Index Diachronica: involving /#/

4 results from /#/   6 results to /#/   1553 results with context involving /#/   

from /#/

4 matches

7 Algonquian7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapaho({C,#}V)ʔ → ({C,#}Vː)∅ / _C
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventre({C,#}V[-long])ʔ → ({C,#}Vː[+falling tone])∅ / _C
24 Macro-Pama-Nyungan24.1.7 Proto-Paman to Yinwum#”UU → #U”U
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1.1 Old Mandarin to Modern Pekingese#r…î# → #î…r

to /#/

6 matches

7 Algonquian7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapaho({C,#}V)ʔ → ({C,#}Vː)∅ / _C
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventre({C,#}V[-long])ʔ → ({C,#}Vː[+falling tone])∅ / _C
24 Macro-Pama-Nyungan24.1.7 Proto-Paman to Yinwum#”UU → #U”U
30 Niger-Congo30.2.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic to Proto-AkanicV[+high +ATR](C(V[+high -ATR])) → #(C)V[-high +ATR](CV[+high +ATR]) / #J[+dorsal -voiced]_
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1.1 Old Mandarin to Modern Pekingese#r…î# → #î…r
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.1 List 1: Simple Consonant Changesb → #c, -nc- (Sundanese)

with context involving /#/

1553 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Omotict → ∅ / _s#
a → o / #Cw_{(d)l,s3}
w → ∅ / #C_V, except _i(ː)
6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North Omotice → i / #N_C
e → i / #l_{P,C[+voiced]}
e → i / #b_
e → i / #{s,ʃ,tsʼ}_{k(w),ʔ}
e o → i u / #C_P
e o → i u / #(ʔ)_C
e o → i u / #{k(ʼ),x}_{t(ʼ),tsʼ}
e o → i u / #(ʔ)_C$
e o → i u / #P_{tsʼ,tʃʼ}
a → o / #{z,dʒ}_P
e(ː) → i(ː) / #C[+sibilant]_{d,n,r}
Vː → V / #K[-voice]_C
u → uː / #S[+voice]_P[-voice]
Vː → V / #C_C$ + $(V)C$ suffix
6.1.1.1 North Omotic to Benchx2 → k / #_
l → d / #_VC
l → n / #_VN
6.1.1.2 North Omotic to Dizinx2 → k / _#
6.1.1.3 North Omotic to Kafab → w / _$#
x2 → k / #_
{s3,ʒ} → ʃ / #_
s3 → s / V_$#
h2 → w / #_
l → d / #_VC
l → n / #_Vb
6.1.1.4 North Omotic to Maalex2 → h / #_
tsʼ → tʃʼ / #_
h2 → w / #_
6.1.1.5 North Omotic to Shekkachoz → j / {#,V}_
ʒ → ʃ / #_
{s3,ts,ʒ} → s / _$#
s3 → ʃ / #_
s3 → s / V_$#
h1 → {h,∅} / #_
h2 → w / #_
l → d / #_VC
l → n / #_Vb
6.1.1.6 North Omotic to Wolayttax2 s3 → k ʃ / V_$#
l → n / #_VN
dʼ → tʼ / #_
6.1.1.7 North Omotic to Yemsax2 → k / #_
ts → s / #_
h1 → {h,∅} / #_
h2 → w / #_
l → n / #_VC
6.1.1.8 North Omotic to Zayse-Zergullax2 → h / #_
x3 → ɡ / V_#
l → n / #_VN
6.1.2.2 South Omotic to Dimekʼ → ɡʼ / #_
6.2.1 Proto-Erythrean to Proto-Cushiticb → m / #_Vn
ɡ → k / #{d,w}V_
ɣ → ɡ / #_Vx$
6.2.1.1.3 Proto-Agaw to Kemantneykʼ → χʷ / #_
6.2.1.1.4 Proto-Agaw to Xamtangakʼ → {χʷ,qʷ} / #_
6.2.2 Proto-Erythrean to Proto-North Erythreanin → ŋ / #_C
6.2.2.1.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-Boreafrasianh → ħ / #_Vs
V → ∅ / _# “in nominals”
ŋ → ∅ / #_CV
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berberl → ∅ / #{d,tʼ}_VC
ɬ → s / #_VC
f → p / #_V{Z,C[-voice],r}
p → b / #dlV_
k(w) → tʃ / #_Vt
ɡ(w) → dʒ / #_Vd
q → i / #_V{Z,C[+dental]}
ʕ → i / #_VR
tlʼ → dl / #_Vħr
r → l / #_V(V)O[+labial]
r → ʔ / C_{t,w,j}# ! C = {ɡ,m,n,r,w,ʃ,x}
l → j / #_iC ?
