N

N → w / S_S

VN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables

N → n / _#, in monosyllables

N̩ → n / _#

m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ

V → (?) / _(C)#

17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenian

Mecislau & Pogostick Man, the latter citing Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Armenian Language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Armenian_language&oldid=582063933>

NB: The changes in plosives are the most contentious; the Wikipedia article gives differences between the seven dialects in initial position for only the alveolar series by way of comparison, so take plosive changes with a huge grain of salt.

{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u

{e,o}j ɛw → ɛj ow

{e,o} → a (rare)

aː → a

e → ɛ

ɛ o → i u / _N

ej ia → e ɛa

{i,u} → ə / in some unstressed syllables

e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed

p t → h tʰ / #_ (?)

t → tʰ / {aw,ow}_

kʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}

t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_

p ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ

ɡ́ → ts (?)

b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k

ɡʷʱ → dʒ / #_{e,i}

bʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʷʱ → b j ɡ / #_

bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ

j → w / _o

j → ?

{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)

{sr,rs} → rː

r → rː / _N

l → ɫ / {C,lV}_

l → ɫ / V_V

Ns sN → s N

N → w / S_S

VN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables

N → n / _#, in monosyllables

N̩ → n / _#

m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ

V → (?) / _(C)#

17.4 Avestan

17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestan

Pogostick Man, Alex Fink, and Tropylium, the former two citing Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Proto-Indo-Iranian language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Indo-Iranian_language&oldid=543625693>; and Alex Fink citing https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avestan_phonology

NB: Tropylium wishes to note that his sound changes are subject to change.

bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ → b d z

ḱ ɡ́ → s z

k(ʷ) ɡ(ʷ)(ʱ) → tʃ dʒ / _E

k kʷ ɡ(ʷ)(ʱ) → x k ɡ / else

rt → š (Alex Fink says that the realization of /š/ “is unclear”)

s → {s,h}

u̯ → v

l → r

{n̩,m̩} → a

{l̩,r̩} → ər(ə(r))

e eː → a aː

o oː → {a,aː} aː

h(j) → ŋh / a_a

hw → ŋʷh / a_a

h → ŋ / a_ra

hx → ∅

17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic

dhokarena56, from Matasović (2009), Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (ed. Lubotsky).

“PIE Dialectal”

— h1e h2e h3e → e a o

— eh1 eh2 eh3 → eː aː oː

— H → a / C_C ! #_

— SS → sː

— ∅ → a / CR_HC

— H → ∅ / V_C when pretonic

— H → a / #R_C

— Ḱ → K

Early Proto-Celtic

— ɡʷ → b

— h → ∅ / C_

— ∅ → i / C{l,r}S

— e → a / _Ra (short a only), though “[t]he e was often restored by analogy”

— ∅ → a / C_RC

— H → ∅ / “if not in a syllabic position”

— p…kʷ → kʷ…kʷ

— eː → iː

— oː → uː / in U#

— Vː → V[-long] / _RC

— C1C2 → xC2 / if C2 was a plosive or s

— p → b / _{r,l}

Late Proto-Celtic

— p → w / B_N

— p → f

— oː ej → aː eː

— e → o / _w

— u → o / _wO

17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irish

dhokarena56

“Laryngeal rules (the ones common to all branches except Anatolian)”

Kʷ → K

“The PIE rules for the voicing of s → z, as in [nizdos] for *nisdos, are assumed to apply”

Cʱ → C

eː → iː / ! _{i,u}

Obstruent clusters assimilate in voicing to that of the final obstruent

tː → sː

p → f / {V,#}_

f → x / _O

f → ∅ / else

r̩ l̩ → {ri,ra} {li,la} / _{S,R} (which vowel crops up is unpredictable)

r̩ l̩ → {ra,ar} {la,al} / _{s,CC,V,#} (the results are unpredictable)

m̩ n̩ → am an / _{s,({m,j,w)V}

m̩ n̩ → em en / else

Stress change:
— Pronouns, articles, and conjunctions become unstressed.
— First syllables stress in all verbal imperatives.
— First syllables stress in all other parts of speech except preverbs and the exceptions noted above.
— Second syllables receive stress otherwise.
— “This, unlike the preceding rules, remained a morphologically conditioned rule in Old Irish.”

ɡʷ → b / #_V ! _u(ː)

ɡʷ → b / #_N

ɡʷ → b / C_V

ɡʷ → ɡ

p t k kʷ b d ɡ m n l r s → f θ x xʷ v ð ɣ M N L R h / V(#)_{R,V} (“We don’t know the exact values of lenited /m n l r/. We can guess that lenited m became a nasalized labial continuant of some sort, but beyond that, we don’t know.”)

k → x / V_t

m → n / V_#; “[i]t is thought that the vowel needs to be unstressed, but this is not certain”

Vː → V / _N#; “[i]t is thought that the long vowel probably needed to be unstressed- again, this is uncertain”

p t k kʷ b d ɡ ∅ → b d ɡ ɡʷ mb nd ŋɡ n / n#_”V

oː → uː / _(C…)#

oːi → uː / _#

oː → aː / else

Vː → V[-long] / _H (includes diphthongs)

“The following three rules only apply if the vowel is unstressed”:

— e → i / _(C…)#

— o → a / _{(C…),u}#

— {ai,oi} → iː / _#

“The following two rules apply if the vowel in question is stressed or follows the stressed syllable”; consonant clusters cannot be /nt nd/:

— i u → e o / _C(…C){a(ː),e(ː),o(ː)}

— e o → i u / _C(…C){H,j}

C → Cʲ / _{F,j}

C → Cʷ / _{B,w}

Kʷ → K

For the following: “The book says nothing about length in the input vowels, but I think they could be either short or long from the examples given.”

— n → ∅ / {i,o,u}_{p,t,k,s}

— {a,e}n → eː / _{p t k s}

w → f / #_

w → ∅ / {#,C}C_

w → ∅ / {θ,x}_

w → ∅ / V_{V,#}

w → v / else

“The following changes. . .are, quoth the book, ‘somewhat approximative’”:

— {p,t} → ∅ / #s_r

— {p,t} → ∅ / #s_ “(although it says that occasionally st > t / #_)”

— s → ∅ / [anything]{l,r}_O

— hn hm → nː mː / [anything]_ (“[t]his change is a bit speculative”)

— “[A] sequence of two plosives becomes a geminate of the second one”

— st zd → sː dː / [anything]_

— {l,h}l {l,h}r l{p,s,n} r{p,s} ln → lː rː lː rː (lː?) / [anything]_

— Cː → C[-long]

V → ∅ / C_# when unstressed ! C = j

C(…C) → ∅ / _# ! /l r/ and clusters containing them; “[t]his remained a phonologically conditioned rule in OIr”

{au,eu,ou} → oː

ei → eː

oː → ua / _[anything], when stressed

eː → ia / _{#,Cʲ} when stressed; “ai and oi remain, but are written as <ae ai oe oi> seemingly randomly”

j → ∅

The second and third rule below “may well have been for the most part optional”; every one of the three “only applies to unstressed vowels” and “remained as a phonologically conditioned rule”:

— Vː → V[-long]

— a → e / _#

— {e,o} → a / _[anything]

V → Vː / _#, when stressed; “[t]his remained as a phonologically conditioned rule in OIr”

VOR → VːR; “this is a tad unclear, because in some instances it didn’t seem to apply”

V → ∅ / #UU(_)U(U(_)U) / unstressed; this “remained as a phonologically conditioned rule in OIr”; “[t]hat’s a little unclear, so let me try and enumerate: in words of more than three syllables, every other vowel (only the even ones) dropped, if it’s unstressed. In some words, syncope didn’t apply because it would create an unwieldy consonant cluster: so PIE *komaktyom → OIr cumachte, not *cumchte”

17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welsh

Dewrad & Pogostick Man, the latter citing Willis (David), “Old and Middle Welsh”

kʷ → p

Vː → V / _#

ei → eː

st → sː (with some exceptions)

ai → ɛ

s → ∅ / V_V

V → ə / _(C)#, also in proclitics

s → ∅ / x_

{au,eu,ou} → ∅

uː {oi,ɔː} → yː uː

j → ð / V_

i u → e o / _Ca

yː → ɨ

p t k {b,m} d ɡ → b d ɡ v ð ɣ / _V

aː → ɔː

a o → ei {ɨ,ei} / _(C…)j(C…)#

a → {ɨ,ei} / _(C…)j(C…)#

V → ɨ / _(C…)j(C…)#

{a,o} → e / _(C…)i(ː)

{a,e,o} → ei / _(C…)j

V → ∅ / _#

mb nd ŋɡ → mː nː ŋː

e → i / _N

$ → h / V_ (what $ is is unclear)

V → ∅ / _[+intertonic]

pː tː kː → f θ x

p t k → f θ x / {r,l}_

ɣ → i / _C

xt → iθ

ɣ → i / C_V

ɛː → ui

ɔː → au / when stressed

l → ɬ / _t

w → ɡw / #_

mp nt ŋk → m̥ n̥ ŋ̊

ɔ → ə / #_sC

l r → ɬ r̥ / #_

ɣ → ə / _#

17.6 Proto-Indo-European to Dacian

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Dacian language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dacian_language&oldid=582406161>

o → a

e → je / in open syllables, when stressed

e → ja / in closed syllables, when stressed

eː → aː

oi wo wj ow → ai wa vi aw

ei → {ei,i} (“PIE *ei evolution is not well reconstructed yet”)

bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → b d ɡ́ ɡ ɡʷ

ḱ ɡ́ → ts dz

{kʷ,kw} {ɡʷ,ɡw} → tʃ dʒ (→ s~z z ?) / _E

{kʷ,kw} {ɡʷ,ɡw} → k ɡ / else

17.7 Proto-Indo-European to Common Germanic

Siride

bʱ dʱ ɡʱ → β ð ɣ

b d ɡ → p t k

p t k → f θ x

f θ s x → β ð z ɣ “(Except initially or following IE stress)”

{i,j} {u,w} → j w / V[+short]C_

{i,j} {u,w} → ij uw

aː → oː

e → i

eː → æː

o → a

ei oi → iː ai

eːi {oːi,aːi} → eː oː (?)

eu ou → iu au

17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothic

Pogostick Man, from Wright, Joseph (1910). Grammar of the Gothic Language, 2nd Ed.; and Wikipedia contributors (2014). “Gothic language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gothic_language&oldid=635946920>

NB: Wright seems to regard Germanic labiovelars as sequences of velar + w if I’m reading this right; additionally, it looks like some of what Wright considers diphthongs may have been long monophthongs.

Stressed vowels:

— o e → u i

— u → ɔ / _{r,h} (unless this r “arose from older s by assimilation”)

— i → ɛ / _{r,h,ʍ}

— æː → eː

— ew → iw

Unstressed vowels:

— V[- long] → ∅ / _# ! V = u

— V[- long] → ∅ / U_C# ! V = u

— Inherited “long final vowels…became shortened in polysyllabic words, when the vowels in question originally had the ‘broken’ accent, but remained unshortened when they originally had the ‘slurred’ accent”

— aj → a / U_#

— “Originally long diphthongs became shortened in final syllables”

iw → ju / [- stress]

w → u̯ / V[- long]_{#,C}

w → ∅ / oː_j

oːw æːj → ɔː ɛː / _V

j → i / C_# “after the loss of a final vowel or syllable”

ij → iː / _s “after the loss of a vowel in final syllables”

ij → i / _# “after the loss of a final vowel or syllable”

Vw → u / _s (to wit, the vowel is deleted and the *w syllabifies)

“In a few instances medial -w- (or -ww- the origin of which is uncertain) after short vowels became -ggw- in Gothic…”; similarly, medial *-j(j)- became -ddj- in uncertain conditions

iji → iː / U[- stress](C…)_

iji → iː / U[+ long + closed]_ in the stem

i → ∅ / _ji

m → β / C[- voiced]_n, when medial

m → ɸ / C[+ voiced]_n, when medial

nː → n / _C ! _j

β → b / {r,l}_

ð → d / C[+ voiced]_

β ð ɣ → ɸ θ x / V_(s)#

“The final -h [= /h/?] in unaccented particles was often assimilated to the initial consonant of the following word”

ɣ → ɡ / #_

ɣ → ɡ / C_V

“In the forms of the strong verbs, medial z was supplanted by s through the levelling out of the s-forms…z was also supplanted by s in several weak verbs, which in some cases was due to the influence of the corresponding strong verbs”

z → s / _#, though “[t]his s was dropped when it came to stand after an original s through the loss of a vowel”, though it “remained when protected by a particle”

s → ∅ / V[- long]r_#

s → r / in “[t]he prep[osition]. us…before r in compounds”

s → ∅ / in “[t]he prep[osition]. us…in compounds before st”, though this seems to have been less common

17.7.2 Common Germanic to West Germanic

Siride

β ð ɣ → b d ɡ / {#,”V}_

z → {r,∅}

C → Cː / _j ! C = r

i u → e o / _%{a,o}

oː → uː / _#

17.7.2.1 West Germanic to Anglo-Frisian

Siride? & Pogostick Man, the latter citing Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Anglo-Frisian languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Anglo-Frisian_languages&oldid=602286013>; Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Old Frisian”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Old_Frisian&oldid=559739599>; and Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Old English phonology”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Old_English_phonology&oldid=602537992>

a → ɑ̃ / _N (short only)

VN → Ṽː / _F

a → æː / short only, includes diphthongs ! B or *ã in next syllable

k ɡ → tʃ j(?)

æː → aː “under to [sic] the influence of neighboring consonants”, but the article doesn’t elaborate

æː → eː

æu → au (æ → a / _B in general?)

aː → æː / ! _N or if nasalized

i o → e a / unstressed

ai au eu → {eː,aː} aː ia

ia iu → jaː juː

a → æ / ! _N or if nasalized, or if *B or *ã in next syllable

h → ∅ / V_V

{i,u} → ∅ / -# ! VC_

θ resists change to d until the 14th Century

17.7.2.1.1 Anglo-Frisian to Old English

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2011), “Phonological history of English”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Phonological_history_of_English&oldid=453796112>

ɑ̃ː → õː

V[+nas] → V[-nas]

{i,u} → ∅/ _# ! V[-long]C_#

k ɣ ɡ → tʃ ʝ dʒ / “in certain complex circumstances”

17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle English

Pogostick Man, from Moore, Samuel (1919), Historical Outlines of English Phonology and Midd le English Grammar for Courses in Chaucer, Middle English, and the History of the English Language; and Wikipedia contributors (2011), “Middle English phonology”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Middle_English_phonology&oldid=456896605>

Vː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example

eɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː

æj → aj → ej

{æːj,e(ː)j} → ej

ɑɣ → ɑw

{eɑh,eɑç,eɑx,eɑʝ,eɑɣ} → ɑw

eːɑw iːw → ew ju

{ɑːw,ɑːɣ,oːw} → ɔːw

oɣ → ɔːw / _V

{o(ː)ht,ɑːht} → ow

ɑː y(ː) → ɔː e(ː)

ɑ e o → ɑː ɛː oː / in U[+open] ! in #U with the following U containing /iː/ or ending in one of /m n r l/

eːɑ eːo iːe become sounds of uncertain identity; Moore says they were probably diphthongs

Vː → V[-long] / in #U before a U with /iː/

m → n → ∅ / _# when unstressed

hn {wl,hl} hr → w l r

ɣ → ɡ / #_

ɣ → w / C_V

17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle English

Pogostick Man, from Moore, Samuel (1919), Historical Outlines of English Phonology and Midd le English Grammar for Courses in Chaucer, Middle English, and the History of the English Language; and Wikipedia contributors (2011), “Middle English phonology”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Middle_English_phonology&oldid=456896605>

Vː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example

eɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː

æj → aj → ej

{æːj,e(ː)j} → ej

ɑɣ → ɑw

{eɑh,eɑç,eɑx,eɑʝ,eɑɣ} → ɑw

eːɑw iːw → ew ju

{ɑːw,ɑːɣ,oːw} → ɔːw

oɣ → ɔːw / _V

{ɑːht,o(ː)ht} → ow

ɑː y(ː) → ɔː i(ː)

ɑ e o → ɑː ɛː oː / in U[+open] ! in #U with the following U containing /iː/ or ending in one of /m n r l/

Vː → V[-long] / in #U before a U with /iː/

m → n → ∅ / _# when unstressed

hn {wl,hl} hr → w l r

ɣ → ɡ / #_

ɣ → w / C_V

{e,ɑ,o} → ə → ∅ / _#

17.7.2.1.4 Midlands Middle English to Early Modern English

Pogostick Man, from FireSpeakerWiki contributors (2013), “English sound changes”. FireSpeakerWiki. <http://wiki.firespeaker.org/English_sound_changes>

ʊ → ɤ ! P_ and _l

mb ŋɡ → m ŋ / _#

tj sj dj zj → tʃ ʃ dʒ ʒ / ! _uː (perhaps only before stressed uː?)

a ɑ {ɛ,ɪ,ɤ} → ɑː ɔː ɜː / _ɹ{C,#}

ɑʊ → ɑː / _P

ɑʊ → ɑː / _N (sometimes)

ɑʊ → ɔː / else

“[A] large number of cases that were ɑː have become ɔː subsequently for non-phonetic reasons, like laundry”

a → ɑː / “in a few words, like ‘father’”

a → æ / else

əɪ əʊ → ɑi æʊ / “in some parts of South-Eastern England”

əɪ əʊ → aɪ aʊ / “in most of Britain”

eː oː → eɪ oʊ / ! _ɹ

17.7.2.1.5 Early Modern English to American English

Pogostick Man, from FireSpeakerWiki contributors (2013), “English sound changes”. FireSpeakerWiki. <http://wiki.firespeaker.org/English_sound_changes; and my Phonetic Description class>

æ → æː (e.g., NYC) or ɑː (e.g., Boston) / _{F[-voiced],N[-voiced]} (“words which change vary between dialects”)

ɒ → ɒː → ɔː / _F[-voiced]

æː ɑː ɔː → æə~eə ɑ ɔ

ʍ → w (regional)

l → ɫ / “in some conditions”

ɪ → i / _# when unstressed

{t,d} → ɾ / V_V[-stress]

i u e → ɪ ʊ ɛ / _ɹ

o ɔ → ɔ ɒ / _ɹ (most dialects have at least one if not both)

æ → ɛ / _ɹ

j → ∅ / {θ,s,z,l,n,t,d}_ when in onset position

ɒ → ɔ / _K “(partial)”

æ → ɛə / _{n,m} “and others depending on dialect”

eə → eː

iə → ɪ (ongoing)

w → ∅ / C_ɹ for some C (toward(s), quart(er), sword)

t → ∅ / f_n̩

Stuff regarding syllabification (e.g., of /ɹ/) and hiatus
Loss of pretonic /ə/ in #U (ongoing)

17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian English

Pogostick Man, from FireSpeakerWiki contributors (2013), “English sound changes”. FireSpeakerWiki. <http://wiki.firespeaker.org/English_sound_changes>; and my Phonetic Description class

ɜːɹ ɑːɹ ɔːɹ eːɹ oːɹ iːɹ uːɹ → ɜː ɑː ɔː ɛə ɔə ɪə ʊə / syllable-finally

ɑ → ɒ

æ → æː → ɑː / _{F[-voiced],N[-voiced]}

ɒ → ɒː → ɔː / _F[-voiced]

ʍ → w

l → ɫ (the conditions of this are not elaborated upon)

oʊ iː → ɔʊ ɪə / _ɫ

oʊ iː → əʊ ɪi / else

uː → ʊə → uː / _ɫ ! in Queensland and New South Wales

uː → ʊʉ → ʉː / else

ɫ → əɫ / ! if one of the above vowel changes after the formation of /ɫ/ apply

ɪ → iː / _# when unstressed

ɪ → iː / “unstressed foot-finally if the next syllable is stressed and begins with /k ɡ tʃ dʒ ʃ ʒ/”

ɪ → ə / unstressed

ə → ɪ / _{k,ɡ,tʃ,dʒ,ʃ,ʒ,v}

t d → ɾ / V_V[-stress]

ɔə → ɔː

ɛə ʊə → ɛː ɔː (ongoing)

ʊə → oː / ! {j,dʒ}_

ʊə → ʉːwə / “almost always otherwise, but see [above vowel changes after /ɫ/ is formed]”

oə → oː

j → ∅ / %{θ,s,z,l}_”V

sj zj lj → ʃ ʒ j~ɫj / else “(j~ɫj fluctuation is formality)”

ɫj → ɫi / “after any segment after which coda-/ɫ/ is forbidden, e.g. failure [fæiɫiɐ]”

tj dj → tʃ dʒ

ɔː → ɔ / _ɹV[-stress]

ɔː → ɔ / _F[-voiced]

ɔ → ɔː / “in ‘gone’ and some derivatives”

æ → æː / _{n,m,ɡ,ɫ% ! _n,m,ɡ,ɫ}%{j,w} or a form of a strong verb

æ → æː / _d (rare) ! form of a strong verb

17.7.2.1.7 Early Modern English to British English

Pogostick Man, from FireSpeakerWiki contributors (2013), “English sound changes”. FireSpeakerWiki. <http://wiki.firespeaker.org/English_sound_changes>

ɜːɹ ɑːɹ ɔːɹ eːɹ oːɹ iːɹ uːɹ → ɜː ɑː ɔː ɛə ɔə ɪə ʊə / syllable-finally

ɑ → ɒ

æ → æː → ɑː / _{F[-voiced],N[-voiced]}

ɒ → ɒː → ɔː / _F[-voiced]

ʍ → w

l → ɫ / “in coda”

oʊ → əʊ

“LOT-CLOTH split reversed properly”

17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle English

Pogostick Man, from Moore, Samuel (1919), Historical Outlines of English Phonology and Midd le English Grammar for Courses in Chaucer, Middle English, and the History of the English Language; and Wikipedia contributors (2011), “Middle English phonology”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Middle_English_phonology&oldid=456896605>

Vː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example

eɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː

æj → aj → ej

{æːj,e(ː)j} → ej

ɑɣ → ɑw

{eɑh,eɑç,eɑx,eɑʝ,eɑɣ} → ɑw

eːɑw iːw → ew ju

{ɑːw,ɑːɣ,oːw} → ɔːw

oɣ → ɔːw / _V

{ɑːht,o(ː)ht} → ow

ɑː most likely became one of {eː,ɛː}

ɑ e o → ɑː ɛː oː / in U[+open] ! in #U with the following U containing /iː/ or ending in one of /m n r l/

y(ː) → i(ː)

Vː → V[-long] / in #U before a U with /iː/

n → ∅ / _# when unstressed (not clear as to whether m → n beforehand in this position or not)

j tʃ → ɡ k

ʃ → s / in unstressed syllables

ʍ became a sound spelled 〈qu〉

hn {wl,hl} hr → w l r

ɣ → ɡ / #_

ɣ → w / C_V

{e,ɑ,o} → ə → ∅ / _#, when unstressed (it appears this sound may also have gone to /ɪ/)

17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scots

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Phonological history of Scots”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Phonological_history_of_Scots&oldid=582962563>; and Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Scottish Vowel Length Rule”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Scottish_vowel_length_rule&oldid=589349104>

b → ∅ / m_l

t → ∅ / {p,k}_# (“except in some inflected forms” for *kt)

d → ∅ / n_

d → ∅ / l_#

s → ʃ / _E (E_ also?)

f → ∅ “in certain contexts”

/k ɡ/ remain unpalatalized when E_

{ɸ,x} → ∅ / _# (seems to be sporadic)

ʍ → xw (some speakers seem to have resisted this)

oɡ → ʌu

ul became some sort of diphthong or vowel (possibly one of uː, uw, ʌw), but the article isn’t very clear

ol al → ou ɑː → ʌu {ɑ,ɔ}

Vowel shift:

— ai → ɛi → əi / when stem-final

— uː → ʌu / when-stem final, in northern varieties

— øː → wi / {k,ɡ}_ (in Mid Northern dialects)

— øː → i (in northern dialects)

— øː → (j){u,ʌ} / _{k,x} (outcome varies depending upon dialect)

— a → i / _n (in northern varieties)

— a → e / _n (otherwise)

— a → {ɛ,e} / _rC

— ai oi ui ei au ou iu ɛ(o)u → eː oe əi iː {ɑː,ɔː} ʌu ju j(ʌ)u

— ɛː → ɛi (→ əi?) / in some northern varieties

— iː eː ɛː aː oː uː {øː,yː} → əi i {i,e} e o u ø

— æ → ɛ / _C[+alveolar]

— a ɔ u → {a,ɑ} ɔ ʌ

Application of the Scottish vowel-length rule:

— V → Vː / _{r,F[+voiced],$,#}

— əi → aɪ / _{r,F[+voiced],$,#} (pursuant to the above)

17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scots

Marcas Brian MacStiofáin Ó Mhaitiú Ó Domhnaill, from personal research

NB: This is an alternate listing of sound changes from Old English to Scots presented by a native speaker, which leads into a listing of sound changes to the Falkirk dialect.

æː → ɛː

ɑ → a / ! _{l,r} (sporadic)

oː → ju / {n,x}_

oː → iu / _K

oː → ø

øː → eː “(not a thorough change)”

ø → ɪ

æː(ɑ) eː(o) → ɛ iː

ɛ → ɜi → i / _{m,ɲ}

ai → aː

e → ɛ / _nt

{y,i} → ɪ

ɪ → ɜ / _{K,r}

e(o) → ɛ

u → ʊ → ɵ → ʌ

uː → u

o → ʌ / P_r

æ → ɑ / _{x,l}

æ(ɑ) → e

ɔ{ɡ,j} → ʌu

ɑː → e / ! _{ŋ,n}

ʌ → ɪi (sporadic)

a → ɪ / “unstressed and/or final”

N → ∅ / _C ! _%C

xw → ʍ

S[+ voice] → S[- voice] / _#

d~ð → d / V_u

d~ð → ð / V_V

t → ∅ / p_

dʒ → tʃ / _#

{f,v} → ∅ / {l,r,V}_ (sometimes blocked)

ð → ∅ / {l,r,V}_C

θ → h / _ɪ

θ → f / {V,r}_# (sometimes blocked)

θ → ∅

V → Vː / _{r,F[+ voice],V,#}

m → n / _f

e → ɛ / “unstressed”

∅ → ə̆ / _{n,r}

k → ∅ / n_t (sporadic)

m → ∅ / _n

l → ∅ / u_

l → u / {ɔ,ɑ}_

{ɔu,ɑu} → ɑ

t → d / r_

{w,k} → ∅ / _{n,r}

m → n / _f

s → ʂ / _{t,r}

t → ʈ / _r

t → ʔ / V_V

t → ʔ / _#

u → ʏ

17.7.2.1.11 Scots to Falkirk Scots

Marcas Brian MacStiofáin Ó Mhaitiú Ó Domhnaill, from personal research

pVn tVn kVn → ʔm̩ ʔn̩ ʔŋ̩ / _#

V → Ṽː / _nC “(works across word boundaries)”

n → ∅ / V_C (in words of more than one syllable)

k → ç / V_# ! _C “(sometimes)”; “(except when phonemic)”

ɡ → ʝ / V_# ! _C “(most times)”

p b → ɸ β / {#,V}_ ! _C

V → Ṽ / N_

n → ∅ / V_V# “in some disyllabic words”

l → ʟ

ʟ → ʊ / {a,ɛ}_, typically ! _V

17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle English

Pogostick Man, from Moore, Samuel (1919), Historical Outlines of English Phonology and Midd le English Grammar for Courses in Chaucer, Middle English, and the History of the English Language; and Wikipedia contributors (2011), “Middle English phonology”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Middle_English_phonology&oldid=456896605>

Vː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example

eɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː

æj → aj → ej

{æːj,e(ː)j} → ej

ɑɣ → ɑw

{eɑh,eɑç,eɑx,eɑʝ,eɑɣ} → ɑw

eːɑw iːw → ew ju

{ɑːw,ɑːɣ,oːw} → ɔːw

oɣ → ɔːw / _V

{ɑːht,o(ː)ht} → ow

ɑː → ɔː

ɑ e o → ɑː ɛː oː / in U[+open] ! in #U with the following U containing /iː/ or ending in one of /m n r l/

y(ː) → i(ː)

Vː → V[-long] / in #U before a U with /iː/

m → n → ∅ / _# when unstressed

hn {wl,hl} hr → w l r

f θ s ɣ → v ð z ɡ / #_

ɣ → w / C_V

{e,ɑ,o} → ə / _#

e → ∅ / if another /e/ one syllable previous

17.7.2.1.13 Middle English to Yola

Pogostick Man and Marcas Brian MacStiofáin Ó Mhaitiú Ó Domhnaill, the former from Wikipedia contributors (2016), “Forth and Bargy dialect”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Forth_and_Bargy_dialect&oldid=703468711>; and the latter from personal research

C → ∅ / C_%

t d → θ ð (conditioning unclear)

∅ → ɛ / uː_d

F → F[+ voice] / #_ ! F = ʍ

ʍ → f (at least one instance of → w, before a high front vowel)

U → U[+ stress] / #U_ (often)

17.7.2.1.14 Anglo-Frisian to Old Frisian

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2011), “Old Frisian”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Old_Frisian&oldid=461768402>

k ɡ → tʃ j / _E

ɡ → j / E_

aj aw ew → {eː,aː} aː ja

h → ∅ / V_V

17.7.2.1.15 North Frisian Lenition

TzirTzi, from Goblirsch, Kurt Gustav (2002), “The North Frisian lenition and Danish linguistic hegemony”. In Carr, Gerald F., and Irmengard Raugh (2002), New Insights in Germanic Linguistics III:46 – 65

p t k → b d ɡ → v r ɣ / Vː_{V,#}

Vowel length neutralized (to long vowels?)

17.7.2.2 West Germanic to Old Low Franconian

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Old Dutch”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Old_Dutch&oldid=588537679>; and Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Germanic umlaut”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Germanic_umlaut&oldid=602634218>

eː oː → ie uo

ai au → eː oː

h → ∅ / #_C

jan → en / CC_#

j → ∅ / CC_

h → ∅ / V_V

xs → sː

Final obstruents devoice

a → ɒ? (→ o) / _ɫ

Some vowel reduction seems to have occurred in unstressed syllables

ai u → ei ʏ / _(C…){i(ː),j} (short only; in the case of [ʏ] at least this was not yet phonemic)

a → ɛ / _(C…){i(ː),j} (conjectured based on date from the “Germanic umlaut” article)

uː → ʉw / _V (probably, in most areas)

uː → ʊw / _V (probably, in areas that did not undergo the above change, such as Limburg)

uː → ʉː (probably, in areas with uː → ʉw / _V)

ei ou → eː oː (except in southeastern dialects; *ei as a result of the umlaut of *ai was not affected)

17.7.2.2.1 Old Low Franconian to Middle Dutch

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Middle Dutch”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Middle_Dutch&oldid=602536434>; and Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Hieronymous Bosch”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hieronymus_Bosch&oldid=601403790>

uː → yː

iu → ju / #_ (in some northern dialects)

iu → {yː,io} (outcome varies depending upon dialect; the former seems more typical)

iw → yw (dialectal)

{ie,ia,io} uo → iə uə

Umlaut phonemicizes, but only for umlauts of non-dipthongal short vowels (except in extreme eastern dialects); [ʏ] becomes a phoneme

f θ s → v ð z / syllable-initially (h → ɦ?)

V → ə / if short and unstressed

f → {x,ç} / _t (the former seems to have occurred in northern dialects, the latter in southern ones)

θ ð → t d

{uː,uw} u → ɔw o (except in the southeast)

{ol,al} {ar,er} or → ɔu aːr oːr / _C[+dental]

V[-long +stress] → Vː / in open syllables (ʏ → {œː,øː} here but this is not phonemically important; there seem to have been qualitative differences between original long vowels and long vowels resulting from this change—lengthened iː seems to have become eː, but lengthened aː merged with original aː); does not affect original long vowels or vowels in diphthongs

17.7.2.2.2 Middle Dutch to Modern Dutch

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Dutch Phonology”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dutch_phonology&oldid=602553868>; and Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Hard and soft G in Dutch”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hard_and_soft_G_in_Dutch&oldid=594028971>

NB: This is likely highly incomplete, but the source materials did not have much to say.

l → u / o_{t,d}#

The change of /f/ to a velar fricative is often reverted by analogy

iː yː → ɛi œy

uː → ʌu (? conjectured based on the above diphthongization and on developments in Polder Dutch vowels)

Hard-vs.-soft-G phenomena:

— x ɣ → {x,χ} {ɣ,x,χ} / in northern dialects

— x ɣ → ç ʝ / in southern dialects (the articles use velar phonemes here but describes them as “front velar”; based on the description and on representations in other articles, the palatal phonemes are used here)

17.7.2.2.3 Modern Dutch to Polder Dutch Vowel Shift

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Dutch Phonology”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dutch_phonology&oldid=602553868>

ɛi œy ʌu → ai ay au

eː øː oː → ɛi œy ɔu

17.7.2.2.4 Belgian and Netherlandish Dutch Monophthongization

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Dutch Phonology”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dutch_phonology&oldid=602553868>

ɛi œy ɔu → ɛː œː ɔː

17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard German

Paweł Ciupak, from Behr, Hans-Joahim, Ingrid Bennewitz, et al. (2004). Die Bamberg (BA)-Braunschweiger (BS) Grammatik des Alt- und Mittelhochdeutschen im Internet. <https://www.tu-braunschweig.de/Medien-DB/germanistik/babs260304.pdf>; Kundert, Ursula (2009). Einführung in das Mittelhochdeutsche. <http://www.germsem.uni-kiel.de/mediaevistik/materialien/Kundert_Mhdreader_090330.pdf>; and Anonymous (2009). Mittelhochdeutsche Kurzgrammatik. <https://www.uni-frankfurt.de/47053276/Kurzgrammatik-HA_09_2009.pdf>

s → ʃ / #_{l,m,n,w,p,t}

s → ʃ / r_

t → {ts,k} / _w

x → k / _s

{h,j} → ∅ / V_V

w j → b ɡ / {l,r}_ (occasionally otherwise)

w → ∅ / {ou,øy,yː}_

w → v

aː → oː / _{N,C[+ dental],P,h} (sporadic?)

aː → oː / {N,C[+ dental],P,h}_ (sporadic?)

e(ː) i → ø(ː) y / _C[+ affricate]

e(ː) i → ø(ː) y / _{P,l,ʃ} (sporadic?)

e(ː) i → ø(ː) y / {P,l,ʃ}_ (sporadic?)

y(ː) yə ø(ː) øy → i(ː) iə e(ː) ei (intermittent)

uː yː iː → ou øy ei, except in certain unstressed endings and monosyllables, _C{C,V,#} (“especially before /xt/”), and Low German borrowings

uə yə iə → uː yː iː

ou øy ei → au oy ai

u y → o ø / _N (with some occasional exceptions)

aːw → au

Vː → V[- long] / _CC (some exceptions; the change was more common around _xt and _rC)

Vː → V[- long] / _%Cə{r,l,n}# (some exceptions)

V → Vː / _%, when stressed (except for /ə/?)

V → Vː / _r{t,d,s,ts} (except /ə/)

V → Vː / in some monosyllables ending in alveolar resonants or vowels

V → Vː / by analogy in some cases

ə → ∅ / unstressed, but not in every case

∅ → ə / M_r% (I don’t know what Mr. Ciupak means by 〈M〉)

17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlaut

Pogostick Man, from <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_German_consonant_shift>; and Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Germanic umlaut”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Germanic_umlaut&oldid=602634218>

p t k → fː zː xː / V_V

p t k → f z x / _#

p t k → pf ts kx / #_

p t k → pf ts kx / {L,N}_

pː tː kː → pf ts kx

b d ɡ → p t k

ɣ → ɡ

β → b / V_V

β → b / _l

s → ʃ / #_{p,t}

sk → ʃ / #_

{θ,ð} → d

a u o → e y ø / _(C…){i(ː),j}

17.7.2.5 West Germanic to Old Low German

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Old Saxon phonology”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Old_Saxon_phonology&oldid=598609310>; Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Old Saxon”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Old_Saxon&oldid=598557577>; and Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Germanic umlaut”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Germanic_umlaut&oldid=602634218>

ai au → eː oː

β → v

vː ɣː hː → bː ɡː xː (perhaps not strictly a sound change, but worth noting)

f θ s → v ð z / syllable-initially

v → f / _C ! _d

b d → p t / _C[-voice]

k → ts / _E (ɡ → dz here?)

n → ŋ / _{k,ɡ}

ɡ → k / ŋ_#

ɡ → ʝ / _E (singleton only)

ɡ → ɣ / _V (singleton only)

ɡ → x / _#

F[-voice] → F[+voice] / X[+voiced]_X[+voiced]?

Umlaut applies; going by the orthography, only a → e / _(C…){i(ː),j} is often marked (and even then haphazardly), but based upon reflexes in the daughter languages it seems that the umlaut had to apply to the other back vowels too

17.7.3 Common Germanic to Proto-Norse

Pogostick Man, from Theiling, Henrik, http://www.kunstsprachen.de/s17/rules.sch

wi → u / Ci_C

Eβu Eβo → juː joː

aβ{u,o} → au

β → ∅ / V_B

{æ,e}ː(w(a)) → aː

oː → a / _n%

z x → ʀ h

i → j / _V ! in #U

j → i / C_

n → ∅ / V{ː,V}_hV

Vn → Vː / _hV

(w)u(ː) i(ː) → (w)o(ː) e(ː) / _(C)(C)a ! CC = NC or one C = {ʀ,j}

iu → yː

{æ,e}ːuː {æ,e}ːiː → eu ai

w{o,u}ːwuː j{e,i}ːjiː → uː iː

w → ∅ / _w

j → ∅ / _i

o(u) {ɔ,ɑ,au,ai,æ} {ja,jE,æ(i),e(i),y} → u a i

Vː → V[- long] / ! #U, U#

17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norse

Pogostick Man, from Theiling, Henrik, http://www.kunstsprachen.de/s17/rules.sch

θ → f / _l

i → ɪ / _NS[- voice] ! _NS(C){o,i,j}

i → eː / _ʀ#

b {w,v} d ð ɡ → p f t θ k / _#

j → ∅ / #_

EːBː Eːaː → joː jaː / {v,w}_

BːB aː{o,a,æ,e} {æ,e}ː{æ,e}ː {æ,e}ːi iːEː → oː aː eː eː iː

e → i / #(C)(C)(C)_(C)(C)(C){i,j}

e → ja / ! {{h,k,ŋ}n,w,v,l,r}_, _{u,o,i}

a(i) {e,w{æ,i}} {we,ei} (w)ɪ → ey ø y ʏ / w_ ! hw_

a → ∅ / C(C)_{ʀ,s,t,θ}#

VN → Ṽ / _# ! in #U

u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ y yː / _(C)(C)(C)j

a → ∅ / _{ʀ,s,t,θ}#

oː → u / _#

ʀ → r_n

ʀ → r / C_n

ʀn → nː

w → ∅ / C_o

a → ∅ / CC_U#

a → u / %u / ! in #U

waː naː → oː noː / %u in #U

a(ː) ae → o(ː) ɒø / #(C)(C)(C)_(C)(C)(C)u

a → ∅ / _U#

{(j)u,we}ː {o,ɒ}ː aː au → yː øː æː æy

u {o,ɒ} a → y ø æ / _(C)(C)(C)i

{B,E} → ∅ / CC_{ʀ,s,t,θ}# ! B = ɒ

u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / _(C)(C)(C)i

E → ∅ / _{ʀ,s,t,θ}

u → o / _m#

u → ∅ / _({ʀ,s,t,θ})#

{B,E} → ∅ / CC_U# ! B = ɒ

V → Vː / _l{P,w,k,#}

{a,æ,e}ːhiː → æː

ɒːh{u,a} aːh{u,a} → ɒː aː

{B,E} → ∅ / _U# ! B = ɒ

u → o / _m#

Vː → V[- long] / ! in #U

{u,we,wi} {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / _(C)(C)(C)i

wa we wi → ɒː øː yː / #P_

w → ∅ / #P_Vː

e → jɒ / _(C)(C)(C)u ! {{h,k,ŋ}n,w,v,l,r}_

e → ja / _(C)(C)(C)u ! {{h,k,ŋ}n,w,v,l,r}_

au {ai,ey,ei} æ{y,i} øy Vː → o e æ ø V / #(C)(C)(C)_CC

V[- long] → ∅ / #U_UU

u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / _(C)(C)(C)j

u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / #(C)(C)_ʀ

b → ∅ / m_s

d → ∅ / {l,m}_{b,ɡ,k,l,m,n,s}

ð → ∅ / n_ ! ɡ_

ð → ∅ / r_{m,l,ɡ,n}

{f,β,p} → ∅ / r_n

{f,β,p} → ∅ / l_{d,ɡ,n,ð,t}

{ɡ,ɣ} → ∅ / l_{ð,t}

{ɡ,ɣ} → ∅ / r_{d,n,t}

k → ∅ / l_s

k → ∅ / r_{m,s,t}

k → ∅ / s_l,t

l → ∅ / ŋ_s

l → ∅ / r_{m,s}

l → ∅ / s_t

n → ∅ / f_{d,s,t}

n → ∅ / l_b

n → ∅ / m_{s,b}

n → ∅ / ŋ_{s,w}

n → ∅ / r_{s,t,w}

n → ∅ / t_s

r → ∅ / {ð,f}_{ɡ,ɣ}

r → ∅ / k_{n,s}

r → ∅ / m_m

r → ∅ / t_{k,s}

t → ∅ / {ɡ,ɣ}_s

t → ∅ / p_{ɡ,ɣ,n}

t → ∅ / r_k

t → ∅ / s_{k,l,n,s}

{s,z} → ∅ / {r,ʀ}_N

{v,w} → ∅ / #_V[+ round]

rː{r,ʀ} sʀ → rː sː

l(ː)ʀ n(ː)ʀ → lː nː / ”Vː_ (or all V_ ?)

{l(ː),n}{r,ʀ} → ∅ / V{ː,V}_

nː lː rː sː → n l r s / C_

{t,θ,d,ð} → ∅ / n_l

{t,θ,d,ð} → ∅ / l_n

lː nː → l n / C_#

ai wi (w)V → eː weː (w)Vː / _h#

ɒ → oː / n_h

{æ,e}i ai au w{ɪ,i} wy wV iu Vː → eː aː oː weː woː wVː eː oː V

ey → {jo,æ}ː / _ʀ

i → eː / _#

ðl(ː) ðn(ː) → lː nː

ʏ ɪ → ø e

V{θ,ð} → Vː / #(C)(C)(C)_{l,r}

ai → aː / _r

ai → aː / _h{C,V}

æ → e

lθ nθ → lː nː

Ṽ → Vː / in #U (maybe only ı̃?)

Ṽ → V[- nas]

β ð ɣ → f θ k / _{p,t,k,s}

β ð ɣ → b d ɡ / #_

β ð ɣ → b d ɡ / {m,n,ŋ,l}_

β ɣ → b ɡ / r_

ɣ → ɡ / _{r,ʀ,θ,ð}

β ɣ → f h / _%

ɣ → ɡ / _{E,j}

β ð ɣ → v θ h

(Vː)θt → (V)tː

Eː{u,o}ː Eːaː → joː jaː / {v,w}_

θ → t / {p,t,k}_

θː ðː → tː dː

θ f → ð v / {V,C[+ voiced]}_{V,C[+ voiced]}

h → ∅ / C_t

ht → tː

hw → ∅ / ! #_

F[- voice] → ∅ / {s,f,x,h,t}_{p,t,k}

nː → ð / _{r,ʀ}

woː wøː jæː Vː → wo wøje V[- long] / _%

NS[- voice] → S[- voice]ː

{t(ː),ɡː}k → kː

ts → sː / V_V

uN yN iN VN → o øː eː Vː / _{s,f}

Sː → S[- long] / U[- stress]_

lθ nθ → lː nː

p → f / _{t,k}

t → θ / _{p,k}

k → x / _{p,t}

m → f / _{n,ŋ}

n → θ / _{m,ŋ}

ŋ → x / _{m,n}

s → ts / {l,n}ː_

∅ → t / s_r

ɣ → ɡː / _j

ʀ → r

w → v / #_

Sː → S[- long] / _{r}ː

ɡ → ∅ / #_n

r → ∅ / {p,t,k}_Vr

rː lː → r l / {p,t,k,f,s}_

o {æ,e} → u i / ! in #U

o → u / V_

a → e / _i

ɪʊ → yː

ø øː → e æː

e(ː){B,i(ː)} → e(ː)u / {v,w}_

eː{Bː,i(ː)} → joː / _C[+ alveolar]#

eː{Bː,i(ː)} → juː

∅ → j / {y,e}(ː)_a

N(ː) k k(ː) N(ː)ɡ ɡ(ː) ɣ → ɲc(ː) c(ː) ɲɟ(ː) ɟ(ː) ʝ / _{i,j}

j → ∅ / Ḱ_

a → e / _{i,j,Ḱ}

N(ː) k k(ː) N(ː)ɡ ɡ(ː) ɣ → ɲc(ː) c(ː) ɲɟ(ː) ɟ(ː) ɟ / _{i,j}

f θ → v ð / #_

f → v / _{p,t,k}

j → ∅ / {c,ɟ}_

j → ∅ / _eː

au → ɒ / j_

eː → e / Ḱ_

eː j → e ∅ / Cw_

k → h / #_{v,n}

17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandic

Pogostick Man, from Theiling, Henrik, http://www.kunstsprachen.de/s17/rules.sch

k → ç / _#

n → ŋ / _{k,ɡ}

t → ð / V_# “in some verbal endings”

∅ → u / C_r#

waː → wo

ɒ ɒː → ø aː

øː → æ

u o a ø y e i → uː oː aː øi yː ei iː / _{ɲc,ɲɟ,ŋk,ŋɡ}

ɡ ɟ → ɣ j / V_V

ɡ → ɣ / V_#

hj → ç

u o a øː eː y i → ʏɪ oi ai øi ei yː iː / _j

aː → ai / _j

e → ei / _{ɣ,j}

O → ∅ / {F[- same POA],r,l}_O

S → ∅ / N[+ same POA]_S

{l(ː),rl} → ɬ / v_#

N → N[- voice] / O_#

{l(ː),rl} C → ɬ C[- voice] / _{S[- voice],s}

r → r̥ / S[- voice] / _#

{l(ː),rl} C → ɬ C[- voice] / S_ ! Sː_

{l(ː),rl} rː → dɬ r̥ / _#

S[- voice]ː S[+ voice]ː → ʰS S[- voice]ː

S[- voice] → ʰS / _{l,ɬ,m,n}

S[- voice] → Sʰ / #v_V

S[+ voice] → S[- voice]

p t k → f θ x / _{S,F[- voice]}

b d {ɡ,ɣ} → p t k / _S

F → S[- voice] / _{l,N}

u oː aː ʏɪ {y,i} {y,i}ː æː eː ey → ʏ ou au ai y ɪ i je ei

w → v

V → Vː / _(C)#, in monosyllables

V → Vː / ! _CCV, in polysyllables

{n̥n,nn̥ → tn̥ / V_

nː → tn̥ / V_#

nː → tn / V_

nn̥,n̥n → n̥

nː → n

{r̥n,r̥n̥,rn̥ → tn̥

rn → tn̥ / _#

r → t / _n

{r,r̥,l}ɬ → tɬ

{ɬl,ɬː → tɬ

r̥l → tɬ

{lː,rl} → tɬ / _#

{lː,rl} → tl

h → k / #_{v,w}

hl → ɬ / #_

hr hn → r̥ n̥ / #_

v → ∅ / {u,o,a}ː_

n̥ → m̥ / p_#

Cː → C[- long]

17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Norn

Pogostick Man and Marcas Brian MacStiofáin Ó Mhaitiú Ó Domhnaill, from http://nornlanguage.x10.mx/index.php?ork_phon, citing Marwick, Hugh, “Orkney Norn”

NB: For the most part, these changes are not in chronological order and are often tendencies more than strict sound-change laws.

ny → in

f → m / _n

n → ∅ / m_

p(ː) t(ː) k(ː) → b(ː) d(ː) ɡ(ː) / {V,R}_{V,R}

{t,d}j → tʃ

d → ∅ / n_# (sometimes)

b d ɡ → p t k / #_

k → s / _n

ɡ → k / _# (sporadic)

ɡn ɡl → nj lj

k ɡ → c ɟ / _{E,j}

f → ∅ / _{l,b,v,n,#}

f → ∅ / Vː_V

fd → dː

h → ∅ / _{l,n,r}

hw hj → {w,ʍ} ʃ

h → x / _i

θ → h / #_B

θ → ð / V_V

θ → t

ð → θ / _#

ð → ∅ /{a,E}_

ð → d / ! V_V

sk → {sk,ʃ,ks}

s → ∅ / {t,k,r}_l

s → ʃ / _Vr ?

ɣ → ∅

l → ∅ / V_V

l → ∅ / _{m,s,k}

l → ∅ / _# ?

lm → ml (sporadic)

lː → ʎ

v → w

u a e eː → ʌ ɑ ɪ ɛ / _Cː

u → ø / _l(ː)

u → ʌ / _C{ː,CC}

uː → øː / _CC

o a → ø ɛ / _(C)(C)i

o → ø / _Cr

oː → øː / _(C)(C)#

oː → u(ː)

joː → {u,o,ø} (looks like being in the ultima or the penult may have had something to do with it, but it isn’t clear to me)

ɒ → ɔ / _C(ː)C

ɒ → ʌ / _r(ː)

ɒ → {ɛ,e} / _CːV (V can be a syllabic consonant)

ɒ → ɪ / _rC

au → (ɔ)u

a aː → ɛ øː / _r

a → ɔ / _{l,nd}C

ja → i

æ → eː / _{ð,r}

æ → ɛː

œ → ɛː / _CC

œ → ø / _l

œ → iː / _N

œ → eː

yː → ø / _j

yː → i

y → {ɪ,i}

e iː → ɛ i(ː)

ey → eː / _F

ey → ɛ / _r

ey → ai

ei → eː / _C(ː,V)# (V can be a syllabic consonant)

e → a / _i

i → ɪ / _CC

V[- long] → ∅ / _#

17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Norn

Pogostick Man and Marcas Brian MacStiofáin Ó Mhaitiú Ó Domhnaill, from http://nornlanguage.x10.mx/index.php?shet_phon, citing Jakobsen, Jakob, An Etymological Dictionary of the Norn Language

NB: For the most part, these changes are not in chronological order and are often tendencies more than strict sound-change laws. Further, I’m assuming that 〈ä〉 is /æ/ and that 〈o̧〉 and 〈ȯ〉 are /ɒ/, and since I’m not sure what the conditions are for (apparent) reflexes with long vowels, I’m ignoring the vowel length in the Shetland Norn reflexes.

p t k → b d ɡ / V_V (the second V at least can be a syllabic consonant)

b d → p t / N_

b → v / #_ (sporadic?)

lm → ml

∅ → b / m_l

nd ld (→ nː lː ?) → ɲ ʎ

dj → dʒ

ɡ(ː) → dʒ / _iV

k ɡ → c ɟ / _E

tr → rd

pː tː kː → b d {ɡ,ɣ} / V_V

tː → {tʲ,dʲ}

tj → tʃ / _#

tj → ʃ

ɡl → lɡ

f → v / #_ (sporadic?)

f → m / _n

f → p / _t

v → w / #_

n → ∅ / _m#

vl → lv

θ → {t,d}

ð → ∅ / _#

ð → d

s → ∅ / k_l

∅ → h / #_V

h → ∅ / _{V,w,j} (sporadic)

h → ∅ / _l

h → {∅,h,k} / _r

h → {∅,h,k,s} / _n

hv → {h,k,s}w

hj → ʃ

n l → ɲ ʎ / _C

nː → ɲ(d)

rn {lː,rl} → ɲ ʎ

ms → ŋ(k)s

r alternates with l

{u,o}(ː) a aː {ɒ,œ,y} e i(ː) → {o,ɔ}(i) æ(i) {ɔ,ɒ}(i) {o,ɔ}(i) {æ,e} / _{Ḱ,Cʲ}

u → {o,ɒ} / _CC

uː → {u,o,ɒ,ø} (conditioning unclear; it seems the presence of a velar consonant may have helped to retain the quality of /u/)

oː → u

ɒ → ɛ / _Cː

ɒ → ø / _O[+ dental/alveolar]

{ɒ,ey} j{u,o,a}ː yː → o ø u / Ḱ_

j{u,o,a}ː → ø

a → ∅ / C[+ dental/alveolar]_u

a → {o,ɔ} / _{K,r} (! K = w ?)

aː → wo (dialectal)

aː → ɔ(u) / _{l,r}

au → {o,ɔ,ɒ} / j_

au → j{o,ɔ}

y → ə / _r(ː)

yː → ø / _O[+ dental/alveolar]

æ → e / ! _{Ḱ,Cʲ}

e → {o,ɒ} / _w

eː → {ɒ,ə} / w_

e eː → {æ,ɛ,e} {(j)ɛ,je}

ey → ø

Final short vowels drop

17.7.4 Common Germanic to Vandalic

Jaceb Kilpatrick & Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2015), “Vandalic language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vandalic_language&oldid=686359598>

NB: This is likely incomplete.

h → ∅ / #_

eː → i / unstressed

e → i / ! {w,r,h}_

oː → u

wː → ɡ

w → {ɡw,v} / #_

tj → tsj

θ ð → t d (not a complete change; apparently due to Latin)

z → ∅ (seems to have been complete by the Sixth Century)

17.8 Greek

It is entirely possible that I utterly failed to interpret the source documents correctly. If so, please do not hesitate to correct me.

17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian Greek

Pogostick Man, from Tucker, R. Whitney (1969), “Chronology of Greek Sound Changes”. The American Journal of Philology 90(1):36 – 47; and Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Ancient Greek dialects”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ancient_Greek_dialects&oldid=575325271>

{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a

bʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ

s → h / #_

s → h / V_V

t → ts / _i

j → h

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_

ts → s

h → ∅

Vns → Vːs

n → ∅ / _s

17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greek

Pogostick Man, from Tucker, R. Whitney (1969), “Chronology of Greek Sound Changes”. The American Journal of Philology 90(1):36 – 47; and Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Ancient Greek dialects”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ancient_Greek_dialects&oldid=575325271>

{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a

bʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ

s → h / #_

s → h / V_V

t → ts / _i

j → h

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_

ts → s

h → ∅

ɑː → æː

Vns → Vːs

n → ∅ / _s

tʃ → t / #_

tʃ → tː / medial

w → ∅

Vowel contraction (on which the author does not elaborate much)
Some “metathesis of quality as well as of quantity” with regards to vowels

u(ː)(j) → y(ː)(j)

æː → ɛː (includes diphthongs)

ej ow → eː oː

eː → iː / _C

j → ∅ / Vː_

eː → iː / _V

ɛː → eː

ɑj → ɛː

h → ∅

oj → øj → yj (→ yː sometimes)

e o → ɛ ɔ

pʰ tʰ kʰ → f θ x

Pitch-accent lost

b d ɡ → v ð ɣ / V_V

dz → z

Vː → V[-long]

Cː → C[-long]

ɑu ɛu eu → ɑv ɛv ev

ɔ → ∅ / in the suffixes -ios and -ion

n → ∅ / _#

e → i

p t k → b d ɡ / N_

y → i

ɡ x → j ç / _{ɛ,i}

p k → f x / _t

”{i,e}V → j”V

17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greek

Pogostick Man, from Tucker, R. Whitney (1969), “Chronology of Greek Sound Changes”. The American Journal of Philology 90(1):36 – 47; and Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Ancient Greek dialects”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ancient_Greek_dialects&oldid=575325271>

{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a

bʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ

s → h / #_

s → h / V_V

t → ts / _i

j → h

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_

ts → s

h → ∅

Vns → Vːs

n → ∅ / _s

{eː,ej} ɛː ɑ(ː)j {oj,ɔːj} → iː eː ɛː {y,ø}

oː → uː

17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greek

Pogostick Man, from Tucker, R. Whitney (1969), “Chronology of Greek Sound Changes”. The American Journal of Philology 90(1):36 – 47; and Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Ancient Greek dialects”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ancient_Greek_dialects&oldid=575325271>

NB: This assumes that the adjective “Coan” refers to the “Ceos” Tucker mentions in the source.

{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a

bʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ

s → h / #_

s → h / V_V

t → ts / _i

j → h

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_

ts → s

h → ∅

Vns → Vːs

n → ∅ / _s

æː → ɛː

17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan Greek

Pogostick Man, from Tucker, R. Whitney (1969), “Chronology of Greek Sound Changes”. The American Journal of Philology 90(1):36 – 47; and Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Ancient Greek dialects”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ancient_Greek_dialects&oldid=575325271>

{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a

bʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ

s → h / #_

s → h / V_V

t → ts / _i

j → h

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_

ts → s

h → ∅

Vns → Vːs

n → ∅ / _s

17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric Greek

Pogostick Man, from Tucker, R. Whitney (1969), “Chronology of Greek Sound Changes”. The American Journal of Philology 90(1):36 – 47; and Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Ancient Greek dialects”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ancient_Greek_dialects&oldid=575325271>

{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a

bʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ

s → h / #_

s → h / V_V

t → ts / _i

j → h

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_

ts → s

h → ∅

Vns → V(ː)s (Tucker says that “[i]n a few Doric dialects the lengthening did not occur”)

n → ∅ / _s

tʃ → t / #_

tʃ → tː / medial

h → ∅ (in those “dialects of the western fringe of Asia Minor and the near-by islands”)

Vowel contraction (on which the author does not elaborate much)

17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian Greek

Pogostick Man, from Tucker, R. Whitney (1969), “Chronology of Greek Sound Changes”. The American Journal of Philology 90(1):36 – 47; and Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Ancient Greek dialects”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ancient_Greek_dialects&oldid=575325271>

{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a

bʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ

s → h / #_

s → h / V_V

t → ts / _i

j → h

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_

ts → s

h → ∅

Vns → Vːs

n → ∅ / _s

h → ∅

17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greek

Pogostick Man, from Tucker, R. Whitney (1969), “Chronology of Greek Sound Changes”. The American Journal of Philology 90(1):36 – 47; and Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Ancient Greek dialects”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ancient_Greek_dialects&oldid=575325271>

{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a

bʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ

s → h / #_

s → h / V_V

t → ts / _i

j → h

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_

ts → s

h → ∅

ɑː → æː

Vns → Vːs

n → ∅ / _s

tʃ → s / #_

tʃ → sː / medial

VCw → VːC

w → ∅

h → ∅ (in Eastern Ionic)

Vowel contraction (on which the author does not elaborate much)

æː → ɛː

ej ow → eː oː happened “in the various Ionic dialects at various dates”

Some “metathesis of quality as well as of quantity” with regards to vowels; did not occur to the same degree as it did in Attic

u(ː)(j) → y(ː)(j)

oː → uː (?)

j → ∅ / Vː_

eː → iː / _V

ɛː → eː

ɑj → ɛː

h → ∅

oj → øj → yj (→ yː sometimes)

e o → ɛ ɔ

17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greek

Pogostick Man, from Tucker, R. Whitney (1969), “Chronology of Greek Sound Changes”. The American Journal of Philology 90(1):36 – 47; and Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Ancient Greek dialects”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ancient_Greek_dialects&oldid=575325271>

{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a

bʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ

s → h / #_

s → h / V_V

t → ts / _i

j → h

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_

ts → s

h → ∅

Vns → Vːs

n → ∅ / _s

pʰ tʰ kʰ → f θ x

17.8.10 Proto-Indo-European to Mycenaean Greek

Pogostick Man, from Tucker, R. Whitney (1969), “Chronology of Greek Sound Changes”. The American Journal of Philology 90(1):36 – 47; and Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Ancient Greek dialects”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ancient_Greek_dialects&oldid=575325271>

{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a

bʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ

s → h / #_

s → h / V_V

t → ts / _i

j → h

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u

kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_

ts → s

h → ∅

17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittite

Goatface

ḱ ɡ́ ɡ́ʱ → k ɡ ɡʱ

bʱ dʱ ɡʱ → p t k

kʷ ɡʷ ɡʷʱ → ku ɡu ku

t → ts / _{i,e}

m → ∅ / _#

e(ː) → a(ː) / _h2

e(ː) → a(ː) / h2_

e(ː) → o(ː) / _h3

e(ː) → o(ː) / h3_

h3 → ∅ / _o “(according to Kortlandt)”

h2 → x (or some sort of dorsal or laryngeal fricative?)

o(ː) → a(ː)

{uː,eu,au} → u

m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar al

w → m / u_

“Changes I’m less sure of”

— r → ∅ / #_

— r → ∅ / _# “sometimes??”

— e(ː) → a(ː) / _R “sometimes??”

— e(ː) → a(ː) / “when unstressed?”

17.10 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iranian

Tropylium, from Kobayashi, Masato (2004), Historical Phonology of Old Indo-Aryan Consonants

e → a / _{h2,h3}

e → a / {h2,h3}_

p → b / _h3

H → ə / “syllabic”

ə → ∅ / #_

{h1,h3} → *H

*H → ∅ / S_

Kʷ → K

s → ʃ / {u,i,l,r,K,Ḱ}

Ḱ → TŠ

1P2 → B12 / “includes s ʃ > zʱ ʒʱ”

BʱBʱ → BBʱ

ptʃ → pʃ

ttʃ ddʒʱ → t.ʃ d.ʒʱ

t → ∅ / _ʃt

d → ∅ / _ʒdʱ

tʃʃ → ʃː

k ɡ ɡʱ → c ɟ ɟʱ / _e,i,j

o → aː / _CV, “does not affect o2 < eh3

{e,o,o2,N̊} → a

17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-Aryan

Tropylium, from Kobayashi, Masato (2004), Historical Phonology of Old Indo-Aryan Consonants

ə → i

Sh2 → S[+ aspirated]

h2 → *H

VH → Vː / _{C,#}

R̊H → {u,i}R / _V (sporadic)

R̊H → {u,i}ːR / _C

ʃ ʒ → ʂ ʐ

n → ɳ / R(V)_

t d(ʱ) n → ʈ ɖ(ʱ) ɳ / C̣_ ! _r

s t d(ʱ) n → ʂ ʈ ɖ(ʱ) ɳ / _C̣

ls lt ld(ʱ) ln → ʂ ʈ ɖ(ʱ) ɳ / “disputed”

s → ʂ / _V{ʂ,ʈ,ɖ(ʱ)}

∅ → a / #_z

uʐ aʐ iʐ → uː əː iː

əː → oː / w_

əː → eː

tʃ dʒ(ʱ) → tɕ dʑ(ʱ) → ɕ ɟ(ʱ)

tst dzdʱ → tː dʱː

k → ∅ / #_t

p → ∅ / #_st

ɟʱ → ɦ

dʱ → ɦ / (unclear environment)

bʱ → ɦ (very rare)

Vm → Ṽ / _(#){s,ɕ}

n → ɲ / ɟ_

17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-Aryan

Pogostick Man, from Shukla, Shaligram (1974), “Phonological change and dialect variation in Middle-Indo-Aryan”. In Anderson, J., and C. Jones (Eds.), Historical Linguistics II:391-401.

C(C) → ∅ / C_#

VN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#

a{i,j}(a) a{u,w}(a) → e o

j w → dʒ b / V_V

C → C[+voiced] / V_V

{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʱ} {j,v} → h ∅ / V_V

Vm → Vv → V[+nas]v / _V

e o → i u / _#

Vː → V[-long] / _#

ah → o

ɽ → i

ʂ → x / k_

{ʂ,ç} → s

v → ∅ / {t,d}_

C1C2 → C2C2 / V_V

Cn → CC / V_V ! C = dʒ

dʒɲ → ɳː / V_V

17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-Aryan

Pogostick Man, from Shukla, Shaligram (1974), “Phonological change and dialect variation in Middle-Indo-Aryan”. In Anderson, J., and C. Jones (Eds.), Historical Linguistics II:391-401.

C(C) → ∅ / C_#

VN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#

a{i,j}(a) a{u,w}(a) → e o

j w → dʒ b / V_V

C → C[+voiced] / V_V

{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʱ} {j,v} → h ∅ / V_V

b {d,dʒ,ɡ} → v j / V_V

Vm → Vv → V[+nas]v / _V

e o → i u / _#

Vː → V[-long] / _#

ah → e

ɽ → i

kʂ → hk

ʂ s → s ç

r → l

v → ∅ / {t,d}_

C1C2 → C2C2 / V_V

Cn → CC / V_V ! C = dʒ

dʒɲ → ɲː / V_V

17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-Aryan

Pogostick Man, from Shukla, Shaligram (1974), “Phonological change and dialect variation in Middle-Indo-Aryan”. In Anderson, J., and C. Jones (Eds.), Historical Linguistics II:391-401.

C(C) → ∅ / C_#

VN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#

a{i,j}(a) a{u,w}(a) → e o

j w → dʒ b / V_V

C → C[+voiced] / V_V

{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʱ} {j,v} → h ∅ / V_V

Vm → Vv → V[+nas]v / _V

e o → i u / _#

Vː → V[-long] / _#

ah → o

ɽ → i

kʂ → tʃː

{ʂ,ç} → s

sC → Ch

v → ∅ / {t,d}_

C1C2 → C2C2 / V_V

Cn → CC / V_V ! C = dʒ

dʒɲ → ɳː / V_V

17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-Aryan

Pogostick Man, from Shukla, Shaligram (1974), “Phonological change and dialect variation in Middle-Indo-Aryan”. In Anderson, J., and C. Jones (Eds.), Historical Linguistics II:391-401.

C(C) → ∅ / C_#

VN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#

a{i,j}(a) a{u,w}(a) → e o

j w → dʒ b / V_V

C → C[+voiced] / V_V

{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʱ} {j,v} → h ∅ / V_V

Vm → Vv → V[+nas]v / _V

e o → i u / _#

Vː → V[-long] / _#

ah → o

ɽ → i

kʂ → tʃː

{ʂ,ç} → s

tv dv → p b

C1C2 → C2C2 / V_V

Cn → CC / V_V ! C = dʒ

dʒɲ → ɳː / V_V

17.10.1.5 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Vedic Sanskrit

Tropylium, from Kobayashi, Masato (2004), Historical Phonology of Old Indo-Aryan Consonants

{s,ʂ} → h / _#C[- voice]

{s,ʂ} → r / _#C[+ voice]

l → r

ɖ(ʱ) → ɭ(ʱ)

sɕ ɕʂ → ɕː ʂː

sː ʂː ɕː → t.s t.ʂ t.C

t.ʂ t.ɕ → kʂ cʰː

cʰː → cʰ / C_

bzʱ → ps

{pʂ,cʂ,ɟʐʱ,ɡʐʱ} → kʂ

17.10.1.5.1 Vedic Sanskrit to Classical Sanskrit

Tropylium, from Kobayashi, Masato (2004), Historical Phonology of Old Indo-Aryan Consonants

ɭ(ʱ) → ɖ(ʱ)

H → ∅

au aːu ai aːi → au oː ai eː / ! _V

w → v

17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavic

Hwhatting

NB: “Not in chronological order”

bʱ dʱ {ɡʱ,ɡ́ʱ} ɡʷʱ → b d ɡ ɡʷ

Kʷ ḱ ɡ́ → K s z

s → x / {i,u,r,k}_

k ɡ x → tʃ ʒ ʃ / _{e(ː)(i),i(ː)}

{a,o,ə} → e / j_

{a,o,ə} → o

i u → ь ъj

iː uː → i ɨ

u → ь / j_

e(ː)i → i

{ai,oi} → i / j_

{ai,oi} → æː

{aːi,oːi} → {æː,a} (the former seems to be more common)

{a(ː)u,o(ː)u} e(ː)u → u ju

e → ь / _jV

e → o / _wV

w → v

l̩ r̩ → {ьl,ъl} {ьr,ъr}

{m̩,n̩} → {ẽ,õ} / _C$

m̩ n̩ → {ьm,ъm} {ьn,ъn}

æː → a / “After palatal fricatives and affricates”

{e(ː),i(ː)} {a(ː),o(ː),u(ː)} → ẽ õ / _N$

oi o → i ъ / “Sometimes in final syllables”

{O,N} → ∅ / _$

k ɡ x → ts dz s / _{æː,i}

k ɡ x → ts dz s / “After some syllables with front vowels”

sj zj → ʃ ʒ

kj ɡj xj → tʃ ʒ ʃ

17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polish

Xiądz Faust, in http://pittmirg.ovh.org/inne/psc.pdf http://pittmirg.ovh.org/inne/psc.pdf, mainly citing Klemensewicz et al. (1955), “Gramatyka historyczna języka polskiego”, and Dubisz and Długosz-Kurczabowa (2003?), “Gramatyka historyczna języka polskiego”

NB: The original document heavily uses Slavistic notation as opposed to IPA; I’ve done the best I could in figuring this stuff out but be warned of possible errors.

sk x → ɕtɕ ɕ / _E

x → ɕ / E_

ɛl → lɔ / T_T “in certain cases (mostly after a PSl. palato-alveolar”)

ɔl ɔr ɛl ɛr → lɔ rɔ lɛ rɛ / T_T

ɔr ɔl → ra la / #_T “in syllables with long vowels”

ɔr ɔl → rɔ lɔ / #_T

C → Cʲ / _E ! /j ɕ ʑ

j → lʲ / {p,b,m,v}_ (sporadic)

ɛ ɛ̃ ɛː → ɔ ɔ̃ a / _C[-palatalized +dental] (also sporadically before plain non-dentals)

ɛː → ɛ

Havlik’s law:

— {ь,ъ} → e / iambic counting from U# or a syllable not containing a yer

— {ь,ъ} → ∅] / in even syllables counting iambic from U# or a syllable not containing a yer

— “[H]owever: in the vicinity of *j the development of yers did not comply with the aforementioned law”

ъ → aː / _r

ъl → ɔ(ː)ɫ / P_

ъl → ɛɫ / K_

ъl → ɫu / else

ьl → ɫu / C[+dental]_

ьl → ɛɫ / P_C[+dental -palatalized]

ьl → il / P_

ьl → ɔ(ː)ɫ

ь → aː / r_C[+dental -palatalized]

ьr → i(ː)ʐ → {ɛ(ː)r,ɛ(ː)ʐ} → {ɛr,ɛʐ}

{ɛ̃,ɔ̃} → ã

a ɛ i ɔ u ɨ ã → aː ɛː iː ɔː uː ɨː ãː / _{C/U}[+voiced][lost yer] (i.e., a voiced consonant or a cluster with one)

ajɛ → ɛː in adjectives, aː in verbs

{aja,ɔja} {ɔjɛ,ɨjɛ} ɨjɛ → aː ɛː iː

{ɛ(ː)jɛ,ьjɛ,ɔjɛ,ujɛ,ɨjɛ} → ɛː

{ɔjɔ̃,ɔ̃jɔ̃,ьjɔ̃} → ɔ̃ː

ьjь ъjь → i ɨ

jь → i / utterance-initially (cf. English utterance-initial glottal stops before vowels)

ь ъ → i ɨ / _j

ji → i / #_

{aja,ɛja,ьja,ɔja} → aː

iji ɨjɨ → i ɨ

ɔvi → ∅

O[+voice] → O[-voice] / _# (unless followed by some type of voiced consonant, be it any type of consonant or just an obstruent—this differs by location)

ɔ → ɔː / _{r,l} (sporadic, perhaps analogical)

∅ → h / _ъ

Mobile stress → initial stress → penultimate stress (in most areas)

V → ∅ / unstressed (sporadic)

i → ∅ / _# “in the infinite and imperative desinences. . .some verbs have never been affected due to a potential ‘difficult’ cluster that would result, instead they got an analogical final -j extension”

tsi ʐi → tɕ ʐ / V_

i u → u i / {lʲ,j}_ (sporadic)

tʲ dʲ sʲ zʲ nʲ rʲ l lʲ → tɕ dʒ ɕ ʑ ȵ r ɫ l (this last probably not before /i/)

iː uː ɨː → i u ɨ

ã → ɛ̃ / short only

ãː → ã → ɔ̃

aː ɔː ɛː → ɒ o e

Vː → V in certain frequently-used words

Sporadic (de)nasalization of vowels; “there were certain environments which favoured nasality changes: in the vicinity of nasal consonants. . .and before sibilants”

{i,ɨ} → ɛ / _C[+rhotic]

k ɡ → kʲ ɡʲ / _ɛ where the vowel is from a yer or a borrowing

kɨ ɡɨ → kʲi ɡʲi

ʃi ʒi tʃi dʒi ɕi ʑi → ʂɨ ʐɨ ʈʂɨ ɖʐɨ tsɨ ʒɨ

ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ ɕ ʑ → ʂ ʐ ʈʂ ɖʐ ts ʒ

r̝ → ʂ / C[-voiced]_

r̝ → ʂ / _C[+voiced]

ŕ → ʐ / else

ɛ → ɔ / _ɫ (if the vowel was from a yer)

{ɛ,a} → ɔ (sporadic)

V → ɛ (sporadic, analogical)

ɫ → w

ɒ e → a ɛ

o → ɔ / _N

o → u / else

u → ɔ (rare, sporadic)

pʲ mʲ fʲ → p m f / _#

{i,ɨ} → ∅ / _jV when unstressed

ɛ̃ → ɛ / _{#,l,ɫ}

ɔ̃ → ɔ / _{l,ɫ}

ɔ̃ → ɔ / _# (in some regions or dialects)

ɛ̃ ɔ̃ → ɛ̃N ɔ̃N / _{S,A}

ɛ̃ ɔ̃ → ɛɰ̃ ɔɰ̃ / _F[-palatal]

ɔ̃ → ɔɰ̃ / _# (in standard registers/pronunciations)

ɛ̃ ɔ̃ → ɛj̃ ɔj̃ / _F[+palatal]

ȵ → j̃ / _F

n → ŋ / _S[+velar] (regional)

“The following sections are structured according to respective sound change types without much chronology, as the sound changes tend to sporadic, irregular or inconsistent or to be trends spreading over considerable time spans.”

Cʲ → C / _C[+dental] with developments of yers in ablaut environments

Cʲ → C in select words due to prestige influence of Czech in the Middle Ages

Cʲ → C in select words otherwise, possibly by analogy

t → r / tV_

n → m / {b,p}{l,r,ʐ}V_

j → ∅ / _ɛ “in participial and deverbal forms originally with alveolopalatal consonants in the onsets of two consecutive syllables”

Oscillations involving:
— Dentals and postalveolars
— Postalveolars and alveolopalatals
— Voicing

OR → RO / V_C

RO → OR / C_V

vC → Cv / _V

Cv → vC / _C

tɕts ʑr̝ → jts jr̝

ɕtɕ → js / _{t͜s,s}

zʐ → ʐɖʐ

ʑ z → dʑ dz / _v

∅ → d / r_z

Regressive voicing/devoicing of obstruents in consonantal clusters

v r̝ → f r̥ / C[-voiced]_

v r̝ → f r̥ / _{C[-voiced],#}

r̝̊ r̝ → ʂ ʐ

Lv → L[-voiced]f / O[-voiced]_ “for many speakers”

v → ∅ / x_o

{xv,pv} → f

plv → pf

p → ∅ / #_p

ʈʂs → ts

{z,s,ʂ} → ∅ / _sC

x → ∅ / _r “in the word ‘robak’”

r̝ → r / {ɕ,ʑ}_

ʐr → ʑr

ɕr̝ ʑr̝ → ʂr ʐr / “‘szron’ and ‘żreć’”, respectively

t → ∅ / s_{ɫ,w}

ʈʂ → t / _r̝

ɕ → ∅ / tr̝_tɕ

ɡ → ∅ / _d

w → ∅ / {r,b}_

d → ∅ / ɫ_ɲ

d → ∅ / r_ts

d → ∅ / _n “in arch. ‘jeno’”

∅ → t / s_r “in ‘stręczyć’”

st ʂʈʂ → z ʐ / _b

{b,p} → ∅ / _n “in verbs in -nąć”

v → ∅ / _stv

t → ∅ / ʈʂ_v in “czworo”

s → ∅ / _ɫza in “słza”

trk → kr / in the name of the river “Skrwa”

zdʲ stʲ → {ʑ,ɕ} {s,ɕ} / _n

dʲ → ∅ / r_n

stʲ → ɕ / _l

slʲ → ∅ / _s

pv → f

ʈʂ → ʂ / _p

stʲkl → ɕtɕkl → {ɕ,s}kɫ → ʂkɫ

dz ts → d͜z t͜s

C[+sibilant]P → C[+alveolopalatal] / _C[+coronal]

C[+sibilant]P → C[+dental]

w → ∅ / C_#

w → ∅ / C_C (sporadic)

“Oscillations between dental and alveo[lo]palatals” / _C

n → s → ɕ / k_ɛ̃ where the vowel was from Proto-Slavic

n → s / k_Vn

d → ɡ / _n

ʈʂ → t / _r

ɕ → ∅ / t_ɕtɕ

“Insertion of epenthetic vowels” in some situations, typically one of /ɛ u/, the latter written as either 〈u〉 or 〈ó〉
Epenthetic d ɡ appears in some circumstances

Pʲ → P / _C

rʲ → r / _{s,t͜s,l,w,n,ɲ}

tʲ dʲ → t d / _{l,n,ɲ,r,ʐ}

ɕ ʑ → s z / _C (sometimes)

17.11.2 Proto-Slavic to Old Russian

Hwhatting

NB: “Not in chronological order”

{t,d} → ∅ / V_lV

or ol er el → oro olo ere ele / _$

mj pj bj → mlʲ plʲ blʲ

tj dj → tʃ, ʒ

kt ɡd → _E

ẽ õ → ja u

je → o / #_

je → o / V_ (sporadic)

j → ∅ / #_u

j → ∅ / V_u (sporadic)

jь → i

∅ → j / #_a

17.12 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Italic

Pogostick Man, from http://gillesquentel.org/docs/PIE_to_Italic_C.pdf and http://gillesquentel.org/docs/PIE_to_Italic_V.pdf

NB: This is likely incomplete.

p → {p,kʷ}

ḱ ǵ → k ɡ

ǵʰ gʷʰ → ɡʰ xʷ

bʰ dʰ gʰ → pʰ tʰ dʰ → ɸ θ x

s → z / medial (I’m assuming between vowels or when *s voiced in PIE)

eu → ou

17.12.1 Proto-Italic to Proto-Latino-Falsican

Pogostick Man, from http://gillesquentel.org/docs/PIE_to_Italic_C.pdf and http://gillesquentel.org/docs/PIE_to_Italic_V.pdf

NB: This is likely incomplete.

x → h

ɡʷ → w

ɡʰ → f / #_

ɡʰ → {d,h,ɡ}

{ɸ,θ} → f / #_

ɸ θ → b {d,b} / V_V

z → r

xʷ → f

xʷ → {w,ɡʷ}

l̥ r̥ → ol {or,er} / _#

m̥ n̥ → em en

e → {e,i}

17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latin

Mecislau, from Ramat, Anna Giacrole and Paolo Ramat, The Indo-European Languages, and other sources

e o → i u / _ŋ

e → o / _ɫ

o → u / _{mb,mk,ɫ}

o → e / w_{r,s,t}

oː → uː / _r

aj → ai → eː (in rustic dialects)

aj → ai → ae

oj → oi → oe → uː

aw → oː (in rustic dialects)

aw → au

{ew,ow} → ou → uː

V → i / %(C)(C)_% when unstressed

V → o / %(C)(C)V_% when unstressed

V → e / %(C)(C)_%r when unstressed (with some exceptions)

V → {i,u} / %(C)(C)_%P when unstressed

a o → e u / %(C)(C)_C(C)% when unstressed

a → e → i / %(C)(C)_ŋ when unstressed

a → e → u / %(C)(C)_ɫ when unstressed

e → u / %(C)(C)_ɫ when unstressed

ai → ei → iː / %(C)(C)_ when unstressed

ei oi ou → iː eː uː / %(C)(C)_ when unstressed

{i,o} → e / _#

{i,e} → ∅ / _# (sometimes)

a → e / _C(C)#

e → i / _{s,t}#

o → u / _C(C)# ! {u,w}_

{ai,ei,oi} → ei → iː / _(C)(C)#

Vː → V[-long] / _{m,(n)t,l,r}#

Vː → V[-long] / _#

j → i / C_

w → u / t_

e → o / _w

e → o / w_

w → ∅ / s_o

m̩ n̩ → em en

n̩ː → n

l̩ l̩ː r̩ r̩ː → ol l or r

bʱ → h / #_ (in rustic dialects)

{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʷʱ} → f / #_

h → ∅ / b_

t → k / _l

t → ∅ / C_#

t → d / V_

dw → b

d → ∅ / Vː_#

d → ∅ / C_

d → l “in many dialects”

dʱ → b / rV_

dʱ → b / _Vr

dʱ → b / _l

dʱ → b / uː_

dʱ → d

ḱ ɡ́ → k ɡ

ɡʱ → ɡ / ŋ_

ɡ → ∅ / _h

kʷ → ∅ / C_C

kʷ → k / _{o,i,C}

ɡʷ(ʱ) → ɡu / ŋ_

w → ∅ / ɡV_{l,r}

ɡʷ → v

ɡʷʱ → f / _r

ɡʷʱ → v / V_V

s → z → r / V_V

s → θ → f / #_r

s → θ → b / _r

s → z / _C[+voiced]

V → Vː / _zC[+voiced]

z → ∅ / _C[+voiced]

p…kʷ → kʷ…kʷ

V1…V2 → V2…V2 (rare)

V → Vː / _S[+voiced]{S[-voiced],F[-voiced]}; “(i, e, and o sometimes bypass this)”

S[+voiced] → S[-voiced] / _{S[-voiced],F[-voiced]}

S[-voiced] → S[+voiced] / _N

s → z / _{N,l,r}

V → Vː / _z{l,r}

z → ∅ / _{l,r}

S → f / _f

{t,d} → s / _s

{p,b} {t,d} → m n / _{m,n}

{k,ɡ} → ŋ / _n

mː → n / {W,Vː}_

{d,n,r} → l / _l

n → r / _r

s → z → l / l_

s → z → r / r_

n → l / l_

V → Vː / _{t,d}t

{t,d}t → tst → sː

∅ → t / sː_r

∅ → p / m_{s,t,l}

sː → s / _#

sː → s / {W,Vː}_

l → r → _Vl

l → r / lV_ “(in suffixes with l if root already has l)”

r…r → r…∅

{n,d}…r → r…r

Vː → V / _C(C)# “(irregular: often before -m, -t, -nt, but never before ?s)”

V → {Vː,V[+nas]} / _n{f,s}

n → ∅ / V[+nas]_

C1C2C3C4 → (C3)C4

C1C2C3 → C1C3

17.12.1.1.1 Classical Latin vs. Vulgar Latin

“The following relate to the changes of vowels as found in the evolution to the written medieval languages of Iberia, Gallia and Italia (Anglo-Norman, Old Spanish, etc.). The Latin of Africa, Sardinia and the easternmost parts of the Empire exhibited different mergers.”

{e,i} → j / C_V when unstressed

{e,ai} → ɛ

{i,eː,oi} → e

iː → i

o → ɔ

{u,oː} → o

uː → u

aː → a

m → n / _# “(in certain common monosyllabic words, as well as some common compounds of them)”

m → ∅ / _#

h → ∅

w → β

ɛ ɔ → e o / when unstressed

j → ʝ / #_V

j → ʝː / V_V

“In contrast, Romanian exhibits u, uː → u (and ultimately also ɔ, oː → o); and Sardinian and African Latin underwent a straight merger of the vowels by length without considering quality (e, eː → e; i, iː → i; u, uː → u; etc.)”

17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalan

Mecislau

NB: Due to problems when the board migrated to a different system, a lot of the special characters were replaced with 〈?〉. In many cases these have been replaced with 〈∅〉 because it was likely that this was what was meant, but conditional 〈?〉 has either been left alone or attempted to have been filled in from context. In some cases, conditional 〈?〉 may have been used to mark stress or syllable boundaries. Take such changes with a grain of salt and use at your own risk.

h → ∅

n → ∅ / _s

{m,n,t} → ∅ / _#

V → ∅ / ”V%C_L(C)V(C)# (irregular)

V → ∅ / ”V%L_C(C)V(C)# (irregular)

V → ∅ / ”V%s_t(C)V(C)# (irregular)

u → w → ∅ / (“when in unstressed penult or between first and tonic syllables; irregular”)

iː → i / stressed

iː → i / _%”V

{i,eː} e → {e,ɛ} {ɛ,e} / stressed

{i,eː,e} → e / _%”V

i → j / ”V_#

uː → u / stressed

uː → u / _%”V

au → a / _%”u

{u,oː} o → o ɔ / stressed

{u,o(ː)} → u / _%”V in East Catalan

{u,o(ː)} → o / _%”V else

u → w / ”ɛ_#

aː → a

oe → {e,ɛ}

ae au → e ɔ / stressed

ae au → e o / _%”V

o → u / _a

o → u / _%”V (irregular)

VV → Vː (“For outcomes of word-final vowels, see down below”)

ndj → ɲ

dj → dʒ → ʒ

∅ → e / #_sC

l → ∅ / {o,u}_CV

l → w / V_CV (“although l was usually restored later”)

mn → nː → ɲ

p b t d k ɡ → β {β,w} ∅ {j,w} ɣ {j,∅,ɡ} / V_rV

ŋ → ɲ / _{i,e}

p b → b w / V_lV (the latter is irregular)

{kl,ɡl} → ʎ / V_V (the latter is irregular)

sk → ʃ / V_{i,e}

p k → ∅ j / V_tV

k → ∅ / Vn_tV

ks → ʃ / V_V

k → j / _s#

ɡn tj → ɲ ∅ / V_V

stj → ʃ

tj → s / C_

sj ssj jn → js jʃ ɲ / V_V

mnj → {mni,ɲ} / V_V

lj rj kj ɡj → ʎ jr ts ʒ / V_V

{bj,vj} → wʒ / _%”V

b → v / V̈%_j

ja → je / #_ (irregular)

V → ∅ / _%”V (rare)

∅ → {e,o} / CL_#

∅ → {e,o} / rː_#

a → e / “in the penult”

V → ∅ / ”V%_(C)(C)V(C)# (“irregular; e is kept before n”)

b → v / V_V

p t → b d / V_V

f → v / V_V (irregular)

s → z / ”V%V_V

s → ∅ / V_V%”V

k ɡ → ∅ {∅,ʒ} / V_{i,e} (ɡ → ʒ is learned)

ɡ → ∅ / V_V%”V

k j → ɡ ʒ / V_V

“These next two changes are awkward - Basically, when the final vowel drops off down below, the newly-final d should become w; BUT d should also have become z and disappeared before the final vowels drop off, leaving a dilem[m]a... I’m not certain how this should be [interpreted]”

— d → z → ∅ / V_V

— d → w / _V#

iː → ∅ / _#

{i,e(ː),ae} → ∅ / _(C)#

{u(ː),o(ː)} → ∅ / _#

V → ∅ / “between first and tonic syllables; except when C_CC, _n”; “if there are multiple vowels between the initial and tonic syllables, the vowel directly before the tonic is usually dropped” ! V = a

w → ∅ / u_#

j ɡj ts z n → tʃ i w s ∅ / _#

t → ∅ / V_sV

{b,v} → w / V_#

d → t / _#

l → ʎ / #_

k → ts → s / #_{i,e}

ɡ → ʒ / #_{i,e}

j → dʒ → ʒ / #_

kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ / #_{i,e}

kʷ → k / C_V

kʷ → ɡ / V_{i,e}

kʷ → k / #_a%”V

kʷ → ɡw / V_a

kʷ → kw / #_”a

ɡʷ → ɡw / #_a

ɡʷ → ɡ / C_{i,e}

ɡʷ → ɡw / C_a

b → m → ∅ / Vm_V

n → r → br / m_

k → w / V_rV

{b,v} → w / V_tV

ɡ → ∅ / V_dV

lː nː → ʎ ɲ

ʎ → l / ”i_

C → ∅ / C1_C2 ! C2 = L

{a,o} → ∅ / #_ (rare)

ɔ → o / _N$C

e → ɛ / _v

o → u / _{ɲ,nk,ŋ} when stressed

e → i / _{nk,ŋ} when stressed (irregular)

aj → ej → ee → e (irregular)

aj → ej / _ʃ when stressed (irregular)

ɛj ɔj → jɛj uei / i {u,ui} / stressed

ɛ → e / ! _{rː,l,rC[-labial],nr} or _ ? w#

e → ɛ (in Eastern Catalan)

17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French

pharazon

NB: The vowels here marked 〈ó〉 and 〈ò〉 seem to have had some sort of open-close distinction similar to /o ɔ/.

Vulgar Latin:

— h → ∅

— V0V0 → V0ː

— n → ∅ / _{f,v,s}

— r → s / _s

— {m,n} → ∅ / _# in polysyllables

— m → n / _#

— u → ∅ / CC_V

— w → ɡu / “from Germanic loanwords”

— V → ”V / ”VSr_

— V → ”V / _C*”{i,e}V

— {i,e} → j / _V

Stressed vowels:

— aː → a

— (a)e → è

— {eː,i,oe} → é

— iː oː → i ó

— o → ò

— u → ó / !_iː

— uː → u

Initial vowels (first vowel of a word):

— aː → a

— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e

— iː → i

— {o(ː),u} → o

Final vowels:

— aː → a

— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e

— iː oː → i o

— u(ː) → o / except _V (?)

k ɡ → tj dj / _E

è → iɛ / in U[+open]

è → iɛ / _C#

è → ɛ / in U[+closed]

ò → uo → uɛ / in U[+open] ! _N

ò → ɔ / in U[+closed]

dj → dʒ / r_

d → ∅ / _j

j → ∅ / V_”E

j tj → dʒ ts / #_

j → dʒ / V_V (rare)

∅ → s / t_j

t → s / s_j

{ɡn,nj} → ɲ

nk → ɲ / _t

V → ∅ / in the unstressed penult

V → ∅ / intertonic ! V = a

a → ə / intertonic

∅ → b / m_{r,l}

∅ → d / {n,l,ɲ,z_r

∅ → t / s_r

k ɡ → t d / {n,r}_r

n → r / {ɡ,p}_

“[T]wo obstruents in contact with different voicing assimilate to the voicing of the second”

C → ∅ / C1_C2 ! C2 = {r,l}

t → s / _{n,m}

{kl,ɡl,lj} → ʎ

{p,b} {t,d} → v ð / V_{V,r}

v → ∅ / V_B

p → b / _l

ð → ∅ / _r

(t)s → (d)z / V_V

k → js / V_sV

k → j / _s#

{k,ɡ} → ∅ / V_B

{k,ɡ} → ∅ / B_a

{k,ɡ} → j / _{a,C}

kʷ → {v,u} / V_E

kʷ → j{v,u} / V_a

“[N]ote that the [following] clusters are the only case where a consonant does not receive intervocalic treatment before /j/”:

— (k)kj → ts

— ɡ → ∅ / _j

— pj → tʃ

— {b,v}j → dʒ

— m{ɲ,j} → ndʒ

V”e → ”Vi

V0V0 → V0

∅ → e / #_sC

k ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _a

t → ∅ / {ʃ,s}

d → ∅ / _{z,ʒ}

ɛ ɔ → iɛ uɛ / _{Cj,jC}

∅ → j / {ʃ,ʒ,sj,zj}”{a,é}_ in U[+open]

sːj zj rj → jsː jz jr

j → ∅ / s_ (sː_?)

ɛ → ɛa / _l{C,#}

l → u / _{C,#}

l → ∅ / {i,u}_

{lːe,lːo} → u / {e,o}_# “[this is actually an analogical development, but it applies as regularly as a sound law]”

(ɛ)au → ɔ

é → ɛi / in U[+open]

é → ɛ / in U[+closed]

ó → ou → ɛu / in U[+open]

ó → ɔ / _N

ó → ou / in U[+closed]

e → ə / #(C…)_(%…)” in U[+open]

e → ɛ / #(C…)_(%…)” in U[+closed] or _V (?)

o → {ou,ɔ} “(the outcome fluctuates, but ɔ is often the result of analogy rather than strict sound change; always ou before another vowel)”

a → ə / #{tʃ,dʒ}_(%…)” in U[+open]

a → ɛ / in U[+open] “(but a following ʎ creates a [closed] syllable)”

kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ

C0C0 → C0

t → ∅ / V_#

ɛ → i / _C(C…)i#

V → ∅ / _# “(except in monosyllables or after another vowel)” ! V = a

a → ə

V → ə / _{CC,tʃ,dʒ} ! _{nt,nɡ,mp,rt,rd}

s → ∅ / _C

{p,b} → ∅ / _{t,d}

v → ∅ / _C

v → ∅ / C_

ð → ∅

uɛ → ɛu

ai → e / _#

ai iɛɪ → ɛ i

ou ɛu u uɛi → u œ y yi

{ei,ɔi} → oi / C[-nas]

ɔ → u / _”V

V[-high] → ə → ∅ / _V “(except that a is kept before o)”

ɲ → in / _{C,#}

V{n,m} / V[+nas] / _{C,#}

ɛ̃ → ã

{aı̃,eı̃} → ɛ̃

ỹ → œ̃

O[+voiced] → O[-voiced] / _#

{t,s} → ∅ / _#

k → ∅ / V[+nas]_#

{n,m} → ∅ / C_#

j → ∅ / {ʃ,ʒ}_V[-nas]

ʎ r → j ʁ

oi → wɛ → wa

oı̃ → wɛ̃

“([pharazon has] omitted the loss of ə in various contexts, since it often resurfaces)”

17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to Italian

Dewrad, from Boyd-Bownam, P. From Latin to Romance in Sound Charts

NB: Dewrad says, “It should be noted that due to my source they are not in any sort of chronological order, nor do they indicate some of the more sporadic changes.”

r → ∅ / a_ju#

tVk → dʒ / unstressed

au → u / #_ (sporadically, e.g. audire → udire)

au → o

k ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _E

kVl → kːj / unstressed

kt → tː

ɛ → jɛ / unstressed ! _{dʒ,ʎ,ɲ}

ɡ → ∅ / a_V

j → dʒ / #_

j → dʒ / V_V

{dj,ɡj} lj {nj,ɡn} → dʒ ʎ ɲ

ɔ → uo / stressed ! j_ or _{dʒ,L}

b → v / V_

l → j / #C_

C → Cː / V_jV

sj → dʒ

{t,d,k,m,n,s} → ∅ / _#

r → ∅ / _# (in polysyllables only)

taːte → ”ta / _#

t k → d ɡ / V_r

{skj,stj,sːj → ʃ

tj ks w → ts sː ɡw

17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguese

Mecislau

NB: Due to problems when the board migrated to a different system, a lot of the special characters were replaced with 〈?〉. In many cases these have been replaced with 〈∅〉 because it was likely that this was what was meant, but conditional 〈?〉 has either been left alone or attempted to have been filled in from context. In some cases, conditional 〈?〉 may have been used to mark stress or syllable boundaries. Take such changes with a grain of salt and use at your own risk. Further, Mecislau gives some dual-output changes, which distinguish between vulgar and “semi-learned” outcomes.

h → ∅

rs → sː

n → ∅ / _s

V0V0 → V0ː

V → ∅ / ”V%L(C)(C)V(C)# (irregular)

V → ∅ / _L(C)(C)V(C)# (irregular)

V → ∅ ”V%s_t(C)V(C)# (irregular)

u → w / _V (between first and stressed syllables)

w → u / _”V

w → ∅ / _V

au → a / _%”u

au → o

e → iː / ”_%ɪː#

iː {i,eː} e → i e ɛ / stressed

iː {i,e(ː)} → i e / _%”V

iː → ∅ / {k,s}_#

{i(ː),e(ː),ae} → e / _#

uː → u

uiː → ui / _#

{u,oː} o → o ɔ / stressed

{u,o(ː)} → o / _%”V

{u(ː),o(ː)} → o → u / _#

aː oe → a e

ae → ɛ / stressed

ɛ ɔ → e o / _(”u)#

{olt,okt} → ujt → ut

aɫ → o

ɫ → w / V_Ca

o → u / _(”V)

e → ∅ / el_#

V → a / _{n,r}(C)V(C)# (irregular)

V → V[+nas] / _N$C when stressed

ɔ̃ → õ

N → ∅ / V[+nas]_$C ! C = S

V → V[+nas] / _N$V

V → V[+nas] / #N_ (rare)

N → ∅ / V[+nas]_$V

{ã,ãe,õe} → ão / _#

V[+nas] → V[-nas] / unstressed

V[+nas] → V[-nas] / in U#

V0[+nas]V0[-nas] → V0[+nas]

ı̃ → iɲ

e V → o ∅ / _? (irregular)

e → o / _m”V (irregular)

V → ∅ / _”V (irregular)

e → ∅ / {l,n,r,s,k}_#

e → ∅ / ”{i,e}_#

e → i / _(C)(C)V(C)#

{e,i} → ∅ / {l,m,r}_ when between #U and U[+stress]

{e,i} → ∅ / k_t when between #U and U[+stress]

o → ∅ / _{r,l} when between #U and U[+tonic]

“[I]f there are multiple vowels between the initial and tonic syllables, the vowel directly before the tonic is dropped”

k → ts → s / #_{i,e}

k → ɡ / #_{a,r} (rare)

ɡ → ɡʲ → dʲ → dʒ → ʒ / #_{i,e}

j → dʒ → ʒ / #_

pl → {ʃ,pr} / #_

l → r / b_

fl → {ʃ,fr} / #_

{fl,skl} → ʃ

nɡi → ɲ

s → ʃ / V_C[-voiced]V

s → ʒ / V_C[+voiced]V

kl → kʎ → tʃ → ʃ / #_

{kl,ɡl} → ʎ

ɡ → ∅ / #_l

kʷ → kw / #_”a

kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ / #_{i,e,o}

kʷ → ɡ / V_{i,e}

kʷ → k / VC_{a,i,e}

kʷ → ɡw / V_a

ɡʷ → ɡw / #_

ɡʷ → ɡw / C_a

b → v / V_{V,r}

d → ∅ / V_V

ɡ → {∅,ʒ} / V_{i,e} (ɡ → ʒ is learned)

ɡ → j / V_r

pl bl p t → br {br,l} b d / V_V (bl → l is learned)

p t k → b d ɡ / V_r

p → ∅ / V_{t,s}V

k → j / V_tV

k → ∅ / Vn_tV

ks ɡn tj → ʃ ɲ {z,s} / V_V (tj → s is learned)

tj → s / C_V

dj → dʒ → ʒ / V_V

dj → dz → ts → s / r_V

ndj → nts → ns → ɲ / V_V

sj → jʒ / V_V

j → ∅ / i_ʒV

sːj (m)nj lj rj → jʃ ɲʎ jr / V_V

kj → ts → s / V_V

ɡj → {ʒ,j} / V_V (ɡj → j is learned)

pj {bj,vj} → jb jv / V_V

mj → jm (irregular)

C0C0 → C0 / ! C = r

C → ∅ / C1_C2 ! C2 = L

k → j / _s#

f → v / V_V (irregular)

s l → z ∅ / V_V

a → ∅ / ”ɔ_#

sk k → jʃ z / V_{i,e}

k → ɡ / V1_V2 ! V2 = ɔ

j → {∅,ʒ} / V_V (j → ʒ is learned)

b → v / VL_V

m → ∅ / _n

{e,i} → ∅ / {L,N}_(C)(C)V(C)#

o → ∅ / _(C)(C)V(C)#

e → j / {a,o,u}_

a → e / _j when stressed

o → u / _ɲ when stressed

V0V0 → V0 (irregular)

d → ∅ / V_V (in Portugal)

17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal

Pogostick Man, from Grandgent, Charles Hall (1905), An outline of the phonology and morphology of old Provençal, Revised Edition

NB: Use at your own peril. Trying to put a chronology to this is sort of like what I imagine undergoing a root canal would be like, as is figuring out the conditioning on a lot of these things because of the convention Grandgent uses. Nevertheless, I have tried—and probably largely failed. In any case the sections regarding the development of the vowels are placed first, because the source does that and other Romance changes posted here do similarly, and the grouping of the consonants is in large part informed by the surce. Also, I use % here to denote a syllable boundary because I didn’t want to have to open yet another window so I could throw a sigma into my document.

Stress shift: Secondary stress shifts to two syllables away from the penult. If the secondary tonic precedes the tonic, that vowel is considered stressed for the purpose of subsequent sound changes, and at some point the intervening vowel drops. Vowel changes assume the changes in Vulgar Latin as listed elsewhere in this thread.

VN → Vː / _S (except for the prefixes con-, in-); I’m assuming this change happened in Vulgar Latin and then vowel length went to quality

STRESSED VOWELS

— ɪ → e

— ʊ → o (this change seems to have happened later, hence is listed separately)

— ɔ → y / _{u,P,k,ɡ,i} (in northwestern dialects)

— ɔ → ɥe / _{u,P,k,ɡ,i} (in western dialects, Limousin, and Auvergne)

— ɔ → ɥo / _{u,P,k,ɡ,i} (in Languedoc)

— ɔ → {ɥe,ɥo,ɔ} / _{u,P,k,ɡ,i} (in southern dialects)

— a → a / _N (Rouergue, Limousin, Auvergne, Dauphiné)

— a → a / _# in monosyllables and oxytones (Rouergue, Limousin, Auvergne, Dauphiné)

— a → å (I have no idea what is going on here. Grandgent seems to distinguish an open and close /a/, and I have listed his open a as /å/, which seems to have been distinct from /ɔ/, but beyond this section it doesn’t really seem to matter very much)

— å ɛ ɔ → a e o / _N (in Limousin and neighboring regions, the last two particularly in Limousin, Languedoc, and Gascon, though when _ɲ this change may have been blocked)

— ɛ ɔ → jɛ wɔ (intermittent, “least common in the southwest”)

— e → i / _V (and possibly V_?)