l → r / #nV_C
6.2.2.1.3 Ancient Egyptian to Copticn → l / #_Vb
n → l / #_(V){s,ʃ,h}V{m,b}#
n → l / #_V{m,b}{s,ʃ,h}
n → l / #_Vk
r → l / #(C)_c(C)# ?
r → l / #o_#
6.2.2.1.4 Proto-Boreafrasian to Proto-Semiticɣ → ɡ / #_VCH
ɣ(w) → ɡ / #_Vx
kʼ(w) → k / #dlV_
ʔ → ʕ / #K_r#
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabic∅ → i / #al$_z
aː → a / ! _#
aːʔ → e / E(C)(C)_#
aː → a / {Cˤ,w}_#
6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Egyptian ArabicV → Vː / _# + suffix
6.2.2.1.8 Classical Arabic to Coastal Hadhrami ArabicV[-long] → ∅ / #C_C, in some words
6.2.2.1.9 Classical Arabic to Wādı̄ Hadhrami ArabicV[-long] → ∅ / #C_C (sporadic?)
6.2.2.1.10 Classical Arabic to Hassāniyya ArabicV[-long] → ∅ / C_{C,#} (except for the feminine marker)
— j w → i u / #_CV
— j w → iː uː / #_CC
6.2.2.1.14 Classical Arabic to Moroccan Arabic{u,ə} → ∅ / ! C_C(C)#
Cˤ → C / {#,V}_V
6.2.2.1.17 Classical Arabic to Tunisian ArabicVː → V[-long] / _# (except as below)
6.2.2.1.18 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrew— aː → oː / ! _#
— iː → eː / _#
— i u → e a / _R{$,#} (in verbs)
— i u → e o / _C{$,#} (in verbs)
— aj → ɛː / _#
— a → ∅ / _#
— u → ɔ / _C{$,#}
ʕ → ∅ / _{$,#}
at → aː / _# (in feminine noun endings)
6.2.2.1.19 Biblical Hebrew to Modern Israeli Hebrewə → ɛ / #R_C or when breaking up what would otherwise be a three-consonant cluster; in the case of two schwas, only the first one is dropped
h → ∅ / _#
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakil → n / #_
a → e / #C_OO
a → ∅ / #_OO
V → ∅ / _#
iw → o / _#
w → ∅ / _# ! k(ː)_
j → ∅ / _# ! P_
i → ∅ / #w_
θ → n / #_
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis AbenakiV[- high - long] → ∅ / #C_OO
a → ∅ / #_OO
V → ∅ / _#
iw → o / _#
w → ∅ / _# ! k(ː)_
j → ∅ / _# ! p_
θ → n / #_
nj → i / #_
7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-Atsina(W)V → ∅ / _#
e → i / #_
W → n / {#,V}_
s → n / #_
r → n / {#,V}_
7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapaho∅ → ʔ / CV[-long]_#
ʃ m → x w / B_#
ʃ k m → s tʃ b / E_#
(V[-long])N → ∅ / _#
∅ → h / #_V
h → ∅ / _#
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventreʃ {θ,t} m k → s ts tʲ bʲ / _{i(ː),j,#}
(V[-long])N → ∅ / _#
∅ → ʔ / #_V
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfoot∅ → x / _s ! _C{C,#}
{ʃ,tʃ} → s / #_
x → sː / {i,#e,ja,ke}_
∅ → s / {i(ː),#e}_t
e → i / {#,k}_
∅ → j / {oːw,iːj}_i#
w → j / {r,k}_i#
∅ → i / #_jC
∅ → i / C_jV#
i(ː)wi → i / _#
{me,ne} → ∅ / #_O “(followed by truncation of following x)”
{we,wiː} → o / #_
e → a / _#
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawarew → ∅ / {p,m}_#