— e → i / _(C…)i{C(C…)V,#}

— ɛ → jɛ / _{u,i,ʎ,rʲ,ʃ,ʒ,j,tʃ,dʒ} (except in some northern and western dialects, or if this u ← l or if this i ← ð)

— ju → jeu

— o → y / _{tʃ,dʒ,it,id} (did not occur in Dauphiné)

— o → y / _ɲ (in northern and western dialects)

— o → y / _i# (in Bordeaux, Auvergne, and some of Languedoc)

— ɔ → {ɔ,we} (in southwestern dialects)

— u → y

— o → u (during the literary period)

UNSTRESSED VOWELS

— E → ∅ / _e

— B → ∅ / _o

— E → j (presumably in the vicinity of another vowel)

— V → ∅ (though /a/ seemed to resist this)

INITIAL-SYLLABLE VOWELS

— {a,œ,e,i} → e (here, 〈œ〉 denotes the reflex of the Latin vowel written this way, not a front rounded vowel)

— u → o

— au → a / _(C…)u

— V → ∅ / _r (seemed to be an intermittent change)

— Lots and lots of analogical formations

INTERTONIC VOWELS

— V → ∅ (again, /a/ seemed to resist this change, which was itself generally blocked by analogy)

PENULT VOWELS

— V → ∅ / “penult of paroxytones”, though /a/ often remained “as an indistinct e”, probably /ə/

— V often remained when {tʃ,dʒ,j}_, especially if CC_, or when {(k)s,sː,sj}_
— V is retained when P_C[+dental]

— CVK → CVj (intermittent if C was a resonant)

— V → ∅ / lv_r (dialect-dependent)

— e → i / _(C…)i(C…)#

FINAL VOWELS
— (Again, /a/ seems to be a persistent exception to these)

— V → ∅ / R_(C…)

— Grandgent remarks that /i/ was probably the last vowel to drop out

— a → o in most dialects except Gascon and Languedoc; final -as remained in “Limousin and some others”

— /i/ and /u/ remain when ”V_ (then u is subject to the changes listed above—u → y, &c.)

— e u → e o / _nt#

— -os remains “in the extreme east”
— Final -i remains “as late as the 12th century” in some regions (Aude, Tarn, Aveyron, Corrèze, and some pockets of Haute-Garrone)
— Epenthesis of /e/ in 2sg “of some verbs”

— V → “indistinct e” (probably /ə/) if dropping it would create ugly consonant clusters:

—— C_L, P_C[+dental], C_tʃ, C_k, C_m, C_n where “originally separated by the vowel of the penult” (proparoxytones)
—— Ḱ_r (paroxytones)
—— Where the cluster would be unwieldy otherwise, apocope happened
—— Final /(m)bj mnj pj mj/ “required a supporting vowel” (dialect-dependent)

— V → e “in many late words”

K → ∅ / _l (not always, but this was a general change)

v → b / r_ (sporadic)

h → ∅

d → ∅ / V_V (seems to have happened in the north and northeast at some point)

b d ɡ → β ð ɣ / V_V

βj → j (in forms of habeo and debeo)

k ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _E

tʃ → ts (sometimes)

ɡ → ∅ / V_(VC…)”V

j → ∅ / V_”E

N → ∅ / _#, in polysyllables

kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ / _B

rs → sː

sː → s / Vː_

p t k s → b d ɡ z / V_V (this b → v?)

∅ → i / #_sC

w → v → ∅ / _u (“restored by analogy in many words”)

w → v → ∅ / _”o

w → v → β

β → w / V_C

w → ∅ / C_B (when from earlier B?)

k → ∅ / _s{C,#} (the latter in polysyllables only)

{d,ɡ} → ∅ / _j

Loan phonemes:
— Loaned /b/ did not lenite
— Loaned /k/ did not palatalize

— Loaned w → ɡw

Original z (/ts/?) → dj → j

Greek /k/ shows up variously as /k ɡ/

pʰ → f

Some reanalysis of initials as medials if a prefixed form was reanalyzed as a single morpheme

(s)k ɡ → (s)tʃ dʒ / #_a (in the north and northeast)

tʃ → ts → s / #_

j → dʒ / #_ (but not in Béarn)

f → h (in Béarn and Gascon)

β → b (in Béarn, Gascon, and Languedoc)

β → v (though sometimes → ɡw instead if analogy interfered)

kʷ ɡʷ → kw ɡw (in western dialects)

kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ (else)

∅ → k / #s_l

i → e / #_sC

b {d,dz,dʒ} z ʒ ɡ → p {t,ts,tʃ} s ʃ k / _(s)#

tʃs → {ts,tʃ} (varies)

j → i / _(s)#

ð → ∅ / _#

ð → t / _s#

β → u / V_(s)#

β → {∅,f} / C_(s)# (the latter is rare)

n → ∅ / V_# (did not occur in extreme western areas, some northern areas, the southeast, and the east)

n → ∅ / _s# (except for eastern and southeastern dialects)

n → ∅ / r_(s)#?

kː → tʃ / _a (in the east and northeast)

lː → l (in the south)

rː~r stuff—not sure what was going on here, but it seems like this distinction lingered on into the literary period, but the two may have been in the process of merging

mn → mpn → nː (dialectal)

Cː → C

ɡ → k / B_ (your guess is probably better than mine)

ɡ → {k,j} / V_ (if /j/ resulted, it dropped after /i/; forms with k are “most persistent in the west” and more common overall)

l → w / V_s

ms ns → mps nts (sporadic?)

{p,b} → ∅ / R_s# (unless blocked by analogy)

ts → s / _# (Provence, Limousin, some Languedoc and Gascon)

β → ∅ / when pretonic and immediately adjacent to a back vowel

β → b / V_V (in western and some central dialects)

β → v (otherwise)

tʃ → i / _C

tʃ → i / C_

tʃ → jdz → jz / V_V (in the south and northwest)

tʃ → dz → z / V_V (otherwise)

ð → i / C_

ð → i / _C ! _s#

ð → z (except in some northern and eastern dialects where → ∅)

ɡ → j / _a (in the north and east; further → dʒ in the north)

ɡ → ɡ / _{o,u/y}

ɡ → j → dʒ / “[b]etween the last two vowels of a proparoxytone”, though it dropped early in some dialects

dʒ → j

l → u / _s# (in many dialects)

s → r / _n (in a few dialects)

j → dʒ / _”E (in the west)

j → ∅ / _”E (else)

j → i / _C

j → dʒ / V_V (did not occur in the northeast and some northern dialects)

β → u / _l

{t,d}l {k,ɡ}l → lː ʎ

∅ → b / m_l

p j → b i / _l

p k tʃ b ɡ β j → b ɡ i {b,u,u→y→i} ∅ {u,u→y→i} i / _r

{t,d} → ð → i / _r

ð → ∅ / au_

∅ → d / z_r

∅ → b / m_r

∅ → t / s_r

βw tw → wː dw → ɡʷ ɡʷ → ɡ ɡ

{d,k}w → ɡʷ → ɡ

(kʷ → ɡʷ → ɡ ?)

{l,r}w {n,ŋk,ŋɡ}w → lɡʷ ŋɡʷ → lɡ ŋɡ

pw → upw → up → ub

w → ∅ / s_ ?

βj → {udʒ,uj} (in northern dialects)

β → u / _j (in western dialects)

β → {b,v} / _j (in southern and eastern dialects)

ktj klj → is ʎ

{tʃ(ː),kʷ}j → ts

dVɡ (n)dVɡ → dʒ(?) ndʒ

l{tj,tʃj} ldʒ → lts ldz → uts udz → us uz

lː{j,Vdʒ} lnj → ʎ ɲ

lvj → lbj → ubj

j → ∅ / n_# (in many dialects)

nj → ɲ

mbj → {mbj,mdʒ,ndʒ}

mnj → ɲ (Limousin, as well as extreme eastern and southwest dialects)

mnj → ndʒ (else)

mj → {mj,ɲ}

{ntʃj,ndj} → nts → ns

{ndj,ndʒj} ndʒ → ɲ {ɲ,ndʒ}

p → b / _rj

ptj → ts → s

pj → ptʃ → tʃ (except in western and some southern dialects)

rtʃj → rts (→ rs ?)

rdj rVɡ → rdz rdʒ

rdʒ → {rdʒ,rdz(→ rz)}

rtj → rts → rs

rːVɡ rːj → rdʒ ir

rtVɡ → {rdʒ,rts(→ rs)}

rtj → rts → rs

v → {v,b} / r_j

rj → rʲ → ir / V_V

rj → rʲ → r / _#

{sːj,stʃj,stj} → ʃ → is (except in the west or extreme east, where the outcome was some flavor of (i)(t)ʃ)

sj → ʒ → (i)(d)ʒ (in some northeastern, northern, and western dialects)

sj → ʒ → {r,z} (rare)

sj → ʒ → iz (the usual outcome)

tVɡ trj → dʒ ir

tːj → ts → s

tj → tʃ → dj → djʒ (?) → dz (in the north and west) or idz (in the south and east)—medial (i)dz became (i)z; i-less forms “prevail in the literary language” and seem to have become common if the dz follows the stress

l → u / _{t,s} (Languedoc)

l → u / _{d,s} (Rouergue)

l → u / _{t,d,s} (else)

ndt ndtʃ ntʃ nkt nf → n{d,t} {nts,ndz(→ nz),ndʒ} n(t)s {ɲ,(i)nt,ntʃ} {nf,fː(→ f)}

nt nd → {∅,n} ∅ / _# (in some Languedoc and Gascon areas)

nd → n / _# (in western areas and for some speakers of Limousin)

d → t / n_#

rtʃ rdtʃ → r(t)s {rdz(→ rz),rts,rdʒ}

rdɡ → r{ɡ,dʒ} / _a

t → ∅ / rd_

t → ∅ / r_m (sometimes)

stʃ → s (in some northern and northeastern dialects)

stʃ → (i)(t)ʃ (for western and extreme eastern regions)

stʃ → is (otherwise)

k → ∅ / s_b (sporadic?)

{p,t} → ∅ / s_m (sporadic?)

p → ∅ / s_t

stɡ → s{ɡ,dʒ}

bk → pts / _a

b → {∅,u} / _rɡ

b → ∅ / _s{t,k}

b → {∅,b} / _t

b → ∅ / _ts

β → u / _k

βtʃ → u{ts,dz} → u{s,z}

βt βd → pt bd (in the west)

βt βd → ut ud (else)

ktʃ → (i)tʃ (in western and extreme eastern dialects)

ktʃ → its → is (else)

tʃ k → {i,s} {∅,k} / _m

kt ɡd → it id (in the north, northeast, and southwest)

{tʃ,k}t ɡd → tʃ dʒ (else)

dtʃ → ts (in Auvergne and some western areas)

dtʃ → dʒ (for some southeastern and southwestern speakers)

dtʃ → dz → z (else)

ɡ → ∅ / _m

ɡn{d,t} → ŋn{d,t} → ɲ{d,t} → {(i)nd,ɲd,ndʒ} or t(ʃ)

ɡn → ŋn → ɲ

ksk → stʃ / _a (in the north and northeast)

k → ∅ / _sk (else)

ks → ʃ → s / _m

ksː → is

p → ∅ / _f

pk → ptʃ / _a

The outcome of ps varied; some dialects preserved it, while others changed it to (i)ʃ (typical of the west), us (the east), or is

pt → {ut,it} “in a few words”

p → ∅ / _t “except in parts of Languedoc and Gascony”

td → tː → t

jd → {dʒ,id}

Some dialects dropped all final k, while others only dropped it when B_#, changing it to i when {a,E}_#

{d,l} → ∅ / _#

t → ∅ / _# ! “in the preterit of verbs”, though it tended to drop “in strong preterits”

The outcome of final nt was usually n, but in the extreme north and some areas of the south, the full cluster was kept as part of the ending -ant; further, “in some dialects the n fell after o, u”

17.12.1.1.7 Vulgar Latin to Rhaeto-Romance

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Rhaeto-Romance languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rhaeto-Romance_languages&oldid=607581179>

NB: These are probably very incomplete and too general, but they seem to be the key distinguishing features of Rhaeto-Romance.

ɛ e → ej je

a → e / stressed, usually when Ḱ_

uː → y (→ i in most descendants, with the exception of Engadine)

a V → e (= /ə/?) ∅ / in final syllables (though Friulian preserves the ending -is)

k ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _a (note the similarity with some varieties of Old Provençal)

/pl fl kl/ preserved
Germanic loaned /w/ preserved—i.e., it did not become /ɡw/

C[+ voiced] → ∅ / V_V (only for obstruents?)

C[- voiced] → C[+ voiced] / V_V

Final /s/ preserved

17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanian

pharazon, from Jensen, A Comparative Study of Romance, as well as other sources

h → ∅

V0V0 → V0ː

n → ∅ / _{f,v,s}

r → s / _s

{m,n,s} → ∅ / _# in polysyllables

m s → n i / _#

u → ∅ / CC_V

V → ”V / ”VSr_

V → ”V / _(C…)”{i,e}V

“Stressed vowels (note the difference from the French development)”:

— aː → a

— (a)e → ɛ

— eː,i,oe → e

— iː o(ː) u(ː) → i o u

Word-initial vowels:

— aː → a

— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e

— iː → i

— {o(ː),u} → o

Word-final vowels:

— aː → a

— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e / _#

— iː → i

— {o(ː),uː} → o

— u → o / ! V_

s → i / #(C…)V_#

k → ∅ / _s#

{s,t} → ∅ / _#

kʷ ɡʷ → p b / V_a

ɡ → m / _n

w → ∅ / {k,ɡ}_

k ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _E

ɛ → ie

t d s → ts dz ʃ / _i

o e → u i / _N

a → ɨ _N ! _{nː,mn}

i → ∅ / OL_e

e → a / i_(C…){a,e}#

i → ∅ / {ts,dz,S}_V

li → lj / _V

l → lj / _i

lː → ∅ / _i

”elːa → e”a / _#

{b,v} → ∅ / V_{V,t}

l → r / V_V

m → u / a_nV

b → u / V_{l,r}

p → ∅ / _s

c → p / _{s,t}

{sc,st} → ʃt / _F

s → ʃ / _kl

c → ∅ / n_t

kj ɡj → tʃ {j,∅} (ɡj → ∅ is rare)

Pj → ɥ

{sj,stj,sːj} → ʃ

j → s / t_

j → z / rd_

dj → ʒ / _”B

dj → z / V_V

{n,l} → ∅ / _j

ja → e / r_#

j → ∅ / r_

d → ∅ / _z

l → j / {k,ɡ}_

a → e / C[+palatal]_#

a o → ə u / ”U…_#

e → ə / ”U…P_(C…)V# ! V = i

u → ∅ / o_e

e → ə / ou_#

u → ∅ / ! {OL,”V}_#

a → a / #(C…)V…C[+palatal]_…”U

a o → ə u / #(C…)V…_…”U

e → i / #(C…)V…_n…”U

e → ə / #(C…)V…{t,d,n}_…”U

e → ə / P”_(C…)B

e → ∅ / P_a

e → ə / #{r,P}_…”U

o → u / #C…_…”U

a → ə #C(C…)_…”U

{t,d} → ∅ / n_#

Ci → Cʲ / _# ! R…R_#

17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardinian

qwed117, “mainly” from http://www.sardegnacultura.it/documenti/7_25_20060427093224.pdf

Vː → V[- long]

e → i / C_V

i → j / V_V

i → j / _V

{b,v,w} → ∅ / V_V

au ai → o e

h → ∅ / {#,C}_

m → ∅ / _#

∅ → i / _s (“[m]ainly Logudorese”)

nd {lː,ld} → ɳɖ ɖː / V_V

t → k / s_l (sporadic)

l → ∅ / rk_ (sporadic)

r → l / _C (sporadic)

l → r / C_ (sporadic)

{i,j} → dʒ / Vr_V (“dialectal”)

v → b / #_

S[- voice] → S[+ voice] / V_”V

kw ɡw → pː bː / #_ (“[o]nly Logudorese”)

w → ∅ / #k_V

k → ts / _i

{p,k}s → sː

o → u / _k (possibly restricted in occurrence)

k → ∅ / _t ?

l{i,j} → lː → {ts,dz,ldz,dʒ,lː} (“varies”)

e → ∅ / u_#

t → d / V_rV

sk → sː

{i,j} → ɡ / #_e

d → ∅ / V_{i,j}

n{i,j} t{i,j} → ndʒ ts / _V

d → r / V_V (“[s]ome Campidanese”)

b d ɡ → β ð ɣ / “except in Nuorese”

ɡn → nː

r → urː / #_e / Logudorese

r → arː / #_(j)B / Logudorese

17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanish

? and Serafı́n, the former citing Penny, Ralph (2002), A History of the Spanish Language, 2nd Ed. Cambridge University Press; and Lipski, John (1994), Latin American Spanish. Longman Pub Group.

b → β / V_V

{tj,kj} {tːj,kːj,ptj,ktj,skj} → ts tːs

k ɡ → tʃ dʒ → ts dz / _{j,i,e,ɛ}

{t,k} → ∅ / _#

V → ∅ / C_{r,l} when unstressed and not at a word boundary

V → ∅ / {r,l}_C when unstressed and not at a word boundary

V → ∅ / C_s when unstressed and not at a word boundary (sporadic)

V → ∅ / s_C when unstressed and not at a word boundary (sporadic)

{k,ɡ} → x → j / _{t,s,n,l}

pt {ɾs,ps} → tː sː

ns → s (with a few exceptions)

mb mn → mː nː

{jl,lj} {jn,nj} {jɡ,ɡj} → ʎ ɲ ʝː

bj → ʝː (sporadic)

Raising of e {ɛ,a} ɔ o → i e o u; near j, in particular environments:

— e → i / _Cj ! C = p

— ɛ ɔ u → e o u / _(C)j

— a → e / _j

oj → we (sporadic)

ɛ ɔ → je we

”je.o ”je.a → {”i.o,”jo} ”i.a

jt js → tʃ ʃ

f → h / ! _{ue,L}

ɾj pj → jɾ jp / V_

ʎ → ʒ

ʝ → {∅,ʒ} (the latter is rare)

ʝː → ∅ / E_

d → {∅,ð} / V_V

ɡ → {∅,ɣ} / V_V

p t k s ts → b d ɡ z dz / V_V

pː tː kː sː tːs ʝː → p t k s ts ʝ

nː lː ɾɾ → ɲ ʎ r

kl pl → ʎ {ʎ,tʃ}

fl → ʎ (sporadic)

V → ∅ / unstressed ! V = a

sj → js / V_

i u → e o / _(C)#

Vɾ → ɾV / C_#

e → ∅ / V{d,s,n,l,ɾ}_#

d ɡ → ð ɣ / V_V

/ʝ/ “gains a fortified [dʒ] allophone” by analogy with the voiced-stop/voiced-fricative allophony in Spanish
“Complex resolution of many consonant clusters created with the previous loss of unstressed vowels”:

“With deletion or assimilation or both”:

— t → ∅ / _m

— d → ∅ / _n (sometimes)

— mn → ɲ (sometimes)

— tst dzd → ts dz

— Vdz → ∅ / {nts,ndz,rdz_

— ndzVɡ → nɡ

— mpVt skVp spVt stVk → nt sp st sk

“With dissimilation”:

— n → {l,ɾ} / _m

— n → {ɾ,l} / nɡ_

— n → ɾ / nd_

“With metathesis”:

— dn dl → nd ld

— ml nɾ → lm ɾn (sometimes)

— βɣ → wɣ → ɣw

“With epenthesis”:

— ∅ → b / m_ɾ

— mn ml → mbɾ mbl

— ∅ → d / n_ɾ

t → ∅ / _#

/b/ [b], /β/ [b~β] → /b/ [b~β]

b → u / _C

l → u / _C (sometimes)

ts dz → s̪ z̪

z̪ z ʒ → s̪ s ʃ

ʃ → {x,χ}

“None of the following sound changes is universal to all dialects. If the same sound appears twice or more with an apparent contradiction, this accounts for different dialects. In all cases there are dialects that conserve the original sound at the beginning of the 21st century, with the exception of the old phonemic [s̪ - s] distinction (though kept in another way today, as [θ - s] in many parts of Spain).”

h → ∅ “(just a reminder: from the f → h change above)”

x → h

/dɾ/ [ðɾ] → ɾ / V_V

ʎ → /ʝ/ (“merged with”)

ʎ → j

/ʝ/ [ʝ~dʒ] → [ʒ~dʒ]

ʒ → ʃ

{s̪,s} → /s/ [s̪] “(merged as)”

{s̪,s} → h / _$

{s̪,s} → h “(in all environments)”

s̪ → θ

{s̪,s} → θ [θ] “(merged as)”

h → ∅ / _d

h → ∅ / _tʰ

h → ∅ / _$

n → ŋ / _#

b ɡ → β ɣ / {l,ɾ}_

d → ð / ɾ_

tɾ → {tɾ̥,tʃ,tʂ}

r → {ʐ,χ}

l → ɾ / _$

ɾ → l / _$

s → ɾ / _θ

kθ → θː

17.12.2 Proto-Italic to Proto-Sibellian

Pogostick Man, from http://gillesquentel.org/docs/PIE_to_Italic_C.pdf and http://gillesquentel.org/docs/PIE_to_Italic_V.pdf

NB: This is likely incomplete.

t → f

ḱ ɡ́ kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ p b

{ɡ́ʰ,x} {ɸ,θ,ɡʷʰ} → h f

r̥ → er / _#

eu → ou

17.12.2.1 Proto-Sibellian to Oscan

Pogostick Man, from http://gillesquentel.org/docs/PIE_to_Italic_C.pdf and http://gillesquentel.org/docs/PIE_to_Italic_V.pdf

NB: This is likely incomplete.

z → r

17.12.2.2 Proto-Sibellian to Umbrian

Pogostick Man, from http://gillesquentel.org/docs/PIE_to_Italic_C.pdf and http://gillesquentel.org/docs/PIE_to_Italic_V.pdf

NB: This is likely incomplete.

d → rs / V_V

17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tocharian

Nortaneous, from http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/eieol/tokol-TC-X.html and https://azargoshnasp.net/history/Tocharian/positionoftocharian.pdf

Ḱ → K

Ch → C / _(V)Ch

d → ∅ / _N

dz → ∅ / B_

dz → ts

Kʷ → K / _{C,o,a} ! C = syllabic

Kʷ → ɕ / _e(ː)

Kʷy → ɕ

p {ts,k(ʷ)} m n l r y → pj sʲ ʂ mj ɲ lj rj wj / _{E(:),y}

{t,dʱ} → tʲ / _E(ː)

{t,dʱ} → ts / _y

D(ʱ) → T

n̩ → ə → ∅ / C_#

R H → uR ɨ / C_{C,#} when syllabic

R Hn̩ → ɛR ɨn / #_C

H → ɛ / _R, when R = syllabic

H → ∅ / V_V

h2e → ə / _#

h2e a → a ɨ

{eh2,aH} aː → aː ɔ

h3e o → o ɛ

{eh3,oH} → oː

oː(s,y) oːn → u {u,õ}

Something about *õ and umlaut

õ oː → o a

u → wə / #_

u → {ə,u}

uh1 u{h2,h3} → uː → wə wɨ

i → ə / {P,K(ʷ),s}_

Ci → Cʲə

s → sʲ / _tʲ

ih1 i{h2,h3} → jə jɨ

(h1)e (h1)eː → jə jɛː / #_

Ce Ceː → Cʲə Cʲɛ

eH → eː

ow aw ew → ɛu au əw

oy ay ey → ɛi ai əj

ɛ → o / _$B

ɛ → ə / _$ɨ

”ɨ ”ə ɨ[- stress] ə[- stress] → ɨ a a ə

17.13.1 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian A

Nortaneous, from http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/eieol/tokol-TC-X.html and https://azargoshnasp.net/history/Tocharian/positionoftocharian.pdf

s → ʂ / _t

k → p / _{s,ʂ}

Cʲj → Cʲː

n → j / V_sV ! E_

V → j / V_nʲtʲ ! V = E

j → ∅ / w_

{a,ɛ}i əj → e i

{a,ɛ}u əw → o u

{ɔ,ɛ} → a

V → [+ round] / Kʷ_

{kʷ,kw} → k

ə → ∅ / _%

V → ∅ / _#

“[E]penthesis [of /ə/] to break up ‘difficult’ consonant clusters (mostly in the coda?)”

17.13.2 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian B

Nortaneous, from http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/eieol/tokol-TC-X.html and https://azargoshnasp.net/history/Tocharian/positionoftocharian.pdf

{a,ɛ}u əw → au u

{a,ɛ}i əj → ai i

ɔ ɛ → o e

w → ∅ / _j

Kʷ “usually but not always retained”

C[+ coronal]w → Cː

mn → nm / V_V

s → ∅ / n_#

∅ → t / {N,L}_S

ə → ∅ / _%, when unstressed

“[E]penthesis [of /ə/] to break up ‘difficult’ consonant clusters (mostly in the coda?)”

18 Je-Tupı́-Carib

18.1 Cariban

18.1.1 Pre-Bakairi to Eastern Bakairi

Pogostick Man, from Meira, Sérgio (2005), “Reconstructing Pre-Bakairi Segmental Phonology”. Anthropological Linguistics 47(3):261 – 291

VNV → ṼṼ / ! _(C)#

ʔ → ∅ / _C[+ fricative - voiced]

ɾ → ∅ / V_V, when neither vowel is stressed

18.1.2 Pre-Bakairi to Western Bakairi

Pogostick Man, from Meira, Sérgio (2005), “Reconstructing Pre-Bakairi Segmental Phonology”. Anthropological Linguistics 47(3):261 – 291

V[- stress]NV → ṼṼ

z → h / V_a

z → ∅ / V_V

C[+ fricative - voiced] → ∅ / ʔ_

ɨ → ə / P_

ɨ → i

ʒ → ∅

ɾ → ∅ / V_V, where at least one of the vowels is nasalized

18.2 Ofaié-Jê

18.2.1 Proto-Ofaié-Jê to Proto-Jê

Pogostick Man, from Gudschinsky, Sarah C. (1971), “Ofai?-Xavante, a J? Language”

Vm → Ṽ / _#

VS → r / C_V

c → {c,z}

ŋʷ {kʷ,hʷ} → m p

ə → ∅ / C_CV (not sure if this happened all the time or not)

18.2.2 Proto-Ofaié-Jê to Ofaié-Xavante

Pogostick Man, from Gudschinsky, Sarah C. (1971), “Ofaié-Xavante, a Jê Language”

m → w / _#

m → {w,p}

ɲV → jṼ

k(ʷ) → ʔ / _#

kʷ → k

ŋ → n / V_V

ŋ → j̃ / #_ (not sure if this nasalizes the following vowel or not)

ŋʷ hʷ → j̃ h

18.3 Tuparí

As pertains to this section, the vowels given in the form 〈{V1/V2}〉 herein may have apparently been some sort of alternation in vowel grade or quality. Also, the names of these languages were researched on the Wikipedia; they are in many cases different from the names cited within the source papers proper.

Moore and Galucio (1994) give the following inventory for Proto-Tuparí:

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Labiovelar Glottal
Stop p t k ʔ
Nasal m n ŋ ŋʷ
Fricative β h
Affricate ts (n)dz
Liquid r~D j~j̃~ɲ
Front Central Back
High i ı̃ ɨ ɨ̃ u ũ
Mid e ẽ
Low a ã

*u *ũ may have actually been *o *õ, respectively. Additionally, the following ablaut pairs have been reconstructed:

*a~*e
*e~*a
*ı̃~*ẽ

(From Moore, Denny and Ana Vilacy Galucio (1994), “Reconstruction of Proto-Tupari Consonants and Vowels”. Report 8: Survey of California and Other Indian Languages: Proceeds of the Meeting of the Society for the Study of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas, July 2 – 4, 1993, and the Hokan-Penutian Workshop, July 3, 1993, 119 – 137)

18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makuráp

Pogostick Man, from Moore, Denny and Ana Vilacy Galucio (1994), “Reconstruction of Proto-Tupari Consonants and Vowels”. Report 8: Survey of California and Other Indian Languages: Proceeds of the Meeting of the Society for the Study of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas, July 2 – 4, 1993, and the Hokan-Penutian Workshop, July 3, 1993, 119 – 137.

t → r / _”V

t → l / _V

t → ∅ / else

k → ∅ / _#

kʷ → ∅

b → β / V_V

ɡʷ → β / _V[-nas]

ts (n)dz → t nd

β → ∅ / _i

h → ∅ / V_C

ʔ → ∅

r → l / V[+nas]_V[+nas]

ð nŋʷ → c β / #_V[-nas]

ð → {∅,c} / else

j ŋʷ m n → ɲ m {m,p} {∅,t} / _V[+nas]

ⁿd ŋ → t {ɡ,k} / _V[-nas]

u → o / _{p,b}i

ɨ → ∅ / ! #_{p,β}e

{a/e} {e/a} {ı̃,ẽ} → e a ẽ

18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekens

Pogostick Man, from Moore, Denny and Ana Vilacy Galucio (1994), “Reconstruction of Proto-Tupari Consonants and Vowels”. Report 8: Survey of California and Other Indian Languages: Proceeds of the Meeting of the Society for the Study of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas, July 2 – 4, 1993, and the Hokan-Penutian Workshop, July 3, 1993, 119 – 137.

t → r / _”V

ɡ → k

k → ɡ / in U[+stress]

ɡʷ → k / _o

ɡʷ ŋɡ → kʷ k / _V[-nas]

ɡʷ → kʷ / #_V[+nas]

ts (n)dz → {s,ts} s

β → ∅ / i_

h → ∅ / V_C

ʔ → ∅

{ᵐb,ⁿd,ð} → t / _V[+nas]

ð → s / _i

ð → h / else

ŋ ŋʷ → k m / _V[+nas]

ŋʷ → kʷ / #_V[-nas]

ɨ → i / #_{p,βe}

ɨ → ∅ / else

{{a/e},{e/a}} {ı̃,ẽ} → a ẽ

18.3.3 Proto-Tuparí to Tuparí

Pogostick Man, from Moore, Denny and Ana Vilacy Galucio (1994), “Reconstruction of Proto-Tupari Consonants and Vowels”. Report 8: Survey of California and Other Indian Languages: Proceeds of the Meeting of the Society for the Study of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas, July 2 – 4, 1993, and the Hokan-Penutian Workshop, July 3, 1993, 119 – 137.

t → r / _V

kʷ ɡ → ∅ k

ɡʷ → ∅ / _o

ɡʷ ŋɡ → β k / _V[-nas]

{(n)dz,ts} → s / _i

{(n)dz,ts} → t / else

β ð → ∅ {s,h} / _i

ð → h

ᵐb ŋʷ → p β / #_V[-nas]

n → ∅ / ! #_V[-nas]

ŋ → k / #_V[+nas]

ŋʷ → m / V[+nas]_V[+nas]

u → o / _{p,b}i

{a/e} → e

18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayoró

Pogostick Man, from Moore, Denny and Ana Vilacy Galucio (1994), “Reconstruction of Proto-Tupari Consonants and Vowels”. Report 8: Survey of California and Other Indian Languages: Proceeds of the Meeting of the Society for the Study of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas, July 2 – 4, 1993, and the Hokan-Penutian Workshop, July 3, 1993, 119 – 137.

p → β / V_

t → r / _”V

p t → ∅ l / _V

k → ɡ / in U[+stress]

b → ∅ / V_V

ɡʷ → ɡ / _o

bʷ → β / #_V[+nas]

ts (n)dz → t nd

h → ∅ / V_C

ʔ → ∅

r ŋʷ → n β / V[+nas]_V[+nas]

ð → (n)d

ŋɡ → k / ! _V[-nas]

u → ɨ / _{p,b}i

{a/e} {e/a} {ı̃,ẽ} → a e ı̃

18.4 Tupí-Guaraní

18.4.1 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Akwára

Pogostick Man, from Lemle, Miriam (1971), “Internal Classification of the Tupi-Guarani Linguistic Family”. In Tupi Studies I, from Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics and Related Fields Publication Number 29.

p → k / _w

t → tʃ / _{i,ı̃}

k b r → {ŋ,∅} {w,m} {n,r,t} / _#

b → w

ts → {h,∅}

a → {ɨ,o} / _N#

o → a / ! o(C…)_(C…)#

u → ∅ / k_w

a → o / ! Cw_

ã → a / Cw_

ã → õ

{ẽ,ı̃} ɨ̃ {u,ũ,õ} → i ɨ o

18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Cocama

Pogostick Man, from Lemle, Miriam (1971), “Internal Classification of the Tupi-Guarani Linguistic Family”. In Tupi Studies I, from Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics and Related Fields Publication Number 29.

p → k / _w

t → tʃ / _{i,ı̃}

ʔ ts ŋ → ∅ {ts,tʃ} n

∅ → i / j_#, in monosyllables

j → i / _#, in polysyllables

b → ∅ / _#

b → w / else

w → ∅ / k_w

w → u / k_

a → ∅ / _j#

eN → y / _#

e → ɨ / {k,j}_

o → u(a) / ! o(C…)_(C…)#

ã {ẽ,ı̃} ɨ̃ → a i ∅

u → ũ (? possibly backwards?)

iʔ uʔ → j w / C_V

V0ʔV0 → V0ː

18.4.3 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guajajara

Pogostick Man, from Lemle, Miriam (1971), “Internal Classification of the Tupi-Guarani Linguistic Family”. In Tupi Studies I, from Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics and Related Fields Publication Number 29.

t → ts / _{i,ı̃}

ts → {h,∅}

b → ∅ / u_#

b → w / else

u → ∅ / k_w

a → ə / _N#

a → ə / if N in U#

o → u / ! o(C…)_(C…)#

ã ẽ ı̃ ɨ̃ {õ,ũ} → ə e i ɨ o

18.4.4 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guaraní

Pogostick Man, from Lemle, Miriam (1971), “Internal Classification of the Tupi-Guarani Linguistic Family”. In Tupi Studies I, from Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics and Related Fields Publication Number 29.

m p → ŋ k / _w

t → tʃ / _{i,ı̃}

k → ∅

ts → {tʃ,∅}

{b,r} → ∅ / _#

u → ∅ / k_w

V{m,n} → V[+nas] / _#

Vŋ → V[+nas]

18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guarayo

Pogostick Man, from Lemle, Miriam (1971), “Internal Classification of the Tupi-Guarani Linguistic Family”. In Tupi Studies I, from Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics and Related Fields Publication Number 29.

m p → ŋ k / _w

t → tʃ / _{i,ı̃}

{b,k} r → ∅ {r,∅} / _#

ʔ ts → {ʔ,∅} {ts,tʃ}

{Vm,Vŋ} Vn → V[+nas] {Vr,V[+nas]} / _#

aN eN iN ɨN uN → ã ẽ ı̃ ɨ̃ ũ / _#

õ → o

18.4.6 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Kamayurá

Pogostick Man, from Lemle, Miriam (1971), “Internal Classification of the Tupi-Guarani Linguistic Family”. In Tupi Studies I, from Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics and Related Fields Publication Number 29.

p → h / _{o,u,w}

t → tʃ / _{i,ı̃}

ts → {h,j,∅}

b r → p t / _#

b → w / else

ã → a / Cw_

ẽ ı̃ õ lost nasalization sometimes, kept it in others

u → õ (? possibly backwards?)

18.4.7 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Parintintín

Pogostick Man, from Lemle, Miriam (1971), “Internal Classification of the Tupi-Guarani Linguistic Family”. In Tupi Studies I, from Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics and Related Fields Publication Number 29.

k → {ŋ,∅} / _#

ts → {h,∅}

Vn → V[+nas] (sometimes)

∅ → ŋ / {#,V}_w

b r → {b,∅} {r,t} / _#

u → ∅ / k_w

eN → ı̃ / _#

ẽ ı̃ ũ → {ẽ,e} {ı̃,i} {ũ,õ}

18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Sirionó

Pogostick Man, from Lemle, Miriam (1971), “Internal Classification of the Tupi-Guarani Linguistic Family”. In Tupi Studies I, from Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics and Related Fields Publication Number 29.

p → {h,∅} / _{u,o}

p → {k,∅} / _w

p → h / else

t → {ts,tʃ} / _{i,ı̃}

k → ∅ / _#

ʔ ts → ∅ {s,ʃ}

u → ∅ / k_w

V{m,n} → V[+nas] / _#

Vŋ → V[+nas]

j → {j,i} / _#

j → {ɲ,tʃ} / else

w → {ɡ,k} / {#,V}_

{b,r} → ∅ / _#

a → {∅,o,e} / _j#

o u → {u,o} {u,o,i}

aN eN iN ɨN uN → ã ẽ ı̃ {ɨ̃,ĩ} õ / _#

{ɨ̃,õ} ũ → {õ,ẽ} õ

18.4.9 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Classical Tupi

Pogostick Man, from Lemle, Miriam (1971), “Internal Classification of the Tupi-Guarani Linguistic Family”. In Tupi Studies I, from Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics and Related Fields Publication Number 29.

t → tʃ / _{i,ı̃}

ts → {s,ʃ}

i → ı̃ / ʔ_# (sporadic)

18.4.9.1 Tupian

18.4.9.1.1 Proto-Monde to Gavião

Pogostick Man, from Anonby, Stan, and David J. Holbrook (2013), “A report and comparative-historical look at the Cinta Larga, Suruí, Gavião and Zoró languages”. Working Papers of the Linguistics Circle of the University of Victoria 23:14 – 31

p → v / _#

h → ∅ / V_ (sporadic, likely an areal feature)

18.4.9.1.2 Proto-Monde to Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoró

Pogostick Man, from Anonby, Stan, and David J. Holbrook (2013), “A report and comparative-historical look at the Cinta Larga, Suruí, Gavião and Zoró languages”. Working Papers of the Linguistics Circle of the University of Victoria 23:14 – 31

V → Ṽ / _h

h → ∅ / V_

v → w / #_

tʃ → ʃ

18.4.9.1.3 Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoró to Cinta Larga

Pogostick Man, from Anonby, Stan, and David J. Holbrook (2013), “A report and comparative-historical look at the Cinta Larga, Suruí, Gavião and Zoró languages”. Working Papers of the Linguistics Circle of the University of Victoria 23:14 – 31

o → u

Vh → Vː

V → Vː / _#

18.4.9.1.4 Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoró to Suruí

Pogostick Man, from Anonby, Stan, and David J. Holbrook (2013), “A report and comparative-historical look at the Cinta Larga, Suruí, Gavião and Zoró languages”. Working Papers of the Linguistics Circle of the University of Victoria 23:14 – 31

h → ∅ / V_

ᵑɡ → ɡ / #_ (possibly all prenasalized consonants?)

b → m / #_

18.4.9.1.5 Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoró to Zoró

Pogostick Man, from Anonby, Stan, and David J. Holbrook (2013), “A report and comparative-historical look at the Cinta Larga, Suruí, Gavião and Zoró languages”. Working Papers of the Linguistics Circle of the University of Victoria 23:14 – 31

h → ∅ / V_

∅ → ʔ / V_#

ᵑɡ → ɡ / #_ (possibly all prenasalized consonants?)

ʃ → tʃ (sporadic, areal feature from Gavião influence)

18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Urubu

Pogostick Man, from Lemle, Miriam (1971), “Internal Classification of the Tupi-Guarani Linguistic Family”. In Tupi Studies I, from Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics and Related Fields Publication Number 29.

p k → k ∅ / _w

t → ʃ / _{i,ı̃}

k → {k,∅} / _#

k → {k,ʃ} / else

ts → {s,h}

Vn → V[+nas] / _# (sometimes)

Vŋ → V[+nas]

j b → {j,i} ∅ / _#

b → w / else

u → ∅ / k_w

u → o / ! o(C…)_(C…)#

aN iN uN → {aN,ã} ı̃ {uN,ũ} / _#

ɨ̃ ẽ õ → ∅ {ẽ,e} {o,õ,u,ũ}

19 Kartvelian

Wikipedia presents the following phonemic inventory for Proto-Kartvelian.

Bilabial Alveolar Postalveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p pʼ b t tʼ d k kʼ ɡ q qʼ
Fricative s z ʃ ʂ ʐ x ɣ h
Lateral Fricative ɬ
Affricate ts tsʼ dz tʃ tʃʼ dʒ ʈʂ ʈʂʼ ɖʐ
Lateral Affricate tɬʼ
Liquid l r (j) w
Front Central Back
High (i) (u)
Mid ɛ ɛː ɔ ɔː
Low ɑ ɑː

The presence of *j is denoted in the article on the protolanguage proper as “dubious”; the page on the language family does not include it in its list of regular correspondences, nor does it list the long vowels or *h.

(From Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Kartvelian languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kartvelian_languages&oldid=580201868>; and Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Proto-Kartvelian language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Kartvelian_language&oldid=574800306>)

19.1 Proto-Kartvelian to Georgian

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Kartvelian languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kartvelian_languages&oldid=580201868>

q → x

{ɬ,ʂ} → s

ʈʂ {ʈʂʼ,tɬʼ} → ts tsʼ

ɖʐ → dz

ʐ → z

w → v

19.2 Proto-Kartvellian to Svan

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Kartvelian languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kartvelian_languages&oldid=580201868>

k kʼ → {k,tʃ} {kʼ,tʃʼ}

ɡ → {ɡ,dʒ}

ɬ ʃ ʂ → l {sɡ,ʃɡ} ʃ

tʃ ʈʂ tɬʼ tʃʼ ʈʂʼ → {tʃk,ʃɡ} tʃ h {ʃkʼ,tʃʼkʼ} tʃʼ

dz dʒ ɖʐ → {dz,z} {dʒɡ,sɡ} {dʒ,ʒ}

ʐ → ʒ

19.3 Proto-Kartvelian to Zan

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Kartvelian languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kartvelian_languages&oldid=580201868>

ɛ ɑ → ɑ ɔ

q qʼ → x {kʼ,qʼ,ʔ}

ɬ ʃ ʂ → ∅ {sk,ʃk} ʃ

tʃ ʈʂ {tɬʼ,ʈʂʼ} tʃʼʼ → tʃk tʃ tʃʼ {tsʼkʼ,tʃʼkʼ}

dʒ ɖʐ → {dʒɡ,dzɡ} dʒ

ʐ → ʒ

w → v

20 Khoisan

For the following section, all clicks change regardless of secondary articulation or associated articulations with the exception of when such is specifically noted.

20.1 Khoe

20.1.1 Proto-Khoe to ǁ̬Ana

Pogostick Man, from Rainer (1984), “Studying the linguistic and ethno-history of the Khoe-speaking (central Khoisan) peoples of Botswana, research in progress”. In Botswana Notes and Records 16:19 – 35.

ǀ̃(n) → ǂ̃n

! → !~k

!x → x

!̬ → ɡ

!̃(n) → ŋ

ts → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s}

h → j / _E

20.1.2 Proto-Khoe to ǁAni

Pogostick Man, from Rainer (1984), “Studying the linguistic and ethno-history of the Khoe-speaking (central Khoisan) peoples of Botswana, research in progress”. In Botswana Notes and Records 16:19 – 35.

ǀ̃(n) → ǂ̃n

! !̬ !̃ → !~k !̬~ɡ !̃(n)~ŋɡ

!x → !x~x

ts → {ts,s}

h → j~ʔ / _E

h → h~ʔ

20.1.3 Proto-Khoe to Buga

Pogostick Man, from Rainer (1984), “Studying the linguistic and ethno-history of the Khoe-speaking (central Khoisan) peoples of Botswana, research in progress”. In Botswana Notes and Records 16:19 – 35.

ǀ̃(n) → ǂ̃

! !ˀ !̬ !̃ → k ∅ ɡ ŋɡ

!x → x

!̃n → ŋɡj~!̃

ts → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s}

h → j

20.1.4 Proto-Khoe to Kxoe

Pogostick Man, from Rainer (1984), “Studying the linguistic and ethno-history of the Khoe-speaking (central Khoisan) peoples of Botswana, research in progress”. In Botswana Notes and Records 16:19 – 35.

!̃(n) → ǂ̃

! !ˀ ! !̃ → k ∅ ɡ ŋɡ

!x !̃n → x ŋɡj~!̃

ts dz → {ç,tç} dʒ

kʰ → kx

h → j

20.1.5 Proto-Khoe to Nama

Pogostick Man, from Rainer (1984), “Studying the linguistic and ethno-history of the Khoe-speaking (central Khoisan) peoples of Botswana, research in progress”. In Botswana Notes and Records 16:19 – 35.

k → ɡ

{ǀˀ,ǀxʼ} → ǀ

ǀ̃(n) → {ǂ̃,ǂ}

! !ˀ !̃n → !ɡ ~ !̃

ǂ {ǂ̃n,ǂˀ,ǂxʼ} → ǂɡ ǂ

{ǁˀ,ǁxʼ} → ǁ

ts dz kxʼ → {ts,s} d ∅

20.1.6 Proto-Khoe to Naro

Pogostick Man, from Rainer (1984), “Studying the linguistic and ethno-history of the Khoe-speaking (central Khoisan) peoples of Botswana, research in progress”. In Botswana Notes and Records 16:19 – 35.

ǀ̃(n) → ǂ̃

ts dz → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s} dz~ts

kʰ → {kx,k}

20.1.7 Proto-Khoe to !Ora

Pogostick Man, from Rainer (1984), “Studying the linguistic and ethno-history of the Khoe-speaking (central Khoisan) peoples of Botswana, research in progress”. In Botswana Notes and Records 16:19 – 35.

ǀ̃(n) → ǂ̃

! !̃n → ! !̃

ǂ̃n → ǂ

ǁˀ → {ǁˀ,ǁ}

ts → {ts,s}

20.1.8 Proto-Khoe to Teti

Pogostick Man, from Rainer (1984), “Studying the linguistic and ethno-history of the Khoe-speaking (central Khoisan) peoples of Botswana, research in progress”. In Botswana Notes and Records 16:19 – 35.

ǀ̃(n) → j

! !ˀ !̬ !̃(n) !x → k ∅ ɡ ŋ x

ǂ ǂ̃n ǂˀ → c ɲ ʔj

ǁˀ ǁxʼ → {ǁˀ,∅} ǁˀ

ts dz kxʼ → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s} z kʼ

h → j~ʔj / _E

h → h~ʔj

20.1.9 Proto-Khoe to Tsʔixa

Pogostick Man, from Rainer (1984), “Studying the linguistic and ethno-history of the Khoe-speaking (central Khoisan) peoples of Botswana, research in progress”. In Botswana Notes and Records 16:19 – 35.

ǀ̃(n) ǀxʼ → j ǀˀ

! !ˀ !̬ !̃(n) !x → k ∅ ɡ ŋɡ x

ǂ̃n ǂxʼ → ɲ ǂˀ

ǁxʼ → ǁˀ

ts dz kxʼ → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s} z kʼ

h → j~ʔj / _E

h → h~j

20.1.10 Proto-Khoe to ǀ̬Ui

Pogostick Man, from Rainer (1984), “Studying the linguistic and ethno-history of the Khoe-speaking (central Khoisan) peoples of Botswana, research in progress”. In Botswana Notes and Records 16:19 – 35.

ǀ̃(n) → ǂ̃n

!̃ !x → !̃(n) !x~x

ts → {ts~tsɦ,s}

h → j / _E

h → ɦ

20.2 Kx’a

20.2.1 Proto-Kx’a to ǂHoan

Pogostick Man, from Heine, Bernd and Henry Honken (2010), “The Kx’a family: A New Khoisan Genealogy”

“Something about word-initial glottal stops”

∅ → a / o_m

a → ∅ / _e (sporadic)

o → ∅ / u_

u → ∅ / o_

iaɔ → iu

o → ∅ / a(C)_

Vn ŋ → V[+nas] ∅ / _#

t d s → {c,tʃ} ɟ ʃ

!! → ǁ

ⁿQʰ Qɢ͡ → Qʰ Q

20.2.2 Proto-Kx’a to Northwestern !Xun

Pogostick Man, from Heine, Bernd and Henry Honken (2010), “The Kx’a family: A New Khoisan Genealogy”

a → ∅ / #_m

ui → o (?)

i → ∅ / V_

a → ∅ / _e (sporadic)

u → ∅ / _o

o → ∅ / _u

o → a / _Ca

a → ∅ / _(C)o

“Some weird stuff with vowel pharyngealization/glottalization; some of the pharyngealized proto-vowels stayed that way, others glottalized”

ʕ → ʔ / _m

n → ∅ / _#

ts(ʼ) s → tʃ(ʼ) ʃ

!! ʘ → ǁ ǀ

ǂ → !! (dialectal)

20.2.3 Proto-Kx’a to Southeastern !Xun

Pogostick Man, from Heine, Bernd and Henry Honken (2010), “The Kx’a family: A New Khoisan Genealogy”

a → ∅ / #_m

ui → o (?)

i → ∅ / V_

ɛ ɔ → i u

u → ∅ / _o

o → ∅ / _u

o → a / _Ca

a → ∅ / _(C)o

“Some weird stuff with vowel pharyngealization/glottalization; some of the pharyngealized proto-vowels stayed that way, others glottalized”

ʕm → {b,ɓ}

n → ∅ / _#

ts(ʼ) s → tʃ(ʼ) ʃ

!! ʘ → ǁ ǀ

ʔ → ∅ / _nQ

ⁿQʰ {ǀʰq͜,ǀʰɢ͜} Qq͡ → ⁿQ(ʰ) ⁿǀʰ Q[+voiced]

21 Lakes Plain

Clouse (1993) reconstructs the following phonological inventory for Proto-Lakes Plain:

Bilabial Alveolar Velar
Stop p b t d k
Front Central Back
High i u
Mid e o
Low a

Additionally, *ɾ is of uncertain reconstruction and is most likely an allophone of *d.

For the following sound changes, a circumflexed vowel refers to an “extra-high” or “fricativized” vowel. There are a few cases where I may have either missed, misread, or put in an extraneous sound change to extra-high vowels; many of these were due to my perception of changes involving extra-high vowels being listed without a change creating them.

(From Clouse, Duane (1993), “Languages of the Western Lakes Plains”. IRIAN: Bulletin of Irian Jaya XXI:1 – 17)

21.1 Proto-Lakes Plain to Proto-Far West

Pogostick Man, from Clouse, Duane (1993), “Languages of the Western Lakes Plains”. IRIAN: Bulletin of Irian Jaya XXI:1 – 17

ɾ → ∅

ku →∅ / #_

d → ɾ / V_V

∅ → echo vowel / C_CV

CV → ∅ / _# (possibly only when CV_#, possibly sporadic)

e o → ɛ ɔ (?)

21.1.1 Proto-Far West to Awera

Pogostick Man, from Clouse, Duane (1993), “Languages of the Western Lakes Plains”. IRIAN: Bulletin of Irian Jaya XXI:1 – 17

k → ɣ / V_V

b → β~m / #_V[-high]

b d ɡ → β~w ɾ~∅ ɣ / V_V

ti → s / #_V

t d → t~ɾ~n n / #_

iiɛ Vdiɛ → ijɛ βe

21.1.2 Proto-Far West to Saponi

Pogostick Man, from Clouse, Duane (1993), “Languages of the Western Lakes Plains”. IRIAN: Bulletin of Irian Jaya XXI:1 – 17

p d → p~f n / #_

ti → s / #_V

b → β~m / #_V[+ low]

p b d k → p~f w ɾ ɡ~ɣ / V_V

iiɛ Vdiɛ → dzɛ ɾɛ

21.1.3 Proto-Far West to Rasawa

Pogostick Man, from Clouse, Duane (1993), “Languages of the Western Lakes Plains”. IRIAN: Bulletin of Irian Jaya XXI:1 – 17

p b d k → ɸ β ɾ x~k / V_V

ti → s / #_V

b → β~m / #_V[+ low]

iiɛ Vdiɛ → ijɛ βie

21.2 Proto-Lakes Plain to Proto-Tariku

Pogostick Man, from Clouse, Duane (1993), “Languages of the Western Lakes Plains”. IRIAN: Bulletin of Irian Jaya XXI:1 – 17

p d → ɸ ɾ / V_V

21.2.1 Proto-Tariku to Proto-Central Tariku

Pogostick Man, from Clouse, Duane (1993), “Languages of the Western Lakes Plains”. IRIAN: Bulletin of Irian Jaya XXI:1 – 17

∅ → echo vowel / C_CV

ku → b

p k → ɸ ∅~k

ti → s~ti / _V

d → ɾ~d / V_V

iC uC → î û / _{C,#}

a → e (?)

e o → ɛ ɔ

21.2.1.1 Proto-Central Tariku to Edopi

Pogostick Man, from Clouse, Duane (1993), “Languages of the Western Lakes Plains”. IRIAN: Bulletin of Irian Jaya XXI:1 – 17

C → ∅ / _#

ɸ → h

b k → m~b ∅ / #_

d → d~n~l / #_a

d → dz / _i

s → s~t

∅ → dz / _î

ɛ → e

21.2.1.2 Proto-Central Tariku to Iau

Pogostick Man, from Clouse, Duane (1993), “Languages of the Western Lakes Plains”. IRIAN: Bulletin of Irian Jaya XXI:1 – 17

CV → ∅ / _#

ɸ → ɸ~h

b k → m~b ∅ / #_

d → d~l~n / #_a

ɾ → ∅ / V_V

“Some vowel coalescence takes place following the above; the author notes that the vowels often take on the tonal characteristics of the absorbed vowel”

au → ɔ

21.2.2 Proto-Tariku to Proto-East Tariku

Pogostick Man, from Clouse, Duane (1993), “Languages of the Western Lakes Plains”. IRIAN: Bulletin of Irian Jaya XXI:1 – 17

ti → s~ti / _V

ɾ → ɾ~∅ / V_V

a → e (?)

e → ɛ

21.2.2.1 Proto-East Tariku to Biritai

Pogostick Man, from Clouse, Duane (1993), “Languages of the Western Lakes Plains”. IRIAN: Bulletin of Irian Jaya XXI:1 – 17

p → h~ɸ

C → ∅ / _#

V → ∅ / di_

iC uC → î û / _{C,#}

∅ → dz / î_V

ku → b

k → ∅ / _V̂

21.2.2.2 Proto-East Tariku to Doutai

Pogostick Man, from Clouse, Duane (1993), “Languages of the Western Lakes Plains”. IRIAN: Bulletin of Irian Jaya XXI:1 – 17

p → p~ɸ

C → ∅ / _#

di → dz / _V

iC uC → î û / _{C,#}

V → dz / _V̂

ɾ → ∅ / ! _C

21.2.2.3 Proto-East Tariku to Eritai

Pogostick Man, from Clouse, Duane (1993), “Languages of the Western Lakes Plains”. IRIAN: Bulletin of Irian Jaya XXI:1 – 17

p → p~h

b C → ∅ d / _#

diV → dz

iC uC → î û / _{C,#}

∅ → dz → î_V

iC → iC~i / _{C,#} (not sure how this plays in with the change mentioned earlier about extra-high vowels; I must have misread something)

21.2.2.4 Proto-East Tariku to Kai

Pogostick Man, from Clouse, Duane (1993), “Languages of the Western Lakes Plains”. IRIAN: Bulletin of Irian Jaya XXI:1 – 17

p → ɸ

C → ∅ / _#

V → ∅ / di_

iC uC → î û / _{C,#}

∅ → dz / î_V

21.2.2.5 Proto-East Tariku to Obokuitai

Pogostick Man, from Clouse, Duane (1993), “Languages of the Western Lakes Plains”. IRIAN: Bulletin of Irian Jaya XXI:1 – 17

p → ɸ~h

b C → b̚ ɡ̚ / _#

V → ∅ / di_

iC uC → î û / _{C,#}

∅ → dz / îV

21.2.2.6 Proto-East Tariku to Sikaritai

Pogostick Man, from Clouse, Duane (1993), “Languages of the Western Lakes Plains”. IRIAN: Bulletin of Irian Jaya XXI:1 – 17

p → p~h

b C → b~∅ {d,ɡ} / _#

diV → dz

iC uC → î û / _{C,#}

∅ → dz / î_V

ik → ɡ / {s,k,p}_ ?

21.2.2.7 Proto-East Tariku to Waritai

Pogostick Man, from Clouse, Duane (1993), “Languages of the Western Lakes Plains”. IRIAN: Bulletin of Irian Jaya XXI:1 – 17

p d → p~ɸs d~t

V → ∅ / di_

C → ∅ / _#

iC uC → î û / _{C,#}

ɾ → ∅ / ! C_

k → ∅ / _V̂

∅ → dz / î_V

ik → ɡ / {s,p}_ ?

21.2.3 Proto-Tariku to Proto-West Tariku

Pogostick Man, from Clouse, Duane (1993), “Languages of the Western Lakes Plains”. IRIAN: Bulletin of Irian Jaya XXI:1 – 17

p → ɸ

ɾ → ɾ~∅ / V_V

k → k~∅

iC uC → î û / _{C,#}

21.2.3.1 Proto-West Tariku to Deirate

Pogostick Man, from Clouse, Duane (1993), “Languages of the Western Lakes Plains”. IRIAN: Bulletin of Irian Jaya XXI:1 – 17

p → ɸ~h

b d k → b~β ɾ~l~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V

b → m / #_a

b → b~ᵐb

ti di → s dz / _V

21.2.3.2 Proto-West Tariku to Faia

Pogostick Man, from Clouse, Duane (1993), “Languages of the Western Lakes Plains”. IRIAN: Bulletin of Irian Jaya XXI:1 – 17

p → ɸ~h

b d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V

b d → m n / #_a

ti → s / _V

21.2.3.3 Proto-West Tariku to Fayu

Pogostick Man, from Clouse, Duane (1993), “Languages of the Western Lakes Plains”. IRIAN: Bulletin of Irian Jaya XXI:1 – 17

p → ɸ~h

b d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V

b d → m n / #_a

b d → b~ᵐb d~ⁿd

ti di → s dz / _V

21.2.3.4 Proto-West Tariku to Kirikiri

Pogostick Man, from Clouse, Duane (1993), “Languages of the Western Lakes Plains”. IRIAN: Bulletin of Irian Jaya XXI:1 – 17

p → ɸ~h

b d k → b~β ɾ~l~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V

b d → m n / #_a

b d → b~ᵐb d~ⁿd

ti → s / _V

21.2.3.5 Proto-West Tariku to Sehudate

Pogostick Man, from Clouse, Duane (1993), “Languages of the Western Lakes Plains”. IRIAN: Bulletin of Irian Jaya XXI:1 – 17

p → ɸ~h

b d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V

b → m / #_a

b → b~ᵐb

ti di → s dz / _V

21.2.3.6 Proto-West Tariku to Tause

Pogostick Man, from Clouse, Duane (1993), “Languages of the Western Lakes Plains”. IRIAN: Bulletin of Irian Jaya XXI:1 – 17

p → ɸ~h

b d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V

b → m / #_a

b d → b~ᵐb d~ⁿd

ti di → s j / _V

21.2.3.7 Proto-West Tariku to Weirate

Pogostick Man, from Clouse, Duane (1993), “Languages of the Western Lakes Plains”. IRIAN: Bulletin of Irian Jaya XXI:1 – 17

p → ɸ~h

b d k → b~β ɾ~l~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V

b d → m n / #_a

b d → b~ᵐb d~ⁿd

ti di → s dz / _V

22 Macro-Arawakan

Dixon (2004) gives the following reconstruction for Proto-Arawá:

Bilabial Coronal Postalveolar Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p pʰ b ɓ t tʰ d ɗ k kʰ ɡ ɠ ʔ
Fricative s h
Affricate ts tsʰ dz
Liquid r
Front Central Back
High i
Mid e o
Low a

Dixon states “[i]t is likely that, as in modern languages, *o ranged over [u] and [o]”. Further, he notes that “*w could have been a voiced bilabial fricative [β], or a labial-velar semivowel [w] (or could have had both as allophones), and *j could have been a voiced alveolar affricate [dz], a voiced postalveolar affricate [dʒ], or a voiced palatal stop [ɟ]”.

Dixon also hypothesizes that there was an Arawán language that eventually died out after gaining substrate status; he has attempted to identify sound changes from Proto-Arawá to this hypothetical language. While most likely incomplete his findings are presented below along with those of the other languages.

(From Dixon, R.M.W. (2004), “Proto-Arawá Phonology”. Anthropological Linguistics 46(1):1 – 83)

22.1 Proto-Arawá to Arawá

Pogostick Man, from Dixon, R.M.W. (2004), “Proto-Arawá Phonology”. Anthropological Linguistics 46(1):1 – 83

p → f

pʰ → p / #_

pʰ → ɸ / else

ɗ → t / #_

dz → s / medially

tsʰ → s

22.2 Proto-Arawá to Banawá-Jamamadi

chris_notts & Pogostick Man, the latter citing Dixon, R.M.W. (2004), “Proto-Arawá Phonology”. Anthropological Linguistics 46(1):1 – 83

ɓ → b / #_

ɓ → ɸ / medially

p(ʰ) → ɸ

{tʰ,ɗ} → t

kʰ ɡ → k w

{ts(ʰ),tʃ} dz → s ɟ

ʔ → ∅

22.3 Proto-Arawá to Hypothetical Arawán Substrate

Pogostick Man, from Dixon, R.M.W. (2004), “Proto-Arawá Phonology”. Anthropological Linguistics 46(1):1 – 83

e → a / medially

e → i / #_

p → ʔ

pʰ → h / medially

dz → s

22.4 Proto-Arawá to Jarawara

chris_notts & Pogostick Man, the latter citing Dixon, R.M.W. (2004), “Proto-Arawá Phonology”. Anthropological Linguistics 46(1):1 – 83

ɓ → b / #_

ɓ → f / medially

ɗ → t

p(ʰ) {tʰ,d} → ɸ t

kʰ ɡ → k w

dz → ɟ

{ts(ʰ),tʃ} → s

ʔ → ∅

22.5 Proto-Arawá to Kulína-Dení

Pogostick Man, from Dixon, R.M.W. (2004), “Proto-Arawá Phonology”. Anthropological Linguistics 46(1):1 – 83

ɓ → b / #_

ɓ → p / medially

ɗ → t

ɡ → w

tʃ → ʃ (?)

ʔ → ∅ / #_

22.6 Proto-Arawá to Sorowahá

Pogostick Man, from Dixon, R.M.W. (2004), “Proto-Arawá Phonology”. Anthropological Linguistics 46(1):1 – 83

e → ɨ / _#

e → a / else

{p(ʰ),ɓ} → h

ɗ → d / #_

{tʰ,ɗ → t

kʰ → k

ts(ʰ) → s

ʔ → ∅ / #_, possibly everywhere?

22.7 Proto-Arawá to Paumarí

Pogostick Man, from Dixon, R.M.W. (2004), “Proto-Arawá Phonology”. Anthropological Linguistics 46(1):1 – 83

e → a / medially

e → {a,i} / #_

pʰ → p / #_

pʰ t → ɸ ʔ / medial

ts(ʰ) → s

23 Macro-Chibchan

23.1 Lenmichian

The following inventory for Proto-Lenmichian is posited by Constenla (2005).

Bilabial Alveolar Velar Glottal
Stop b d t k ʔ
Affricate ts
Fricative s h
Approximant w ɾ
Lateral l
Front Central Back
High i u
Mid e o
Low a

(From Wikipedia contributors (2015), “Macro-Chibchan languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Macro-Chibchan_languages&oldid=672637970>, presumably citing Constenla Umaña, Adolfo (2005), “?‘Existe relación genealógica entre las lenguas misumalpas y las chibchenses?”. Estudios de Lingüística Chibcha 24:7 – 85)

23.1.1 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Chibchan

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2015), “Macro-Chibchan languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Macro-Chibchan_languages&oldid=672637970>, presumably citing Constenla Umaña, Adolfo (2005), “?‘Existe relación genealógica entre las lenguas misumalpas y las chibchenses?”. Estudios de Lingüística Chibcha 24:7 – 85

l → ɾ

w → ∅

23.1.1.1 Chibchan

The following phonemic inventory is adapted from Wheeler (1972).

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Stop p b t d k kʷ ɡ ɡʷ
Affricate ts
Fricative s x h
Glide w j
Front Central Back
High i u
Mid e o
Low a

Information in this section may be missing or incomplete, as I found the source document using Google Books and several pages were not available in the preview.

(From Wheeler, Alva (1972), “Proto-Chibchan”. In Matteson, Esther, ed., Comparative Studies in Amerindian Languages 93 – 108)

23.1.1.1.1 Proto-Chibchan to Arhuaco

Pogostick Man, from Wheeler, Alva (1972), “Proto-Chibchan”. In Matteson, Esther, ed., Comparative Studies in Amerindian Languages 93 – 108

s → kh / _(V)k

s d → z r / _(V)j

ts h → s ∅

∅ → u / w_V

j → ∅ / i_V

j → {j,∅}

e → a

i → ∅ / a_

ia → ə (“unspecified”)

i → ∅ / C”V(C)_

i → ∅ / _(C)”V

23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to Chibcha

Pogostick Man, from Wheeler, Alva (1972), “Proto-Chibchan”. In Matteson, Esther, ed., Comparative Studies in Amerindian Languages 93 – 108

b → p / _Vkʷ

Vs → h / n_

V → ∅ / s_j (sometimes)

s → h / V_V

ts → {s,z}

w → {w,∅}

j → ∅

n → {n,∅}

a → ∅ / _i, when unstressed

a → i / _Ci

a → ∅ / _u

u → o / _Ca

u → ∅ / _a

i → u / _(C)u

i → a / _(C)a

i → e / _(C)e

a {e,i} → i ∅ / C”V(C)_

i → ∅ / _(C)”V

a → ∅ / _”V

23.1.1.1.3 Proto-Chibchan to Kogi

Pogostick Man, from Wheeler, Alva (1972), “Proto-Chibchan”. In Matteson, Esther, ed., Comparative Studies in Amerindian Languages 93 – 108

s → ∅ / #_

s → {ʃ,tʃ} / _i

s → h / _Vn

nVs dVs → n(V(s)) ʒ(Vʒ)

s h → {s,tʃ} {h,∅}

j → i / C(V)_

n j → {n,∅} {j,∅}

e → a

i → ∅ / a_ (sometimes)

u → w / _a

23.1.1.1.4 Proto-Chibchan to Marocacero

Pogostick Man, from Wheeler, Alva (1972), “Proto-Chibchan”. In Matteson, Esther, ed., Comparative Studies in Amerindian Languages 93 – 108

s → {ts,ʃ} / _i

s → {s,ts}

d(V)j s(V)j → lʲ dʒ

d → l

a → ∅ / _i

e → a

i → ə / oC_

i → ∅ / C”V(C)_

i → ∅ / _(C)”V

23.1.1.1.5 Proto-Chibchan to Motilón

Pogostick Man, from Wheeler, Alva (1972), “Proto-Chibchan”. In Matteson, Esther, ed., Comparative Studies in Amerindian Languages 93 – 108

ɡ → ∅

s → {s,x,tʃ~ʃ}

s → {ʃ,tʃ} / _i

s → x / i_

h → ∅

{w,m} → b

s(V)d → dʲ

d → ∅ / V_s

e → a

i → ∅ / a_ (usually; sometimes the diphthong is retained or → aj)

a → i / iC_

u → ∅ / a_

u → ∅ / _a

{ue,aja} → ə

{u,i} → ∅ / C”V(C)_

i → ∅ / _(C)”V

e → u / uC_

e → ∅ / u_C

23.1.1.1.6 Proto-Chibchan to Tunebo

Pogostick Man, from Wheeler, Alva (1972), “Proto-Chibchan”. In Matteson, Esther, ed., Comparative Studies in Amerindian Languages 93 – 108

ɡ ɡʷ → ∅ b

{d(V)s,n(V)j} n(V)s → r {VsV,r}

d(V)j → r(V)

d → r

s → h / _(V)C

ts tʃ → tʃ s

m n h j → b {n,r,∅} {h,∅} {j,∅}

e → a

ai → e / if the *a is not stressed

a → ∅ / _u

i → a / _Ca

{a,i} → ∅ / C”V(C)_

i → ∅ / _(C)”V

e → ∅ / u_C

e → i / “conditioning undetermined”

23.1.2 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Lencan

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2015), “Macro-Chibchan languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Macro-Chibchan_languages&oldid=672637970>, presumably citing Constenla Umaña, Adolfo (2005), “?‘Existe relación genealógica entre las lenguas misumalpas y las chibchenses?”. Estudios de Lingüística Chibcha 24:7 – 85

b d → m n / _V[+ nasal] (I’m inferring this from the statement that “[t]here are also a series…of nasal vowels”)

b d → p l

{ʔ,h} → ∅

{s,ts} → tsʼ

o a → {u,o} {a,e}

23.1.3 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Misumalpan

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2015), “Macro-Chibchan languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Macro-Chibchan_languages&oldid=672637970>, presumably citing Constenla Umaña, Adolfo (2005), “?‘Existe relación genealógica entre las lenguas misumalpas y las chibchenses?”. Estudios de Lingüística Chibcha 24:7 – 85

b d → m n / _V[+ nasal] (I’m inferring this from the statement that “[t]here are also a series…of nasal vowels”)

b d → {b,p} l

{ʔ,h} → ∅

ts → s

24 Macro-Pama-Nyungan

Wikipedia gives the following reconstruction for the phonological inventory of Proto-Pama-Nyungan, citing Alpher (2004). The particulars of the presentation have been modified somewhat from that presented in the article.

Bilabial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar
Plosive p t ʈ c (cʲ?) k
Nasal m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
Rhotic r ɽ
Lateral l ɭ ʎ
Semivowel w j
Front Central Back
High i iː u uː
Low a aː

(From Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Pama–Nyungan languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pama%E2%80%93Nyungan_languages&oldid=605755580>, presumably citing Alpher, Barry (2004), “Proto-Pama-Nyungan etyma”. In Bowern, Claire, and Harold Koch (eds.), Australian Languages: Classification and the Comparative Method)

24.1 Paman

NB: These changes are most likely largely incomplete, especially for languages with fewer changes shown.

24.1.1 Proto-Paman to Aritinŋitiɣ

Pogostick Man, from Hale, Kenneth (1964), “Classification of Northern Paman Languages, Cape York Peninsula, Australia: A Research Report”. Oceanic Linguistics Vol. 3, No. 2, 248 – 265

C → ∅ / #_

i[-long]C → Cj / #_ ! _i

u[-long]C → Cw / #_

a[-long]C → Ca / #_ (! _a?)

u i → w j / a_ when this a is a result of metathesis (?)

Vː → V[-long] / in #U

24.1.2 Proto-Paman to Awŋtim

Pogostick Man, from Hale, Kenneth (1964), “Classification of Northern Paman Languages, Cape York Peninsula, Australia: A Research Report”. Oceanic Linguistics Vol. 3, No. 2, 248 – 265

iC aC uC → Cj Ca Cw / #_ ! before an identical vowel

u i → w j / a_ when this a is a result of the preceding metathesis

(N)S → F / #(C)V_

∅ → j / #(C)iː(C)_V ! _i

∅ → w / #(C)uː(C)_V ! _u

∅ → a / #(C)aː(C)_V ! _a

C → ∅ / #_

Vː → ə / in #U

24.1.3 Proto-Paman to Linŋitiɣ

Pogostick Man, from Hale, Kenneth (1964), “Classification of Northern Paman Languages, Cape York Peninsula, Australia: A Research Report”. Oceanic Linguistics Vol. 3, No. 2, 248 – 265

(N)S → F / #(C)V_

N → ∅ / #NV_SV

C → ∅ / #_

Vː V[-long] → V[-long] ∅ / in #U

24.1.4 Proto-Paman to Mbiywom

Pogostick Man, from Hale, Kenneth (1964), “Classification of Northern Paman Languages, Cape York Peninsula, Australia: A Research Report”. Oceanic Linguistics Vol. 3, No. 2, 248 – 265

C → ∅ / #_

i[-long]C → Cj / #_ ! _i

u[-long]C → Cw / #_

a[-long]C → Ca / #_ (! _a?)

u i → w j / a_ when this a is a result of metathesis (?)

Vː → V[-long] / in #U

24.1.5 Proto-Paman to Mpalican

Pogostick Man, from Hale, Kenneth (1964), “Classification of Northern Paman Languages, Cape York Peninsula, Australia: A Research Report”. Oceanic Linguistics Vol. 3, No. 2, 248 – 265

NVS → VⁿS / #_

C → ∅ / #_

Vː → V[-long] / in #U

24.1.6 Proto-Paman to Uraði

Pogostick Man, from Hale, Kenneth (1964), “Classification of Northern Paman Languages, Cape York Peninsula, Australia: A Research Report”. Oceanic Linguistics Vol. 3, No. 2, 248 – 265

(N)S → F / #(C)V_

Vː → V[-long] / in #U

24.1.7 Proto-Paman to Yinwum

Pogostick Man, from Hale, Kenneth (1964), “Classification of Northern Paman Languages, Cape York Peninsula, Australia: A Research Report”. Oceanic Linguistics Vol. 3, No. 2, 248 – 265

a → i / #C[+palatal]V[-long]C_

i → e / #(C)aC[-palatal]_

#”UU → #U”U

NVS → VⁿS / #_

C → ∅ / #_

∅ → j / #iː(C)_a

∅ → w / #uː(C)_a

Vː → V[-long] / in #U

25 Macro-Panoan

25.1 Tacanan

Ritchie (1968) gives the following phonology for Proto-Tacanan. The alveolopalatal series is inferred from the notation and may be incorrect.

Bilabial Alveolar Alveolopalatal Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Stop p b t d k ʔ
Affricate ts
Fricative s ɕ ʃ
Approximant w r j
Front Central Back
High i
Mid e o
Low a

(From Key, Mary Ritchie (1968), Comparative Tacanan Phonology with Cavineña Phonology and Notes on Pano-Tacanan Relationship)

25.1.1 Proto-Tacanan to Cavineña

Pogostick Man, from Key, Mary Ritchie (1968), Comparative Tacanan Phonology with Cavineña Phonology and Notes on Pano-Tacanan Relationship

k → kʷ

{ɕ,tɕ} → h

x → k

*ŕ → r

25.1.2 Proto-Tacanan to Chama

Pogostick Man, from Key, Mary Ritchie (1968), Comparative Tacanan Phonology with Cavineña Phonology and Notes on Pano-Tacanan Relationship

b d → ɓ ɗ

ɗ → {ʔ,∅} / ! #_

t k → k kʷ

tʃ → s / _i

tɕ → ʃ

s ɕ → ð h

n → ɲ / i_{o,a} (the former is conjectured)

{r,*ŕ} → {∅,w,j}

25.1.3 Proto-Tacanan to Reyesano

Pogostick Man, from Key, Mary Ritchie (1968), Comparative Tacanan Phonology with Cavineña Phonology and Notes on Pano-Tacanan Relationship

k → kʷ

b d → ᵐb ⁿdz

ts → tʃ / #_

tʃ ɕ → ts ʃ

ɕ x → ð h

w → β / _E ?

*ŕ → ∅

j → tʃ / V_V

25.1.4 Proto-Tacanan to Tacana

Pogostick Man, from Key, Mary Ritchie (1968), Comparative Tacanan Phonology with Cavineña Phonology and Notes on Pano-Tacanan Relationship

k → kʷ / _a

k → kʷ / #_i

∅ → j / k_e

tɕ → dʑ

tʃ → ts / _E

ɕ → s

x → h / #_

x → {h,∅}

w → β / _E

j → tʃ / V_V

*ŕ → ∅

26 Mande

Dwyer (1987/1988) gives the following consonants for Proto-Mande.

Labial-Velar Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop kp kpʼ ɡb p b t tʼ d k kʼ ɡ
Fricative f s z
Approximant l j w

(From Dwyer, David J. (1987/1988), “Towards Proto Mande Morphology”. Mandekan: Bulletin semestriel d’études linguistiques 14/15:139 – 152)

26.1 Proto-Mande to Bobo

Pogostick Man, from Dwyer, David J. (1987/1988), “Towards Proto Mande Morphology”. Mandekan: Bulletin semestriel d’études linguistiques 14/15:139 – 152

NB: These changes only deal with consonants.

p → f

tʼ {kʼ,ɡ} → t k

l → d

z → {s,j}

w → ɡ

ŋ → ɲ

kp ɡb → k ɡw

26.2 Proto-Mande to Busa

Pogostick Man, from Dwyer, David J. (1987/1988), “Towards Proto Mande Morphology”. Mandekan: Bulletin semestriel d’études linguistiques 14/15:139 – 152

NB: These changes only deal with consonants.

tʼ kʼ → t k

d → l

ŋ → ɲ

kp kpʼ → {kp,k} ɡb

j → i

26.3 Proto-Mande to Dan

Pogostick Man, from Dwyer, David J. (1987/1988), “Towards Proto Mande Morphology”. Mandekan: Bulletin semestriel d’études linguistiques 14/15:139 – 152

NB: These changes only deal with consonants.

tʼ kʼ → t k

d → l

ŋ → ɲ

kpʼ → ɡb

26.4 Proto-Mande to Guro

Pogostick Man, from Dwyer, David J. (1987/1988), “Towards Proto Mande Morphology”. Mandekan: Bulletin semestriel d’études linguistiques 14/15:139 – 152

NB: These changes only deal with consonants.

p f → f v

tʼ kʼ → t k

d → l

ŋ → ɲ

kp {kpʼ,ɡb} → p b

26.5 Proto-Mande to Kono-Vai

Pogostick Man, from Dwyer, David J. (1987/1988), “Towards Proto Mande Morphology”. Mandekan: Bulletin semestriel d’études linguistiques 14/15:139 – 152

NB: These changes only deal with consonants.

p → f

l → d

z → s

{ɡ,w,kp} kpʼ ɡb → k kp b

tʼ kʼ → t k

ŋ → ɲ

26.6 Proto-Mande to Southwest Mande

Pogostick Man, from Dwyer, David J. (1987/1988), “Towards Proto Mande Morphology”. Mandekan: Bulletin semestriel d’études linguistiques 14/15:139 – 152

NB: These changes only deal with consonants.

f → p

{tʼ,d} {kʼ,ɡ} → l k

z → s

w → ɡ

ŋ → ɲ

kp kpʼ ɡb → {k,B} kp B (it’s unclear what this 〈B〉 is)

26.7 Proto-Mande to Mandekan

Pogostick Man, from Dwyer, David J. (1987/1988), “Towards Proto Mande Morphology”. Mandekan: Bulletin semestriel d’études linguistiques 14/15:139 – 152

NB: These changes only deal with consonants.

p → f

l → d

z → s

{k,ɡ,kp} {kpʼ,ɡb} → s b

tʼ kʼ → t k

ŋ → ɲ

w j → k dʒ

26.8 Proto-Mande to Mano

Pogostick Man, from Dwyer, David J. (1987/1988), “Towards Proto Mande Morphology”. Mandekan: Bulletin semestriel d’études linguistiques 14/15:139 – 152

NB: These changes only deal with consonants.

f → v

tʼ kʼ → t k

d → l

ŋ → ɲ

kpʼ → ɡb

26.9 Proto-Mande to Mwa

Pogostick Man, from Dwyer, David J. (1987/1988), “Towards Proto Mande Morphology”. Mandekan: Bulletin semestriel d’études linguistiques 14/15:139 – 152

NB: These changes only deal with consonants.

f → v

tʼ kʼ → t k

d → l

ŋ → ɲ

kpʼ → ɡb

26.10 Proto-Mande to San

Pogostick Man, from Dwyer, David J. (1987/1988), “Towards Proto Mande Morphology”. Mandekan: Bulletin semestriel d’études linguistiques 14/15:139 – 152

NB: These changes only deal with consonants.

tʼ kʼ → t k

d → l

ŋ → ɲ

kp kpʼ → k b

26.11 Proto-Mande to Sembla

Pogostick Man, from Dwyer, David J. (1987/1988), “Towards Proto Mande Morphology”. Mandekan: Bulletin semestriel d’études linguistiques 14/15:139 – 152

NB: These changes only deal with consonants.

p → f

f → d (yes, really)

tʼ {kʼ,ɡ,w} → {t,d} k

l → d

z → s

ɡb → b

j → dʒ

ŋ → ɲ

26.12 Proto-Mande to Soninka

Pogostick Man, from Dwyer, David J. (1987/1988), “Towards Proto Mande Morphology”. Mandekan: Bulletin semestriel d’études linguistiques 14/15:139 – 152

NB: These changes only deal with consonants.

p → f

tʼ {kʼ,ɡ} → {t,d} k

z → j ?

{w,ŋ} → j

kp ɡb → k b

26.13 Proto-Mande to Susu

Pogostick Man, from Dwyer, David J. (1987/1988), “Towards Proto Mande Morphology”. Mandekan: Bulletin semestriel d’études linguistiques 14/15:139 – 152

NB: These changes only deal with consonants.

p → f

tʼ → t

l → d

z → s

w → x

ŋ → j

kp ɡb → k b

27 Mayan

Wikipedia gives the following for the Proto-Mayan phonology:

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p ɓ t tʼ tʲ tʲʼ k kʼ q qʼ ʔ
Fricative s ʃ χ h
Affricate ts tsʼ tʃ tʃʼ
Liquid l r
Glide j w
Front Central Back
High i iː u uː
Mid e eː o oː
Low a aː

(From Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Mayan languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mayan_languages&oldid=583331877>)

27.1 Proto-Mayan to Ch’olan

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Proto-Mayan language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Mayan_language&oldid=571518268>

q(ʼ) → k(ʼ)

ŋ → n

aː eː oː → ɨ i u

tʲ(ʼ) → t(ʼ)

r → j

Vː → V[-long]

27.2 Proto-Mayan to Chujean

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Proto-Mayan language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Mayan_language&oldid=571518268>

ŋ → n

tʲ(ʼ) → t(ʼ)

r → j

Vː → V[-long]

27.3 Proto-Mayan to Huastecan

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Proto-Mayan language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Mayan_language&oldid=571518268>

w → b

h → w / _{o,u}

q(ʼ) → k(ʼ)

ŋ → h

kV[+round]C[+glide] → kʷ

27.4 Proto-Mayan to Ixilean

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Proto-Mayan language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Mayan_language&oldid=571518268>

ŋ → x

t → tʃ

CVʔVC → CVʔC

r → {t,j}

tʃ → ʈʂ

27.5 Proto-Mayan to Kaqchikel-Tz’utujil

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Proto-Mayan language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Mayan_language&oldid=571518268>

ŋ → x

h → j / _#

CVʔVC → CVʔC

ɓ w → ʔ j / VCV_#

tʲ(ʼ) → tʃ(ʼ)

Vː → V[-long]

“Kaqchikel retains a centralized lax schwa-like vowel as a reflex of Proto-Mayan [a]”

27.6 Proto-Mayan to Core K’iche’

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Proto-Mayan language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Mayan_language&oldid=571518268>

ŋ → x

CVʔVC → CVʔC

tʲ(ʼ) → tʃ(ʼ)

27.7 Proto-Mayan to Mamean

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Proto-Mayan language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Mayan_language&oldid=571518268>

ŋ → x

t → tʃ

CVʔVC → CVʔC

r → {t,j}

tʃ → ʈʂ

tʲ(ʼ) → t(ʼ)

tʲ(ʼ) → ts(ʼ)

r t tʃ ʃ → t tʃ ʈʂ ʂ

27.8 Proto-Mayan to Q’anjob’alan

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Proto-Mayan language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Mayan_language&oldid=571518268>

q(ʼ) → k(ʼ)

ŋ → n

r → j

Vː → V[-long]

27.9 Proto-Mayan to Tzeltalan

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Proto-Mayan language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Mayan_language&oldid=571518268>

q(ʼ) → k(ʼ)

ŋ → n

aː eː oː → ɨ i u

27.10 Proto-Mayan to Yucatecan

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Proto-Mayan language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Mayan_language&oldid=571518268>

q(ʼ) → k(ʼ)

ŋ → n

aː → ɨ

t → tʃ / _#

tʲ(ʼ) → tʃ(ʼ)

“[V]owel length and [h] and [ʔ]” have converted into a tone distinction

28 Muskogean

The following Proto-Muskogean phonemic inventory is adapted from Wikipedia contributors (2016), citing Booker (2005).

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Rounded Velar
Nasal m n
Stop p t k
Affricate ts
Fricative s ʃ x
Lateral Fricative ɬ
Approximant l j w
Unknown θ

In addition, Booker (2005) posits two phonemes of unknown value. These phonemes dropped out in all positions in Eastern Muskogean, and only survived in the final syllable in Western Muskogean, where they yielded a glottal stop (/ʔ/) and a glottal fricative (/h/) before developing further in the respective languages. I have termed the progenitor phonemes “weak” (namely C1[+ weak] and C2[+ weak]). (I tentatively hypothesize that these were *ʔ *h, respectively, but am not sure.)

I would like to take the unusual step of asking for help. I had to go to the library to find Booker’s paper, and in my notes I failed to write down the languages for which the following sound changes occurred:

l → j / a_i

k → ∅ / V_C ! penult

V → V̂ː / _Cko, ko lost?

If anyone has a copy of Booker’s paper and can double-check, please contact me via one of the methods listed in the appropriate section.

(From Wikipedia contributors (2016), “Muskogean languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Muskogean_languages&oldid=704652062>, citing Booker, Karen (2005), “Muskogean Historical Phonology”. In Hardy, Heather Kay, and Janine Scancarelli, eds., Native Languages of the Southeastern United States 246 – 298; and Booker, Karen (2005), “Muskogean Historical Phonology”. In Hardy, Heather Kay, and Janine Scancarelli, eds., Native Languages of the Southeastern United States 246 – 298)

28.1 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Eastern Muskogean

Pogostick Man, from Booker, Karen (2005), “Muskogean Historical Phonology”. In Hardy, Heather Kay, and Janine Scancarelli, eds., Native Languages of the Southeastern United States 246 – 298

θ → ɬ

xʷ → f

VC[+ weak] → ∅ / _V#

28.1.1 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Alabama

Pogostick Man, from Booker, Karen (2005), “Muskogean Historical Phonology”. In Hardy, Heather Kay, and Janine Scancarelli, eds., Native Languages of the Southeastern United States 246 – 298

ʃ → ts

kV → ∅ / V_#

k → ∅

ts x → s h / _C

28.1.2 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Creek

Pogostick Man, from Booker, Karen (2005), “Muskogean Historical Phonology”. In Hardy, Heather Kay, and Janine Scancarelli, eds., Native Languages of the Southeastern United States 246 – 298

V1kV2 → V2ː / #((C)V(C))(C)_#

V1k → ∅ / _#

ʃ → ts

kʷ → k / #_

kʷ → b

S → S[+ voice] / V_V

h → x / _%

V0xV0 → V0ː

Initial vowels lost?

x → w / a_o

x → h

m → ŋ / _k

ts and t alternate before k

kl → kː

Cː → C[- long]

28.1.3 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Hitchiti

Pogostick Man, from Booker, Karen (2005), “Muskogean Historical Phonology”. In Hardy, Heather Kay, and Janine Scancarelli, eds., Native Languages of the Southeastern United States 246 – 298

ʃ → ts

V → ∅ / Vk_#

x → j / V0_V0

x → h

28.1.4 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Korasati

Pogostick Man, from Booker, Karen (2005), “Muskogean Historical Phonology”. In Hardy, Heather Kay, and Janine Scancarelli, eds., Native Languages of the Southeastern United States 246 – 298

ʃ → ts

VkV → ”V / _#

k → ∅

ts → s / _C

nt → tː

x → h

28.1.5 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Mikasuri

Pogostick Man, from Booker, Karen (2005), “Muskogean Historical Phonology”. In Hardy, Heather Kay, and Janine Scancarelli, eds., Native Languages of the Southeastern United States 246 – 298

V → ∅ / Vk_#

x → j / V0_V0

tʃ → s / _C ! _k

ʃ x → ts h

28.1.6 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Seminole

Pogostick Man, from Booker, Karen (2005), “Muskogean Historical Phonology”. In Hardy, Heather Kay, and Janine Scancarelli, eds., Native Languages of the Southeastern United States 246 – 298

ʃ x → ts h

tl → tː

28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western Muskogean

Pogostick Man, from Booker, Karen (2005), “Muskogean Historical Phonology”. In Hardy, Heather Kay, and Janine Scancarelli, eds., Native Languages of the Southeastern United States 246 – 298

ts tʃ → s ts

θ → n

s → ʃ

x → h

C1[+ weak] C2[+ weak] → ʔ h / V_V#

V → ∅ / V{k,ʔ,h}_#

xʷ → h / %_{o,i}(C)#

a → o / xʷ_#

oj aj → iː {aː,iː}

i → ∅ / #(C)V(C)(C)V(C)(C)_# (sporadic in the case of other vowels)

tl st → lː tː

28.2.1 Proto-Western Muskogean to Chickasaw

Pogostick Man, from Booker, Karen (2005), “Muskogean Historical Phonology”. In Hardy, Heather Kay, and Janine Scancarelli, eds., Native Languages of the Southeastern United States 246 – 298

h → ∅ / _#

aw → o

xʷɬ → ɬː

28.2.2 Proto-Western Muskogean to Choctaw

Pogostick Man, from Booker, Karen (2005), “Muskogean Historical Phonology”. In Hardy, Heather Kay, and Janine Scancarelli, eds., Native Languages of the Southeastern United States 246 – 298

ʔ → ∅/ _#

xʷ → h / V_V

ɬh → ɬː

a → o / _w

p → k / _C

29 Na-Dene

Note that the changes from Proto-Na-Dene and Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak deal only with obstruents.

29.1 Proto-Na-Dene to Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2015), “Na-Dene languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Na-Dene_languages&oldid=666126262>

kʲ kʲʼ ɡʲ xʲ → ts tsʼ dz s

{s,ʃ} → ∅ / _x

29.1.1 Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak to Proto-Athabaskan

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2015), “Na-Dene languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Na-Dene_languages&oldid=666126262>

ɬ → {ɬ,l}

ʃ → {ʂ,ʐ}

{s,dz} → {s,z}

k kʼ kʷ kʷʼ ɡ ɡʷ → kʲ kʲʼ tʂ tʂʼ ɡʲ ɖʐ

x xʷ → {xʲ,j} {ʂ,ʐ}

Qʷ → Qʷ → Q ?

χ(ʷ) → {χ,ʁ}

29.1.1.1 Athabaskan

Wikipedia gives the following reconstructions, adapted from Cook (1981), Krauss & Golla (1981), Krauss & Leer (1981), and Cook & Rice (1981) for the consonants and from Leer (2005:284) for the vowels; the vowel phonemes in parentheses are reduced.

Bilabial Alveolar Postalveolar Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ
Plosive t tʰ tʼ k kʰ kʼ q qʷ qʰ qʷʰ qʼ qʷʼ ʔ
Fricative s z ʃ ʃʷ ʒ ʒʷ x ɣ χ χʷ ʁ ʁʷ h
Lat. Fric. ɬ ɮ~l
Affricate t͜s t͜sʰ t͜sʼ t͜ʃ t͜ʃʷ t͜ʃʰ t͜ʃʷʰ t͜ʃʼ t͜ʃʷʼ
Lat. Aff. tɬ͜ tɬ͜ʰ tɬ͜’
Approximant j w
Front Back
High
Mid (ə) (ʊ)
Low (ɑ) ɑː

In addition, though it is not encountered in these changes, there is a phoneme that crops up in forms of the first-person singular pronoun which has various reflexes in many Athabaskan languages; Krauss (1976b) represents it as *$. Leer transcribed it as *šʸ in 2005:284 but in 2008 opted to use the *$ transcription.

The great majority of changes in this section are for the respective series of consonants, not for individual ones; therefore, changes specific to single consonants are marked so, and the reader should assume that unless explicitly stated, all of the following changes apply to the entire consonantal series. At the recommendation of Jan Strasser, the following conventions will be used to refer to the series; these are based on the abbreviations Whimemsz gave on the original Correspondence Library page, derived from the voiceless members of each series:

  1. T, dental stops
  2. TŁ, laterals
  3. TS, dental affricates and fricatives
  4. TŠ, palatals
  5. TŠʷ, labialized palatals
  6. K, front (palatalized) velars
  7. Q, uvulars
  8. Qʷ, labialized uvulars
Whimemsz was unsure of the abbreviation of the glottal series. In addition, there also exist a series of (inter-?)dentals, abbreviated TH, and one of retroflexes, abbreviated TṢ. Changes marked with an asterisk, *, apply to the individual phone(me)s.

(From Whimemsz’s statements from the TCL thread and Wiki, and from Wikipedia contributors (2011), “Athabaskan languages”. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Athabaskan_languages&oldid=454112398>)

29.1.1.1.1 Proto-Athabaskan to Ahtna

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

{TŠ,TŠʷ} → TS

K → TŠ / in Mentasta Ahtna

{ʃ(ʷ),x} → s

ɑ ə ʊ → a e o

Vˀ → V[-glottalized]

29.1.1.1.2 Proto-Athabaskan to Babine

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

{TŠ,TŠʷ} → TS

u ɑ ʊ → {o,u} ə u

Vˀ → V[-glottalized]

29.1.1.1.3 Proto-Athabaskan to Beaver

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

TS → TH (most often back to 3, however)

{TŠ,TŠʷ} → TS

K Q → TŠ K

T → TŠ / _{i,e,u}, in the British Columbian dialect

{n,ɲ} → d / $_V[-nas] (→ dʒ in the British Columbian dialect)

ɑ → ə

Vˀ → V[+high tone]

29.1.1.1.4 Proto-Athabaskan to Chilcotin

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

TS series desibilantizes

V → {Vˀ,V[+RTR]}

{TŠ,TŠʷ} K → TS TŠ

The Q series incompletely moves to the K series, the latter being more common

e {ɑ,ə} → i {e,ɪ}

Vˀ → V[+high tone]

29.1.1.1.5 Proto-Athabaskan to Chipewyan

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

TS {TŠ,TŠʷ} K Q → TH TS TŠ K

t → k (not for all speakers)

{A,O’} → F / _$

ɑ ʊ → a o

Vˀ → V[+high tone]

29.1.1.1.6 Proto-Athabaskan to Dakelh

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

{TŠ,TŠʷ} K Q → TS TŠ K

u {ɑ,ʊ} → {o,u} ə

Vˀ → V[-glottalized]

29.1.1.1.7 Proto-Athabaskan to Deg Hit’an

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

TS TŠ → TH TS

TŠʷ → TṢ (→ TS in Kuskokwim dialect)

K → {K,TŠ}

w → v (→ w in Shageluk dialect)

ɲ → ŋ

R F → R[-voiced] F[-voiced] / _# in suffixes

e u a {ɑ,ʊ} → a i u ə

C’ → C / _$

Vˀ → V[-glottalized]

29.1.1.1.8 Proto-Athabaskan to Dena’ina

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

{TŠ,TŠʷ} → TŠ (→ TS in Upper Inlet dialect)

e a u {ə,ʊ} → a u i ə

{ʃ(ʷ),x {z,ʒ(ʷ),ɣ} → s j

Vˀ → V[-glottalized]

29.1.1.1.9 Proto-Athabaskan to Dogrib

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

C → h / _$

ɑ ə ʊ u → a e o i

{TŠ,TŠʷ} K Q → TS TŠ K

ts tsʰ tsʼ s z → kʷ kʷʰ kʷʼ ʍ w

29.1.1.1.10 Proto-Athabaskan to Easter Gwich’in

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

NB: Here, 〈TS〉 represents a sound that Whimemsz says “is between” the TH and TS series POA-wise.