V → ∅ / _# ! some monosyllables and analogical developments, in the latter of which long vowels were shortened
ə[+weak] → ∅ / #_C
x → χʷ / o(ː)_{V,#}
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menomineewe → o / #_
V[-long] → ∅ / _# “[does not apply in disyllabic words containing two short vowels]”
∅ → h / V[-long]_#
e → i / #(C)_ ! _H
{w,j} → ∅ / C_#
C → ∅ / C_#
Vː → V[-long] / CC(G)_C{V,#} “[i.e., when following a cluster but not followed by a cluster. Only applies ‘after the first long vowel of a nonglottal word, and everywhere in a glottal word’]”
Vː → V[-long] / _C{V,#} in even syllables; “does not apply in the second syllable of a non-glottal word”
7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-Illinois{θ,l} → r → n / #_ (and possibly in other places as well)
mV[-long] → ∅ / #_{ʰC,s,ʃ} (allophonic, “optional”)
S → ⁿS / #NV_ (sporadic)
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaqk → χ / _(w)a(ː) ! #_
7.15 Proto-Algonquian to Ojibwe{j,w}V[-long] → ∅ / C_# in disyllables with Vː or in tri(-plus-)syllables
{w,j}V[-long] → ∅ / Vː_# (Whimemsz is unsure if this change is across-the-board or not)
V[-long] → ∅ / V[-long]{w,j}_# (Whimemsz is unsure if this change is across-the-board or not)
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawneee → i / #(C)_ “(but remains e in a few cases?)”
wa → o / #_
Vː → V[-long] / _#
∅ → h / #_V
∅ → i / #C_jVː “(for some speakers)”
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonicb → p / #_
tʃ dʒ → t d / #_
n → m / #_
ŋ → m / #_{æ,ø,y}
l(ʲ) → n / #_
8.2 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Koreanb → p / #_
ɡ → k / #_
{nʲ,ŋ} → n / #_
l(ʲ) → n / #_
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolicpʰ → {h,j} / #_
pʰ → b / #_U[+high pitch]
tʰ → d / _#
tʃ → dʒ / #_i
k → ɡ / ! #_
ʃ → tʃ / #_a
nʲ → dʒ / #_
ŋ → ɡ / #_u
ŋ → n / #_{a,o,e}
ŋ → {∅,j} / #_
l → {n,l} / #_
lʲ → dʒ / #_i
lʲ → d / #_
8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusict → dʒ / #_{æ,ø,y}
t → d / #_
k → {k,ɡ} / #_
kʰ → x / #_
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkice → ja / #_C{e,i}
{pʰ,ŋ} → {∅,j} / #_
tʰ → d / #_(V){lʲ,r(ʲ)}
{t,tʃ} → d / #_
ʃ → tʃ / #_a
m n(ʲ) → b j / #_
{ʒ,dʒ} → j / #_ (marked as to Pre-Proto-Turkic)
{d,n} → j / #_ (?) (marked as to Pre-Proto-Turkic)
{N,l,r,ʃ,z} → ∅ / #_
p → ɸ → h / #_
{d,n}ʲ sʲ → j ʃ / #_
8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchakd ɣ → t x / _#
d → t / #_ (“kind of”, something about evidence from borrowings)
8.5.1.1 Proto-Kypchak to Kazakhj → dʒ / #_ (did not occur in Qara Nogay)
8.5.1.2 Proto-Kypchak to Kyrgyzj → dʒ / #_
∅ → U / #_{l,r} (not sure what 〈U〉 represents here; maybe just some sort of back vowel?)