TS K → TŠ TS / _E

TS K → TH TŠ / else

TŠ TŠʷ Q → TS TṢ K

j w → ʒ v

{n,ɲ} → ⁿdʒ / _E[-nas]

{n,ɲ} → ⁿd / _V[-nas]

{i,e} → {i,ja} (this latter due to the loss of final consonants within the stem)

a u {ɑ,ə} ʊ → {i,e} ju a o

Vˀ → V[+low tone]

“An ‘extensive reduction’ of stem-final consonants; however, reflexes of final *-ɲ and *-n after PA *a and *e are kept distinct”

29.1.1.1.11 Proto-Athabaskan to Han

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

TS TŠ TŠʷ K Q → TH TS TṢ TŠ K

Occasional palatalization in front of high vowels

n → (ⁿ)d / $_V[-nas]

j → ʒ / $_

a ɑ ə ʊ → æ a {ə,ë} o

Acquisition of vowel length, but how this occurs is not described

Vˀ → V[+low tone]

Majority of stem-final consonants lost; the only stem-finals permitted in comtemporary Han are /t k w j r n h ʔ/, with the addition of /l/ in Dawson Han

29.1.1.1.12 Proto-Athabaskan to Holikachuk

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

TS → TH

e → a / in prefixes

i e a u {ɑ,ʊ} → e a ɔ o ŭ

TS {TŠ,TŠʷ} → TŁ TS

C’ → C / _$

Vˀ → V[+low tone]

w (→ b?) → m

ə → ∅ / {R,F}_#

29.1.1.1.13 Proto-Athabaskan to Hupa

Pogostick Man, from Sapir, Edward (1936), ”Reflexes of Proto-Athabaskan in Several Languages (Hupa, Navaho, Chipewyan, Sarcee)”

NB: First, part of the list of correspondences was cut off; second, it is sometimes difficult to read Sapir’s handwriting; and third, I’m hoping I made the correct inferences about his notation.

h → {h,∅}

q ʀ → x w

{qʷ,xʷ} qʷʼ ɢʷ ɣʷ → x(ʷ) q(ʷ)ʼ ɢ(ʷ) w

z → s

{ʃ,ʒ} → w

xʲ → w

29.1.1.1.14 Proto-Athabaskan to Lower Koyukon

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

e a ɑ ʊ → a o ŏ ŭ

TS {TŠ,TŠʷ} → TŁ TS

C’ → C / _$

Vˀ → V[+low tone]

w (→ b?) → m

ə → ∅ / {R,F}_#

29.1.1.1.15 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Koyukon

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

e a ɑ ʊ → a o ŏ ŭ

TS {TŠ,TŠʷ} → TŁ TS

Stem-final/suffixal consonant clusters lost in Minchumina-Bearpaw Upper Koyukon

K → TŠ

C’ → C / _$

Vˀ → V[+low tone] → V[-tone]

w → m / _Vn (sporadic)

w → b

29.1.1.1.16 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Kuskokwim Kolchan

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

TŠ TŠʷ K Q → TS TṢ TŠ K

e a {ɑ,ʊ} → a o ŭ

Vˀ → V[-glottalized]

29.1.1.1.17 Proto-Athabaskan to Sarcee

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

{TŠ,TŠʷ} K Q → TS TŠ K

ɑ́ ə́ ʊ́ → ɑ̄ ə̄ ʊ̄

{e,ə} ʊ → ɑ u

Vˀ → V[+low tone]

29.1.1.1.18 Proto-Athabaskan to Sekani

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

TS → TH (→ TS again in some areas)

{TŠ,TŠʷ} K Q → TS TŠ Q

T → TŠ / _{i,e,u} ! in Ware Sekani

ʊ → o

Vˀ → V[+high tone]

29.1.1.1.19 Proto-Athabaskan to Proto-Southern Athabaskan

Pogostick Man, from Hoijer, Harry (1938), “The Southern Athapaskan Languages”. American Anthropologist 40:75 – 87

K → TS

m → {m,b} (→ b seems more common)

ɣ → h / in prefixes relating to word derivation

VnC → V[+ nas]C / _#, unless C = ʔ

t n x → d n h / in prefixes relating to word derivation

29.1.1.1.20 Proto-Southern Athabaskan to Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan

Pogostick Man, from Hoijer, Harry (1938), “The Southern Athapaskan Languages”. American Anthropologist 40:75 – 87

t → k

{s,z}(ʔ) {ʃ,ʒ}(ʔ) {ɬ,ɮ}(ʔ) → s ʃ ɬ / _#

29.1.1.1.21 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Kiowa Apache

Pogostick Man, from Hoijer, Harry (1938), “The Southern Athapaskan Languages”. American Anthropologist 40:75 – 87

n → d

d → ∅ / _#

k → tʃ / _E

{xʲ,j}ʔ {x,ɣ}ʔ → ∅ h(ʔ) / _#

Vnʔ VnC → V[+ nas] V[+ nas]C / _#

x ɣ → h ∅ / _#

{d,j} → j / ∅ / _#

xʲ j → ʃ ʒ

29.1.1.1.22 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Jicarilla

Pogostick Man, from Hoijer, Harry (1938), “The Southern Athapaskan Languages”. American Anthropologist 40:75 – 87

d → ʔ / _#

xʲ xʔ j ɣʔ → h ʔ ∅ ʔ / E_#

xʲ xʔ j ɡʔ → ih iʔ i iʔ / _#

xʲʔ jʔ → h ʔ / _#

x ɣ / h ∅ / _#

n → ⁿd

xʲ → s

j → ɣ / _E

Vnʔ VnC → V[+ nas] V[+ nas]C / _#

29.1.1.1.23 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Lipan

Pogostick Man, from Hoijer, Harry (1938), “The Southern Athapaskan Languages”. American Anthropologist 40:75 – 87

d → ∅ / _#

xʲ j → ʃ ∅ / _#

{xʲ,j}ʔ → ∅ / _#

{x,ɣ} → ∅ / _(ʔ)#

Vnʔ VnC → V[+ nas] V[+ nas] / _#

n → ⁿd

xʲ → s

j → ɣ / _E

29.1.1.1.24 Proto-Southern Athabaskan to Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan

Pogostick Man, from Hoijer, Harry (1938), “The Southern Athapaskan Languages”. American Anthropologist 40:75 – 87

j → ɣ / _E

29.1.1.1.25 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Chiricahua

Pogostick Man, from Hoijer, Harry (1938), “The Southern Athapaskan Languages”. American Anthropologist 40:75 – 87

d → ∅ / _#

xʲ j → ʃ ∅ / _#

{xʲ,j}ʔ → ∅ / _#

{x,ɣ} → ∅ / _(ʔ)#

Vnʔ → V[+ nas] / _#

n → ⁿd

{s,z}(ʔ) {ʃ,ʒ}(ʔ) {ɬ,ɮ}(ʔ) → s ʃ ɬ / _#

29.1.1.1.26 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Mescalero

Pogostick Man, from Hoijer, Harry (1938), “The Southern Athapaskan Languages”. American Anthropologist 40:75 – 87

d → ∅

xʲ j → ʃ ∅ / _#

{xʲ,j}ʔ → ∅ / _#

{x,ɣ} → ∅ / _(ʔ)#

Vnʔ → V[+ nas] / _#

n → ⁿd

ʔ → ∅ / {s,ʃ,ɬ}_#

z(ʔ) ʒ(ʔ) ɮ(ʔ) → dz dʒ dɮ / _#

29.1.1.1.28 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to San Carlos

Pogostick Man, from Hoijer, Harry (1938), “The Southern Athapaskan Languages”. American Anthropologist 40:75 – 87

x(ʲ) {j,ɣ} → h ∅ / _#

xʲʔ jʔ → h ʔ / _#

{x,ɣ}ʔ → ɡ

Vnˀ → V[+ nas] / _#

n → ⁿd

{s,z}(ʔ) {ʃ,ʒ}(ʔ) {ɬ,ɮ}(ʔ) → s ʃ ɬ / _#

29.1.1.1.29 Proto-Athabaskan to Bearlake Slavey-Hare

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

C → {h,ʔ} / _#

ɑ ə ʊ → a ɛ o

{TŠ,TŠʷ} K Q → TS TŠ K

ts tsʰ tsʼ s z → kʷ kʷʰ kʷʼ ʍ w

29.1.1.1.30 Proto-Athabaskan to Hare Slavey-Hare

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

tɬʰ tʃ(ʷ)ʰ kʰ → ɬ s ʃ

{TŠ,TŠʷ} K → TS TŠ (with exceptions)

Q → K

∅ → j / _e

ɬ → l

ts tsʰ tsʼ {s,z} → {kʷ,p} f wˀ w

29.1.1.1.31 Proto-Athabaskan to Mountain Slavey-Hare

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

C → {h,ʔ} / _#

ɑ ə ʊ → a e o

{TŠ,TŠʷ} K Q → TS TŠ K

ts tsʰ tsʼ s z → p pʰ pʼ f v

29.1.1.1.32 Proto-Athabaskan to Slavey Slavey-Hare

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

C → {h,ʔ} / _#

ɑ ə ʊ → a e o

{TŠ,TŠʷ} K Q → TS TŠ K

29.1.1.1.33 Proto-Athabaskan to Tahltan-Kaska-Tagish

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

ɑ ə ʊ → a {i,e} u

C’ → C / _$

Q → K

29.1.1.1.34 Tahltan-Kaska-Tagish to Kaska

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

Vˀ → V[+high tone]

TS {TŠ,TŠʷ} → TH TS

K → TŠ (although /xʲ/ stays as such in a few dialects)

29.1.1.1.35 Tahltan-Kaska-Tagish to Tagish

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

{TŠ,TŠʷ} TS → TS TSʲ

29.1.1.1.36 Tahltan-Kaska-Tagish to Tahltan

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

{TŠʷ,K} → TŠ (although /xʲ/ stays as such in a few dialects)

29.1.1.1.37 Proto-Athabaskan to Tanacross

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

K → TŠ / ! _$

TS TŠ TŠʷ Q → TH TS TṢ K

S’ → S / _$

Vˀ → V[+high tone]

Acquisition of phonemic length in some unreduced vowels, though exactly how is not explored

Vɲ → V[+nas]

{n,ɲ} → ⁿd

F[+voiced] → F[-voiced] / _$

ʃ → h / in the “1sg subject prefix”

ɬ → h / in the grammatical classifier

ɑ ə ʊ → {æ̆,ă} æ̆ ŏ

29.1.1.1.38 Proto-Athabaskan to Lower Tanana

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

K → TŠ / ! _$

TS TŠ TŠᵚ Q → TH TS TṢ K

S’ → S / _$

Vˀ → V[+low tone] (“since then partially neutralized in noun and verb stems, but ‘still clear in verbal prefixes’”)

e a {ɑ,ʊ} → æ ɔ ŭ

29.1.1.1.39 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Tanana

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

K → TŠ / ! _$

TS TŠ TŠʷ Q → TH TS TṢ K

S’ → S / _$

Acquisition of phonemic length in some unreduced vowels, but this is not explored

Vɲ → V[+nas]

{n,ɲ} → ⁿd

{A,F} → ∅ / _$; diphthongs sometimes lengthen in comparison

ʃ → h / in the “1sg subject prefix”

ɬ → h / in the grammatical classifier

{a,ɑ} e i u ʊ → e(a) {i,ea} ju {a,ɨ} o

ə → {a,ɨ} (→ ø in the Northway dialect)

Vˀ → V[+low tone] (→ V[-tone] in “young speakers by 1980”)

29.1.1.1.40 Proto-Athabaskan to Tsetsaut

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

NB: Whimemsz indicates that the following are to be taken with a grain of salt, as not all of the correspondences are clear due to a lack of detailed sources.

TŠ → TS

Series TŠʷ apparently moved its POA to the labiodental or bilabial position

K Q → TŠ K

C → ∅ / _$ in many cases

ʊ → o

29.1.1.1.41 Proto-Athabaskan to Northern Tutchone

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

TS {TŠ,TŠʷ} → TH TS

K → TŠ (although /xʲ/ remained as such in a few dialects)

Q → K

{ɑ,ə,ʊ} → {a,o}

Most stem-final consonants lost, though some plain and labialized palatal reflexes have developed differently

Vˀ → V[+high tone]

Acquisition of nasalized vowels and diphthongs
/o/ somehow develops

29.1.1.1.42 Proto-Athabaskan to Southern Tutchone

Whimemsz, from Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla (1981), “Northern Athapaskan Languages”. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6 (Subarctic), 67 – 85

TS {TŠ,TŠʷ} → TH TS

K → TŠ (although /xʲ/ remained as such in a few dialects)

Q → K

e a → i e

{ɑ,ə,ʊ} → {a,o}

Most stem-final consonants lost, though some plain and labialized palatal reflexes have developed differently

Vˀ → V[+low tone]

Acquisition of nasalized vowels and diphthongs
/ɨ/ somehow develops

A → F (some slight POA changes; alveolars become dentals, for instance)

29.1.2 Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak to Eyak

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2015), “Na-Dene languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Na-Dene_languages&oldid=666126262>

kʲ kʲʼ ɡʲ xʲ → ts tsʼ dz {s,ʃ}

Kʷ → K

qʷ qʷʼ ɢʷ → q qʼ ɢ

s → ∅ / _x

x → ∅ / ʃ_

$ → xʷ → {x,s}

29.2 Proto-Na-Dene to Tlingit

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2015), “Na-Dene languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Na-Dene_languages&oldid=666126262>

NB: Where a colon appears, forms to the left are the typical forms and forms to the right are “l-assimilated”.

s → s : ɬ

ts → ts : tɬ

tsʼ → {sʼ,tsʼ} : {ɬ,tɬʼ}

ʃ → {ʃ,s} : ɬ

tʃ → {tʃ,ts} : tɬ

tʃʼ → {sʼ,tʃʼ} : tɬʼ

Somethings going on with the velars and uvulars; apparently, both the rounded and unrounded consonants have reflexes that may or may not be rounded

kʲ kʲʼ → {k,ʃ} kʼ

xʲ → x

k(ʷ)ʼ → {x,k}(ʷ)ʼ

x(ʷ) → x

qʼ qʷʼ → χ(ʷ)ʼ {χʼ,q(ʷ)ʼ}

x → ∅ / {s,ʃ}_

$ → χ

30 Niger-Congo

Hedinger (1987) reconstructs the following consonant inventory for Pre-Proto-Bantu:

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar
Lenis nasal ’m ’n ’ɲ
Fortis nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Lenis stop ’p ’t ’d ’ɟ ’k ’ɡ
Fortis stop p b t d c ɟ k ɡ
Unknown (stop?) d2
Front Central Back
High i u
Mid-high e o
Mid-low ɛ ɔ
Low a

*’p *’c *’ɟ *’ɡ appear confined to C1 position; *ŋ, to C2 position.

Hedinger also considers the Manenguba languages (and possibly the Mbo languages in general) as sharing a common ancestor with Proto-Bantu instead of being descended from it, although the author seems to use the abbreviation “PM” to refer to Proto-Manenguba.

Due to the scarcity of available resources on Niger-Congo historical phonology, there will likely be many overlaps or contradictions in the available data, maybe more so than in other sections, even Indo-European. What is included in the Index is what is available.

(From Hedinger, Robert (1987), The Manenguba Languages (Bantu A.15, Mbo Cluster) of Cameroon)

30.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Bantu

Pogostick Man, from Stewart, John M. (2002), “The potential of proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu as a pilot Proto-Niger-Congo, and the reconstructions updated”. JALL 23:197 – 224

NB: For at least the first batch of sound changes herein, the sound changes applying to those consonants in #U will also apply in U2 under the following conditions, as reported by Stewart (2002): If V2 = V1 (vowel nasality does not necessarily have to be the same, however), changes affecting the vowels will also affect V2. If C is an approximant, changes involving a nasalized V1 will also affect C2 and V2.

ʋ̃ → l̃ / #_

u ũ → i ı̃ / #R[-labial]_

ʋ̃ ɪ̃ → ũ ı̃ / #N[-labial]_

i ı̃ V[-round] → uɪ uɪ̃ V[+round] / Cʷ_

ʋ̃ → ʋ / #R[-labial]_

ʄ C → c R / #_

ɠʷ → w / #_V[-nas]

ɠʷ → w̃ / #_V[+nas]

V[+nas] → V[-nas] / #S[+voiced]_

ɪ̃ → ɛ̃ / #(C)V_C

ɰ ɰ̃ → j j̃ / #C_

ɪ ɪ̃ → i ı̃ / #(C)V[-high]C_

ʋ̃ → m / #(C)V_

O[+nas -voiced] → O[-nas] / #(C)VC_

30.1.1 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-Bantu

Pogostick Man, from Hedinger, Robert (1987), The Manenguba Languages (Bantu A.15, Mbo Cluster) of Cameroon

S[+ lenis] N[+ lenis] → S[- lenis] N[- lenis] / in C1 position

N[+ lenis] N[-lenis] → N[- lenis] ⁿS / in C2 position

d2 → d / in C2 position

30.1.1.1 Proto-Bantu to Sebirwa

Pogostick Man, from Chebanne, A. (2000), “The Sebirwa language: a synchronic and diachronic account”. Pula: Botswana Journal of African Studies 14(2)

i u VS → j w A / _V[+high +ATR]

S → Sʰ → Aʰ

V[+high +ATR] → V[+high -ATR]

NC → C[-voiced] / #_ (in nouns)

NC → N[+same POA]C / #_ (in verbs)

t d l → {ʈ,tʲ} {ɖ,dʲ} {ɭ,lʲ,ʎ} (The paper is a bit unclear as to which is meant, as the transcription and the textual aspects of the paper seem to disagree here)

p t d c ɟ k ɡ → ɸ ɹ {d,l} tʰ ∅ h {∅,ɡ}

∅ → ɡ / #n_V (in verbs)

l → d / n_

30.1.1.2 Proto-Bantu to Tswana

Whimemsz, from Creissels, Dennis (1999), “Remarks on the Sound Corresponences between Proto-Bantu and Tswana (S.31), with Particular Attention to Problems Involving *j (or *y), *j̬ and Sequences *NC”. Bantu Historical Linguistics: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives, ed. Jean-Marie Hombert and Larry M. Hyman

{p,t,tʃ,k} {mp,nt,ɲtʃ,nk} {(m)b,(n)d,(ɲ)dʒ,(n)ɡ} {m,n} → s tsʰ ts ɲ / _iV

{tʃ,k} {ntʃ,nk,r} {ɲdʒ,nɡ} mp mb p b {d,l} m n → s tsʰ ts tʃʰ(w) tʃ(w) ʃ(w) dʒ(w) dʒ ŋw ɲ / _{ɪ,e}V

{p,t,tʃ,k} {mp,nt,ɲtʃ,nk} {(m)b,(n)d,(ɲ)dʒ,(n)ɡ} {m,n,ɲ} → sw tsʰw tsw ɲw / _iV

mp mb p b m → tʃʰ(w) tʃ(w) ʃ(w) dʒ(w) ŋw / _{ʊ,o}V

“In these cases, the initial vowel of the sequence drops following the consonant change”; Whimemsz doesn’t specify if all V1V2 sequences drop the V1

{tʃ,k} {ɲtʃ,nk} {ndʒ,nɡ} → s tsʰ ts / _{i,ɪ,e}

nk k → kʰ h / _u

mp nt ɲtʃ nk mp nd ɲdʒ nɡ → pʰ tʰ tɬʰ qʰ p t tɬ k

p t tʃ k {dʒ,ɡ} ɲ → h r tɬʰ χ ∅ n

30.1.1.3 Sam

30.1.1.3.1 Proto-Sam to Amu

Pogostick Man, from Nurse, Derek (1985), “Dentality, Areal Features, and Phonological Change in Northeastern Bantu”. In Studies of African Linguistics 16(3):243 – 279

NB: Due to the source, only changes creating dental consonants are considered here.

ntç tç → (n̪)t̪ʰ t̪

{ndj,nz} → n̪d̪

30.1.1.3.2 Proto-Sam to Bajuni

Pogostick Man, from Nurse, Derek (1985), “Dentality, Areal Features, and Phonological Change in Northeastern Bantu”. In Studies of African Linguistics 16(3):243 – 279

NB: Due to the source, only changes creating dental consonants are considered here.

ntç tç → (n̪)t̪ʰ t̪

{ndj,nz} ɲz → n̪d̪ n̪ ð

30.1.1.3.3 Proto-Sam to Mwiini

Pogostick Man, from Nurse, Derek (1985), “Dentality, Areal Features, and Phonological Change in Northeastern Bantu”. In Studies of African Linguistics 16(3):243 – 279

NB: Due to the source, only a few changes, mostly concerning creating dental consonants, are considered here.

ntç tç → (n̪)t̪ʰ t̪

ndj → n̪d̪

ɲ → {ɲ,n̪}

30.1.1.3.4 Proto-Sam to Siu-Pate

Pogostick Man, from Nurse, Derek (1985), “Dentality, Areal Features, and Phonological Change in Northeastern Bantu”. In Studies of African Linguistics 16(3):243 – 279

NB: Due to the source, only changes creating dental consonants are considered here.

ntç tç → (n̪)t̪ʰ t̪

{ndj,nz} z → n̪d̪ ð

30.1.1.3.5 Proto-Sam to Proto-Aweera

Pogostick Man, from Nurse, Derek (1985), “Dentality, Areal Features, and Phonological Change in Northeastern Bantu”. In Studies of African Linguistics 16(3):243 – 279

NB: Due to the source, only a few changes are considered here.

nz z c → ɲd̪ ʃ

30.1.1.3.6 Proto-Sam to Lower Pokomo

Pogostick Man, from Nurse, Derek (1985), “Dentality, Areal Features, and Phonological Change in Northeastern Bantu”. In Studies of African Linguistics 16(3):243 – 279

NB: Due to the source, only a change creating a dental consonant is considered here.

l → d̪

30.1.2 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-Manenguba

Pogostick Man, from Hedinger, Robert (1987), The Manenguba Languages (Bantu A.15, Mbo Cluster) of Cameroon

NB: In Hedinger’s notation, an apostrophe indicates a lenis consonant in Pre-Proto-Bantu.

*ɟ may have turned into one of {c,(n)z}?

’p ’t ’d/d2 c {’ɟ} ’k ɡ → f l ɟ s ∅ {w,∅} {k,w} / in C1 position

N[+ lenis] → N[- lenis] / in C1 position

p t ’t {’d,d2} c k ’k → b d l {l,∅} ɟ ɡ ∅ / in C2 position

’m m ’n n {’ɲ,ɲ} ŋ → m {ᵐb,m} n {ⁿd,n} ɲ {ᵑɡ,ŋ} / in C2 position

{u,o} {ɛ,e,i} → w j / C_a in noun roots

{u,o} {ɛ,e,i} → w j / C_(a) in verb roots

{u,o} {ɛ,e,i} → w j / C_$V in noun class prefixes

f → h (perhaps not in all languages?)

30.2 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Potou-Akanic

Pogostick Man, from Stewart, John M. (2002), “The potential of proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu as a pilot Proto-Niger-Congo, and the reconstructions updated”. JALL 23:197 – 224

C → J[+nas] / #(C)V[+nas]_

ɰɰ̃ →l l̃ / #(C)V_

C → J / #(C)V_

ɪ(Cɪ) → e(Ci) / t_; “vowel nasalizations are retained either way on each”

ɟ ʄ j c ɠʷ → c ɟ ʄ t ɠ̥p

(N)V1[+mid +nas](l̃) → CV[-nas]n

V[+nas](ʋ̃,l̃) → V[-nas](m,n) / #J[+voiced]_

30.2.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic to Proto-Akanic

Pogostick Man, from Stewart, John M. (2002), “The potential of proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu as a pilot Proto-Niger-Congo, and the reconstructions updated”. JALL 23:197 – 224

V[+high +ATR](C(V[+high -ATR])) → #(C)V[-high +ATR](CV[+high +ATR]) / #J[+dorsal -voiced]_

ɛ → ia / #(C)_

R[-voiced] R[+voiced] W → Z[-voiced] O[-voiced] F / #_

ɰ ɰ̃ w̃ → h h̃ h̃ʷ / #_

h̃ hʷ → ɕ ɕʷ

h → ɲı̃ / #_ã

h → w / #_

t → c / #_V[-nas]

30.2.1.1 Proto-Akanic to Akan

Pogostick Man, from Stewart, John M. (2002), “The potential of proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu as a pilot Proto-Niger-Congo, and the reconstructions updated”. JALL 23:197 – 224

l l̃ → j j̃ / #_

C[+dorsal] → Cʷ / _V[+round]

V → V[-round] / #C[+dorsal]_C[-labial]

jV[+nas] → jV[-nas] / #_

f → j / #_V[-nas]

f → j̃ / #_V[+nas]

{p,ʋ̃} c k͜p → f s p / #_

n → ŋ / #(C)V_

N → S (I’m not sure what’s going on here in the paper, but here it is presented anyway for your enjoyment)

V → ∅ / #(C)VC[-coronal]_

ʋ l → w ɹ / #(C)V_

V[+high] → V[+nas] / #(C)_N

i → ∅ / #C_a

ı̃ → ∅ / #_ã

30.3 Volta-Congo

30.3.1 Volta-Niger

30.3.1.1 Gbe

30.3.1.1.1 Proto-Gbe to Ajá

Pogostick Man, from Capo, Hounkpati B.C. (1991), A Comparative Phonology of Gbe

ɛ ɛ̃ → e ẽ

{o,ɔ} {ɛ,e} → u i / _i

V[+ nas - high] → [+ high] / _i

j{ã,ẽ} → {ɥ,ɥ̃} / _E

j → ɲ / _V[+ nas]

ʁ → j / _i

χ ʁ → s z / _{i,j}

χʷ hʷ → w p

30.3.1.1.2 Proto-Ajá to Hwe

Pogostick Man, from Capo, Hounkpati B.C. (1991), A Comparative Phonology of Gbe

t d → tʃ dʒ / _{u,i}

30.3.1.1.3 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Fon

Pogostick Man, from Capo, Hounkpati B.C. (1991), A Comparative Phonology of Gbe

{ts,tʰ} {dz,dʱ} → s z

{t,k}j {d,ɡ}j → tʃ dʒ

hʷ → ʁʷ

oi ɔi ɔ̃i {a,ɛ}i {ɛ̃,ẽ}i ei → oe ɔɛ ɔ̃ɛ̃ ɛɛ ɛ̃ɛ̃ ee

ãi → ɛ̃ɛ̃

30.3.1.1.4 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Gen

Pogostick Man, from Capo, Hounkpati B.C. (1991), A Comparative Phonology of Gbe

χʷ → p

ts dz → s z

{t,k}j {d,ɡ}j → tʃ dʒ

tʰ dʱ → t d

hʷ → {w,ʁʷ}

w → ŋ

ɛ ɛ̃ → e ẽ

j → ɲ / _V[+ nas]

30.3.1.1.5 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Phla-Pherá

Pogostick Man, from Capo, Hounkpati B.C. (1991), A Comparative Phonology of Gbe

{ts,tʰ} {dz,dʱ} → s z

hʷ → ʁʷ

30.3.1.1.6 Proto-Phla-Pherá to Alada

Pogostick Man, from Capo, Hounkpati B.C. (1991), A Comparative Phonology of Gbe

t d → ʃ ʒ / _j

j → ∅ / {ʃ,ʒ}_

k ɡ → ʃ ʒ / _i

30.3.1.1.7 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Vhe

Pogostick Man, from Capo, Hounkpati B.C. (1991), A Comparative Phonology of Gbe

χʷ ʁʷ → ɸ β

{ɛ,e} {~ɛ,ẽ} → ə ə̃

hʷ → w

w → ɣ / _{a,E}

w → {w,ŋ}

j → ɲ / _V[+ nas]

30.3.1.1.8 Proto-Vhe to Adángbe

Pogostick Man, from Capo, Hounkpati B.C. (1991), A Comparative Phonology of Gbe

V → V[+ nas] / N_

V[+ nas] → V[- nas] / C_ ! C = N

ts dz → s z

k ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _i

30.3.1.1.9 Proto-Vhe to Avéno

Pogostick Man, from Capo, Hounkpati B.C. (1991), A Comparative Phonology of Gbe

ə → e / _{i,j}

t d → tʃ dʒ / _{u,i}

k ɡ s → ts dz ʃ / _i

t d → ts dz / _j

30.3.1.1.10 Proto-Vhe to Awalan

Pogostick Man, from Capo, Hounkpati B.C. (1991), A Comparative Phonology of Gbe

a → e / _{i,j}

{o,ɔ} ə → u i / _i

t d → tʃ dʒ / _{u,i}

s {k,ts} {ɡ,dz} → ʃ tʃ dʒ / _i

χ ʁ → ʃ {ʒ,j} / _{u,i,j}

30.3.1.1.11 Proto-Vhe to Kpándo

Pogostick Man, from Capo, Hounkpati B.C. (1991), A Comparative Phonology of Gbe

ə ə̃ → ɛ ɛ̃

{t,k} {d,ɡ} → ts dz / _i

t d → tʃ dʒ / _j

j → ∅ / {ts,dz}_

V → [+ round] / w_

30.3.1.1.12 Proto-Vhe to Pecı́

Pogostick Man, from Capo, Hounkpati B.C. (1991), A Comparative Phonology of Gbe

ə ə̃ → ɛ ɛ̃

{k,ts} {ɡ,dz} → tʃ dʒ / _i

V → [+ round] / w_

30.3.1.1.13 Proto-Vhe to Tɔ̣wun

Pogostick Man, from Capo, Hounkpati B.C. (1991), A Comparative Phonology of Gbe

ə → e / _{i,j}

n → ŋ / _ũ

k ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _i

30.3.1.1.14 Proto-Vhe to Wacı́

Pogostick Man, from Capo, Hounkpati B.C. (1991), A Comparative Phonology of Gbe

ə → e / _{i,j}

{k,ts} {ɡ,dz} → tʃ dʒ / _i

V → [+ round] / w_

31 Nyulnyulan

The following phonemic inventory for Proto-Nyulnyulan is adapted from Bowern (2004).

Labial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
Stop b d ɖ ɟ ɡ
Rhotic r ɽ
Lateral l ɭ ʎ
Glide w j
Front Central Back
High i iː u uː
Low a aː

(From Bowern, Claire Louise (2004), “Bardi Verb Morphology in Historical Perspective”)

31.1 Proto-Nyulnyulan to Bardi

Pogostick Man, from Bowern, Claire Louise (2004), “Bardi Verb Morphology in Historical Perspective”

{w,j} → ∅ / #_

{w,j} → ∅ / V0_V0

awu → o

aji → iː / when unstressed

i{w,j} → ∅ / _a, when unstressed

i → u / _ju

u → i / _j

j → ∅ / i_

ɟ → j / V_V

ɲ → ∅ / _#

ubu aba → uː aː / when stressed

ib → ∅ / _i, when unstressed

b → w / a_u

aɡu → o

i(ː)b ik → iw ij / _a

V0 → ∅ / V(C)(C)V0(C)(C)_# (with some exceptions)

Some vowel deletions, the conditioning of which the author does not elaborate upon

V → Vː / when stressed ?

32 Oto-Manguean

Rensch (1977) reconstructs Proto-Oto-Manguean as having had the following phonemic inventory:

Alveolar Palatal Velar Laryngeal
Nasal n
Plosive t k kʷ ʔ
Fricative s h
Liquid Y w
Front Back
High i u
Low e a

Vowels could have had one of four tones, the first of which is denoted as a high tone.

(From Rensch, Calvin R. (1977), “Classification of the Otomanguean Languages and the Position of Tlapanec”. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics 55:53 – 108)

32.1 Chatino

Unless otherwise noted specifically, for Chatino correspondences, assume vowels may be either long or short.

32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatino

Pogostick Man, from Upson, B.W., and Robert E. Longacre (1965), “Proto-Chatino Phonology”. International Journal of American Linguistics 31(4):312 – 322

t → ɾ / _{u,ẽ} when unstressed

t → ɾ / _”a

t → tʃ / _”{e,iʔ}

t → ʃ / i_i

t → s / ! “in cluster with š” (presumably [ʃ])

tʲ → s / _u

tʲ → tʃ / else

k → ɡ / a_a

kʷ → ɾ / #_ek

kʷ → b / else

ʔ → ∅ (?)

{c,tʃ} → ʃ

s → tʃ (in certain cases? Not a lot of data available on this one)

l → {lʲ,n} “under obscure conditions”

n → nʲ

nʲ → l / #_i

h → d / _a (…lolwut)

h → t / else (…again, lolwut)

j → nʲ “under obscure conditions (PC morphophonemics?)”

i → e / tʃ_

ı̃ → i

e → a / _{l,ʔn} when unstressed

e → i / {kʲ,nt}_ when stressed

e → i / in a few data sets “where obscure morphological developments (in the ultimate or penultimate syllable) have resulted in regressive assimilation of vowel quality”

ẽ → a / tʲ_

ẽ → i / h_

ẽ → i / in U[+long -stress]

ẽ → e / else

a → {i,e} “under special conditions”

32.1.2 Proto-Chatino to Tataltepec Chatino

Pogostick Man, from Upson, B.W., and Robert E. Longacre (1965), “Proto-Chatino Phonology”. International Journal of American Linguistics 31(4):312 – 322

t → tʲ / _õ (…again…lolwut)

t → tʃ / #_iç

tʲ → tʃ / _i[-long -stress]

tʲ → t / _a

kʲ → tʲ

c → tʃ / i_

tʃ → c

s → ʃ / E_ (? Not a lot of data available on this one)

ʃ → s

l n → lʲ nʲ / e_ in U[-long -stress]

ç → ʔ (? Not sure if I’m reading the phone(me)s right on this one)

e → a / _ʔ in U[-stress]

et el en → itʲ elʲ enʲ

e → i / _j

ɛ → ı̃ / S_#

ɛ → i / n_#

ɛ → e / _ʔ#, in monosyllables

32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatino

Pogostick Man, from Upson, B.W., and Robert E. Longacre (1965), “Proto-Chatino Phonology”. International Journal of American Linguistics 31(4):312 – 322

tʲ → tj

Some consonant disharmony involving reflexes of *k, *kʷ

k → tʃ / _Ek(ʷ)

kʲ → k / _{a,ã}

kʲ → kj / else

kʷ → w / _eːj

kʷ → w / _ek

kʷ → ʍ / ku_ (medial)

kʷ → kw / else

ts → tʃ / #_{a,õ}ʔ

ts → tʃ / V[+high]_

ts → ʃ / #_ẽ

c → ts

tʃ → ts / a_

s → ʃ / V_V

s → ʃ / if /l/ is present in the same syllable

s → tʃ / #_a

ʃ → s / _{ik,e,ı̃,ẽ}

ʃ → ts / _i, in monosyllables

lʲ → l / #_ in U[-long -stress]

lʲ → lj / else

nʲ → j / _ã (with some exceptions?)

nʲ → nj / else

h → ʔ / _ã

ç → hj

hʷ → ʍ

ẽ → ı̃ / {t,h}_#

ẽ → ı̃ / _ʔ#

ẽ → ı̃ / ʔ_# “in one case”

32.1.4 Proto-Chatino to Zenzontepec Chatino

Pogostick Man, from Upson, B.W., and Robert E. Longacre (1965), “Proto-Chatino Phonology”. International Journal of American Linguistics 31(4):312 – 322

NB: This set is likely very incomplete.

kʲ → tʃ

e → i / l_ when unstressed

e → i / kʲ_ when stressed

32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to Tlapanec

Pogostick Man, from Rensch, Calvin R. (1977), “Classification of the Otomanguean Languages and the Position of Tlapanec”. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics 55:53 – 108

NB: Y here refers to some sort of palatalizing element; H, to some laryngeal.

kʷ → p

n → {n,ɲ} (the latter “under obscure conditions”)

j → l(V)

Yt Ynt Ys → tʃ dʒ ʃ

{ns,nt} nkʷ nj nw → (n)d (m)b r m

nk → {ɡ,ŋ} (the latter “under obscure conditions”)

{in,en} an → a u

{iHn,eHn,aHn} uHn → ã ũ

“No clearly distinct reflex of **un has been identified”; the author speculates that this most likely turned into /u/, but does not rule out /o/ as a reflex

e → i

ʔ → ∅ / #_

h → ʃ / _C[-voice] (? “both h and š occur before nasals, so it is possible that š has a separate source in Proto Otomanguean”)

h → CVʔV / _# (or possibly in just any final syllable?)

33 Penutian

33.1 Utian

Callaghan (1983, 1988) reconstructs the following inventory for Proto-Utian:

Bilabial Coronal Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p ʈ k kʷ ʔ
Fricative ʂ ʃ h
Resonant l ɾ j w
Front Central Back
High i iː ɨɨː u uː
Mid e eː o oː
Low a aː

(From Callaghan, Catherine A. (1983), “Proto-Utian Derivational Verb Morphology”. Proceedings of the 1982 Conference on Far Western American Indian Languages, Occasional Papers on Linguistics Number 11; and Callaghan, Catherine A. (1988), “Proto-Utian Stems” in In Honor of Mary Haas)

33.1.1 Proto-Utian to Proto-Costanoan (Ohlone)

CatDoom, from Callaghan, Catherine A. (1983), “Proto-Utian Derivational Verb Morphology”. Proceedings of the 1982 Conference on Far Western American Indian Languages, Occasional Papers on Linguistics Number 11; and Callaghan, Catherine A. (1988), “Proto-Utian Stems” in In Honor of Mary Haas

ʃ → h

i$Ci → e$Ce / _C ! _ɾ

ɨ$Cɨ → e$Ce / _C ! _ɾ

e → i / _(C…)u

k → ʂ / _i

k → ʂ / i_

k → s̪ / _{ɨ,u}

k → s̪ / {ɨ,u}_

l → ɾ / ! _$ or o_

tʃ → ʂ / _#

o → a / ! o(C…)_ or _(C…){o,i}

ɨ → e / CC_#

ɨ → {e,i} / CC_

ɨ → i

33.1.1.1 Proto-Costanoan to Chochenyo

CatDoom, from Callaghan, Catherine A. (1983), “Proto-Utian Derivational Verb Morphology”. Proceedings of the 1982 Conference on Far Western American Indian Languages, Occasional Papers on Linguistics Number 11; and Callaghan, Catherine A. (1988), “Proto-Utian Stems” in In Honor of Mary Haas

tʲ ʂ → j ʃ

kʷ → k / #_

kʷ → w / else

l → ɾ / V_V

a → e / il_

o → u / _(C…)i

33.1.1.2 Proto-Utian to Proto-Miwok

CatDoom, from Callaghan, Catherine A. (1983), “Proto-Utian Derivational Verb Morphology”. Proceedings of the 1982 Conference on Far Western American Indian Languages, Occasional Papers on Linguistics Number 11; and Callaghan, Catherine A. (1988), “Proto-Utian Stems” in In Honor of Mary Haas

kʷ ʃ → w ʂ

ʈ → tʃ / _e

ʈ → tʃ / e_

33.1.1.2.1 Proto-Miwok to Proto-Western Miwok

CatDoom, from Callaghan, Catherine A. (1983), “Proto-Utian Derivational Verb Morphology”. Proceedings of the 1982 Conference on Far Western American Indian Languages, Occasional Papers on Linguistics Number 11; and Callaghan, Catherine A. (1988), “Proto-Utian Stems” in In Honor of Mary Haas

s̪ → ʂ

ʈ → tʃ / {aː,oː}_

ɨ → {u,i}

33.1.1.3 Proto-Costanoan to Mutsun

CatDoom, from Callaghan, Catherine A. (1983), “Proto-Utian Derivational Verb Morphology”. Proceedings of the 1982 Conference on Far Western American Indian Languages, Occasional Papers on Linguistics Number 11; and Callaghan, Catherine A. (1988), “Proto-Utian Stems” in In Honor of Mary Haas

ʂ → s̪

ʈ → {ʈ,ts,tʃ} / _{j,ɾ}

kʷ → k / #_

kʷ → {k,w} / else

l → ɾ / V_V

a → e / il_

o → u / _(C…)i

33.1.1.4 Proto-Costanoan to Rumsen

CatDoom, from Callaghan, Catherine A. (1983), “Proto-Utian Derivational Verb Morphology”. Proceedings of the 1982 Conference on Far Western American Indian Languages, Occasional Papers on Linguistics Number 11; and Callaghan, Catherine A. (1988), “Proto-Utian Stems” in In Honor of Mary Haas

tʲ → tʃ

h → {h,x,ʔ}

ʈ → {ʈ,tʃ} / {aː,oː}_

ʈ → {ʈ,tʃ} / {i,e,o}$_

ʈ → {ʈ,tʃ} / _{j,ɾ}

kʷ → k / #_

kʷ → {k,w} / else

l → ɾ / V_V

a → e / il_

i → e / _C(C)oC

o → u / _(C…)i

33.2 Wintun

Shepherd (2005) reconstructs the following inventory for Proto-Wintun:

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p pʰ pʼ b t tʰ tʼ d k kʰ kʼ ɡ q qʰ qʼ ʔ
Fricative s ɬ x χ h
Affricate tɬʼ tʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ
Liquid w r l j
Front Central Back
High i iː u uː
Mid e eː o oː
Low a aː

Shepherd further notes that “PW vowel length before continuants appears to be non-distinctive in many instances”.

(From Shepherd, Alice (2005), “Proto-Wintun”. UC Publications in Linguistics. <http://escholarship.org/uc/item/8dq1f3jj>)

33.2.1 Proto-Wintuan to Nomlaki

Pogostick Man, from Shepherd, Alice (2005), “Proto-Wintun”. UC Publications in Linguistics. <http://escholarship.org/uc/item/8dq1f3jj>

VrV → {Vː,M}

r → j / _#

tʃʰ kʰ qʰ {x,χ} → tʃ k(ʰ) {kʰ,qʰ,χ} kʰ

33.2.2 Proto-Wintuan to Patwin

Pogostick Man, from Shepherd, Alice (2005), “Proto-Wintun”. UC Publications in Linguistics. <http://escholarship.org/uc/item/8dq1f3jj>

tʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ → t tʰ tʼ

k(ʰ) kʼ q(ʰ) qʼ → tʃ(h) tʃʼ kʰ kʼ

x χ → s h

33.2.3 Proto-Wintuan to South Patwin

Pogostick Man, from Shepherd, Alice (2005), “Proto-Wintun”. UC Publications in Linguistics. <http://escholarship.org/uc/item/8dq1f3jj>

r → {r,j}

tʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ → t tʰ tʼ

k(ʰ) kʼ q(ʰ) qʼ → tʃ(ʰ) tʃʼ k(ʰ) kʼ

x → s

χ → ∅ (?)

33.2.4 Proto-Wintuan to Wintu

Pogostick Man, from Shepherd, Alice (2005), “Proto-Wintun”. UC Publications in Linguistics. <http://escholarship.org/uc/item/8dq1f3jj>

tʃʰ → tʃ

kʰ qʰ → k χ

33.3 Yokutsan

Whistler and Golla (1986) reconstruct the following phonological inventory for Proto-Yokuts:

Labial Dental Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m mˀ n nˀ ŋ ŋˀ
Stop p pʰ pʼ t tʰ tʼ ʈ ʈʰ ʈʼ k kʰ kʼ ʔ
Affricate (ts) tsʰ tsʼ
Fricative s ʂ x h
Approximant l lˀ j jˀ w wˀ
Front Central Back
High i iː ɨ ɨː u uː
Mid o oː
Low a aː

It is further instructive to note some morphophonetic processes in Proto-Yokuts:

(From Whistler, Kenneth W., and Golla, Victor (1986), “Proto-Yokuts Reconsidered”. International Journal of American Linguistics Vol. 52, No. 4 (Oct. 1986))

33.3.1 Proto-Yokuts to General Yokuts

CatDoom, from Whistler, Kenneth W., and Golla, Victor (1986), “Proto-Yokuts Reconsidered”. International Journal of American Linguistics Vol. 52, No. 4 (Oct. 1986)

iː ɨː uː → eː əː oː (this change sometimes did not occur)

eː əː → e ə (as a result of ablaut)

o → u / _Ci

33.3.1.1 General Yokuts to Buena Vista Yokuts

CatDoom, from Whistler, Kenneth W., and Golla, Victor (1986), “Proto-Yokuts Reconsidered”. International Journal of American Linguistics Vol. 52, No. 4 (Oct. 1986)

t tʰ tʼ → ts tsʰ tsʼ / #_ “(in some words, conditioning factors unclear)”

V[+ high] → a / V[+ high]C_(C)#

tʰ → s / #_u

33.3.1.2 Buena Vista Yokuts to Hometwoli

CatDoom, from Whistler, Kenneth W., and Golla, Victor (1986), “Proto-Yokuts Reconsidered”. International Journal of American Linguistics Vol. 52, No. 4 (Oct. 1986)

∅ → h / V(ː)_, when stressed (only sometimes, “particularly before consonants”)

33.3.1.3 Buena Vista Yokuts to Tulamni

CatDoom, from Whistler, Kenneth W., and Golla, Victor (1986), “Proto-Yokuts Reconsidered”. International Journal of American Linguistics Vol. 52, No. 4 (Oct. 1986)

ɨ(ː) ə(ː) → i(ː) e(ː)

Vʔ → Vː / stressed

33.3.2 Buena Vista Yokuts to Proto-Nim-Yokuts

CatDoom, from Whistler, Kenneth W., and Golla, Victor (1986), “Proto-Yokuts Reconsidered”. International Journal of American Linguistics Vol. 52, No. 4 (Oct. 1986)

s → ʃ

ts tsʰ tsʼ → tʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ

33.3.2.1 Proto-Nim-Yokuts to Proto-Tule-Kaweah

CatDoom, from Whistler, Kenneth W., and Golla, Victor (1986), “Proto-Yokuts Reconsidered”. International Journal of American Linguistics Vol. 52, No. 4 (Oct. 1986)

t tʰ tʼ → tʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ / #_ “(in some words, conditioning factors unclear)”

l → t

33.3.2.1.1 Proto-Tule-Kaweah to Wikchamni

CatDoom, from Whistler, Kenneth W., and Golla, Victor (1986), “Proto-Yokuts Reconsidered”. International Journal of American Linguistics Vol. 52, No. 4 (Oct. 1986)

ʂ → s “(sometimes remains allophonically in word-initial position before back vowels, but not consistently)”

33.3.2.1.2 Proto-Tule-Kaweah to Yawdanchi

CatDoom, from Whistler, Kenneth W., and Golla, Victor (1986), “Proto-Yokuts Reconsidered”. International Journal of American Linguistics Vol. 52, No. 4 (Oct. 1986)

“ʃ may have merged with ʂ in some positions”

33.3.2.2 Proto-Nim-Yokuts to Northern Yokuts

CatDoom, from Whistler, Kenneth W., and Golla, Victor (1986), “Proto-Yokuts Reconsidered”. International Journal of American Linguistics Vol. 52, No. 4 (Oct. 1986)

ɨ(ː) ə(ː) → i(ː) e(ː)

ŋ → n

33.3.2.2.1 Northern Yokuts to Gashowu

CatDoom, from Whistler, Kenneth W., and Golla, Victor (1986), “Proto-Yokuts Reconsidered”. International Journal of American Linguistics Vol. 52, No. 4 (Oct. 1986)

p t ʈ k → b d ɖ ɡ

33.3.2.2.2 Northern Yokuts to Kings Valley Yokuts

CatDoom, from Whistler, Kenneth W., and Golla, Victor (1986), “Proto-Yokuts Reconsidered”. International Journal of American Linguistics Vol. 52, No. 4 (Oct. 1986)

i → u / uC_

33.3.2.2.3 Northern Yokuts to Valley Yokuts

CatDoom, from Whistler, Kenneth W., and Golla, Victor (1986), “Proto-Yokuts Reconsidered”. International Journal of American Linguistics Vol. 52, No. 4 (Oct. 1986)

“o-raising rule (o > u / _Ci) ceases to be productive”

33.3.2.2.4 Valley Yokuts to Chukchansi

CatDoom, from Whistler, Kenneth W., and Golla, Victor (1986), “Proto-Yokuts Reconsidered”. International Journal of American Linguistics Vol. 52, No. 4 (Oct. 1986)

/s ʃ ʂ/ may be a single alternating phoneme

ʈ ʈʰ ʈʼ → tʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ

tʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ → ts tsʰ tsʼ

33.3.2.2.5 Valley Yokuts to Tachi

CatDoom, from Whistler, Kenneth W., and Golla, Victor (1986), “Proto-Yokuts Reconsidered”. International Journal of American Linguistics Vol. 52, No. 4 (Oct. 1986)

ʈ ʈʰ ʈʼ → ʈʂ ʈʂʰ ʈʂʼ “(ʈʼ remains unchanged in careful speech)”

33.3.2.2.6 Valley Yokuts to Yawelmani

CatDoom, from Whistler, Kenneth W., and Golla, Victor (1986), “Proto-Yokuts Reconsidered”. International Journal of American Linguistics Vol. 52, No. 4 (Oct. 1986)

ʃ → s

tʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ → ts tsʰ tsʼ (except in “lexicalized diminutives”, where these go to ʈʂ ʈʂʰ ʈʂʼ)

33.3.3 Proto-Yokuts to Palewyami

CatDoom, from Whistler, Kenneth W., and Golla, Victor (1986), “Proto-Yokuts Reconsidered”. International Journal of American Linguistics Vol. 52, No. 4 (Oct. 1986)

s → ʃ / _i

t tʰ tʼ → ts tsʰ tsʼ / #_ “(in some words; conditioning factors unclear)”

ts tsʰ tsʼ → tʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ / _i

ɨ(ː) → i(ː)

{u,a} → e / _CVC#, when stressed (short only)

i → e / _CVC#, when stressed (! _H, short only)

V → e / C”VC_

V → i / C”iC_

V → u / C”uC_

V → o / C”oC_

34 Quechumaran

Orr and Longacre (1968) reconstruct Proto-Quechumaran as having the following inventory:

Bilabial Alveolar Postalveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ
Plosive p t k q ʔ
Fricative ɸ s ʃ ʂ χ h
Affricate ts ʈʂ
Liquid r l ʎ
Semivowel j w
Front Central Back
High i u
Low a

(From Orr, Carolyn, and Robert E. Longacre (1968), “Proto-Quechumaran”. Language 44(3):528 – 555)

34.1 Proto-Quechumaran to Ayachuco

Pogostick Man, from Orr, Carolyn, and Robert E. Longacre (1968), “Proto-Quechumaran”. Language 44(3):528 – 555

pʼ tʼ tʃʼ kʼ qʼ → p t tʃ k q

h → ∅ / {p,t,k,q}_

q → χ

χ → q / n_

ts(h) tʃh → tʃ s

ʈʂ → s / _K

ʈʂ → tʃ / _V

ʈʂʼ → tʃʼ

ɸ(ʼ,ʰ) → p

ʃ ʂ → s h

34.2 Proto-Quechumaran to Bolivia

Pogostick Man, from Orr, Carolyn, and Robert E. Longacre (1968), “Proto-Quechumaran”. Language 44(3):528 – 555

qh → h / _r

ph th kh qh → pʰ tʰ kʰ qʰ

{k,q} → h / _{C,#}

ts {tsh,tʃh} → tʃ tʃʰ

tʃ → ʃ / _q

tʃʼ → tʃ

ʈʂ → s / _K

ʈʂ → tʃ / _V

ʈʂʼ → tʃʼ

ɸ(ʼ) ɸh → p(ʼ) pʰ

ʃ → s

ʂ → h / _{a,i}

ʂ → ∅ / _u

χ → qʰ / #_

j → ∅ / i_{a,u}

j → ∅ / u_ʎ

34.3 Proto-Quechumaran to Cuzco

Pogostick Man, from Orr, Carolyn, and Robert E. Longacre (1968), “Proto-Quechumaran”. Language 44(3):528 – 555

h → ∅ / nq_

h → ∅ / #q_{i,u}

ph → p / #_VA

ph → p / #_aC[+sibilant]

pʼ → p/ #_C[+sibilant]

ph → p / a_ (?)

ph → pʰ

kh → k / r_

kh → k / #_a

kh → k / #_ “in a word with two back vowels”

kh qh → kʰ qʰ

ts tsh → tʃ tʃʰ

tʃ → s / _q

tʃh → s / _E

{tʃh,tʃʼ} → tʃ

ʈʂ → s / _K

ʈʂ → tʃ / _V

ʈʂʼ → tʃ / n_

ʈʂʼ → tʃʼ

ɸ(ʼ) ɸh → p(ʼ) pʰ

ʃ ʂ → s h

χ → qʰ / #_

34.4 Proto-Quechumaran to Huarás

Pogostick Man, from Orr, Carolyn, and Robert E. Longacre (1968), “Proto-Quechumaran”. Language 44(3):528 – 555

pʼ tʼ tʃʼ kʼ qʼ → p t ts k q

h → ∅ / p_

tʰ → t

q → q͡χ

ts(h) tʃ → tʃ ts

tʃ → ts / _q

ʈʂ → s / _K

ʈʂ → tʃ / _V

ɸ(ʼ,ʰ) → p

ʂ → ʃ / _a

ʂ → h / _{i,u}

ɲ → n

aw aj {uj,ij} → uː eː iː

34.5 Proto-Quechumaran to Putamayo

Pogostick Man, from Orr, Carolyn, and Robert E. Longacre (1968), “Proto-Quechumaran”. Language 44(3):528 – 555

pʼ tʼ kʼ qʼ → p t k q

p → b / m_

t(ʰ) → d / n_

tʰ → t

k → ɡ / n_

k → ɡ / _{L,j}

h → ∅ / ts_

tʃʼ → tʃ

ʈʂ → tʃ / _V

ɸ(ʼ,ʰ) → p

ʂ → s

h → ∅ / #_

34.6 Proto-Quechumaran to Quito

Pogostick Man, from Orr, Carolyn, and Robert E. Longacre (1968), “Proto-Quechumaran”. Language 44(3):528 – 555

q → h / {r,s}_

pʼ kʼ qʼ → p k q

p → b / m_

t(ʰ) → d / n_

tʼ → tʰ / #_i

tʼ → t

k → ɡ / _#

k → ɡ / n_

k → ɡ / _{L,j}

kʼ → h / j_

ts → dz / ! #_

h → ∅ / ts_

tʃ → ʃ / _q

tʃh → ʃ

tʃʼ → tʃ

ʈʂ → ʃ / _K

ʈʂ → tʃ / _V

ɸ → p / r_

{ɸʼ,ɸh} → ɸ

ʂ → ʃ

χ → h #_

34.7 Proto-Quechumaran to Riobamba

Pogostick Man, from Orr, Carolyn, and Robert E. Longacre (1968), “Proto-Quechumaran”. Language 44(3):528 – 555

q → k

qh → kʰ / _i ! _i{ʃ,tʃ}

qh → k

pʼ tʼ kʼ qʼ → p t k q

p → b / m_

t(ʰ) → d / n_

tʼ → tʰ / #_i

k → h / _#

k → ɡ / _{L,j}

kh → kʰ / #_{i,u}

kh → k

k ts → ɡ dz / n_

h → ∅ / ts_

tʃh → ʃ

tʃʼ → tʃ

ʈʂ → s / _K

ʈʂ → tʃ / _V

ʈʂʼ → ts

ɸ → pʰ / _V

ɸ → b / _j

s → ʃ / _C[+alveolar]

ʂ → ʃ

χ → kʰ #_

ɲ → n / ! h_i

ʎ → ʒ / _{a,u}

34.8 Proto-Quechumaran to Santiago

Pogostick Man, from Orr, Carolyn, and Robert E. Longacre (1968), “Proto-Quechumaran”. Language 44(3):528 – 555

pʼ tʼ tʃʼ kʼ qʼ → p t tʃ k q

h → ∅ / {p,t,k}_

{k,q} → h / _{C,#}

k → c / j_ (?)

ts(h) → tʃ

tʃ → ʃ / _q

ʈʂ → ʃ / _K

ʈʂ → tʃ / _V

ɸ(ʼ,ʰ) → p

ʃ → s / ! i_i or _S

ʂ → ∅ / _{a,i}

ʂ → h / _u

h → ∅ / #_

ʎ → ʒ / _{a,u}

w → ∅ / V_V

w → m / _%N

j → ∅ / i_{a,u}

j → ∅ / u_ʎ

34.9 Proto-Quechumaran to Tena

Pogostick Man, from Orr, Carolyn, and Robert E. Longacre (1968), “Proto-Quechumaran”. Language 44(3):528 – 555

q(h) → k

pʼ tʼ kʼ qʼ → p t k q

p → b / m_

t(ʰ) → d / n_

tʰ → t

k → ɡ / n_

k → ɡ / _{L,j}

h → ∅ / ts_

tʃ → ʃ / _C

tʃh → ʃ

tʃʼ → tʃ

ʈʂ → ʃ / _K

ʈʂ → tʃ / _V

ʈʂʼ → tʃ

ɸ(ʼ,ʰ) → p

ʂ → ʃ

h → ∅ / #_

χ → k / #_

ɲ → n / _i

w → ∅ / #_i

35 Salishan

Kuipers (1981) gives the following reconstruction for the Proto-Salish phoneme inventory (converted into IPA):

Labial Coronal Palatal Velar Postvelar Glottal
Nasal m mˀ n nˀ
Stop p pʼ t tʼ k kʷ kʼ kʷʼ q qʷ qʼ qʷʼ ʔ
Fricative s ɬ x xʷ χ χʷ h
Affricate ts tsʼ tɬʼ
Resonant r rˀ l lˀ j jˀ ɰ ɰˀ w wˀ ʕ ʕʷ ʕˀ ʕʷˀ
Front Central Back
High i u
Mid ə
Low a

For the following changes, the superscript numerals 1, 2, and 3 refer to low, mid, and high tones, respectively. Not all Salishan languages have all three tones; for most, there is no tone 2 (mid). Vowel pairs in between curly braces 〈{ }〉 and with a tilde between are pairs which apparently existed in some sort of ablaut-like alternation.