8.5.2 Proto-Turkic to Sakhas → ∅ / #_
10 Austronesian10.1.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawanj → {d,t} / #_
w → ∅ / #_
q → h / _#
iw uj → {i,?} i / _#
— aj aw → ej ow / _#
— aj aw → e ow / _#
C[+ voice] → C[- voice] / _#
HəS → (h)ə(N)S / #_
10.1.1.1 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Balinesew → b / i_#
10.1.1.2 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sasakh → q / _# (might’ve been a retention?)
iw ow ej → i o e / _#
V(h) → V(q) / _# (again, might’ve been a retention?)
a →ə / _# (Meno-mene and Mriak-mriku only)
r → h / _# (Meno-mene and Mriak-mriku only)
10.1.1.3 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sumbawanh → q / _# (might’ve been a retention?)
w → ∅ / i_#
ej ow → e o / _#
V(h) → V(q) / _# (again, might’ve been a retention?)
10.1.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Philippine{*D,*Z,z} → d / #_
*D → d / _#
*R → ɡ / #_
*R → {l,ɡ} / _#
10.1.2.1 Proto-Philippine to Bicolə → u / _#
*j → ɡ / #_
h *j → ∅ d / _#
10.1.2.2 Proto-Philippine to Cebuano*j → d / #_
h *j → ∅ d / _#
h → ∅ / _#
10.1.2.3 Proto-Philippine to Hiligaynon*j → d / #_
*j → d / _#
h → ∅ / _#
10.1.2.4 Proto-Philippine to Ibanagr → d / #_ (?)
10.1.2.5 Proto-Philippine to Ifugao*j → ɡ / _#
∅ → j / _iw#
ay → e / _#
10.1.2.6 Proto-Philippine to IlocanoR → {ɡ,r} / _#
10.1.2.7.1 Proto-Kalamian to Agutaynenk → ∅ / _{V,#}
s → t / _#
∅ → ʔ / #_
∅ → ʔ / V_#
10.1.2.7.2 Proto-Kalamian to Karamiananenk → ∅ / _{V,#}
s → t / _#
∅ → ʔ / #_
∅ → ʔ / V_#
10.1.2.7.3 Proto-Kalamian to Kalamian Tagbanwak → ∅ / _{V,#}
∅ → ʔ / #_
∅ → ʔ / V_#
10.1.2.8 Proto-Philippine to Kankanay*j → ɡ / _#
10.1.2.9 Proto-Philippine to Tagalogu → o / _#
*j → d / #_
h *j → ∅ d / _#
uj iw → oj uj / _#
10.1.2.10 Proto-Philippine to Warayh → ∅ / _#
r → l / _#
10.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Batakw → ∅ / i_#
{a,e} → o / _w#
a → e / _j#
q → ∅ / #_ (sometimes; “represented by *h in PB”)
10.2.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Chamicwa → u / #_
w → ∅ / #_
i iw u → ɔj ? ɔw / _#
C[+ voice] → C[- voice] / _#
l n → r l / #_ (sporadic)
a → aː / _C# (sometimes)
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorroi u → e o / _C{C,#}
k → ∅ / _# (sporadic)
k → h / ! _#
d → ∅ / _#
l → d / _{C,#}
O → O[-voiced] / _{C,#}
∅ → w / #_V
10.2.3 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Malayicj → t / _#
w → ∅ / #_
h → ʔ / _# (sometimes)
{iw,uj} → i / _#
— aj aw → i u / _#
— aj aw → aj aw / _#
C[+ voice] → C[- voice] / _#
10.2.3.1 Proto-Malayic to (Standard) MalayV → ə / _(C…)UU#
ə → a / _(C…)#
h → ∅ / ! _# (sporadic)
10.2.4 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Malayo-Javanic— aw aj → əw əj / _#
— aw aj → aw aj / _#
10.2.4.1 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Javaneseə → u / _h#
h → ∅ / #_
iw uj → ju i / _#
— əw əj → i u / _#
— aw aj → e ó / _#
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Madureseɭ → lʔ / _#
b → {w,∅} / #_
R → ʔ / _#
{p,t,k} b d ɡ → ʔ p t k / _#
ij uw → uj {uj,ój} / _#
C[+ voice] → C[- voice] / _#
HəS → (h)əNS / #_
10.2.4.3 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Sundanesew → {∅,c} / #_
iw uj → {ju,i} oj / _#
— əw əj → o e / _#
— aw aj → o aj / _#
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauanə → ∅ / #_
wa → o / #_ when unstressed
{aw,əw} → o / _#
wə → u / #_
ə → ∅ / _#
ɟ → k / _C#
ŋ → ∅ / C_#
∅ → ŋ / #_V
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North Sarawak{ʔ,h} → ∅ / #_
h → ∅ / _#
a → ə / _UU(U…)#
ə → ∅ / #_UU(U…)# “(i.e., in word-initial position in prepenultimate syllables)
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiputai au → ai̯ au̯ / _#
ə → a / _ʔ#
ai au → ɛː ɔː / _…#
i u → əi̯ əu̯ / _#
∅ → h / a_#
V[+stress] → Vː / _C# ! V = ə and/or C = h “(applies to diphthongal nuclei as well a[s] monophthongs)”
ʀ → {l,ɾ} / ! _# (the latter is more common)
l → ∅ / ! _# (irregular)
s → ∅ / _#
i u → ɛ ɔ / _C# ! _P (sporadic)
ʀ → ʔ / _# “(in a handful of forms)”
a → i / O[+voiced]…_(C)# “(blocked if there was an intervening nasal, and sometimes if there was an intervening voiceless stop or liquid)”
i u → əi̯ əu̯ / _(ʔ)#
v ɟ → f c / #_
{i,ɛ} {u,ɔ} → iə̯ uə̯ / _{k,ŋ}# “(and also sporadically before final *t and *n and some other consonants)
k ŋ → ʔ ∅ / Və̯_#
ə → {ə,a} / _C# “(free variants)”
(C)V → ∅ / #_C… “(irregular)”
n → l / #_
ə → ∅ / #_
{l,ɾ} → n / _#
dz → d / #_ (though sometimes → {s,ɟ})
b d → p t / _#
10.2.6.2 Proto-North Sarawak to Proto-Kenyahd → l / #_ (sporadic)
ʀ →h / V_V(C)#
ʀ → h / _#
s → h / _#
i u → e o / _h#
h → ∅ / _#
S → S[-voice] / _#
l → n / _#
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lónghi → e / _k#
i → iə / _ŋ#
p → k / u_#
u → o / _k#
u → o / _ŋ# “(sporadically failed to occur)”
u → ɯ / _(C)# ! _ʔ#
a → o / _# “(not in all forms)”
ʔ → ∅ / _# “(but aʔ → əʔ in some forms)”
k → ʔ / _#
a → ɛ / {t,n}_#
{p,t} n → c̚ ɲ / {i,ɛ}_#
m → ɲ / i_#
i u → e o / _CV[+close-mid](C)# “(iə is treated as close mid for this change)”
i u → ɛ ɔ / _CV[+open-mid](C)#
i u → e o / _Cɯ#
ŋ → ŋ̊ / _#
{p,t} {m,n} → k ŋ / ɯ_#
i u → əj əw / _V(C)#
p → f / #_
ə → ∅ / #_
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabauh → ∅ / ! _# (some exceptions)
a → o / _(C…)#
— ə → a / _(C…)# (eventually spread to everywhere)
— a u → e uj / _{t,s}#
— a → o / _p#
— u i → uə iə / _{k,ŋ,h,l,r}#
— {p,t,k} s → ʔ h / _#
— {l,r} → ∅ / _# (retained across morpheme boundaries)
10.3 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Oceanicaw → o / _#
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to HiwC → ∅ / _#
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to LemerigV → ∅ / #_C”V
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to Mwotlapb β d → m p n / _{C,#}
10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to CaaàcN → ∅ / _#
V → ∅ / #(C)V(C)(C)_#
ⁿS → N / _#
10.3.5.4 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Northern∅ → j / #_a
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-NêlêmwaV → ∅ / _#, often
k → c / _#
ⁿS → N / _#
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to NyelâyuV → ∅ / #(C)V(C)(C)_#
C → ∅ / _# “sometimes”