(From Kuipers, Aert H. (1981), “On Reconstructing the Proto-Salish Sound System”. International Journal of American Linguistics 47(4):323 – 335; and Galloway, Brent (1982), “Proto-Central Salish Phonology and Sound Correspondences”. From the 17th International Conference on Salish and Neighboring Languages)

35.1 Central Salish

35.1.1 Proto-Central Salish to Comox

Pogostick Man, from Galloway, Brent (1982), “Proto-Central Salish Phonology and Sound Correspondences”. From the 17th International Conference on Salish and Neighboring Languages

ts(ʼ) → θ(ʼ)

l(ʲ) → w / _u

l(ʲ) → w / u_

l(ʲ) → j / else

s → ∅ / #_C

s → ∅ / #_{wa,wi}

w j → ɡ dʒ / _V

V3ʔ → V3(ː)ʔ / _#

ʔ → ∅ V3_RV

ʔ → ∅ V3R_V

{a33} → {ə3,a3}

{a3~i3} → i3

{a1~i1} → {a11}

{i33} → ə3

{i31} → {ə1,i1,i3}

{i11} → i1

35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack Halkomelem

Pogostick Man, from Galloway, Brent (1982), “Proto-Central Salish Phonology and Sound Correspondences”. From the 17th International Conference on Salish and Neighboring Languages

n → l

ʔn → ∅ / m_

ts(ʼ) tʃ(ʼ) → θ(ʼ) ts(ʼ)

lʲ → l

V3h → V3ː / _C

V3ʔ → V3(ː) / _#

ʔ → ∅ / V1_#

V3ʔ → V3ː / _O

∅ → V0 / ”V03_

V3ʔR → V3ːR

ʔ → ∅ / VR_V3

lʔn → lː / V3_V

ʔ → ∅ / V1_#

u3 {u1,a1} a3 i1 → a3 ə1 ɛ3 {i11}

{u33} → {o33,a3}

{a33} → {ɛ33}

{a3~i3} → ɛ3

{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}

{i31} → ə1

{i11} → ə1

35.1.3 Proto-Central Salish to Cowichan Halkomelem

Pogostick Man, from Galloway, Brent (1982), “Proto-Central Salish Phonology and Sound Correspondences”. From the 17th International Conference on Salish and Neighboring Languages

ts(ʼ) tʃ(ʼ) → θ(ʼ) ts(ʼ)

s → ʃ / _xʷ

xʲ → ʃ

V3h → V3ː / _C

V03ʔ(V0) → {V03ː,V03ʔV0}

V3ʔR → {V3ʔR,V3ːRʔ} / _V

a3 u3 {a1,u1} i1 → ɛ3 a3 ə1 {i11}

{a33} → ə3

{a3~i3} → a3

{a1~i1} → ə1

{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}

{i31} → ə1

{i11} → ə1

35.1.4 Proto-Central Salish to Musqueam Halkomelem

Pogostick Man, from Galloway, Brent (1982), “Proto-Central Salish Phonology and Sound Correspondences”. From the 17th International Conference on Salish and Neighboring Languages

ʔn → ∅ / m_

ts(ʼ) tʃ(ʼ) → θ(ʼ) ts(ʼ)

lʲ → l

V3h → V3ː / _C

V3ʔ → V3{ː,ʔ} / _O

V03ʔV0 → {V3ː,V03ʔV0}

V3ʔR → {V3ʔR,V3ːRʔ} / _V

u3 {u1,a1} a3 i1 → a3 ə1 ɛ3 {i11}

{u33} → ə3

{a33} → {ɛ33}

{a3~i3} → {a33}

{a1~i1} → {ə11}

{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}

{i31} → ə1

{i11} → ə1

35.1.5 Proto-Central Salish to Klallam

Pogostick Man, from Galloway, Brent (1982), “Proto-Central Salish Phonology and Sound Correspondences”. From the 17th International Conference on Salish and Neighboring Languages

mʔn → nʔ

p(ʼ) m → ts(ʼ) ŋ / ! _u

l(ʲ) → j

xʲ → {s,ʃ} (the latter mainly from borrowings?)

tʃ → ts

tʃʼ → tsʼ / medially

w j → kʷ tʃ / _V

V03ʔ(V0) → V03ʔV0

u1 → ə1

a3 → u3 / {Cʷ[+uvular],Kʷ,w}

a3 → u3 / _{Cu,Cʷ[+uvular],w}

a1 → ə1

{u33} → ə3

{a33} → ə3

{a3~i3} → ə3

{a1~i1} → ə1

{i33} → ə3

{i31} → ə1

{i11} → ə1

35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to Lushootseed

Pogostick Man, from Galloway, Brent (1982), “Proto-Central Salish Phonology and Sound Correspondences”. From the 17th International Conference on Salish and Neighboring Languages

mʔn → d

m n → b d

lʲ → l

s → {ʃ,s} / _xʷ

xʲ → ʃ

w j → ɡʷ dz / _V

V3h → V3{ː,ʔ} / _C

V3ʔ → V3(ʔ) / _O

Rʔ → ʔR / V3C

i1 → {i11}

{u33} → a3

{a33} → {ə3,a3}

{a1~i1} → i1

{i33} → {i11}

{i31} → {i3,i1}

{i11} → {ə1,i1}

35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to Nooksack

Pogostick Man, from Galloway, Brent (1982), “Proto-Central Salish Phonology and Sound Correspondences”. From the 17th International Conference on Salish and Neighboring Languages

n → ∅ / mʔ_

lʲ → l

s → {s,ʃ} / _xʷ

s → ʃ / #_{xʲ,w{i,a},qʷa}

xʲ → ʃ

∅ → V0 / ”V03ʔ_

ʔR → {ʔS,R} / V3_V

ʔ → ∅ / VR_V3

ʔ → ∅ / V3R_{C,#}

ʔ → ∅ / V1R_#

ʔ → ∅ / V1_#

a1 u3 u1 i1 → æ2 o3 o1 i2

ə1 → æ2 / a3C(C)_

ə1 → æ2 / _C(C)a3

ə1 → æ2 / in some other unspecified circumstances

{u33} → o3

{a33} → æ3

{a3~i3} → æ3

{a1~i1} → æ2

{i3~e3} → {i33}

{i31} → i3

{i11} → {i21}

35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straits

Pogostick Man, from Galloway, Brent (1982), “Proto-Central Salish Phonology and Sound Correspondences”. From the 17th International Conference on Salish and Neighboring Languages

p(’) m → tʃ(’) ŋ / ! _u

mʔ → ∅ / _n

ts → s

lʲ → l

s → ʃ / _xʷ

tʃ → s

tʃ’ → ts’ / medially

j → tʃ / _V

ʔ → ∅ / V3l_nV

ʔ → {∅,ʔ} / V3R_{C,#}

u3 u1 → o3 ə1

a3 → o3 / {{C[+ uvular],K}ʷ,w}_

a3 → o3 / _{Cu,C[+ uvular]ʷ,w}

a3 → e3 / else

a1 → ə1

{u33} → ə1

{a33} → ə3

{a3~i3} → ə3

{a1~i1} → ə1

{i3~e3} → ə3

{i31} → ə1

{i11} → ə1

35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern Straits

Pogostick Man, from Galloway, Brent (1982), “Proto-Central Salish Phonology and Sound Correspondences”. From the 17th International Conference on Salish and Neighboring Languages

p(’) m → tʃ(’) ŋ / ! _u

mʔn → nʔ

ts ts’ → {θ,s} θ’

lʲ → l

s → {ʃ,s} / _xʷ

xʲ → s

tʃ → s

tʃ’ → θ’ / medially

j w → tʃ kʷ / _V

V3h → V3(ː) / _C

ʔR → Rʔ / V3_V

u3 u1 → a3 ə1

a3 → e3 / ! {{C[+ uvular],K}ʷ,w}_ or when _{Cu,C[+ uvular]ʷ,w}

a1 → ə1

{a33} → {ə3,e3}

{a3~i3} → ə3

{a1~i1} → ə1

{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}

{i31} → ə1

{i11} → {ə1,i1}

35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern Straits

Pogostick Man, from Galloway, Brent (1982), “Proto-Central Salish Phonology and Sound Correspondences”. From the 17th International Conference on Salish and Neighboring Languages

p(’) m → tʃ(’) ŋ / ! _u

mʔn → nʔ

ts → s

lʲ → l

s → {ʃ,s} / _xʷ

xʲ → {s,ʃ} (the latter mainly from borrowings?)

tʃ’ → ts’ / medially

j w → tʃ kʷ / _V

V3h → V3ː / _C

u3 u1 → a3 ə1

a3 → a3 / {{C[+ uvular],K}ʷ,w}_

a3 → a3 / _{Cu,C[+ uvular]ʷ,w}

a1 → ə1

{u33} → ə3

{a33} → ə3

{a3~i3} → ə3

{a1~i1} → {ə1,e1}

{i3~e3} → ə3

{i31} → ə1

{i11} → ə1

35.1.11 Proto-Central Salish to Sooke Northern Straits

Pogostick Man, from Galloway, Brent (1982), “Proto-Central Salish Phonology and Sound Correspondences”. From the 17th International Conference on Salish and Neighboring Languages

p(’) m → tʃ(’) ŋ / ! _u

mʔn → nʔ

ts → s

l(ʲ) → j

xʲ → {s,ʃ} (the latter mainly from borrowings?)

tʃ → s

tʃ’ → ts’ / medially

j w → tʃ kʷ / _V

u3 u1 → a3 ə1

a3 → {a3,o3} / {{C[+ uvular],K}ʷ,w}_

a3 → e3

a1 → ə1

{u33} → ə3

{a33} → ə3

{a3~i3} → ə3

{a1~i1} → ə1

{i3~e3} → ə3

{i31} → ə1

{i11} → ə1

35.1.12 Proto-Central Salish to Pentlatch

Pogostick Man, from Galloway, Brent (1982), “Proto-Central Salish Phonology and Sound Correspondences”. From the 17th International Conference on Salish and Neighboring Languages

ts ts’ → s ts’

lʲ → l

xʲ → ʃ

ʔ → ∅ / V3_O

ʔ → ∅ / V3R_{V,#}

i1 → ə1

{a33} → ə3

{a1~i1} → {i11}

{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}

{i31} → i3

{i11} → {i1,∅}

35.1.13 Proto-Central Salish to Sechelt

Pogostick Man, from Galloway, Brent (1982), “Proto-Central Salish Phonology and Sound Correspondences”. From the 17th International Conference on Salish and Neighboring Languages

ʔ → ∅ / m_n

lʲ → l

xʲ → ʃ

ʔ → ∅ / V_V3

ʔ → ∅ / V1_#

i1 → {i11j}

{u33} → u3

{a33} → ə3

{a3~i3} → i3

{a1~i1} → {i11}

{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}

{i31} → i3

{i11} → {i1,∅}

35.1.14 Proto-Central Salish to Sqamish

Pogostick Man, from Galloway, Brent (1982), “Proto-Central Salish Phonology and Sound Correspondences”. From the 17th International Conference on Salish and Neighboring Languages

n → ∅ / mʔ_

lʲ → j

xʲ → ʃ

ʔR → Rʔ / V3_V

u1 → {u11}

{u33} → ə3

{a33} → {a33}

{a3~i3} → i3

{a1~i1} → i1

{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}

{i31} → i3

{i11} → {i1,∅}

35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to Twana

Pogostick Man, from Galloway, Brent (1982), “Proto-Central Salish Phonology and Sound Correspondences”. From the 17th International Conference on Salish and Neighboring Languages

m n → b d

lʲ → l

s → {ʃ,s} / _xʷ

xʲ → ʃ

ʔR → ʔ{R,b} / V3_V

Rʔ → ʔR / V3_#

ʔ → ∅ / V1R_#

ʔ → ∅ / V3R_C

u3 u1 → o3 ə1

{a33} → {ə3,a3}

{a3~i3} → a3

{a1~i1} → {i11}

{i3~e3} → {i33}

{i31} → {i3,i1}

{i11} → i1

35.2 Interior Salish

35.2.1 Proto-Interior Salish to Columbian and Okanagan Nasal-to-Vowel Shifts

Pogostick Man, from Kinkade, Dale M. “Shifts of Nasals to Vowels in Interior Salish”

nˀ → aʔ / _# (all other Interior Salishan languages have /eʔ/ in this position)

35.2.2 Proto-Interior Salish to Thompson Nasal-to-Vowel Shifts

Pogostick Man, from Kinkade, Dale M. “Shifts of Nasals to Vowels in Interior Salish”

N[- glottalized] → e / _O[+ same POA] “‘in primary forms’”

n̩ → e / n_ (this is admittedly a bit conjectural; the paper is not being very clear here)

35.3 Shuswap to Eastern Shuswap Nasal-to-Vowel Shifts

Pogostick Man, from Kinkade, Dale M. “Shifts of Nasals to Vowels in Interior Salish”

em emˀ → u uʔ / w_ in U[- stressed]

em emˀ → a aʔ / in U[- stressed] ! {p(’),m(ˀ)}_

en enˀ → i iʔ / {ts(’),s,j(ˀ)}_ in U[- stressed]

en enˀ → a ʔ / in U[- stressed] ! {t(’),lʲ,{n,l}(ˀ)}_

35.4 Shuswap to Spokane-Kalispel Shuswap Nasal-to-Vowel Shifts

Pogostick Man, from Kinkade, Dale M. “Shifts of Nasals to Vowels in Interior Salish”

n nˀ → i iʔ / C_s

n nˀ → i iʔ / _{i,ʃ} (sporadic)

36 Sino-Tibetan

36.1 Proto-Sino-Tibetan to Middle Chinese

Ran & thedukeofnuke, from Handel, Z. (1998), The Medial Systems of Old Chinese and Proto-Sino-Tibetan

NB: “P T Ṭ K represent labial, dental, retroflex, and velar obstruents respectively. *r is reconstructed as being an approximant ɹ. . . .PST and OC lacked any initial/medial clusters of the form Tr- and Tl-. . . .The initials and medials for Old Chinese are the same as those for PST. Note that initial consonants separated by a hyphen (e.g., C-r-) are derived from prefixes and are not true consonant clusters.

(C-)r- → l-

s(-)r → ʂ-

r → ∅ / C_-

r-T- → Ṭ

(C-)l- → {d,ji}-

s-l- → {tʰ,z}-

l → ∅ / s_-

{m,ŋ}l- → dʑ-

Cl- → T(ʑ)-

Kw → Kʷ- / _a-

Kwə- → Kʷɨ-

w → r → ∅ / P_-

36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old Mandarin

Ran, from Hsueh, F.S. (1975), Phonology of Old Mandarin

NB: Ran says, “The author uses V1, V2, V3, V4, Vn, Vch, and Vta to represent Late Middle Chinese vowels. I am going to very tentatively assign the values of o, a, ia, e,?, a(ch) and a(ta) to these vowels [emphasis added]. These should be taken as orthographical convenience rather than actual speculation.” It should be noted that the vowel represented by <?> could be palatalized. Ran adds, “I am also going to number tones according to their traditional order, i.e. F1, F2, F3, F4, F5. Since tones change rapidly, it is impossible to accurately reconstruct their values; we can only know how many there were, and agree on an order to renumerate them. Middle Chinese starts out with no F2.” For the purposes of this list of sound changes, tones are superscript numbers following vowel markers.

∅ → w / P_V

xɦ → ∅ / _j(w){?,ia,a(ta)}

Cʲ → C {Ạ,F̣}_

Cʲ → C̣

ɳ → ɽ

V1 → V2 / in syllables with /ɦ/, a nasal, or a liquid

V3 → V4 / in syllables with /ɦ/

? → ∅

V5 → V2 / in syllables with /ɦ/

V5 → V4 / in syllables with a nasal or liquid

V5 → V3 / else

ɦ → h / S_V2

ɦ → ∅ / else

Cʲ → C / {f,v}_

w → o / Cʲ_?w

i → ∅ / C(w)_a

ia → e / else

C → Cʲ / {K,C[+pharyngeal]}_{a,a(ch)}

o → a / C_w ! C = {K,C[+pharyngeal]}

ŋ → n / n_Cʲa(ta)

ŋ → ∅ / #_ ! #_o(w)

k → j / {e,a,o}_

k → w / V_

{o,a} {a(ta),a(ch)} → e a / _ŋ

{a(ta),a(ch)} → o / else

? → o / _ŋ

{Aʲ,Fʲ}[+alveolar] →{A,F} / _?ʲ

ʈ → ʈʂ / _r

C → Cʲ / ?ʲ{p,t}_

{p,t} → ∅ / V_

o → a / Cʲ_w

∅ → w / C_o# ! C = {K,C[+pharyngeal]}

w → ∅ / C̣Cʲ_?w (“optional”)

w → ∅ / w?_

? → a / Cw_Cʲ

{o,e} → ? / _Cʲ

wʲ → w / _?Cʲ

∅ → w / C̣_aŋ

e → o / w_ŋ

wʲ → w / _aŋ

wʲ → w / C̣_oŋ

36.1.1.1 Old Mandarin to Modern Pekingese

Ran, from Hsueh, F.S. (1975), Phonology of Old Mandarin

ŋ → ∅ / #_

{e,o} → a / _w

m → n / V_

o → e / _ŋ

i → e / C_ʔ

ʔ → ∅

j → ∅ / jî_

#r…î# → #î…r

v → ∅

j → ∅ / C̣_

o → e / _#

î → e / _C# ! C = r

j → ∅ / C_weŋ

k(ʰ) h → ɕ͡(ʰ) ɕ / _j

36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuà

Pogostick Man, from Coblin, W. South (2000), “A Diachronic Study of Míng Guānhuà Phonology”. Monumenta Serica 48:267 – 335

Initials:

b d dz ɡ → {p,pʼ} {t,tʼ} {ts,tsʼ} {k,kʼ}

ŋ → ∅ / _{i,j,w,y}

ŋ → ∅ / _u / _V

w → u / _V

v ʋ → f v

z → {s,tsʼ} (the former “without exception” “in oblique tone words”)

ɖʐ →ʈʂ / “[i]n oblique tone syllables”

ɖʐ → ʈʂʼ / “in píng-tone syllables”

ʐ → ʂ

r → ʐ (Apparently there was some situation where this went to ∅, and then something happened with the output syllable being [ɚ])

ʔ → ŋ / _V[-high]

ʔ → ∅ / _{j,i,y}

ʔ → ∅ / _u (not always? Perhaps some variation with [ɣ] here?)

ɣ → x

j → i

There seems to ahve been some stuff going on with palatalized [ŋ] → {ɲ,n} but it seems highly dialectal and I’m not entirely sure just what exactly was going on here

w → {v,u}

uj → (ɣ)u

Finals:

m → n

long-tail vowel thing → i (or [truncated vowel-thing] “where GH sibilant initial variants occur”)

{long-tail vowel thingʔ,əʔ} → ɛʔ

i → [long-tail vowel thing] / C̣_ (“sometimes”, in “variant readings”); when following /ʂ ʐ/, sometimes yields [ʂi], other times [s truncated vowel-thing]

iʔ iw → eʔ ew / C̣_ (the latter with variant iɛu?)

iʔ → ieʔ (→ i[truncated vowel-thing]ʔ?)

uʔ → oʔ (occasionally → uɛʔ?)

uj → u(ɛ)i / m_

uj → uɛi / {P,C[+guttural],∅}_

uj → ui / {C[+dental],C[+sibilant]}_

ujʔ → uɛʔ (dialectally → uɔʔ?)

un → uɛn / ! {C[+dental],C[+sibilant]}_

uɛn → ɛn / ʋ_

uŋ → oŋ (in one source?)

juŋ → iuŋ / _{∅,x,ʋ,ʔ}

juŋ → iuŋ / _ɡ[+píng tone]

juŋ → uŋ (→ oŋ dialectally?)

jujŋ ujŋ → iuŋ uŋ

y → ɥ (→ y~u dialectally?) / C̣_

yʔ → yɛʔ / {l,C[+dental +sibilant]}_ in “QYS -juət-type” finals, dialectally?

yʔ → oʔ (eventually → {ʊʔ,(i)uʔ?) / {l,C[+dental +sibilant]}_, in “QYS -k-types”

yʔ → yʔ(~yɛʔ?) / {∅,C[+guttural]}, in -juət-types

yʔ → ioʔ (→ iʊʔ dialectally?) / {∅,C[+guttural]}_, in -k-types

yʔ → {ɥʔ,yʔ,uʔ} / C̣, in -juət-types

yʔ → oʔ (→ ʊʔ?) / C̣_, in -k-types

yjʔ → yʔ

yn → un / C̣_ (may have stayed yn or → ɥn in at least one area?)

je jeʔ yeʔ → ɛ ɛʔ uɛʔ / C̣_

je jeʔ → iɛ iɛʔ

yeʔ → yɛʔ (→ {uɔʔ,yɔʔ} in southern speech?)

ye jej → yɛ i

jew → au / C̣(C?)_

jew → iau / else

{jem,jen} → iɛn / sometimes after C̣_ (but ! ʐ_) (only in one variety?)

yen → uɛn / C̣_

yen → yɛn

ɔ → a / in two cases cited; extremely rare change

wɔ → ɔ (occasionally → uɔ after a guttural?)

wɔʔ → uɔʔ / C[+guttural]_

wɔʔ → ɔʔ / else

ɔn → an; “[t]his final occurs exclusively after SR gutturals”

wɔn ja wa → uɔn ia ua

aʔ → ɔʔ / C[+guttural]_

jaʔ → iaʔ

waʔ → aʔ / C[+labiodental]_

waʔ → uaʔ

aj jaj waj aw jaw → ai iai uai au iau

awʔ → ɔʔ (“Trigault gives a variant in -ɛʔ, which becomes general in the later GH varieties”)

{jawʔ,wawʔ} → ɔʔ / C̣_

jawʔ wawʔ → iɔʔ uɔʔ

am → an

{jam,jan} → iɛn

wan → an / C[+labiodental]_

wan → uan / else

aŋ jaŋ → uaŋ aŋ / C̣_

waŋ → uaŋ

əjʔ əw {əm,ən} → eʔ ɛu ɛn

əjŋ → ɛn (varies with ɛn?)

Tones:

qı̄ng píng → yı̄n píng

zhuó píng → yáng píng

qı̄ng shăng → shăng

zhuó shăng → qù

(There seems to be some conflict between shăng tones and tones, the latter noted as being the spoken forms)

36.3 Tibeto-Burman

36.3.1 Qiangic

36.3.1.1 Proto-Naish to Laze

Pogostick Man, from Jacques, Guillaume, and Alexis Michaud (2011), “Approaching the historical phonology of three highly eroded Sino-Tibetan languages: Naxi, Na and Laze”. Diachronica 28:4 (2011), 468 – 498

a u i iN → e y ɯ i / T_%

a → i / {ŋ,w}_%

a → wɤ / {K,ŋ}w_%

{a,i} → ɯ / R_%

a → ie / ! K_%

a aS → ɑ {ɑ,u}

iN → æ / {P,C}r_%

i → v̩ / m_%

u o → v̩ u

B → o / {qʰ,(N)q}_

V% → low tone

{Np,mb} → b / _V (the paper implies similar developments occurred at other POAs)

{r,s}p(ʰ) {r,s}{Np,(m)b} → f v / _V (the paper implies similar developments occurred at other POAs)

{r,s}k {r,s}Nk → f w / _V

S{b,ɡ} Sk → v h / _V

{r,s}l {r,s}n → l̥ N̥ / %_V

n̥ → l̥ / %_V

N̥V → hṼ

l̥ → ɬ / %_V

36.3.1.2 Proto-Naish to Mosuo (Na)

Pogostick Man, from Jacques, Guillaume, and Alexis Michaud (2011), “Approaching the historical phonology of three highly eroded Sino-Tibetan languages: Naxi, Na and Laze”. Diachronica 28:4 (2011), 468 – 498

a → e / {R,T}_%

a → wɤ / {K,ŋ}w_%

a → i / ! K_%

iN → æ / {P,C}r_

{iN,u} i → i ɯ / T_

i → ɯ / {R,Kr}_

i → v̩ / m_

u o → v̩ u

B → ɔ / {qʰ,(N)q}_

V% → high rising

{Np,mb} → b / _V

{r,s}pʰ {r,s}{(N)p,(m)b} → pʰ p b / _V (the paper implies similar developments occurred with stops at other POAs)

{r,s}k {r,s}Nk → k ʁ / _V

S{b,ɡ} Sk → ∅ h

n̥ → l̥ / %_V

N̥V → hṼ

l̥ → ɬ / %_V

36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to Naxi

Pogostick Man, from Jacques, Guillaume, and Alexis Michaud (2011), “Approaching the historical phonology of three highly eroded Sino-Tibetan languages: Naxi, Na and Laze”. Diachronica 28:4 (2011), 468 – 498

a iN {i,u} → e ɚɯ / T_%

a → i / ŋ_%

a → ɯ / {R,w}_%

a → wa / {K,ŋ}w_%

a → e / ! K_%

a aS → ɑ {ɑ,o} / _%

iN → ɚ / {P,C}r_%

i → ɯ / {R,kr}_%

u → ɚ / Pr_%

u o → v̩ u

B → v̩ / {qʰ,(ŋ)q}_

V% → mid tone / C_ru

V% → high tone / else

N → ∅ / _pV

{r,s}pʰ {r,s}(N)p {r,s}b {r,s}mb → pʰ p b mb / _V (the paper implies similar developments occurred with stops at other POAs)

{r,s}(N)k → k / _V

Sb Sk Sɡ → b ? ɡ / _V

n̥ → l̥ → h / %_V

{r,s} → ∅ / %_V

{r,s}N → N̥ → hṼ → hV

36.3.2 rGyalrongic

36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan La

Pogostick Man, from Nagano, Yashuiki (1979), “A Historical Study of rGyarong Initials and Prefixes”. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 4(2):44 – 68; and Nagano, Yashuiki (1979), “A Historical Study of rGyarong Rhymes”. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 5(1):37 – 47

Initials:

p b çp çb sP rP Np Nb pr {br,pj} bj → pʰ p ʝb çp sp rpʰ mpʰ mb br pʰj pj

P → p / l_

t d Nt Nd st sd çT tr (ç)dr KT → tʰ t Ntʰ md zd st çtj trh (ç)tr kt

k sk kr ɡ Pɡ sɡ Nɡ (s)ɡr çK rK Kç → kʰ zɡw dr Nɡ pk sk mk (s)kr çk rɡj ɡçkr

(ʔ)kj (s)ɡj Nkj → (k)tç (s)kj Ndʒ

çr Nç → dr mkʰj

K → ʔ / _s

K → k / _ç

C[+ sibilant] → s / _w

Pç → mʃ

TS → dʒ / l_

NTS PTS KTS sTS çTS → {Ndz,mts} kts(ʰ) ptsʰ sts {sts,rj}

(r)ts (r)dz → (r)tsʰ (r)ts

∅ → j / çm_

N → m / _{ŋ.nj}

rnj → rɲ ?

w → ʔ / something to do with either back vowels or prefixes

Rhymes:

n → ∅ / a_

ŋ → ∅ / i_

u → a / _k

u → i / _{r,s}

o → e / _s

a → e / _m

aj → i

ew iw → im ju

i → e / _s

36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kia

Pogostick Man, from Nagano, Yashuiki (1979), “A Historical Study of rGyarong Initials and Prefixes”. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 4(2):44 – 68; and Nagano, Yashuiki (1979), “A Historical Study of rGyarong Rhymes”. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 5(1):37 – 47

Initials:

b → m / _j

p çp (ç)b rP Np Nb pr {br,pj} → p. ç.w (ç)p rp. kj m.p n.br p.j

P → p / l_

t st tr d sd (ç)dr Nt çT KT → t. s.d tr. t s.t (ç.)tr m.t. n.dr ɡ.t

r → ∅ / _t

çK → ç.k

N → ∅ / _ɡ

sk rK → j sɡ

kj Nkj ʔkj ɡj sɡj → kj. nj ɡ.tsʰ kj skj.

kr (s)ɡr → n.br (s)kr

C[+ sibilant] → s / _w

K → ɡ. / _ç

Nç → n.pj.

çl → sj

Kts → ɡ.tsʰ.

lTS → l.dz

ts (r)dz dʒ PTS KTS sTS çTS → {tsʰ,s} (r)ts tsʰ ɡ.ts s.{ts,pj} {s.ts,br}

rm rn → mj rw

çm çnj → ç.n

N → m. / _ŋ

Nn → m / _j

w → ∅ / ŋ_

rnj → r.mj

j → ∅ / n_

Rhymes:

ut uk → ud oɡ

s → ∅ / u_

uj → ui

ok → iɡ

o → e / _l

oj → oi

a ap at ar am aj → e eb e(d) er om e.i

{k,j} → ∅ / i_

e → i / _#

et ej → o e.i

iw → jo

i → e / _m

ip it → ib o

36.3.2.1.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Hanniu

Pogostick Man, from Nagano, Yashuiki (1979), “A Historical Study of rGyarong Initials and Prefixes”. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 4(2):44 – 68; and Nagano, Yashuiki (1979), “A Historical Study of rGyarong Rhymes”. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 5(1):37 – 47

NB: These changes are likely very incomplete. The source did not have much to say about this language.

Initials:

p k ts → p. k. tʃ.

NTS → mnj

m → mt.

C[+ sibilant]w → s

çl → rts

Finals:

k → ∅ / {u,a}_

or → ro

an {at.is} → o ie

t → ∅ / i_

36.3.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Japhug

Pogostick Man, from Jacques, Guillaume (2004), “Phonologie et Morphologie du Japhug (rGyalrong)”. Université Paris-Diderot - Paris VII <tel-00138568>. <https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/file/index/docid/138568/filename/these-japhug.pdf>

NB: This source is in French and looks to at least sometimes use a transcription that isn’t IPA.

u o → ɯ u / _#

aŋ → o / _#

ɔk → ɤɣ / _#

ɔ → ɤ / _{t,r}# (possibly also _s# dialectally)

a → o / _m#

ʑ j → ndʑ ʑ

b → w / #{z,r}_

ŋ → m / #_kʰ

36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham To

Pogostick Man, from Nagano, Yashuiki (1979), “A Historical Study of rGyarong Initials and Prefixes”. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 4(2):44 – 68; and Nagano, Yashuiki (1979), “A Historical Study of rGyarong Rhymes”. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 5(1):37 – 47

Initials:

p b pr br çp → p.j p br pj ʃb

d(r) → t

çT → ʃt

r → s / _k

k (N)ɡ → k. (m)k

Nkj ɡj sɡj → mj ts stʃj

sɡr → skr

C[+ sibilant]w ç Pç Nç çl → s ʂ ʃ mʃ ʃl

ts {dz,KTS} NTS rdz dzl dʒ → s ts {dz,mtʃ.} rts tsl tʃ.

ç → ʃ / _N

ŋ(w) N{ŋ,nj} → ȵ mɳ

j → ∅ / {ʃ,r}n_

Rhymes:

u → o / _k

uj → os

op → u

at → {at,ɛ,ed}

an → ia

ŋ → ɳ / {o,a}_

aj → oi

e → i / _{s,#}

et → o

ej → ai

i → o / _m

{ŋ,j} → ∅ / i_

36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtse

Pogostick Man, from Nagano, Yashuiki (1979), “A Historical Study of rGyarong Initials and Prefixes”. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 4(2):44 – 68; and Nagano, Yashuiki (1979), “A Historical Study of rGyarong Rhymes”. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 5(1):37 – 47

Initials:

(N)p Nb sP çp çb pr br {p,b}j → (m)pʰ (m)p sp ʝb çp br pʰj pʰj

(N)t (N)d st sd KT çT tr dr çtr → (N)tʰ mt zd st kt çt(j) trh tr çtr

(P)ɡ sɡ çK Nɡ k sk rk (s)ɡj (ʔ)kj → (p)k sk çk mk kʰ zɡ Nɡ (s)kj (ʔ)kʰj

Nkj (s)ɡr Kç kr skr ɡr → mɡj (s)kr ɡçkr kʰr zɡr Nɡr

K → ʔ / _s

C[+ sibilant] → s / _w

N P K → m p k / _ç

l → ∅ / #ç_

ts (r)dz dzl dʒ NTS PTS Kts KTS sTS çTS → tsʰ (r)ts Ndz tsl ts ptç ktç kts sts {s,ç}ts

LTS → ldʒ

N → m / _{ŋ,ɲ}

*w → ʔ / something to do either with back vowels or prefixes

Rhymes:

uŋ → ak

om → {o,a}m

ew iw → i jo

36.3.2.2.3 Proto-rGyalrongic to Pati

Pogostick Man, from Nagano, Yashuiki (1979), “A Historical Study of rGyarong Initials and Prefixes”. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 4(2):44 – 68; and Nagano, Yashuiki (1979), “A Historical Study of rGyarong Rhymes”. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 5(1):37 – 47

NB: These changes are likely very incomplete. The source did not have much to say about this language.

Initials:

d → l

ts dʒ NTS → {s,tʃ.} tʃ. m

s → ʃ / _n

Rhymes:

n → ∅ / a_

im it ik is ij → em u e es e

uk → o

36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Mo

Pogostick Man, from Nagano, Yashuiki (1979), “A Historical Study of rGyarong Initials and Prefixes”. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 4(2):44 – 68; and Nagano, Yashuiki (1979), “A Historical Study of rGyarong Rhymes”. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 5(1):37 – 47

Initials:

{p,b} Np pr {s,r}P çb Nb → p mp mbr sp ʃp p.s

Nt tr d KT çT → mt. tʂ t kt ʃt

kr rk {rK,Pɡ} ɡ Pɡ sɡ → k.r rk. pk k sk

ɡj → cç ? (might be → tsç?)

ʔkj → ktʃ.

ç → zɡ / _r

ɡ → ∅ / #_r

rs → sr

C[+ sibilant] → s / _#

lts rts NTS PTS STS → lɖʐ rts. {mdzr,mtʃ} nt. sts

ts dʒ → tʃ. tʃ

ŋ → ȵ

nj → ɲ / #(r)_

j → dz / #_

Rhymes:

u → o / _p

a → o / _r

es er → or ər

e → iɛ

i → a / _t

i → iɛ / _s

i → ɐ / _m

36.3.2.2.5 Proto-rGyalrongic to Trung

Pogostick Man, from Nagano, Yashuiki (1979), “A Historical Study of rGyarong Initials and Prefixes”. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 4(2):44 – 68; and Nagano, Yashuiki (1979), “A Historical Study of rGyarong Rhymes”. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 5(1):37 – 47

NB: These changes are likely very incomplete. The source did not have much to say about this language.

Initials:

kr → dz

z → k

C[+ sibilant]w → s

dʒ → tsh

Rhymes:

un → ial

an → a(i)

i → əi / _#

i → iə / _m

it → u

36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Nao

Pogostick Man, from Nagano, Yashuiki (1979), “A Historical Study of rGyarong Initials and Prefixes”. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 4(2):44 – 68; and Nagano, Yashuiki (1979), “A Historical Study of rGyarong Rhymes”. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 5(1):37 – 47

Initials:

∅ → n / _pr

P → p / r_

çb → ʂp

Nb → p.

d(r) çT → t ʃt

k {sɡ,çK} Nɡ rK → k. sk mɡ nk

kj → tʃ.

z → ts / r_

C[+ sibilant]w → sj

(P)ç Nç çl → (b)ɕ np.j ʂl

ts dz NTS KTS sTS → tʃ ts {ts,m} ɡts sp

s → ʂ / _n

Nnj → mɲ

nj rnj → nj rɲ

∅ → dz / #_j

Finals:

ut u{k,n} ur → ud uo uɛ

uj → ue

om → {on,am}

a(t) → ɛ / _#

ap → ɛk

an → ɿɛ

ew e ej → ə i ei

i → e / _m

i i{t,k} → {ə,iɛ} ə

iŋ → ʅ

j → ∅ / i_

36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu Ta

Pogostick Man, from Nagano, Yashuiki (1979), “A Historical Study of rGyarong Initials and Prefixes”. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 4(2):44 – 68; and Nagano, Yashuiki (1979), “A Historical Study of rGyarong Rhymes”. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 5(1):37 – 47

Initials:

P → p / s_

P t → pdz tʃ / r_

Np Nb Nt Nɡ Nç → sts mp mtʰ mk ntsʰdz

p → b / _r

{d,KT} st → tʃ zdʒ

dr çdr → ʈ ʂʈdz

çK → ʂk

k rk kr kj Nkj ɡr → kʰdz nɡ kʰr tʃh dʒ nkʰr

ɡ → ∅ / _r

Pç → b.ç

çl → sɬ

C[+ sibilant]w ç → swdz sdz

NTS KTS lTS → mʈʂ {kts,ʈʂʰ} bɖʐ

ts dz rdz dʒ → {ʈʂ,ʒ} tsj rtsʰ ʈʂ

∅ → j / rN_

ç → ʂ / _m

ŋ(w) → ȵ(wj)

Nnj → mɲ ?

j → s / #_

Rhymes:

uk uŋ → {u,o} e

o → e / _s

s → ∅ / u_

a → e / _(p)

t → ŋ / a_

aw aj → au ai

e i → i a / _m

it ik → o ek

iw ij → iu ei

36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassu

Pogostick Man, from Nagano, Yashuiki (1979), “A Historical Study of rGyarong Initials and Prefixes”. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 4(2):44 – 68; and Nagano, Yashuiki (1979), “A Historical Study of rGyarong Rhymes”. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 5(1):37 – 47

Initials:

pr b → br p

d KT → l kt

k kr kj ɡ → k. k.r ts. ɡ

ɡ ç → ∅ zɡ / _r

Pç çl → ʃ ʃn

ts dzl NTS → {tʃ.,j} tsl m

s → ʃ / _n

ŋ → j

Nnj çnj → mn ʃn

Rhymes:

uk → o

o → ə / _n

t → ∅ / a_

an ap → ai ie

aj → ui

ew → i

it ik → o i

is → eu

im iŋ → wa ie

ij → e

36.3.3 Tibetic

36.3.3.1 Old Tibetan to Amdo dialects

Pogostick Man, from Jacques, Guillaume (2004), “Phonologie et Morphologie du Japhug (rGyalrong)”. Université Paris-Diderot – Paris VII <tel-00138568>. <https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/file/index/docid/138568/filename/these-japhug.pdf>

NB: This source is in French and looks to at least sometimes use a transcription that isn’t IPA.

{d,ɡ,s,l,r} → {h,r} / #_

ʃ → x / #_ (some dialects, never when following preinitials)

k(ʰ){r,j} ɡ{r,j} → tɕ(ʰ) dʑ

pʰ b → h w

i → ə / _#

sr → ʂ / #_

s → either i or a diphthong ending in i? / _#

d → l / _# (some dialects)

t → l / _# (further development in bLa-brang)

37 Siouan-Iroquoian

Based upon Julian and Chafe, Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian, if it existed, appears to have had the following phonetic inventory:

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p pʰ t tʰ k kʰ ʔ
Fricative θ s ʃ x h
Liquid r j w
Front Central Back
High i ı̃ u ũ
Mid e ẽ o õ
Low a ã

For this following section, the sound transcribed here as 〈r〉 may in actuality represent something akin to /ɹ/.

Siouan-Iroquoian, and for that matter the inclusion of Yuchian and Caddoan within the former and the latter, respectively, is far from universally accepted; their inclusion here is in large part due to the available sources giving correspondences for each. It was unknown whether Proto-Caddoan was the same as the Proto-Iroquois-Caddoan indicated in Cafe’s paper, so the Caddoan changes have been presented after the main Iroquoian changes.

Per KneeQuickie, Whimemsz wishes to “[n]ote that Siouan-Iroquoian is a proposed, rather than firmly-demonstrated, language grouping”.

(From Chafe, Wallace L. (1964), “Another Look at Siouan and Iroquoian”. American Anthropologist New Series, 66:852 – 862; Julian, Charles (2010), “A History of the Iroquoian Languages”, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg; and from cedh aumdmanh’s Iroquoian changes)

37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoian

Pogostick Man, from Chafe, Wallace L. (1964), “Another Look at Siouan and Iroquoian”. American Anthropologist New Series, 66:852 – 862; and from cedh aumdmanh’s Iroquoian changes

w → ∅ / _{o,õ,ı̃}

m → w / _ã

t → ts / _{i,ı̃}

tʰ → ts / _i

tʰ → n / else

ã → ẽ

e → i / r_ʔ

r → ts / _i

ı̃ → i

k → ∅ / t_

kʰ → r

m → n

p → ∅ / C_ ! s_

p → kʷ / else

pʰ → ʍ (this is a bit of a guess; the paper proper has 〈hw〉 here)

ʃ θ → s t

The paper is unclear about what happened to /u/.

x → ∅ / _k

x → h / _C ! C_C

x → k

ʔ → ∅ / C_

37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokee

cedh audmanh, from Julian, Charles (2010), “A History of the Iroquoian Languages”, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg

k kʷ → ts k / _i

w → ∅ / h_i

w → ∅ / t(h)_

{wV,jV} → Vː[+low falling tone]

V → ∅ / C_hC

Vʔ → Vː[+low falling tone] / _C

{Vh,Vʔ} → Vː / _#

a(ː)wẽ(ː) → a(ː)ma(ː)

V[+nas] → aː[+high rising tone]

∅ → Vː[+high rising tone] / C_# (“usually one of [/aː iː ʌ̃ː/ with this tone], the conditions are unclear”)

iji → iː

tsn → hst

n → h / _st

{n,r} → ∅ / _j

t → ∅ / _{k,n}

t → ∅ / n_

j → ∅ / ts_

∅ → i / C_R

s → ∅ / #h_V

ts → s / h_

ks → ts / _V

nh → hn

ẽ(ː) õ(ː) → o(ː) ʌ̃(ː)

r → l

“Some additional changes seem to have taken place in one or more Cherokee dialects, affecting consonant clusters whose reconstructed identity is in most cases uncertain. Example correspondences include /hs ~ lh ~ thl/ (probably < */hsɹ/) or /ts ~ tl ~ thl/ (maybe < */tsɹ/?)”
“[A] synchronic allophonic rule:”

t ts k kʷ → d dz ɡ ɡʷ / _V

37.1.2 Proto-Iroquoian to Proto-Northern Iroquoian

cedh audmanh, from Julian, Charles (2010), “A History of the Iroquoian Languages”, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg

o(ː) u(ː) → a(ː) o(ː)

iji(ː) → hi(ː) / {k,s}_ “(possibly after all non-glottal obstruents)”

i → e / ! _hCC (“short only”)

∅ → i(ː) / #_(C)(C)CVC(C)(C)#

V → ”V / “in antepenultimate syllables, if the vowel of the penultimate syllable was short */a/ followed by a single non-glottal consonant”

V → ”V / “in penultimate syllables not preceded by an accented antepenult”

Vː → V[-long] / ! in U#

”V → ”Vː / “in open penultimate syllables followed by a non-glottal consonant”

h → ∅ / #_s

n → ∅ / _ti

t → ∅ / n_V

37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayuga

cedh audmanh, from Julian, Charles (2010), “A History of the Iroquoian Languages”, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg

∅ → a / w_j

”V(C)(C)CaCV → V(C)”(C)CaCV / _#

h → ∅ / _nh

ʔ → ∅ / _nk(ʷ)

n → t / _k(ʷ)

ts → hs / V_ ! _{h,i,j,r}

ts → s / ! _{h,i,j,r}

ns → ts / _k(ʷ)

V → Vː / _C[-glottal] “in even-numbered syllables when accented or immediately before the accent”

“[A]ccented short vowels in odd-numbered penults lose their accent”
“[W]ords with no accent acquire a new accent on the vowel of the last non-final even syllable of the word”

Vʔ → ʔV / “in odd-numbered unaccented non-final syllables;” ! {ʔ,h}_

j → ∅ / ts_

h → ∅ / s_w

r → n / _(h)j

r → w / {o(ː),õ(ː)}_{a(ː),e(ː),ẽ(ː),i(ː)}

r → j / {e(ː),ẽ(ː),i(ː)}_{a(ː),o(ː),õ(ː)}

r → ∅ / VH_

r → ∅ / _H

r → ∅ / w_

r → ∅ / V_V

V1”V2 ”V1ːV2 → ”V1V2 ”V1[-long]V2

e(ː) → ẽ / _ẽ(ː)

o(ː) → õ / _õ(ː)

”V0V0 → V0ː[-accent]

R → ∅ / ʔ_#

C → ∅ / {s,k}_#

Ch → ∅ / _s#

h → ∅ / Vː_#

t → h / _t

ths → tsh

∅ → h / {t,k}_n

37.1.2.1.1 Cayuga to Upper Cayuga

cedh audmanh, from Julian, Charles (2010), “A History of the Iroquoian Languages”, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg

s → f / h_r

ts → s / _(h)r

“Allophonic changes:”

s → ʃ / _{r,j}

t k kʷ → d ɡ ɡʷ / _{V,R}

37.1.2.1.2 Cayuga to Lower Cayuga

cedh audmanh, from Julian, Charles (2010), “A History of the Iroquoian Languages”, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg

ts → t / _(h)r

t → k / _j

V → V[-voiced] / _h “(odd syllables only)”

tʔ tsʔ kʔ kʷʔ → tʼ tsʼ kʼ kʷʼ

“Allophonic changes:”

s → ʃ / _{r,j}

t k kʷ → d ɡ ɡʷ / _{V,R} ! _V[-voiced]

37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huron

cedh audmanh, from Julian, Charles (2010), “A History of the Iroquoian Languages”, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg

s → ʃ / ! _{n,t,k(ʷ),w} “or when part of the affricate /ts/”

ts → ʃ / _r

ts → s / ! _{i,j}

n → ∅ / t(h)_

n → ∅ / _s

n → ∅ / _i “(in pronominal prefixes only)”

k → i / #_n

k → ∅ / _n

n hn sC → t th Ch / s_

k → h / _{t,ts,s,ʃ}

k → x / {#,R,ʔ,V}_{V,ʔ,R,#}

kʷ → xʷ / V_V

t → k / _(h)w

t → ∅ / _k(ʷ)

j → ∅ / ts_

j → ∅ / #_V

j → ∅ / V_{V,#}

{r,w} → ∅ / _j

w → ∅ / #_

w → ∅ / _{r,#}

h → ∅ / #_w

∅ → k / s_(h)w

∅ → a / CC_ʔ

“Some known changes in dialects other than pre-Wyandot:”

r → h / ʃ_

t → k / _r

37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandot

cedh audmanh, from Julian, Charles (2010), “A History of the Iroquoian Languages”, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg

Vː → ”V / in U#; “this change may have been present in Huron already”

t → k / _j

xʷ → w

{ʔ,h} → ∅ / _nh

n → t / _h

h → ∅ / {t,ts,s,k}_

Vh → Vː / _R

∅ → w / {o(ː),õ(ː)}_V

∅ → j / {e(ː),ẽ(ː),i(ː)}_V

x → ∅ / _{i,j}

x → e / #_r

w j → m ɲ / between two vowels of unlike nasality

j → ʒ / {#,ʔ,V}_V

x → j / _V

x → ∅

k → ∅ / _#

ẽ(ː) õ(ː) o(ː) → ɛ̃(ː) ɔ̃(ː) u(ː)

n → ⁿd / _{V[-nas],r}

n → ŋ / _{j,w}

ɛ̃(ː) → ã(ː) / w_

37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondaga

cedh audmanh, from Julian, Charles (2010), “A History of the Iroquoian Languages”, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg

s → ʃ / ! n_ “or when part of the unit affricate /ts/”

ts → hs / V_V ! _i

ts → s / ! _{h,i,j}

ns → ts / _k(ʷ)

n → ∅ / _s

”V(ː)(C)(C)Vː → V[-long](C)”(C)CV[-long] / _#

ara → aː / “unaccented syllables only”

jh → hj

n → t / _k(ʷ)

”V(C)(C)CaCV → V(C)”(C)CaCV / _#

ʃ → s

n → ∅ / h_r

h → ∅ / w_j

Vw → Vː / _{r,j}

”V → ”Vː / _C(R)V

hs → sh / C_

hts → tsh / C_V

V → Vː / _”C[-glottal](R)V{ː,H} in “even numbered syllables only”

V → Vː / _KRV “in the second syllable of a word”

V → V[+high tone] / _$”V

a(ː) o(ː) õ(ː) → æ(ː) e(ː) ẽ(ː) / r_

Vr → Vː / _C

rV → Vː / C_

r → j / {e(ː),ẽ(ː),i(ː)}_V

r → w / {o(ː),õ(ː)}_V

r → ∅

h → ∅ / _sn

h → ∅ / _{k,t,ts,s}#

k → h / _k

õ(ː) → ũ(ː)

“Allophonic changes:”

ts → tʃ / _{(h)i,(h)j}

s → ʃ / _{hi,hj}

t tʃ k(ʷ) → d dʒ ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}

37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneida

cedh audmanh, from Julian, Charles (2010), “A History of the Iroquoian Languages”, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg

ẽ(ː) õ(ː) → ʌ̃(ː) ũ(ː)

ts → hs / V_{t,k(ʷ)}

ts → s / ! _{h,i,j}

ns → ts / _{t,k(ʷ)}

n → ∅ / _s

”V → ”Vː[+falling tone] / _{ʔ,hR}

ʔ → ∅ / ”Vː[+falling tone]_C

h → ∅ / ”Vː[+falling tone]_R

h → ∅ / _#

h → ∅ / #_w

Vː → V / _(C)(C)(C)#

CʔV0 → CV0ʔV0

∅ → e / w_r (and “probably. . .in other environments”)

37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Mohawk

cedh audmanh, from Julian, Charles (2010), “A History of the Iroquoian Languages”, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg

V0 → ∅ / ”VC(C)(C)V0ʔ_C(C)(C)#

∅ → e / {tsh,s,n}_r

w → ∅ / _jh

h → ∅ / w_j

jh → hj

∅ → e / w_j

∅ → e / n_k(ʷ)

∅ → e / {t,k}_{r,n}

∅ → e / {#,V}s_n

∅ → e / t_w

∅ → e / {#,V}s_w

“Dialectal changes include:”

— r → l

— t → k / _j

— k → t / _j

— wə̃ → ũ / {h,s}_

— j → ∅ / ts_

— t → tʃ / _(h)j

— wh → f

“Allophonic changes:”

— ts → tʃ / _{(h)i,(h)j}

— t tʃ k(ʷ) → d dʒ ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}

— s → ʃ / _(h)j

— s → z / {#,V}_{V,R} ! R = j

37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneida

cedh audmanh, from Julian, Charles (2010), “A History of the Iroquoian Languages”, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg

”Vː[-falling tone]CV → Vː”CV

”V → ”Vː / _ʔ

ʔ → ∅ / ”Vː_

∅ → i / {V,t}n_k(ʷ)V

ths → tsh

hs → sh / _{n,w}

h → ∅ / _Ch

h → ∅ / k_{s,ts}

h → ∅ / _{sk,st}

h → ∅ / {st,tst}_

h → ∅ / ts_r ! “in pre-pausal forms, see also below”

{h,ʔ} → ∅ / _R “in post-tonic syllables”

ʔ → h / _C “in post-tonic syllables”

r → l

”Vː[+falling tone] → ”V[-long -falling tone]

Vː → V[-long] _”C(C)(C)V (“this change happens only in the Ontario dialect”)

“In addition, a number of sound changes have applied to words only in the pre-pausal position. Most of these changes are characterized by the devoicing of one or more segments at the end of a word”

— ∅ → e / C_{n,l}V(H)#

— ∅ → o / C_wV(H)#

— ∅ → i / C_jV(H)#

— Vː[+falling tone]C(C)V(H) → V̊ː[+falling tone]C̊(C̊)V̊(H̊) / _#

— CVː[+falling tone] → C̊V̊ː[+falling tone] / _#

— CVʔ → C̊V̊ʔ̊ / _#

— V[-long] → V̊ / R_#

— OV[-long] → O̊V̊ / _#

— jV → ∅ / Ci_(H)#

— ʔ → h / _C#

— R → R̊ / _#

“Allophonic changes:”

ts → tʃ / _{(h)i,(h)j}

t tʃ k(ʷ) → d dʒ ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}

s → ʃ / _(h)j

s → z / {#,V}_{V,R}

37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Seneca

cedh audmanh, from Julian, Charles (2010), “A History of the Iroquoian Languages”, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg

ts → s / ! _{i,j}

n → ∅ / _s

j → ∅ / _ts

V → Vː / _{t,k(ʷ),s,n,r,j,w} “in even penultimate syllables”

“The inherited accent system is replaced by a new one, by which...
— “the accent falls on the last nonfinal even short syllable of a word if this vowel is followed directly
—— “by a single glottal consonant,
—— “by /sn/ or /sw/,
—— “by any two-consonant cluster that does not end in a resonant,
—— “or by any three consonant cluster;
— “failing that, the accent falls on the last non-final even short syllable that is followed by a non-final syllable such as that just described;
— “failing that, a word has no accent.”

a → æ / _ra(ː)

a → e / _ro(ː)

ã → ẽ / _rõː

a(ː) → æ(ː) / r_

h → ∅ / _{tk,nh,sC,C#}

h → ∅ / #_w

h → ∅ / w_j

hw → ∅ / õ_

w → ∅ / _{r,j}

r → n / _(h)j

r → ∅ / Vh_

Vh → Vː / _{n,w,j}

h → ∅ / V_V

r → j / C[-glottal](h)_{o(ː),õ(ː)

r → h / s_

r → j / i(ː)_V

r → w / {o(ː),õ(ː)}_V

r → ∅

o → oː / _{aː,æː}

Vː → V / V_

V1”V2 → ”V1V2

a(ː) → ẽ(ː) / adjacent to a nasal vowel

ẽ(ː) → e(ː) / _{e(ː),o(ː)

ʔ → ∅ / _nk(ʷ)

n → t / _k(ʷ)

n → t / ʔ_#

R → ∅ / _h

C → ∅ / s_#

C[-glottal] → ∅ / _s#

k → ∅ / _hts

t → h / _{n,t}

t → ∅ / k_#

{ths,tts} → tsh

a(ː) æ(ː) → õ(ː) ẽ(ː) / n_

a(ː) → õ(ː) / V[+nas]H_

a(ː) → õ(ː) / V[+nas]({ʔ,s})w_

ẽ(ː) õ(ː) → ɛ̃(ː) ɔ̃(ː)

∅ → h / k_n

“Allophonic changes:”

— t k(ʷ) → d ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}

— s → ʃ / _j

— a e o → ə ɪ ʊ / C_{C,i[-long]}

37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscarora

cedh audmanh, from Julian, Charles (2010), “A History of the Iroquoian Languages”, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg

ts → tʃ / _{h,i,j}

ths → tʃ

j → ∅ / tʃ_

t → ˀt

”V → ”Vː / _n in “penultimate syllables only”

n → t / ! _{h,kʷ,V[+nas]}

”V → ”Vː / _{k(ʷ),(ˀ)t}{s,R,H} (“penultimate syllables only”)

”V → ”Vː / _RR

{ẽ(ː),õ(ː)} → ə̃(ː)

ts → θ

ˀt → tʔ / _ˀt

ˀt → ∅ / _t

ˀt → ʔ / _r

ˀt → ʔn / V_{V,w,j}

ˀt → n / {#,C}_{V,w,j}

ˀt → t

h → ∅ / _nh

h → ∅ / #_w

h → ∅ / k_{s,ts,tʃ}

h → ∅ / Vː_#

w → ∅ / _jh

n → t / _kʷ

∅ → t / hs_r

∅ → j / k_e(ː)

r becomes a trill

e(ː) → ɛ(ː)

ə̃(ː) → ɨ̃(ː) / ! “when both short and stressed”

a(ː) o(ː) → ɔ(ː) u(ː) / ! “when both short and unstressed”

t k(ʷ) → d ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}

n r w j → n̥ r̥ w̥ j̊ / _{#,O}

37.1.2.6.1 Tuscarora to Western Tuscarora

cedh audmanh, from Julian, Charles (2010), “A History of the Iroquoian Languages”, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg

θ → s

w → ∅ / _j

jʔ → ʔj

r̥ w̥ j̊ → s f ʃ

37.1.2.6.2 Tuscarora to Eastern Tuscarora

cedh audmanh, from Julian, Charles (2010), “A History of the Iroquoian Languages”, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg

r → ∅ / st_

ə̃(ː) a(ː) o(ː) → ɨ̃(ː) ɔ(ː) u(ː) (“in all positions”)

37.2 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Siouan

Pogostick Man, from Chafe, Wallace L. (1964), “Another Look at Siouan and Iroquoian”. American Anthropologist New Series, 66:852 – 862; and from cedh aumdmanh’s Iroquoian changes

ẽ õ → ı̃ ũ

{t,h} → ∅ / s_

h → ∅ / V_C

s → ∅ / h_

θ → r

ʔ → ∅ / V_

x → ç / _{i,u}

Also, apparently /tʲ/ got picked up and added to the phonology somewhere along the line, but the circumstances are unclear

37.2.1 Proto-Siouan to Catawba

Pogostick Man, from Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan I”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(2):61 – 66; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan II” International Journal of American Linguistics 16(3):113 – 121; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan III”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(4):168 – 178; and cedh audmanh’s changes above, which assisted me in deciphering the vintage phonetic transcription scheme

NB: Does not include developments in unstressed non-nasal vowels. L was apparently either /ɹ/ or /l/; Lʲ (Lʸ in the text) was apparently /j/, or maybe /ʎ/. Also, the changes of /p/ before a consonant are unclear, as described within the text. Changes appended with an asterisk are putative; there was a seeming lack of material for this language, so I’ve attempted to do some tracking work from the examples given in the text.

ç x → x ʃ

p → {p,b,m,w} / _C

p → b / V_V (*)

tʲ → ʃ / in ”U

tʲ → ʒ / else

t → ∅ / _k, when medial

”V[+nas] → Vn (*)

∅ → ʔ / C_# (only sometimes?) (*)

37.2.2 Proto-Siouan to Dakota

Pogostick Man, from Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan I”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(2):61 – 66; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan II” International Journal of American Linguistics 16(3):113 – 121; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan III”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(4):168 – 178; and cedh audmanh’s changes above, which assisted me in deciphering the vintage phonetic transcription scheme

NB: Does not include developments in unstressed non-nasal vowels. L was apparently either /ɹ/ or /l/; Lʲ (Lʸ in the text) was apparently /j/, or maybe /ʎ/. Also, the changes of /p/ before a consonant are unclear, as described within the text.

ç x → x {ʃ,ʒ}

p → {p,b,m,w}

tʲ → ʃ / in ”U

tʲ → ʒ / else

s → z / in U[-stress]

s → z / V_V

r → d / s_

tʲr → {st,ʃt}

r → d / x_

mn → mV0nV0 / #_

km → kV0mV0

w → p / _t

t → ∅ / _k, when medial

hk →tʃ

k → ∅ / _x”V

x → ʔ / ”Vk_

37.2.2.1 Dakota to Santee Dakota

Pogostick Man, from Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan I”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(2):61 – 66; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan II” International Journal of American Linguistics 16(3):113 – 121; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan III”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(4):168 – 178; and cedh audmanh’s changes above, which assisted me in deciphering the vintage phonetic transcription scheme

NB: Does not include developments in unstressed non-nasal vowels.

{pr,mt} → md

kr → hd / #_

kr → ɡj / medial

37.2.2.2 Dakota to Teton Dakota

Pogostick Man, from Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan I”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(2):61 – 66; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan II” International Journal of American Linguistics 16(3):113 – 121; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan III”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(4):168 – 178; and cedh audmanh’s changes above, which assisted me in deciphering the vintage phonetic transcription scheme

NB: Does not include developments in unstressed non-nasal vowels.

{pr,mt} kr → bl ɡl

37.2.2.3 Dakota to Yankton Dakota

Pogostick Man, from Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan I”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(2):61 – 66; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan II” International Journal of American Linguistics 16(3):113 – 121; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan III”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(4):168 – 178; and cedh audmanh’s changes above, which assisted me in deciphering the vintage phonetic transcription scheme

NB: Does not include developments in unstressed non-nasal vowels.

r → d / k_

37.2.3 Proto-Siouan to Mandan

Pogostick Man, from Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan I”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(2):61 – 66; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan II” International Journal of American Linguistics 16(3):113 – 121; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan III”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(4):168 – 178; and cedh audmanh’s changes above, which assisted me in deciphering the vintage phonetic transcription scheme

NB: Does not include developments in unstressed non-nasal vowels. L was apparently either /ɹ/ or /l/; Lʲ (Lʸ in the text) was apparently /j/, or maybe /ʎ/.

s → ʃ

t → ∅ / _s

ç → x

w → m

Lʲ → n / _V[+nas]

L → r / _V[-nas]

ã → a / in ”U (sporadic)

“Phonemic vowel length was gained somehow.”

tʲ → s / _ʔV

CʔV0 → CV0ʔV0

tʲr → sV0rV0

r → ∅ / k_

mn → mV0nV0 / #_

mn → mV0nV0 / {C,V}_{C,V}

sn → {ʃV0nV0,sV0rV0}

km → kV0pV0

t → ∅ / _k, when medial

sk → ʃ / _”V

37.2.4 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago

Pogostick Man, from Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan I”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(2):61 – 66; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan II” International Journal of American Linguistics 16(3):113 – 121; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan III”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(4):168 – 178; and cedh audmanh’s changes above, which assisted me in deciphering the vintage phonetic transcription scheme

NB: Does not include developments in unstressed non-nasal vowels. L was apparently either /ɹ/ or /l/; Lʲ (Lʸ in the text) was apparently /j/, or maybe /ʎ/. Also, the changes of /p/ before a consonant are unclear, as described within the text.

ç x → x {ʃ,ʒ}

p → {p,b,m,w}

w → ∅ / _t

t → tʃ / _”E

t → dʒ / _E[-stress]

tʲ → ʃ / in ”U

tʲ s → ʒ z / in U[-stress]

k → ɡ / V[+nas]_ ! _#

k → ɡ / _ʔ

kr → kV0rV0

m → ∅ / _n ! _n#

37.2.4.1 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Čiwere

Pogostick Man, from Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan I”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(2):61 – 66; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan II” International Journal of American Linguistics 16(3):113 – 121; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan III”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(4):168 – 178; and cedh audmanh’s changes above, which assisted me in deciphering the vintage phonetic transcription scheme

NB: Does not include developments in unstressed non-nasal vowels. L was apparently either /ɹ/ or /l/; Lʲ (Lʸ in the text) was apparently /j/, or maybe /ʎ/. Also, the changes of /p/ before a consonant are unclear, as described within the text.

p → {p,b,m,w} / _C

p → w / V_V

ɡ → ŋ

k → ɡ / ”V_

s z → θ ð (sporadic)

L → l

Lʲ → n / _V[+nas]

Lʲ → r / _V[-nas]

t → tʃ / _ʔ

pr → bl

sr → {θl,ʃl}

tʲr → ʃV0rV0

kr → ɡl

r → l / x_

k → h / _m

k → ∅ / #t_

tk → ɡ / when medial

x → ∅ / _k

x → ∅ / k_”V

37.2.4.2 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Winnebago

Pogostick Man, from Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan I”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(2):61 – 66; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan II” International Journal of American Linguistics 16(3):113 – 121; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan III”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(4):168 – 178; and cedh audmanh’s changes above, which assisted me in deciphering the vintage phonetic transcription scheme

NB: Does not include developments in unstressed non-nasal vowels. L was apparently either /ɹ/ or /l/; Lʲ (Lʸ in the text) was apparently /j/, or maybe /ʎ/. Also, the changes of /p/ before a consonant are unclear, as described within the text.

p → {p,b,m,w} / _C

V → ∅ / _#

p → b / V_V

t → {tʃ,dʒ}

Wolff says that “Winnebago preserved the intermediate stages of *k reflexes”

L → r

Lʲ → n / _V[+nas]

Lʲ → r / _V[-nas]

tʲ → x / _ʔ

pr {sr,xr} sn km → pV0rV0 ʃV0rV0 sV0nV0 kV0wV0

mt → r

tk → {tʃk,tʃɡ} / #_

t → ∅ / _k, when medial

xk → ɡ

37.2.5 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Crow-Hidatsa

Pogostick Man, from Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan I”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(2):61 – 66; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan II” International Journal of American Linguistics 16(3):113 – 121; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan III”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(4):168 – 178; and cedh audmanh’s changes above, which assisted me in deciphering the vintage phonetic transcription scheme

NB: Does not include developments in unstressed non-nasal vowels. L was apparently either /ɹ/ or /l/; Lʲ (Lʸ in the text) was apparently /j/, or maybe /ʎ/.

s ç {tʲ,x} → ts x ʃ

m → w (Crow seems to have gained a phonemic /m/ after this, however)

L(ʲ) → r

ã ı̃ ũ → a i u

Phonemic vowel length was gained somehow.

wt → wV0tV0

t → ∅ / _k, when medial

37.2.5.1 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Crow

Pogostick Man, from Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan I”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(2):61 – 66; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan II” International Journal of American Linguistics 16(3):113 – 121; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan III”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(4):168 – 178; and cedh audmanh’s changes above, which assisted me in deciphering the vintage phonetic transcription scheme

NB: Does not include developments in unstressed non-nasal vowels.

t → ʃ / _E

t → s / _V

k → ts / _i

n → r / ! at word boundaries

t → ʃ / _ʔ

ʔ → ∅ / _C

sk → tsk / _”V

x → ∅ / k_”V

37.2.5.2 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Hidatsa

Pogostick Man, from Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan I”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(2):61 – 66; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan II” International Journal of American Linguistics 16(3):113 – 121; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan III”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(4):168 – 178; and cedh audmanh’s changes above, which assisted me in deciphering the vintage phonetic transcription scheme

NB: Does not include developments in unstressed non-nasal vowels.

n → r

ʔ → ∅ / C_

kr → kV0rV0 / #_

r → ∅ / {C,V}k_{C,V}

mn → w / {C,V}_{C,V}

sn → tsV0rV0

km → hp

sk → tsuk / _”u

sk kx → tsk hk / _”V

sk → hts / ”V_

∅ → V / x_k

37.2.6 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Dhegiha

Pogostick Man, from Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan I”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(2):61 – 66; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan II” International Journal of American Linguistics 16(3):113 – 121; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan III”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(4):168 – 178; and cedh audmanh’s changes above, which assisted me in deciphering the vintage phonetic transcription scheme

NB: Does not include developments in unstressed non-nasal vowels. L was apparently either /ɹ/ or /l/; Lʲ (Lʸ in the text) was apparently /j/, or maybe /ʎ/. Also, the changes of /p/ before a consonant are unclear, as described within the text.

p → {p,b,m,w} / _C

w → ∅ / _t

t tʲ s → d ʒ z / in U[-stress]

tʲ → ʃ / in ”U

k → ɡ / ”V_

s → z / V_V

L Lʲ → {ð,j} ʒ / _”V

L → d / ”V_

w → β (sporadic, allophonic)

u → i / in ”U (sporadic)

k → ∅ #t_ (in morphemes)

tk → ɡ / when medial

37.2.6.1 Proto-Dhegiha to Kansa

Pogostick Man, from Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan I”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(2):61 – 66; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan II” International Journal of American Linguistics 16(3):113 – 121; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan III”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(4):168 – 178; and cedh audmanh’s changes above, which assisted me in deciphering the vintage phonetic transcription scheme

NB: Does not include developments in unstressed non-nasal vowels. L was apparently either /ɹ/ or /l/; Lʲ (Lʸ in the text) was apparently /j/, or maybe /ʎ/. Also, the changes of /p/ before a consonant are unclear, as described within the text. Changes appended with an asterisk are putative; there was a seeming lack of material for this language, so I’ve attempted to do some tracking work from the examples given in the text.

V[+nas] → V[-nas]n

p → {p,b,m,w} / _C

w → b / #_

r L(ʲ) → d j / #_ (*)

L → bl / #_e (*)

V → V[+nas] / N_

N → S / V_V

ũ → aN / stressed

t → ts / _ʔ

tʲr kr → ʃt l

mn → bl / {C,V}_{C,V}

mt → d

37.2.6.2 Proto-Dhegiha to Omaha-Ponca

Pogostick Man, from Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan I”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(2):61 – 66; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan II” International Journal of American Linguistics 16(3):113 – 121; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan III”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(4):168 – 178; and cedh audmanh’s changes above, which assisted me in deciphering the vintage phonetic transcription scheme

NB: Does not include developments in unstressed non-nasal vowels. L was apparently either /ɹ/ or /l/; Lʲ (Lʸ in the text) was apparently /j/, or maybe /ʎ/.

p → b / V_V

n → θ / _{ã,ẽ,õ}

w → m / #_

L → θ / _”V

d → n / ”V_

Lʲ → {θ,n} / _V[+nas -stress]

ũ → ã / stressed

k → ∅ / _ʔ

pr sr tʲr kr → bθ sn ʃn ɡθ

mn → mV0nV0 / #_

mn → bθ / {C,V}_{C,V}

mt → n

37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to Osage

Pogostick Man, from Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan I”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(2):61 – 66; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan II” International Journal of American Linguistics 16(3):113 – 121; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan III”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(4):168 – 178; and cedh audmanh’s changes above, which assisted me in deciphering the vintage phonetic transcription scheme

NB: Does not include developments in unstressed non-nasal vowels. L was apparently either /ɹ/ or /l/; Lʲ (Lʸ in the text) was apparently /j/, or maybe /ʎ/.

p → {p,b,m,w} / _C

t → ts / _E

s → θ

{ç,x} → z (sporadic)

n → ð / _{ã,ẽ,õ}

w → b / #_

Lʲ → ð / _V[+nas -stress]

ʔ → ∅ / p_

t → ts / _ʔ

pr sr tʲr kr → bð sts ʃd ɡð

r → ð / x_

m → ∅ / #_n

mn → bð / {C,V}_{C,V}

sn mt → hn d

ʃ → s / ”V_k

xk → (ʃ)k / _”V

xk → ɡ / ”V_

x → ʔ / k_”V

37.2.6.4 Proto-Dhegiha to Quapaw

Pogostick Man, from Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan I”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(2):61 – 66; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan II” International Journal of American Linguistics 16(3):113 – 121; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan III”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(4):168 – 178; and cedh audmanh’s changes above, which assisted me in deciphering the vintage phonetic transcription scheme

NB: Does not include developments in unstressed non-nasal vowels. L was apparently either /ɹ/ or /l/; Lʲ (Lʸ in the text) was apparently /j/, or maybe /ʎ/. Also, the changes of /p/ before a consonant are unclear, as described within the text. Changes appended with an asterisk are putative; there was a seeming lack of material for this language, so I’ve attempted to do some tracking work from the examples given in the text.

p → {p,b,m,w} / _C

tʲ → ʃ

L → d / #_

x → ʒ (*)

Lʲ → j / #_õ (*)

Lʲ → t / #_ã (*)

ã → õ (*)

ũ → ã / stressed (*)

m → ∅ / #_n (in morphemes) (*)

37.2.7 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Ohio-Valley

Pogostick Man, from Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan I”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(2):61 – 66; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan II” International Journal of American Linguistics 16(3):113 – 121; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan III”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(4):168 – 178; and cedh audmanh’s changes above, which assisted me in deciphering the vintage phonetic transcription scheme

NB: Does not include developments in unstressed non-nasal vowels. L was apparently either /ɹ/ or /l/; Lʲ (Lʸ in the text) was apparently /j/, or maybe /ʎ/. Also, the changes of /p/ before a consonant are unclear, as described within the text.

p → {p,b,m,w} / _C

tʲ Lʲ → tʃ j

m → ∅ / {C,V}_n{C,V}

{w,m} → ∅ / _t

37.2.7.1 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Biloxi

Pogostick Man, from Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan I”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(2):61 – 66; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan II” International Journal of American Linguistics 16(3):113 – 121; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan III”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(4):168 – 178; and cedh audmanh’s changes above, which assisted me in deciphering the vintage phonetic transcription scheme

NB: Does not include developments in unstressed non-nasal vowels. L was apparently either /ɹ/ or /l/; Lʲ (Lʸ in the text) was apparently /j/, or maybe /ʎ/. Also, the changes of /p/ before a consonant are unclear, as described within the text.

p → {p,b,m,w} / _C

p → w / V_V, apparently as a result of some dissimilation, as this appears to be an allophone of /p/ here, IIUC

w → ∅ / #_ (sporadic)

m → w / #_

L → d

ã → an (sporadic)

ʔ → ∅ / C_

r → {d,n}

m → ∅ / #_n

k → ∅ / #t_

k → ∅ / ”Vs_

k → ∅ / _x”V

kx → xk / ”V_

37.2.7.2 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Ofo

Pogostick Man, from Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan I”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(2):61 – 66; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan II” International Journal of American Linguistics 16(3):113 – 121; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan III”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(4):168 – 178; and cedh audmanh’s changes above, which assisted me in deciphering the vintage phonetic transcription scheme

NB: Does not include developments in unstressed non-nasal vowels. L was apparently either /ɹ/ or /l/; Lʲ (Lʸ in the text) was apparently /j/, or maybe /ʎ/. Also, the changes of /p/ before a consonant are unclear, as described within the text.

p → {p,b,m,w} / _C

s {ç,x} → f s

w → ∅ / #_ (sporadic)

m → w / #_

L j → t tʃ

ã → {an,õ}

ʔ → ∅ / C_

sr kr → ft kV0lV0

m → ∅ / #_n

∅ → V / k_m

k → ∅ / #t_

sk → f / ”V_

x → s / _k

kx → sk / ”V_

kx → s

37.2.7.3 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Tutelo

Pogostick Man, from Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan I”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(2):61 – 66; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan II” International Journal of American Linguistics 16(3):113 – 121; Wolff, Hans (1950), “Comparative Siouan III”. International Journal of American Linguistics 16(4):168 – 178; and cedh audmanh’s changes above, which assisted me in deciphering the vintage phonetic transcription scheme

NB: Does not include developments in unstressed non-nasal vowels. L was apparently either /ɹ/ or /l/; Lʲ (Lʸ in the text) was apparently /j/, or maybe /ʎ/. Also, the changes of /p/ before a consonant are unclear, as described within the text. Changes appended with an asterisk are putative; there was a seeming lack of material for this language, so I’ve attempted to do some tracking work from the examples given in the text.

p → {p,b,m,w} / _C

L → l

k → ᵑk / _ʔ

ʔ → ∅ / C_

mn → mV0nV0 / #_ (in morphemes)

sn → sV0nV0

∅ → V / k_m

s → ʃ / ”V_k

38 Tai-Kadai

38.1 Kam-Tai

38.1.1 Tai

38.1.1.1 Proto-Tai to Ahom

Pogostick Man, from Li, Fang Kuei (1977). “A Handbook of Comparative Tai”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications (15), i – 389

w → ∅ / m_

{f,v} {m,b} → pʰ b

pl b{l,r} → v pj

{l,r} → ∅ / {d,ɗ}_

d ɗ → t d

ŋ̊ → h

N[- voice] l̥ → N[+ voice] l

tʰ → ∅ / _r

ɣ → kʰ

ɡl → k(w)

x → ∅ / _r

r → l / K_

k → kʰ / _r

xʷ Kʷ → {kʰ,x} K(ʷ)

V → Vː / _%

38.1.1.2 Proto-Tai to Saek

Pogostick Man, from Li, Fang Kuei (1977). “A Handbook of Comparative Tai”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications (15), i – 389

ɲ̊ → j

N[- voice] → N[+ voice]

w → ∅ / m_

pr b{l,r} vr → v bj d

{l,r} → ∅ / {n,ɗ}_

d ɗ → t d

t → {p,t} / _r

l → ∅ / tʰ_

d → t / _{l,r}

{ɡ,x} → kʰ

k → t / _l

V → Vː / _%

38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Tai

Pogostick Man, from Li, Fang Kuei (1977). “A Handbook of Comparative Tai”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications (15), i – 389

ɓ ɗ → b d / ! _{l,r}

{l,r} → ∅ / n,ɗ_

f → pʰ

{m,w} → v

l → ∅ / p_{ɯ,e,i}

l → j / p_

b{l,r} → pj

v → b / _r

l → ∅ / t_

tr → tʰ(r)_

d → ∅ / _{l,r}

N[- voice] → N[+ voice]

ɡ x → k kʰ

kl kr → {kj,tʃ} kʰj

{l,r} → ∅ / ŋ_

xr → kʰ{l,r}

xʷ ɣʷ → kʷʰ {v,w}

V → Vː / _%

iə → ı̆ / _C%

ɨ̯a → aː

ɛi ei → ai iː

38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchow

Pogostick Man, from Li, Fang Kuei (1977). “A Handbook of Comparative Tai”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications (15), i – 389

v → f

pr → pʰ / _{ɯ,e,i}

pr → pʰj

{r,s,z} tʃʰ dʒ → ɬ ʃ tʃ

ɲ → j

ɡl → kj

ɨ → ∅ / _u

ɨə → ɨ̆ / _C%

ɨ̆ i̯o → u ə

uə → ŭ

u̯ɨ u̯o → {ɨ,ə} u

uo ɨ̯u → u(ː) u / _C%

ɨ̯u → uː

o {u̯ɔ,ɨɔ,ɔ} → u oː

e → i / _C%

i̯e → i

{(i)ɛ,i̯ɛ} → eː

uɔ ɨ̯ɔ → oː ɨ

{ɨo̯,ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → ɨː iː

{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} → uː

ai → aːi

V → Vː / _V

u̯əi uəi uai i̯əu iau → oːi uːi uːiau oːu

a → aː / _u,i

əi → ai

ɨ̯ai → aːi

ɔ ɨ → oː ɨː / _i

u̯əi → oːi

{o,ə} → a / _ɨ

{ɛɨ,eɨ} → aɨ

eu → uː

o → a / _u

i̯əu → au

ɛ i → eː iː / _u

{uəi,uai} iau → uːi eːu

38.1.1.3.2 Central Tai to Nung

Pogostick Man, from Li, Fang Kuei (1977). “A Handbook of Comparative Tai”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications (15), i – 389

v → f

pr → pʰ / _{ɯ,e,i}

pr → pʰj

tʃ tʃʰ dʒ → ʃ tsʰ {ʃ,tʃ}

38.1.1.3.3 Central Tai to Tay

Pogostick Man, from Li, Fang Kuei (1977). “A Handbook of Comparative Tai”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications (15), i – 389

v → f

pr → tʰ

{s,z} → {x,tʰ}

tʃ dʒ → {x,t} tʃ

(ʔ)j → ʒ

ɡ → ∅ / _l

ɣ → kʰ

38.1.1.3.4 Central Tai to Tho

Pogostick Man, from Li, Fang Kuei (1977). “A Handbook of Comparative Tai”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications (15), i – 389

pr → tʰ

z → {r,s}

dʒ → tʃ

(ʔ)j → ʒ

38.1.1.3.5 Central Tai to T’ien-Pao

Pogostick Man, from Li, Fang Kuei (1977). “A Handbook of Comparative Tai”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications (15), i – 389

v → f

pr → tʰ

r → r̥

{s,z} → t

dʒ → tʃ

ɣ → w / _V[+ round]

ɣ → j

i iː u → ə ei oʊ̯

38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Tai

Pogostick Man, from Li, Fang Kuei (1977). “A Handbook of Comparative Tai”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications (15), i – 389

{kʰ,ɡ}{l,r} → tʃ

k{l,r} → {kj,tʃ}

l → ∅ / p(ʰ),b_E

l → j / p(ʰ),b_V

{l,r} → ∅ / ɗ_

{pʰ,b} ɓ {tʰ,d} ɗ {kʰ,ɡ} {kʷʰ,ɡ} → p b t d k kʷ

m̥ n̥ → m n

mw f → f {f,v,w,h}

t{l,r} → r̥

n → ∅ / _r

z → s

{w,m} → v

{tʃ(ʰ),dʒ} → ʃ

xr x {x,ɣ}ʷ → r̥ h {w,v,h}

V → Vː / _%

iə → ı̆ / _C%

ɨ̆ → a / _K

uo → ɔː

{ɨ̯u,i̯ɛ} → ɨə̯~ɨa̯ / _%

u̯o i̯o → u o

ɨ̯a → ɨa̯~ɨə̯

{u̯ɔ,u̯a} → ua~uə

uo → uu → u / _%

ɨ̯ɔ → ɨa~ɨə

uɨ̯ ua̯ → ɨə uɔ̯ → ɨː ɔː

ɛi ei → ai əi

38.1.1.4.1 North Tai to Dioi

Pogostick Man, from Li, Fang Kuei (1977). “A Handbook of Comparative Tai”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications (15), i – 389

k → tʃ / _E

kl → ð

{r,r̥} → ð

v → w (possibly a conservation with other languages changing *w to v?)

ŋ → ɡ

TŠ → TS

38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-Ai

Pogostick Man, from Li, Fang Kuei (1977). “A Handbook of Comparative Tai”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications (15), i – 389

k → tʃ / _E

{r,r̥} → l

ɗ → n

s → ɬ

ɨ → ∅ / _u

ɨ̆ə → ɨ̆ / _C%

ɨ̆ → a / _K

ɨ̆ → ə

uə → ŭ

ɔː → oː

ɨə̯~ɨa̯ → ɨː / _%

ɨə̯~ɨa̯ → ɨ / _C%

i̯o → o

e → o / _{m,p}%

e → ɛ / _C%

ɛ iɛ → eː ı̆

i̯e → i

o → ɔ

Cʷə → Cɔ

ə → {a,ɒ,ɑ,ʌ} ?

u̯ɨ → ɔ / m_

u̯ɨ → ɨ

ɨa̯~ɨə̯ → iː / j_

ɨa̯~ɨə̯ → ɨː

ua~uə → uː

ɔ → oː

ua~u@̯ → uː

ɨɔ → ɨ / _C%

ɨ̯a~ɨə → ɨː

ue̯ → u / _C%

ue̯ → uː

ɨo̯ ɨa̯ ie̯ ɨe̯ → uː aː eː iː

ɨ a → ɨː aː / _i

{əi,ɛi,ei} → ai

ɨ̯ai → ɨːi

u̯əi ɔi → (w)iː oːi

ə → a / _{u,ɨ}

{ɛi,ei} → ɨː

{ou,oɨ} → oː

ɛ e i → eː a iː / _u

i̯əu → uː

uəi uai iau → iː oːi eːu

38.1.1.4.3 North Tai to Wu-Ming

Pogostick Man, from Li, Fang Kuei (1977). “A Handbook of Comparative Tai”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications (15), i – 389

r̥ → r

s → θ

i → {i,oi} / _%

u → aʊ̯

əi → ai

38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Tai

Pogostick Man, from Li, Fang Kuei (1977). “A Handbook of Comparative Tai”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications (15), i – 389

p → p(ʰ)

v → f

m → w / ! _w

w → ∅ / m_

l → ∅ / {p,k(ʰ),ŋ}_

pr → t

v → b / _r

{l,r} → ∅ / t,ɗ_

tʰl tʰr → tʰ r̥

d → ∅ / _{l,r}

z r → s r̥

xr → h

x → kʰ

ɡʷ → kʷʰ

V → Vː / _%

ɨə → ɨː

iə → ı̆ / _C% (not in all languages)

ɨ̯a → aː

ɛi ei → ai iː

o → ɔː / _i

38.1.1.5.1 Southwest Tai to Lao

Pogostick Man, from Li, Fang Kuei (1977). “A Handbook of Comparative Tai”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications (15), i – 389

ɓ ɗ → b d

bl br → p pʰ

r̥ → h

dʒ → s

ɡ{l,r} → kʰ

ɡ ɣ → kʰ ɡ

xʷ ɣʷ → kʷ ɡʷ

38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lü

Pogostick Man, from Li, Fang Kuei (1977). “A Handbook of Comparative Tai”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications (15), i – 389

ɓ ɗ → b d

bl br → p pʰ

r̥ → r̥ / “literary”

r̥ → h

dʒ → s

ɲ → j

ʔ → ∅ / _j

ɡl ɡr → k kʰ

{kʰ,ɣ} ɡ → x k

kʷʰ ɣʷ → xʷ x(ʷ)

o → u / _N

e → i / _N%

{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} {ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → o ə e

əi → ai

38.1.1.5.3 Southwest Tai to Shan

Pogostick Man, from Li, Fang Kuei (1977). “A Handbook of Comparative Tai”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications (15), i – 389

ɓ ɗ → b l

bl br → p pʰ

r̥ → h

ts → sʲ

dʒ → s

ɡl ɡr → k kʰ

ɡ ɣ → k kʰ

xʷ → kʷ

{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} {ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → o ə e

əi → ai

38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siamese

Pogostick Man, from Li, Fang Kuei (1977). “A Handbook of Comparative Tai”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications (15), i – 389

b → pʰ / _{l,r}

ɓ ɗ → m d

r̥ → h

ŋ ɡ ɣ → {h,ʃ} kʰ ɡ

xʷ ɣʷ → kʷ ɡʷ

u{o,ə} ɨu → uː ɨː

{u̯o,u̯ɨ} u̯ɔ → o ɔː

u̯a → aː

ɨ̯u i̯o → uː u

e → o / _{m,p}%

i̯e → e

{(i)ɛ,i̯ɛ} → ɛː

{ɨɔ,ɨ̯ɔ} → ɔː

a → aː / _i

ɨ̯ai → aːi

{u̯əi,ɔi} → ɔːi

əɨ → ai

{ɛɨ,eɨ} → ai

oɨ → ai

{o,ə} ɛ → a ɛː / _u

eu → uː

ɨ̯əu au → au aːu

ɨ → ə / _i

uəi → uai

38.1.1.5.5 Southwest Tai to Black Tai

Pogostick Man, from Li, Fang Kuei (1977). “A Handbook of Comparative Tai”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications (15), i – 389

ɓ ɗ → b l

bl br → p pʰ

r̥ → h

ɡ ɡl → k tʃ

xʷ ɣʷ → kʷ ɡʷ

38.1.1.5.6 Southwest Tai to White Tai

Pogostick Man, from Li, Fang Kuei (1977). “A Handbook of Comparative Tai”. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications (15), i – 389

ɓ ɗ → b d

bl br → p pʰ

r̥ → h

{kʰ,ɣ} ɡ ɡ{l,r} → x k tʃ

kʷʰ ɣʷ → xʷ x(ʷ)

o → u / _N

e → i / _N%

{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} {ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → o ə e

əi → ai

39 Tanoan

Proto-Tanoan is reconstructed as having had the following consonantal phonology, at least for phones in initial position:

Bilabial Alveolar Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Stop p pʰ pʼ b t ts tʰ tsʰ tʼ tsʼ d dz k kʷ kʰ kʷʰ kʼ kʷʼ ɡ ɡʷ ʔ
Fricative s h
Glide w

Only initials are reconstructed here. Vowels are believed to have had nasality and possibly length, though no correspondences are given here for sure. The affricates, as per Hale (1967), appear to have patterned as stops.

(From Hale, Kenneth (1967), “Toward a Reconstruction of Kiowa-Tanoan Phonology”. International Journal of American Linguistics, 33.2:112 – 120; and Wikipedia contributors (2012), “Tanoan languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tanoan_languages&oldid=496916321>)

39.1 Proto-Tanoan to Jimez

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2012), “Tanoan languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tanoan_languages&oldid=496916321>, citing Hale, Kenneth (1967), “Toward a Reconstruction of Kiowa-Tanoan Phonology”. International Journal of American Linguistics, 33.2:112 – 120

h → ∅

p b → ɸ ɱ

ts dz → s z

{tʰ,tsʰ} → ʃ

s → c

tsʼ → tʼ

d → n / _V[+nas]

k(ʷ)ʰ kʷ(ʼ) ɡ ɡʷ → h ɡ k kʷ

39.2 Proto-Tanoan to Kiowa

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2012), “Tanoan languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tanoan_languages&oldid=496916321>, citing Hale, Kenneth (1967), “Toward a Reconstruction of Kiowa-Tanoan Phonology”. International Journal of American Linguistics, 33.2:112 – 120

ʔ → ∅

ts tsʰ tsʼ dz → t tʰ tʼ d

w → j

kʷ kʷʰ kʷʼ ɡʷ → k kʰ kʼ ɡ

39.3 Proto-Tanoan to Taos

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2012), “Tanoan languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tanoan_languages&oldid=496916321>, citing Hale, Kenneth (1967), “Toward a Reconstruction of Kiowa-Tanoan Phonology”. International Journal of American Linguistics, 33.2:112 – 120

b → m

s → ɬ

ts tsʰ tsʼ dz → tʃ s tʃʼ j

d → l / _V[-nas]

d → n / _V[+nas]

kʰ kʰʷ ɡ ɡʷ → x xʷ k w

39.4 Proto-Tanoan to Tewa

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2012), “Tanoan languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tanoan_languages&oldid=496916321>, citing Hale, Kenneth (1967), “Toward a Reconstruction of Kiowa-Tanoan Phonology”. International Journal of American Linguistics, 33.2:112 – 120

pʰ tʰ tsʰ → f θ s

b → m

dz → {j,dʒ}

kʰ kʷʰ ɡʷ → x xʷ w

40 Totozoquean

The following inventory is from Brown, Beck, Kondrak, Watters, and Wichmann, with laryngeal modality on the vowels assumed to be distinctive (the authors consider it an option but do not explicitly propose it).

Bilabial Coronal Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n
Stop p t k kʲ q ʔ
Affricate ts
Lateral Affricate
Fricative s ʃ x h
Lateral Fricative ɬ
Resonant w l j
Front Central Back
High i iː ḭ ḭː ɨ ɨː ɨ̰ ɨ̰ː u uː ṵ ṵː
Mid e eː ḛ ḛː ə əː ə̰ ə̰ː o oː o̰ o̰ː
Mid-Low ɔ ɔː ɔ̰ ɔ̰ː
Low a aː a̰ a̰ː

(From Brown, Cecil H., David Beck, Grzegorz Kondrak, James K. Watters, and Søren Wichmann, “Linking proto-Totonacan and proto-Mixe-Zoquean”. <http://www.ualberta.ca/~dbeck/TzEILNXI.pdf>)

40.1 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Mixe-Zoquean

Pogostick Man, from Brown, Cecil H., David Beck, Grzegorz Kondrak, James K. Watters, and Søren Wichmann, “Linking proto-Totonacan and proto-Mixe-Zoquean”. <http://www.ualberta.ca/~dbeck/TzEILNXI.pdf>

l → j

q → ʔ

nʲ tʲ tʃ kʲ → n t s ts k

x {ɬ,tɬ} → h j

V[+ creaky voice] → V[- creaky voice]

ɨ ɔ → ə o

40.2 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Totonacan

Pogostick Man, from Brown, Cecil H., David Beck, Grzegorz Kondrak, James K. Watters, and Søren Wichmann, “Linking proto-Totonacan and proto-Mixe-Zoquean”. <http://www.ualberta.ca/~dbeck/TzEILNXI.pdf>

ʔ → ∅

nʲ tʲ kʲ k → l tʃ k q

h → ∅ / ! #_

j → t

o o̰ → u ṵ

{ə,ɔ} {ə̰,ɔ̰} → a a̰

{e,ɨ} {ḛ ɨ̰} → i ḭ

41 Trans-New Guinea

Pawley (2012) reconstructs the following inventory for Proto-Trans New Guinea. The use of the terms “apical” and “laminal” is his, but the table has been restructured somewhat.

Labial Apical Laminal Velar
Stop p ᵐb t ⁿd c ᶮɟ k ᵑɡ
Nasal m n ŋ
Fricative s
Approximant w l j
Front Central Back
High i u
Mid e o
Low a

(From Pawley, Andrew (2012). “How Reconstructible is Proto Trans New Guinea? Problems, Progress, Prospects”. In Languages & Linguistics in Melanesia Special Issue I:89 – 164)

41.1 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Apalɨ

Pogostick Man, from Pawley, Andrew (2012). “How Reconstructible is Proto Trans New Guinea? Problems, Progress, Prospects”. In Languages & Linguistics in Melanesia Special Issue I:89 – 164

t k ŋ → {l,t} {h,k} n / #_

p k ⁿd → β {h,k} nj / V_V

{p,t} → ∅ / _#

e u i → a {u,ɨ} {i,ɨ}

41.2 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Asmat

Pogostick Man, from Pawley, Andrew (2012). “How Reconstructible is Proto Trans New Guinea? Problems, Progress, Prospects”. In Languages & Linguistics in Melanesia Special Issue I:89 – 164

p → f / #_ (?)

t → s / #_i

k s → ∅ {t,s} / #_

ᵐb ᵑɡ → p k / V_V

p t nj → {t,r} {r,s,t} s / _#

41.3 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Binandere

Pogostick Man, from Pawley, Andrew (2012). “How Reconstructible is Proto Trans New Guinea? Problems, Progress, Prospects”. In Languages & Linguistics in Melanesia Special Issue I:89 – 164

t → j / #_i

ŋ ᵑɡ → ∅ ɡ / #_

nj → s / #_ (?)

t → {r,s} / V_i

ᵐb ⁿd ᵑɡ nj → {p,ᵐb} {ⁿd,z} k z / V_V

a → {a,o}

41.4 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kaeti

Pogostick Man, from Pawley, Andrew (2012). “How Reconstructible is Proto Trans New Guinea? Problems, Progress, Prospects”. In Languages & Linguistics in Melanesia Special Issue I:89 – 164

{p,ᵐb} ŋɡ → b ɡ / #_

ᵑɡ → ɡ

ⁿd ᵑɡ → d k

u a → {u,o,y} {a,o}

41.5 Kainantu-Goroka

41.5.1 Gorokan

41.5.1.1 Proto-Gorokan to Asaro

Pogostick Man, from Haiman, John (1987), “Proto-Gorokan Syllable Structure”. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 16(1 – 2):1 – 22 (Pogostick Man is not sure if it’s supposed to be 1985; the Web site says “1987, for 1985”); Ford, Kevin (1993), “A Preliminary Comparison of Kamano-Yagaria”. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 24(2):191 – 202; and Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.) (2014). “Gorokan”. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version: <http://www.ethnologue.com/17/subgroups/gorokan/>

Nl → nd

N → N[+ same POA] / _S

ʔ{l,d} ʔɡ → t k

41.5.1.2 Proto-Gorokan to North Fore

Pogostick Man, from Haiman, John (1987), “Proto-Gorokan Syllable Structure”. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 16(1 – 2):1 – 22 (Pogostick Man is not sure if it’s supposed to be 1985; the Web site says “1987, for 1985”); Ford, Kevin (1993), “A Preliminary Comparison of Kamano-Yagaria”. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 24(2):191 – 202; and Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.) (2014). “Gorokan”. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version: <http://www.ethnologue.com/17/subgroups/gorokan/>

N → ŋk / _V

N → ʔ / _S[- voice]

ʔ → n / before modal suffixes

Nw Nm N{n,j} → ŋk mp nt

41.5.1.3 Proto-Gorokan to South Fore

Pogostick Man, from Haiman, John (1987), “Proto-Gorokan Syllable Structure”. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 16(1 – 2):1 – 22 (Pogostick Man is not sure if it’s supposed to be 1985; the Web site says “1987, for 1985”); Ford, Kevin (1993), “A Preliminary Comparison of Kamano-Yagaria”. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 24(2):191 – 202; and Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.) (2014). “Gorokan”. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version: <http://www.ethnologue.com/17/subgroups/gorokan/>

N → ʔ / _{V,S[- voice]}

ʔ → n / before modal suffixes

Nw Nm N{n,j} → ŋk mp nt

m n → mb nd / #_

C → ∅ / VN_V

41.5.1.4 Proto-Gorokan to Gende

Pogostick Man, from Haiman, John (1987), “Proto-Gorokan Syllable Structure”. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 16(1 – 2):1 – 22 (Pogostick Man is not sure if it’s supposed to be 1985; the Web site says “1987, for 1985”); Ford, Kevin (1993), “A Preliminary Comparison of Kamano-Yagaria”. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 24(2):191 – 202; and Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.) (2014). “Gorokan”. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version: <http://www.ethnologue.com/17/subgroups/gorokan/>

r → ʔ / _O

41.5.1.5 Proto-Gorokan to Gimi

Pogostick Man, from Haiman, John (1987), “Proto-Gorokan Syllable Structure”. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 16(1 – 2):1 – 22 (Pogostick Man is not sure if it’s supposed to be 1985; the Web site says “1987, for 1985”); Ford, Kevin (1993), “A Preliminary Comparison of Kamano-Yagaria”. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 24(2):191 – 202; and Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.) (2014). “Gorokan”. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version: <http://www.ethnologue.com/17/subgroups/gorokan/>

ʔ → ∅ / _#

ʔv ʔm ʔɡ ʔr → t p k v

41.5.1.6 Proto-Gorokan to Hua

Pogostick Man, from Haiman, John (1987), “Proto-Gorokan Syllable Structure”. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 16(1 – 2):1 – 22 (Pogostick Man is not sure if it’s supposed to be 1985; the Web site says “1987, for 1985”); Ford, Kevin (1993), “A Preliminary Comparison of Kamano-Yagaria”. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 24(2):191 – 202; and Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.) (2014). “Gorokan”. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version: <http://www.ethnologue.com/17/subgroups/gorokan/>

{N,r} → ʔ / _{#,C}

41.5.1.7 Proto-Gorokan to Kamano

Pogostick Man, from Haiman, John (1987), “Proto-Gorokan Syllable Structure”. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 16(1 – 2):1 – 22 (Pogostick Man is not sure if it’s supposed to be 1985; the Web site says “1987, for 1985”); Ford, Kevin (1993), “A Preliminary Comparison of Kamano-Yagaria”. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 24(2):191 – 202; and Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.) (2014). “Gorokan”. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version: <http://www.ethnologue.com/17/subgroups/gorokan/>

r → ʔ / _#

41.5.1.8 Proto-Gorokan to Move

Pogostick Man, from Haiman, John (1987), “Proto-Gorokan Syllable Structure”. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 16(1 – 2):1 – 22 (Pogostick Man is not sure if it’s supposed to be 1985; the Web site says “1987, for 1985”); Ford, Kevin (1993), “A Preliminary Comparison of Kamano-Yagaria”. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 24(2):191 – 202; and Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.) (2014). “Gorokan”. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version: <http://www.ethnologue.com/17/subgroups/gorokan/>

N → ʔ / _{#,C}

ʔv ʔm ʔɡ ʔr ʔh → p b k t {s,f}

V[+ low tone] → ∅ / C_hV[+ high tone]

V[+ low tone] → ∅ / C_CV[+ high tone] if both vowels are the same

41.5.1.9 Proto-Gorokan to Siane

Pogostick Man, from Haiman, John (1987), “Proto-Gorokan Syllable Structure”. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 16(1 – 2):1 – 22 (Pogostick Man is not sure if it’s supposed to be 1985; the Web site says “1987, for 1985”); Ford, Kevin (1993), “A Preliminary Comparison of Kamano-Yagaria”. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 24(2):191 – 202; and Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.) (2014). “Gorokan”. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version: <http://www.ethnologue.com/17/subgroups/gorokan/>

C → ∅ / _#

{N,r} → ʔ / _C

ʔŋɡ ʔd → ŋk t

41.5.1.10 Proto-Gorokan to Yagaria

Pogostick Man, from Haiman, John (1987), “Proto-Gorokan Syllable Structure”. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 16(1 – 2):1 – 22 (Pogostick Man is not sure if it’s supposed to be 1985; the Web site says “1987, for 1985”); Ford, Kevin (1993), “A Preliminary Comparison of Kamano-Yagaria”. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 24(2):191 – 202; and Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.) (2014). “Gorokan”. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version: <http://www.ethnologue.com/17/subgroups/gorokan/>

ʔv ʔm ʔɡ ʔr ʔh → p b k t {s,f}

41.5.2 Kainantu

41.5.2.1 Proto-Kainantu to Auyana

Pogostick Man, from Haiman, John (1987), “Proto-Gorokan Syllable Structure”. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 16(1 – 2):1 – 22 (Pogostick Man is not sure if it’s supposed to be 1985; the Web site says “1987, for 1985”); Ford, Kevin (1993), “A Preliminary Comparison of Kamano-Yagaria”. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 24(2):191 – 202; and Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.) (2014). “Gorokan”. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version: <http://www.ethnologue.com/17/subgroups/gorokan/>

N → [+ same POA] / _C

N{w,d,r} nj → ŋk nt (not sure if *nj is supposed to be *ɲɟ)

N → ∅ / _#

r → ʔ / _{N,#}

r → ∅ / _S[- voice]

41.5.2.2 Proto-Kainantu to Awa

Pogostick Man, from Haiman, John (1987), “Proto-Gorokan Syllable Structure”. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 16(1 – 2):1 – 22 (Pogostick Man is not sure if it’s supposed to be 1985; the Web site says “1987, for 1985”); Ford, Kevin (1993), “A Preliminary Comparison of Kamano-Yagaria”. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 24(2):191 – 202; and Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.) (2014). “Gorokan”. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version: <http://www.ethnologue.com/17/subgroups/gorokan/>

N → n / _{v,k,s}

N → ∅ / _{p,t,#}

Nd → n

ʔ → ∅ / _{p,t}

ʔw ʔb ʔd ʔɡ → m p t k

41.5.2.3 Proto-Kainantu to Gadsup

Pogostick Man, from Haiman, John (1987), “Proto-Gorokan Syllable Structure”. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 16(1 – 2):1 – 22 (Pogostick Man is not sure if it’s supposed to be 1985; the Web site says “1987, for 1985”); Ford, Kevin (1993), “A Preliminary Comparison of Kamano-Yagaria”. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 24(2):191 – 202; and Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.) (2014). “Gorokan”. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version: <http://www.ethnologue.com/17/subgroups/gorokan/>

N → ∅ / _N

N → [+ same POA] / _C

nw nr → mb nd

{D,Y} → ∅ / _n

YO[+ voice] YO[- voice] → Y t

DO[+ voice] DO[- voice] → nd nt

41.5.2.4 Proto-Kainantu to Usarufa

Pogostick Man, from Haiman, John (1987), “Proto-Gorokan Syllable Structure”. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 16(1 – 2):1 – 22 (Pogostick Man is not sure if it’s supposed to be 1985; the Web site says “1987, for 1985”); Ford, Kevin (1993), “A Preliminary Comparison of Kamano-Yagaria”. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 24(2):191 – 202; and Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.) (2014). “Gorokan”. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version: <http://www.ethnologue.com/17/subgroups/gorokan/>

N1N2 → N2ː ?