t̪ ʈ → r l / _#
ⁿS → N / _#
10.3.5.6 Proto-New Caledonia to PwaameiV → ∅ / _# (sporadic?)
10.3.5.7 Proto-New Caledonia to PwapwâV → ∅ / _# (sporadic?)
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-YunagaV → ∅ / _#
ⁿS → N / _#
10.3.5.8.1 Proto-Yunaga to Yunaga 1V → Ṽ / _N#
C → ∅ / _#
10.3.6 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Reefs/Santa CruzC → ∅ / _#
10.3.6.1 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Äiwook → {k,∅} / #_
10.3.6.2 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Naguk → {k,∅} / #_
10.3.6.3 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Natügut → {t,l} / #_
r → l / _{u,#}
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark BayC → ∅ / _#
V[+ high] → ∅ / _# ! {p,z,d(r)}_
v t l r → p dr n w / _#
ɣ s d → ∅ {j dr} / _#
V → e / C_# ! C = j
∅ → h / #_V (“it isn’t clear if this happens unconditionally”)
10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to TolomakoC → ∅ / _#
10.3.9 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-UtupuaC → ∅ / _# (except for *k?)
10.3.9.1 Proto-Utupua to Asuboak → {k,∅} / #_
k → {∅,s} / _#
10.3.9.2 Proto-Utupua to Nebaot k → r ∅ / #_ (though *t seems to have occasionally survived?)
10.3.9.3 Proto-Utupua to Tanibilit → {t,r,kʷ} / #_ (I’m not kidding. That’s what’s listed as the reflexes.)
k → {k,∅} / #_
k → {∅,j} / _#
10.3.10 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Vanikoro{s,*R} → r / _#
10.3.10.1 Proto-Vanikoro to Bumap → ∅ / _#
k → ∅ / #_
r → l / ! _#
10.3.10.2 Proto-Vanikoro to Tanemap → v / _#
t → {∅,t} / #_
r → l / ! _#
10.3.10.3 Proto-Vanikoro to Vanot → l / #_, in nouns
r → l / ! _{u,#}
s → r / _#
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to AnejomC → ∅ / _# ! C = t
t → s / _#
V → ∅ / _# (with very few exceptions)
{r,h} → ∅ / _#
10.3.11.2 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Erromangov → p / #_
10.3.11.2.1 Proto-Erromango to Syeb d ɡ → p t k / {#,C}_
b d ɡ → m n ŋ / _#
f → p / #_
a → e / _#
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Urab d ɡ → p t k / _#
u → e / ɣ_# (? this change is a bit unclear)
ɣ → ∅ / _#
10.3.11.3.3 Proto-Tanna to North Tannakʷ → p / _#
ɣ → ∅ / #_
10.3.11.3.4 Proto-Tanna to Southwest Tannaɣ → ∅ / #_
10.3.11.3.5 Proto-Tanna to Whitesandsɣ → ∅ / {#,E}_
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’aβ → f / #_ (usually)
V → ∅ / #_C”V
b d → m n / _{C,#}
10.4.1 Proto-Micronesian to MarshalleseV → ∅ / _#
f → ∅ / #_{C[-low],V[-low]}
f → ɰ / #_aCo
∅ → ɰ / #_aC[-low]
∅ → j / #_{aC[+low],V[-back],C[-back]}
∅ → w / #_{C[+round],V[+round]}
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Onganb → ∅ / #_{u,i}
q → ∅ / #_V
S → ∅ / _#
{m,ɲ} n → {ɲ,∅} {ŋ,∅} / _# (first change marked “in progress?”)