N → ʔ / _O

N → n / _V

N{w,r} Nj → ʔk ʔt

r → ʔ / _C

41.6 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kalam

Pogostick Man, from Pawley, Andrew (2012). “How Reconstructible is Proto Trans New Guinea? Problems, Progress, Prospects”. In Languages & Linguistics in Melanesia Special Issue I:89 – 164

t → {t,∅} / _#

l → ɽ

Frequent insertion of “epenthetic vowels, often realized as very short [ɨ], but in some contexts as a copy of a neighboring full vowel. In some cases the epenthetic vowels appear to be, historically, reductions of full vowels”

41.7 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kâte

Pogostick Man, from Pawley, Andrew (2012). “How Reconstructible is Proto Trans New Guinea? Problems, Progress, Prospects”. In Languages & Linguistics in Melanesia Special Issue I:89 – 164

k ᵐb ⁿd → {k,h} b {s,t} / #_

ᵐb ⁿd → {ᵐb,p} s / V_V

p k → t ʔ / _#

p → f

u a → {u,ɔ} {ɔ,a}

41.8 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kiwai

Pogostick Man, from Pawley, Andrew (2012). “How Reconstructible is Proto Trans New Guinea? Problems, Progress, Prospects”. In Languages & Linguistics in Melanesia Special Issue I:89 – 164

t k ᵐb → {s,t} {ɡ,∅} {b,p} / #_

t ᵐb ⁿd {k,ᵑɡ} nj → {r,t} p {d,t} ɡ r / V_V

s → {s,t} / #_ (?)

u i → {u,o} {i,e}

41.9 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Selepet

Pogostick Man, from Pawley, Andrew (2012). “How Reconstructible is Proto Trans New Guinea? Problems, Progress, Prospects”. In Languages & Linguistics in Melanesia Special Issue I:89 – 164

ᵐb ⁿd s → b {s,t} {t,s} / #_

t ᵐb nj s → r {b,p} ⁿd {s,d} / V_V

t → t / _# (?)

ŋ → {m,ŋ} / _#

ᵑɡ → ɡ

u o a e → {u,ɔ} {o,ɔ} {a,ɔ} {e,o}

41.10 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Telefol

Pogostick Man, from Pawley, Andrew (2012). “How Reconstructible is Proto Trans New Guinea? Problems, Progress, Prospects”. In Languages & Linguistics in Melanesia Special Issue I:89 – 164

{p,ᵐb} → f / #_

s → s / #_ (?)

ᵐb ⁿd ᵑɡ → b n k / V_V

41.11 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Middle Wahgi

Pogostick Man, from Pawley, Andrew (2012). “How Reconstructible is Proto Trans New Guinea? Problems, Progress, Prospects”. In Languages & Linguistics in Melanesia Special Issue I:89 – 164

n ŋ → m n / #_

ᵑɡ → {ᵑɡ,ŋ} / V_V

i → {i,e}

42 Uralic

The following reconstructed phonology for Proto-Uralic is adapted from the Wikipedia:

Bilabial Dental Alv. Alv.-pal. Palatal Postalv. Velar (Unk.)
Nasal m n nʲ ŋ
Plosive p t k
Fricative ð ðʲ s ɕ ʃ
Trill r
Approximant w l lʲ
Unknown x
Front Back
Close i y ɯ u
Mid e o
Open æ ɑ

For the series of changes starting with Proto-Uralic to Pre-Finnic and ending with Proto-Finnic to Livonian and in several other of Tropylium’s contributions, the following alterations to the stand-in variable list apply.

Changes marked with an asterisk are somewhat contentious.

Tropylium wishes to note that his sound changes are subject to change. (Note 2014/06/21: As per a Tumblr post of his, http://tropylium.tumblr.com/post/81916666722/index-diachronica-4-2, many of the compilations presented here are out of date or erroneous, and he still is updating his page on Finnic, http://www.frathwiki.com/Finnish.)

(From Wikipedia contributors (2011), “Proto-Uralic language”. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Uralic_language&oldid=442512196>; the TCL thread and KQ pages proper; and Tropylium.)

42.1 Proto-Uralic to Pre-Finnic

Tropylium, from Hakulinen, Lauri (1979), “Suomen kielen rakenne ja kehitys”. Otava; Häkkinen, Kaisa (2004), “Nykysuomen etymologinen sanakirja”. WSOY; Kallio, Petri (2007), “Kantasuomen konsonanttihistoriaa”. Mémoires de la Société Finno-Ougrienne 253. <http://www.sgr.fi/sust/sust253/sust253_kallio.pdf>; and from Janhunen, Juha (2007), “The primary laryngeal in Uralic and beyond”. Mémoires de la Société Finno-Ougrienne 253. <http://www.sgr.fi/sust/sust253/sust253_janhunen.pdf>

ŋ → k / _#, in latives

ŋ → n / _# else

iw ow → y uː / _(C) (*)

x → @ / _C

m → n / _{t,tsʲ,#}

ɤ(ː?) ɑː æː → ɑ(ː?) oː eː / stressed

a → æ / {a,e,ê,i,y}(X)(C)(C)_, when unstressed

Aw → o / unstressed (possibly analogical)

i → e / _C, when unstressed

iw → u / unstressed

42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnic

Tropylium, from Hakulinen, Lauri (1979), “Suomen kielen rakenne ja kehitys”. Otava; Häkkinen, Kaisa (2004), “Nykysuomen etymologinen sanakirja”. WSOY; Kallio, Petri (2007), “Kantasuomen konsonanttihistoriaa”. Mémoires de la Société Finno-Ougrienne 253. <http://www.sgr.fi/sust/sust253/sust253_kallio.pdf>; and from Janhunen, Juha (2007), “The primary laryngeal in Uralic and beyond”. Mémoires de la Société Finno-Ougrienne 253. <http://www.sgr.fi/sust/sust253/sust253_janhunen.pdf>

V → Vː / _#

ê ô → e o / _(X)Ci

ê → y / _(X)CA

ô → ɯ → i / _(X)CA

ej → i / unstressed

æ → e / _j, unstressed

ɑ → e / ”{o,u}(X)C_j

ɑ → o / ”{a,e,i}(X)C_j

ixi uxu → øː oː

xi → @ / else

x → w / {U,O}_C

x → j / {I,E}_C

UŋA eŋi → Oː øː

ŋi → @ / V_

ŋ → n / _t (?)

ŋ → j / _Cʲ (possibly _F instead?)

ŋ → w / _{A,O,U}

ŋ → w / {O,U}_

ŋ → w / _C ! _k

ŋ → w / C_

uwa → oː (*)

Uwi ewi → oː øː

i → ∅ / æw_

wI → i

ji → O / {i,e,y}

i → ∅ / Aj_#

i → ∅ / {o,u}j_

j → ∅ / C_i{C,#}

yje → øː → jø (?)

uw ij → ow ej / _C

tʃ tsʲ → ʃ sʲ / #_

ðʲ sʲ tsʲ(ː) lʲ → ð s ts(ː) l

nʲ → ni / #(C)i_V

nʲ → in / V_V

nʲ → n / else

n → ∅ / _tː

w → ∅ / o_st (*)

ð → t

tʃ → ts / _k, in South Estonian

tk → k / in Pre-Livonian (?)

tʃ tʃː → t tʃ

t → ts / _i ! following a coronal obstruent or “before a derivational suffix”

tj → ts / ! following a coronal obstruent or “before a derivational suffix”

ʃ → ʂ → x

s → x / _l

n → ∅ / _{s,ts}

w → ʋ

42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnish

Tropylium, from Hakulinen, Lauri (1979), “Suomen kielen rakenne ja kehitys”. Otava; Häkkinen, Kaisa (2004), “Nykysuomen etymologinen sanakirja”. WSOY; Kallio, Petri (2007), “Kantasuomen konsonanttihistoriaa”. Mémoires de la Société Finno-Ougrienne 253. <http://www.sgr.fi/sust/sust253/sust253_kallio.pdf>; and from Janhunen, Juha (2007), “The primary laryngeal in Uralic and beyond”. Mémoires de la Société Finno-Ougrienne 253. <http://www.sgr.fi/sust/sust253/sust253_janhunen.pdf>

j w → i U / V_{C,#}

i → ∅ / {VC,ks}_ at the ends of a suffix

e → ∅ / C[+coronal]_%

pː tː tsː kː → pˑ tˑ tsˑ kˑ

p t ts s k → b d s z ɡ

b d ɡ → β ð ɣ / ! N_

ɣ → j~ʋ

βi → U / _#

f → ʋ / #_

ʋ → ∅ / #_{o,u,y}

j → ∅ / _i (*)

∅ → ʋ / #_{yː,øː,oː}

oi → o / unstressed

Vː → V[-long] / _i

{kt,pt} {kts,pts} → tː tːs

xk → kː (even across word boundaries)

(t(ː))sn kx(tx) rn ln → sː xː rː lː

{p,t,k}({p,t,k})n {p,t,k}({p,t,k})m → nː mː

{p,t,k} → ∅ / _st

{ks,nts} nt → s t / _#

ts tsˑ tsː → s θˑ θː

{z,x(ː)} → h

e → @ / h_ (suffixal)

{p,k} → h / _t

42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnish

Tropylium, from Hakulinen, Lauri (1979), “Suomen kielen rakenne ja kehitys”. Otava; Häkkinen, Kaisa (2004), “Nykysuomen etymologinen sanakirja”. WSOY; Kallio, Petri (2007), “Kantasuomen konsonanttihistoriaa”. Mémoires de la Société Finno-Ougrienne 253. <http://www.sgr.fi/sust/sust253/sust253_kallio.pdf>; and from Janhunen, Juha (2007), “The primary laryngeal in Uralic and beyond”. Mémoires de la Société Finno-Ougrienne 253. <http://www.sgr.fi/sust/sust253/sust253_janhunen.pdf>

mb nd ŋɡ → mː nː ŋː

eː øː oː → ie yø uo

pˑ tˑ θˑ kˑ → p t θ k

j → i / C_, when initial in a suffix

Vh → hV / {j,v,n,r,l}_# (also some double-metathesis triggered by the condition of being m_ ?)

sn → ns

V → Vː / h_hC

V → Vː / _hC (sporadic)

{k,x} → ˟ / _#

t → ∅ / s_r

p → β → U / _R

t → z → U / _r{A,O}

t → z → @ / _r{i,e}

k → z → @ / _j

k → ɣ i / {i,e}_R{i,e}

k → ɣ → U / {A,O,U}_R ! R = j

β → ʋ

ʋ → ∅ / _UC

ið → j / ”V_V

lð rð → lː rː

ð → ∅ / ! ”V(X)_

ɣ → j / C_e

ɣ → ʋ / U_U

ɣ → ʔ / VV0_V0 ! V0 = U

ɣ → ∅ / else

h → ∅ / V[-stress](X)_V

AO → {A,O,U}ː / unstressed

e → i / A_, when unstressed

Ue → eː / unstressed

VU → Vː / _#

iU OU → Uː Oː

æ → a / e(C…)_(C…)o

e → ø / #(C…)_y

i → y / #(C…)l_y

i → y / #(C…)_væ

θ(ː) ð → ts d (this latter does have some highly sporadic exceptions; additionally, in some dialects these may become {t(ː),h~t} and {r,∅}, respectively)

42.1.1.1.2 Standard Finnish to Modern Standard Finnish

Tropylium, from Hakulinen, Lauri (1979), “Suomen kielen rakenne ja kehitys”. Otava; Häkkinen, Kaisa (2004), “Nykysuomen etymologinen sanakirja”. WSOY; Kallio, Petri (2007), “Kantasuomen konsonanttihistoriaa”. Mémoires de la Société Finno-Ougrienne 253. <http://www.sgr.fi/sust/sust253/sust253_kallio.pdf>; and from Janhunen, Juha (2007), “The primary laryngeal in Uralic and beyond”. Mémoires de la Société Finno-Ougrienne 253. <http://www.sgr.fi/sust/sust253/sust253_janhunen.pdf>

n → ∅ / _#

d → ∅ / _r “in inherited vocabulary”

Va → Vː / unstressed

ie yɤ uo → iː yː uː / _A

42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livonian

Tropylium, from Hakulinen, Lauri (1979), “Suomen kielen rakenne ja kehitys”. Otava; Häkkinen, Kaisa (2004), “Nykysuomen etymologinen sanakirja”. WSOY; Kallio, Petri (2007), “Kantasuomen konsonanttihistoriaa”. Mémoires de la Société Finno-Ougrienne 253. <http://www.sgr.fi/sust/sust253/sust253_kallio.pdf>; and from Janhunen, Juha (2007), “The primary laryngeal in Uralic and beyond”. Mémoires de la Société Finno-Ougrienne 253. <http://www.sgr.fi/sust/sust253/sust253_janhunen.pdf>

t ts s(C) n l r → tʲ tsʲ sʲ(C) nʲ lʲ rʲ / _i

ts(ʲ) → s(ʲ) / ! n_

e → ɤ / _C(C){a,o,u}

æ → ɑ / unstressed

h → ∅ / {#,C}_

Vn → Vː / _s

ɑ æ → æe / _(C…)i

V → ə / unstressed ! V = ɑ

ɑ → ə / VC(C)ɑC(C)_# when unstressed

Vh → Vːɦ / _C, except maybe ! _j and/or _ʋ

LV → VL / {#,V,O}_

p t(ʲ) s(ʲ) k → b d(ʲ) z(ʲ) ɡ / ! #_ or adjacent to C[-voice]

∅ → ʔ / (C)V_CV

ə → ∅ / _#

ə → ∅ / VC_CV

C → Cː / ʔ_V

dj lj rj ɡj → dʲ lːʲ rːʲ jɡ

ʋ → ∅ / {d,z}_

lʋ rʋ jʋ → lː rː jː

ʋ → ∅ / C_

VCːɑ → VːCɑ

Cː → C[- long] / ! in verbal forms when V_ə

ɑː au → ɔː ɔu (though sometimes ɑː develops, apparently at least partially due to metathesis?)

eː øː oː ɤ(ː) → iːe yːø uːo ɨ(ː)

ɦ → ʔ

sʲ tsʲ zʲ dzʲ → ʃʲ tʃʲ ʒʲ dʒʲ

æy ey → æu eu

y ø → i e / else

V → Vː / _RC(C)ɑ (includes diphthongs)

a → aː / VC_

e o → eː oː / _Cɑ

o → oː / _{RC#,i}

eː oː → je wo

w → ʋ / #_o

wo → ʊ / P_

ɔ(ː) → o(ː)

43 Uto-Aztecan

The Wikipedia provides the following reconstruction for the phonology of Proto-Uto-Aztecan, which here is adapted with slight modifications as to the layout:

Bilabial Coronal Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p t k kʷ ʔ
Fricative s
Affricate ts
Rhotic r
Approximant j w
Front Central Back
Close i ɨ u
Mid o
Open a

Quoth the Wiki, “*n and *ŋ may have actually been *l and *n, respectively.” It should be noted that there exists some discrepancy between this given reconstruction and in that set up for the studies deriving the reconstructions below. Radius Solis includes *h and *l as distinct phonemes as per the source he cited.

For the following Uto-Aztecan changes, Vu, Vs, and Vn refer to normal (“unaffecting”), “suspending”, and “nasalizing” vowels, respectively. According to Radius Solis, “Reconstructed PUA had three sets of vowels; this book calls them ‘suspending’, ‘unaltering’, and ‘nasalizing’. The nasalizing vowels likely were actually nasal, but it’s uncertain; their existence was deduced only by the sound changes that revolved around them. There’s few good guesses yet about the nature of the ‘suspending’ vowels, but their existence is likewise deducible from the sound changes that have been affected by them across a majority of the UA family - more changes than from the nasalizing series, occurring in all UA branches, enough to be pretty certain that it was a reality in PUA.”

(From Wikipedia contributors (2011), “Proto-Uto-Aztecan language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Uto-Aztecan_language&oldid=406159488>; and from Radius Solis’ changes listed on KneeQuickie and in the TCL thread proper)

43.1 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Comanche

Radius Solis, from from Voegelin, Charles F., Florence M. Voegelin, & Kenneth L. Hale (1962), “Typological and Comparative Grammar of Uto-Aztecan: I (Phonology)”. International Journal of American Linguistics 28: Memoir 17

p t ts s → v r ∅ h

∅ → h / Vu_k

s → ∅ / Vn_

{ŋ,l} → n

{w,j} → ∅ / medial

43.2 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Hopi

Radius Solis, from from Voegelin, Charles F., Florence M. Voegelin, & Kenneth L. Hale (1962), “Typological and Comparative Grammar of Uto-Aztecan: I (Phonology)”. International Journal of American Linguistics 28: Memoir 17

p → v / Vn_

k → q / _V[+low]

i → j / h_ ! _#

l h → n ∅ / medially

w → l / {#,V[+low]}_V[+low]

w → ŋʷ / ɨn_

o → ø

43.3 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Luiseño

Radius Solis, from from Voegelin, Charles F., Florence M. Voegelin, & Kenneth L. Hale (1962), “Typological and Comparative Grammar of Uto-Aztecan: I (Phonology)”. International Journal of American Linguistics 28: Memoir 17

p → v / {Vn,ɨ}_ (the latter “sometimes”)

p → v / “other conditions not known”

t → l / medially

ts → tʃ

k → q / #_V[+low]

k → q / an_

“[I]solated other instances of k → q occur with uncertain conditions”

k → x / a_

ʔ → ∅ / #_

s → ʃ

l → n / medially

o ɨ → e o

V → ∅ / “in some final syllables (conditions are unknown and it varies by dialect)”

43.4 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Nahuatl

Radius Solis, from from Voegelin, Charles F., Florence M. Voegelin, & Kenneth L. Hale (1962), “Typological and Comparative Grammar of Uto-Aztecan: I (Phonology)”. International Journal of American Linguistics 28: Memoir 17

t → tɬ / _{a,u}

p → ∅ / {#,Vs}_

s ts → ʃ tʃ / _i

{ʔ,h} → ∅

ŋ → n

m → n / _#

l → n / #_

w → ∅ / _o

ɨ u → e {i,e} “(all */u/ affected, but conditions for when it became /i/ or /e/ are not known)”

“(What happened to PUA */r/ is not known. Nahuatl has no cognates that would have a reflex.)”

43.5 Numic

43.5.1 Mono-Kawaiisu

43.5.1.1 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Kawaiisu

Pogostick Man, from Klein, Sheldon (1959), “Comparative Mono-Kawaiisu”. International Journal of American Linguistics 25(4):233 – 238

Possible development of vowel harmony

hkʷ hʔ (h)S Sː → w ʔ S[+ voiced] S[- voiced - long] / V_V

ts → z / V_V

hts → z / V_i

h → ∅ / V_tsV

h → ∅ / _{n,s,ʔ}

p → b / m_

*nː became “an apical nasal with devoiced release”

jː → j

a → o / P_

uV Vː → uː Vː (not sure if this occurs before or after the previous change)

k → ∅ / V_wV

43.5.1.2 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Mono

Pogostick Man, from Klein, Sheldon (1959), “Comparative Mono-Kawaiisu”. International Journal of American Linguistics 25(4):233 – 238

(h)k → (h)q / _{o,a} ! ɨ_

kw → q / _a

(h)kʷ → hq(ʷ) / _{o,a}

m → h / _p

nː → h

ɨ → i / _h

uV → u(i)

43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odham

Radius Solis, from from Voegelin, Charles F., Florence M. Voegelin, & Kenneth L. Hale (1962), “Typological and Comparative Grammar of Uto-Aztecan: I (Phonology)”. International Journal of American Linguistics 28: Memoir 17

p → w / {#,Vs}_

t → tʃ / _V[+high]

ts → s / _i

kʷ → b

h → ʔ / #_

s ŋ → h n

n → ɲ / _V[+high]

l → ɲ / #_ “(in doubt; initial *l occurs in too few cognates to be sure. Apparently PUA initial *l was rare and is of questionable certainty whether it existed at all.)”

l → ɭ

ɭ → ɖ / _a

w → ɡ

j → dʒ / _V[+high]

j → d / _V[+low]

V → ∅ / “when in the first syllable of a bisyllabic morpheme, if after a morpheme boundary in the word (all other first-syllable vowels have non-zero reflexes)”

i → ∅ / ts_#

l → i / {p,m,k(ʷ),w}_# “in all dialects, and varies by dialect after other consonants”

“What happened to PUA */r/ in O’odham is difficult to say. There are only two known cognates, each showing a different reflex: /ɭ/ and /ɖ/”

44 Vasconic

The following phonology for Proto-Basque (not Proto-Vasconic) is adapted from Egurtzegi (2013), citing Martinet (1974 [1950]: 533), but differs from that given in Tables 4.3 – 4.6 when accounting for other data in the paper. Capital letters indicate fortis phonemes, and the affricates were fortis as well.

Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal n N
Stop p (P) t T k K
Fricative f ? s̺ s̻ h
Affricate ts̺ ts̻
Liquid r R l L
Glide j w
Front Central Back
High i u
Mid e o
Low a

(From Egurtzegi, Ander (2013), “Phonetics and Phonology”, in Basque and Proto-Basque. <https://www.academia.edu/3570162/2013a_-_Basque_and_Proto-Basque_Phonetics_and_Phonology>)

44.1 Proto-Vasconic to Aquitanian

Pogostick Man, from Egurtzegi, Ander (2013), “Phonetics and Phonology”, in Basque and Proto-Basque. <https://www.academia.edu/3570162/2013a_-_Basque_and_Proto-Basque_Phonetics_and_Phonology>; Owstrowski, Manfred, “History of the Basque Language”. <http://hisp462.tamu.edu/Classes/603/Lects/BasqueHist.pdf>; Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Aquitanian langauge”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aquitanian_language&oldid=609638407>; Wikipedia contributors (2014), ”Basque language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Basque_language&oldid=610796497>; and Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Vasconic languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vasconic_languages&oldid=607530415>

ś → {s(ː),ʃ} / _#

ś → s

s → ʃ / i_#

ts may become ʃs or sː? The written forms are 〈xs〉 and 〈ss〉

S[+ fortis] → S[- voice]ː (specifically, the source lists t[+ fortis] k[+ fortis] → t(ː) k(ː), both of the tokens with optional length suffixes and *aTa → 〈atta〉, so I’m extrapolating)

n[+ fortis] → n(ː) / V_V

n[- fortis] n[+ fortis] → {n,r}(?) n

N → [+ same POA] / _S

r[+ fortis] → ɾ / _#

r[+ fortis] → r

Fortis *L is of uncertain outcome, being written as 〈l〉 or 〈ll〉

ɡ → k / #_ (sometimes?)

There seem to have been a few (variant?) forms which possibly show height assimilation in vowels

44.2 Proto-Basque to Basque

Pogostick Man, from Egurtzegi, Ander (2013), ”Phonetics and Phonology”, in Basque and Proto-Basque. <https://www.academia.edu/3570162/2013a_-_Basque_and_Proto-Basque_Phonetics_and_Phonology>; Owstrowski, Manfred, “History of the Basque Language” <http://hisp462.tamu.edu/Classes/603/Lects/BasqueHist.pdf>; Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Proto-Basque language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Basque_language&oldid=605488703>; Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Aquitanian langauge”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aquitanian_language&oldid=609638407>; Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Basque language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Basque_language&oldid=610796497>; Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Iberian language”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Iberian_language&oldid=601317949>; Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Basque dialects”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Basque_dialects&oldid=595514648>; Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Biscayan dialect”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Biscayan_dialect&oldid=613190357>; Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Gipuzkoan dialect”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gipuzkoan_dialect&oldid=606871281>; Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Vasconic languages”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vasconic_languages&oldid=607530415>; Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Navarro-Lapurdian dialect”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Navarro-Lapurdian_dialect&oldid=601150726>; and Campbell, Lyle, “Language Isolates and Their History, or, What’s Weird, Anyway?”. <http://www2.hawaii.edu/~lylecamp/CAMPBELL%20BLS%20isolates.pdf>

Pre-Proto-Basque may have had some stuff involving reduplication that ended up dropping the first consonant

fortis → aspirated / “in a prominent position” (i.e., word-initially?)

fortis → [- voice] / else

lenis → devoiced / “in a prominent word-initial position”

lenis → voiced fricative (→ approximant, at least by the 12th Century?) / unstressed

lenis (voiced) → fricative / {l,r,s̺,s̻,V}_{l,r,s̺,s̻,V}

— At least one reconstruction seems to indicate *s and *ś, which may have been an affricate and /s/. Pretty reliably, *-s tends to turn into -ts̺, and *-ś → -ts̻, probably after the below-mentioned affrication. Beyond that, it’s messy. *-tso seems to have become -tʃo/-tʃu, though.

Sʰ → F → h (→ ∅) / #_

S → S[+ voiced] / #_

“[T]wo similar vocalic segments” usually contract, though some dialects (especially Biscayan) seem not to exhibit this

Vn → Ṽ / _# (seems to have been reverted in most dialects, except for Souletin)

Vn → Ṽ / _V (?)

V → Ṽ / _N (Souletin, perhaps in other dialects?)

d → l / #_ (except verbs)

n →m / u_V

n → ɲ / {i,ɪ}_V

n → h̃ / V_V

nb → mː → m

N → [+ same POA] / _C

b → m / _VN

{ɾ,r} → ∅ / #_

l → ɾ / V_V

ɾ → r / _C

r → ɾ / _#

C → ∅ / r_

Cr → Cɾ → CVɾ (perhaps not a sound change per se, just a historical tendency)

ɾ → ∅ / V_V (Souletin)

*L (fortis) → l (or *lh → lː, which then lost gemination?)

ð → some sort of tap distinct from ɾ (Biscayan, Guipuscoan, High Navarrese)

b → ∅ / #_B (a few exceptions, mostly before _u)

F[+ voiced] → ∅ / V_V (sometimes, usually involving “compound surnames”?)

S[+ voice] → S[- voice] / F[+ sibilant]_

Ṽ → Vɲ / _V (not Souletin)

Ṽ → Vn or a diphthong (not Souletin)

h̃ → h (not Souletin)

u ũ → y ỹ / _r(p(ʰ),β,k(ʰ),ɣ,l,s̺,s̻,ʃ,h) (Souletin)

u ũ → y ỹ / _{s̻,ts̺,ts̻} (but not _s̺) (Souletin)

õ → ũ (Souletin)

∅ → a / #_{ra,ro} (sporadic)

∅ → e / #_r

∅ → e / #_{s̺,s̻}C

i → u / _(C…)u (Roncalese)

i → y / _(C…)y (Souletin)

e → o / _(C…)o (eastern dialects, Bermeo Biscayan)

e → o / o(C…)_ (eastern dialects)

a o e → ɛ u i / {i,u}(C…)_ (this [ɛ] is tentatively marked as such; Egurtzegi transcribes it as /e/ but says it’s not as close as /e/)

o → u / _n{C,#} (Souletin; some raising occurred elsewhere)

a → e / _$a (Biscayan, Alavese, some Guipuscoan)

o e → u i / _$a (raising of *o is less common)

e → i / _{n,C[+ sibilant]} (sporadic)

e → a / {V,C}_r (“mainly in the western dialects”)

u i → o e / _r{C,#}

“[S]ome variations between /a/ and /e/ or /e/ and /i/” / _l{C,#}

∅ → j / V_{N,s̺,s̻}S

∅ → j / u_V (eastern dialects)

{w,y} → ∅ / _ja

∅ → m / o$_V (Orozko Biscayan)

∅ → V / Vk_# (Zeberio Biscayan)

e → ∅ / #_ (Navarrese, rare)

e → j / #_V (at least a few times?)

a → ∅ / _V

V → ∅ / Vj_

h → ∅ (western dialects)

{w,β}h → f

*h may have metathesized given that it’s only found in the first two syllables of proto-forms

h…h → ∅…h (“affect[s] both the oral /h/ and the nasalized aspiration”)

*-ɾ → -h stuff in compounds

l n →ʎ ɲ / E_

{ɾ,r} → ʎ / {i,j}_ (eastern dialects)

s̻ ts̻ → ʃ tʃ / {E,j}_ (mostly Biscayan)

t → c / {E,j}_ (“some areas”)

t → tʃ / {E,j}_ (partially spread amongst Biscayan and Guipuscoan)

d ð → ɟ ʝ / {E,j}_ ? (“some dialects”)

d ð → ɟ ʝ / {ʎ,ɲ}_ (Guipuscoan, High Navarrese)

{ɡ,ɣ} → {ɟ,ʝ} / {E,j}_

ɡ → dʒ / {E,j}_ (“in some Biscayan areas”)

j → ʝ → j (northern High Navarrese, most Labourd, some Biscayan)

j → ʝ → ʒ (Souletin, sporadic in northwestern Biscayan)

j → ʝ (some Biscayan and Navarrese)

j → ʝ → ɟ (typical of Low Navarrese)

j → ʝ → ʒ → dʒ (northwestern Biscayan)

j → ʝ → ʒ → ʃ (Aescoan, Salazarese, Roncalese, most southern High Navarrese)

j → ʝ → ʒ → ʃ → x (Guipuscoan, northwestern High Navarrese, eastern Biscayan)

j → χ (probably through intermediates like above, Wikipedia doesn’t go into particulars of how and where)

ʎ ɲ → jl jn (“common in Low Navarrese, Labourdin, and is even regular in the High Navarrese of Sakana”)

Vowel syncope:

— V → ∅ / S_{ɾ,l} (more common in Roncalese and Salazarese, but also in Navarrese and Aescoan?)

— V → ∅ / C[+ sibilant]_ɾ (Roncalese and Salazarese)

— V → ∅ / {O,ɾ,r}_O (Roncalese, Salazarese, Navarrese, Aescoan)

n[+ fortis] → n

Something about final devoicing of stops and initial stops losing voicing as a result of vowel deletion

e → ∅ / #Ur_

a → ∅ / V_# (Guipuscoan; happens because of reanalysis of the definite article)

V → ∅ / _#, in trisyllables

i → ∅ / _#, in disyllables

u {o,e} → ∅ a / _#, in disyllables (eastern dialects)

“-a or -e from the definite article” is dropped Markina Biscayan and Getxo Biscayan
Some vowel metathesis only when vowels are matched in height

hu hi → ʊ ɪ / {o,e}_ (also happened with /a/ sometimes, but usually such sequences just dropped one vowel)

Something about diphthongs occurring where intervocalic /n/ was lost

VɪC → VCʲ

Glide dissimilation if the homorganic vowel was in the following syllable, but usually the glide just deleted

aɪ → eɪ → e (rare)

aʊ → aɪ / !_{ɾ,r,s̺,s̻} (Souletin, Roncalese)

eʊ → {e,eɡu}

eɪ → e / #_

oɪ → uɪ (rare)

eð (→ e ?) → j / #_V

e → j / #_a

e → ∅ / #_e

ʊa → o “especially after a velar stop”

ʊe → e

C[- voice] → C[+ voice] / {l,N}_ (not Roncalese or Souletin)

Some speakers (Labourd and Low Navarrese?) have ʀ for r, and a few have ɢ̆ for ɾ
l gets a velar(ized?) articulation in Souletin (possibly only in the coda?)
Souletin preserves something involving historical aspiration in pretonic position, apparently
Souletin keeps initial ʃ- and tʃ- distinct; Labourdin only has ʃ-, and the rest apparently only have tʃ-?

C[+ sibilant] → C[+ affricate] / _#

s̻ ts̺ → s̺ ts̻ (Biscayan, partially in Guipuscoan, Donostia, San Sebastián, though these latter two may be varieties of Guipuscoan)

s̻ → s̺ / _{C,#} (sometimes)

From the Wikipedia article on Biscayan: “Convergence of sibilants: z, x and s > x, s and tz, tx and ts > tz.” I’m not sure what this means. 〈s z〉 are apparently s̻ s̺, and 〈x〉 is ʃ.

its̺ → tʃ / _# (Biscayan)

oa ea → u(e) i(e) / _#

Beterri Guipuscoan has VjV# where Biscayan has VɲV# and regular Basque has VV#

s̺ → tʃ / #_ (Guipuscoan)

s̺ → ʃ̺ “for most French Basque speakers (Trask 1997:84), due to French influence” according to Campbell

Accentual changes:
— Navarrese and Labourdin seem to have gotten rid of phonemic accent; High Navarrese typically stresses the penult, while Low Navarrese and Labourdin are claimed to lack stress on the word level.
— Guipuscona, southeastern Biscayan, and western varieties of Navarrese stress the second syllable (unless it is a disyllable, in which case the first syllable gets the accent, though a few varieties don’t do this).
— North Biscayan does something with roots and affixes marked for prosody; ”[m]ost native roots and almost all singular affixes are unaccented”; loans, ”compounds and plural affixes” tend to be accented. Stress is typically assigned to the syllable immediately before the accent, but a few areas accent the penult or the antepenult.
— Souletin does its own thing with accent. Stress usually falls on the penult, but contractions can mess with this (one of the examples given in the paper is “alhába ‘daughter’ + abs. sg. -a > alhabá ‘the daughter”’). Something similar is posited for “older… Salazarese”. Roncalese was much the same, but the stress was stem-oriented as opposed to word-oriented unless contraction occurred, and there’s some stuff about proparoxytones that Souletin didn’t have.

45 Yuman-Cochimı́

45.1 Pai

45.1.1 Proto-Pai to Chapai

Pogostick Man, from Wares, Alan C. (1954?), “Three Pai Dialects of Lower California”. Summer Institute of Linguistics Bartholomew Collection of Unpublished Materials

tʃ → ʃ / _{w,i}

tʃ → ∅ / _xʷ

tʃ → s

t → tʃ / ! n_

kʷ → k / _#

b → p

o → u

s → ʂ

ʔ → ∅ / _{ɲ,j}

{w,j} → ∅ / a_

Vː → V ?

Stress lost?

45.1.2 Proto-Pai to Paipai

Pogostick Man, from Wares, Alan C. (1954?), “Three Pai Dialects of Lower California”. Summer Institute of Linguistics Bartholomew Collection of Unpublished Materials

b → β

xʷ → w / tʃ_

kʷ xʷ → k x / _#

ʃ ɬ → ʂ l

i → ə / unstressed

n → ∅ / _t

ʔ → ∅ / _ɲ

aw aj → o e

45.1.3 Proto-Pai to Tipai

Pogostick Man, from Wares, Alan C. (1954?), “Three Pai Dialects of Lower California”. Summer Institute of Linguistics Bartholomew Collection of Unpublished Materials

kʷ xʷ → q χ / _# (the paper calls these “back velars”)

b → p

i → ə / unstressed

u → o / _K

t → ∅ / n_

tʃ → ∅ / _xʷ

ɲj → n ∅ / ʔ_

Vː → V (sporadic? conditioned?)

Contrastive stress lost?

46 Vowel Shifts

A miscellaneous collection of vowel shifts.

46.1 7-to-5 Vowel Merger (Bantu)

Pogostick Man, from Schadeberg, Theo C. (1995), “Spirantization and the 7-to-5 Vowel Merger in Bantu”. In Sound Change, M. Dominicy and D. Demolin (Eds.), Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1995.

S → F / _{i,u} (Do not necessarily have to be fricatives at the same POA; in some cases, the phones go to null or to /l/)

ɪ ʊ → i u

46.2 California Vowel Shift (English)

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2013), “California English”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=California_English&oldid=584388388>; and Eckert, Penelope, “Vowel Shifts in Northern California and the Detroit Suburbs”. <http://www.stanford.edu/~eckert/vowels.html>

æ ɪ → e i / _ŋ; some speakers (esp. in southern regions) may also have pin-pen and “a single phoneme in contrast to the nasal diphthong [ãɪ̃] of the U.S. Northeast” (though the article doesn’t specify what this is; maybe it’s just plain ã)

/ɪ/ otherwise has a highly variable pronunciation

æ → {eə̯,ɪə̯} / _N

{æ,e} → ɛ / _ɹ

æ → a

ʊ ʌ ɛ → ʌ ɛ æ

ɑ → ɔ (does not occur in Sacramento)

u → {iʊ̯,ʉ,ɯ}

oʊ̯ → eʊ̯ (“common only within certain social groups”)

46.3 Belgian and Netherlandish Dutch Monophthongization

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Dutch Phonology”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dutch_phonology&oldid=602553868>

ɛi œy ɔu → ɛː œː ɔː

46.4 Polder Dutch Vowel Shift

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Dutch Phonology”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dutch_phonology&oldid=602553868>

ɛi œy ʌu → ai ay au

eː øː oː → ɛi œy ɔu

46.5 Old English-to-Scots Vowel Shifts

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Phonological history of Scots”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Phonological_history_of_Scots&oldid=582962563>; and Wikipedia contributors (2014), “Scottish Vowel Length Rule”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Scottish_vowel_length_rule&oldid=589349104>

ai → ɛi → əi / when stem-final

uː → ʌu / when-stem final, in northern varieties

øː → wi / {k,ɡ}_ (in Mid Northern dialects)

øː → i (in northern dialects)

øː → (j){u,ʌ} / _{k,x} (outcome varies depending upon dialect)

a → i / _n (in northern varieties)

a → e / _n (otherwise)

a → {ɛ,e} / _rC

ai oi ui ei au ou iu ɛ(o)u → eː oe əi iː {ɑː,ɔː} ʌu ju j(ʌ)u

ɛː → ɛi (→ əi?) / in some northern varieties

iː eː ɛː aː oː uː {øː,yː} → əi i {i,e} e o u ø

æ → ɛ / _C[+alveolar]

a ɔ u → {a,ɑ} ɔ ʌ

Application of the Scottish vowel-length rule:

— V → Vː / _{r,F[+voiced],$,#}

— əi → aɪ / _{r,F[+voiced],$,#} (pursuant to the above)

46.6 Great Ngamo Tone Shift

Pogostick Man, from Schuh, Russel (2005), “The Great Ngamo Tone Shift”

In the Gudi dialect, the tone on a given domain (which can be more than one syllable/mora, as long as said syllables/morae are consecutive and share the same tone) shift to the following domain, with a low tone cropping up on the first domain. The original tone of the word-final domain floats or tacks itself onto the next domain, depending upon the surrounding conditions. When utterance-final, these tones remain on that domain. This can cause a falling tone, but not a rising tone, which Ngamo does not permit; where such would occur, tone goes to high.

46.7 Great Vowel Shift (English)

Jaaaaaa and Ran, citing http://www.peak.org/~jeremy/dictionary/chapters/history.php

iː uː → əj əw → ɑj ɑw

eː oː → iː uː

ɛː → eː → iː

aː ɔː → ɛː oː → eː ow → ej (əw)

46.8 Greek Vowel Shift

Chris Zoller, from Trask, R.L. (1996), Historical Linguistics

u(ː) → y(ː)

oː → uː

eː ɛː → iː eː

ai ɔi → ɛ yː

eː → iː

y(ː) ɔː → i(ː) ɔ

ɛu au → ɛv av

46.9 Kikuyu Tone Shift

Pogostick Man, from Schuh, Russel (2007), “The Great Ngamo Tone Shift (GNTS)”

Tones move to the following vowel with the initial syllable acquiring a low tone. Original final tones are lost.

46.10 Late Proto-Finnic to Savonian Vowel Shift

PM_Vanhanen

“Long close-mid vowels have become diphthongs:”

eː øː oː → ie yø uo

“In some dialects, they have shifted further to /uɑ/, /yæ/ and /iæ/ or /iɑ/ depending on front-back vowel harmony: /tieto/ to /tiɑto/ but /tietæ/ to /tiætæ/.”

“These shifts have occurred in some eastern dialects.”

ɑː æː ɑi æi → uɑ iæ ɑe æe

ei oi øi → eː oe øe

ɑu ou → ɑː oː

æy øy → æː øː

eu → eo

li ni ri si → lʲi nʲi rʲi sʲi

46.11 Middle Chinese to Cantonese Vowel Shift (“The Inner-Outer Flip”)

LoneWolf, from Newman, J. (1983). Cahiers de Linguistique Asie Orentale XII.1:65 – 79.

Relevant changes occurring before the shift:

a → ɔ / _{ŋ,k}

uə yə → ɔ œ / _{n,t}

ə → ∅ / i_{ŋ,k}

∅ → ə / C[+ labiovelar]_i

∅ → ə / _u

V → Vː / _#

The actual vowel shift:

ə → a

a → {aː,ə} “(the environments for these respective changes are somewhat unclear)”

ə → a / _{i,u}

iəu → au

a → aː / _{i,u}

a → ə → ∅ / i_u

Other relevant changes occurring at the same time:

ə → ∅ / W_

W → ∅ / C_

(Apparently, /i u/ either were or became glides in the appropriate positions)

46.12 Northern Cities Vowel Shift (English)

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2013), “Northern Cities Vowel Shift”. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Northern_Cities_Vowel_Shift&oldid=581062574>

æ raises and diphthongizes, typically becoming one of {ɛə eə ɪə}

ɑ ɔ → a ɑ

ɛ → ɐ

ʌ → ɔ

ɪ → ɪ̞

46.13 Old Norse to Faroese Vowel Shift

johanpeturdam

NB: “The reflexes of the vowels are given in the order of their reflex when stressed/long, and unstressed/short”

{a,æː} → ɛa / a

aː → ɔa “(except NE of the Faroes → aː)” / ɔ

e → eː / ɛ

eː → ɛa “(except Suðuroy → eː)” / a “(except Suðuroy → ɛ)”

{i,y} → iː / ɪ

{iː,yː} → ʊi / ʊ(i)

o → oː / ɔ

oː → {ɔu,ɛu,œu} / œ “(except Suðuroy → ɔ)”

u → uː / short: ʊ / unstressed: {o,ɔ}

uː → ʉu / ʏ

{œ,ɔ} → øː/œ “(except Suðuroy → ʏ)”

46.14 Pre-Slavic Vowel Changes

Macska

“PIE *a and *o with their variants have merged in the Balto-Slavic period; below they’re written both as *a.”

eː → æ

en an → ẽ ã

ej → i

ew → ju

i → ı̆ [ə?] → {e,a} (strong)/∅ (weak) “in modern languages”

iː → i

a aː → o a

aj → {æ2,i2} “(reduced)”

aw → u

u → ŭ [ɤ?] → {e,o,ɤ,a} (strong)/∅ (weak) “in modern languages”

uː → ɨ

46.15 Proto-Japanese to Old Japanese Vowel Shift

Pogostick Man, from Frellesvig, Bjarke and John Witman (2005), “The Japanese-Korean vowel correspondences”

e o → je wo / _#

e o → i u / else

{ɨ,ə} → o

{u,ɨ}i {,a,i {ɨi,i{a,ə}} u{ɨ,a,ə} → wi e je wo

46.16 Development of Proto-Lolo-Burmese -i(C)# and -u(C)# to Lahu

Pogostick Man, from Jacques, Guillaume, and Alexis Michaud (2011), “Approaching the historical phonology of three highly eroded Sino-Tibetan languages: Naxi, Na and Laze”. Diachronica 28:4 (2011), 468 – 498; citing Matisoff 2003:186, 248 – 249, 314

-i -i{p,k} -it -i{m,ŋ} -in → -i -ɨʔ -iʔ -ɛ -ɨ

-u -up -ut -uk -um -un -uŋ → -u -ɔʔ -əʔ -uʔ -ɔ -ə -ɛ

46.17 Proto-Maidun to Nisenian Vowel Shift

Pogostick Man, from Ultan, Russell (1964), “Proto-Maidun Phonology”. International Journal of American Linguistics, Vol. 30, No. 4 (Oct., 1964), 355 – 370.

u i e a → y e a o

46.18 South African Chain Shift (English)

Pogostick Man, from Mesthrie, Rajend (2002), Language in South Africa

NB: The author gives ı̆ as the shifted vowel but calls it “centralized”; based on this description, I’m calling it /ɨ/.

æ ɛ ɪ → ɛ e ɨ

46.19 Southern [United States] Shift (English)

Pogostick Man, from Wikipedia contributors (2012), “Southern American English”.

ɛ → ɪ / _N

“Lax and tense vowels often neutralize before /l/”

aɪ → aː / _#

aɪ → aː / _C[+ voiced]

aɪ → ɑeː / else (only for some speakers)

aɪ → aː / else (only for some speakers)

æ ɛ ɪ → æj(ə) ɛj(ə) ɪj(ə)

ɛj(ə) ɪj(ə) i eɪ → ej(ə) ij(ə) ɪi ɛi

uʊ oʊ → ʉʊ̈ əʊ̈ (a bit of a guesstimate based upon the prose description in the article and the mean-formant-value chart cited from Labov, Ash & Bobert (2006))

ɔ → ɑɒ (for some speakers)

ɑɹ → ɒɹ (“often”)

z → d / _n (not strictly a vowel shift but included here anyway because it’s cool, and also because it doesn’t occur in 〈hasn’t〉 because of the influence of 〈hadn’t〉)

Stress reassignment to the initial syllable (again, not strictly a vowel shift)
Merger of ɔɹ and ɑɹ (“in some regions”)
Loss of distinction between ɪɹ and ɪəɹ, and between ʊəɹ and ɔɹ
Pronunciation of the 〈l〉 in words like 〈walk〉 and 〈talk〉 (again, not really a vowel development)

æ/ɑː → æɪ

47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes

This section replicates the “Most wanted sound changes” article from Knee Quickie. It is presented mostly as it was found with the following modifications:

47.1 List 1: Simple Consonant Changes

w → p (Navajo, some Polynesian languages)

kʲ ɡʲ → k ɡ (Danish)

ś → k (Possibly unconditional; some Samoyedic langs)

pʲ → kʲ (some Romanian dialects, Tsakonian)

ts → t (unconditional; some Samoyedic langs)

t → k (general Polynesian)

n → ŋ (Samoan, but only in colloquial speech)

j → p (some Polynesian languages, such as Levei and Drehet) (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proto-Austronesian_language)

b → #c, -nc- (Sundanese)

ŋ → {x,h} (various Mayan languages)

h → ŋ (Nyole)

ʕ → ŋ (allegedly in European Hebrew, both Sephardic and Ashkenazi, but possibly not a sound change so much as a substitution) (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hebrew_language#Varieties_of_ayin, http://sites.google.com/site/londonsephardiminhag/pronunciation, http://www.forward.com/articles/105938/)

f → p (? claimed to have occurred independently in Proto-Semitic and Proto-Omotic, and to a limited extent in Egyptian (but this may be related to the Semitic change); note that the Wikipedia article is cited to a single source and that source is admittedly theoretical, and acknowledges on page 77 another reconstruction that doesn’t believe Proto-Afro-Asiatic had /f/ at all) (Page 77 of http://is.gd/WNyXdn, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proto-Afro-Asiatic_language)

tš → t (general Baltic-Finnic; may not be unconditional but was certainly the most common outcome)

r → ɡʟ → ɣ (Hiw) (http://is.gd/jCDLO1)

mb nd → ʙ dr (Nias)

47.2 List 2: Conditional or complex consonant changes

Western and Eastern Armenian often have swapped voicing in stop consonants: e.g. vardapet vs. vartabed. This is a result of changes related to aspiration.

w → f (Common Celtic; I’m not sure of the conditions)

m → n / _i (Tsakonian)

{t,k} → ∅ / V_V (Marathi) probably with voiced stops as intermediates, since they also became silent

p → w / V_V (Marathi)

b d ɡ → bː dː ɡː / V_V (some dialects of Italian; there may be more to it than this, since words like “repubblica” are in standard Italian and not just dialects)

t → k / _s̩ (Ōgami) (NB: The article doesn’t have an underscore indicating whether this occurs before or after the /s̩/, but the linked page indicates where this change occurred) (http://amritas.com/101023.htm#10192359)

n → i / _s and sometimes other fricatives (Montana Salish)

47.3 List 3: Vowels

y → u (some mainland Greek dialects, and Tsakonian; this particular sound change has been said in some places to be impossible) (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsakonian_language#Consonants)

i u → s̩ f̩ (Ōgami) (http://amritas.com/101023.htm#10192359)

47.4 List 4: Other

This section is empty as of yet.