10.5.1 Proto-Ongan to Jarawan → ŋ / _# (?)
∅ → a / h#_ (that’s not a typo; this happens across the word boundary)
e → ∅ / _# (?)
p → b / #_ (change seems to be ongoing)
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to Ongen → ŋ / _# (?)
d → r / V_{V,#}
{w,r} → ∅ / {a,e}_#
∅ → e / C_#
10.6.2 Proto-Paiwan to Central Paiwanw → v / _#
11 Northeast Caucasian11.5.2 Proto-Lezgic to Archid → r / _#
11.6 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Nakhtsː tʃː → ts tʃ / #_
{tsː,tʃː,dz,dʒ} → tː / _#
l → r / _#
r → d / #_
12 Northwest Caucasian12.1 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Abazgilʲ → r / #_
12.2 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Circassianr l → tː tħ / #_
tsʷ lʲ {qʲʷ,qˤʷ} → sʷ d qʷ / #_ (data not given for non-initial forms)
12.2.1.4 Adyghe to Temirgoy Adygheq qʷ → qː qʷː / ! #_
12.3 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Ubykh{r,l} lʲ → d r / #_
13 Chumashan13.6 Proto-Chumash to Ventureñoʔ → ∅ / _#
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.1 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Proto-Dravidianw → v / #_{i,e}lV
t → ∅ / #_VrC
s → t / #_VLV
s → j / V_{V,#}
s → ∅ / #V_{r̀,l}
l → ɭ / V_#
14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamite{i,e,u} → ∅ / #_{t,n}a
e → {e,i} / #C_C
c → s / #_{a,u}
l → n / V_#
v → m / #_V (?)
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamilaː eː iː oː uː → a ɛ i o u / _#
am an {aːm,aːn} → õ æ̃ ã / _#
um → ũ / _#
∅ → ɨ / _N#
l ɭ → lːʉ ɭːʉ / _#(C)V[-long]
∅ → ʉ / {l,ɭ}_# if {M,Vː} previously in the lexeme
ɨ ʉ → ∅ / ! _#
j → ∅ / V[-front]_#
j → jːi / E_#
— eCə oCə → Ceː Coː / #_
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Aleutp → h / #_
{t,ð} → n / _#
∅ → t / #_s
z → s / #_
m → w / #_
n → t / #_ (except, maybe, “in exclamations”)
i →∅ / #_{z,dʒ}
ə → ∅ / #_, “under certain conditions not yet discovered”
15.2 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Eskimoɣ ʁ → k q / #_
15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow Iñupiaqɣ ʁ → k q / _#
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic Iñupiaqm n ŋ t {{ɣ,ʁ} → {k,q}} → p t k n ŋ / _#
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie Iñupiaqɣ ʁ → k q / _#
15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales Iñupiaqɣ ʁ → k q / _#
15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’ikS → ∅ / #_F
ɣ ʁ → k q / _#
ə → a / _#
i → ∅ / #C[+dental]_C[+dental]V
u → ∅ / #_vV
iv → j / #_u
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’ikS → ∅ / #_F
ɣ ʁ → x χ / _#
ə → a / _#
i → ∅ / #C[+dental]_C[+dental]V
u → ∅ / #_vV
iv → j / #_u
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’ikS → ∅ / #_F
ɣ ʁ → k q / _#
ə → ∅ / #_
i → ∅ / #C[+dental]_C[+dental]V
∅→ n / #_iN (This one is sort of a guess, given a singular example in the text that isn’t really commented upon)
u → ∅ / #_vV
iv → j / #_u
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’ikS → ∅ / #_F
ɣ ʁ → k q / _#
ə → a / _#
ə → ∅ / #_
i → ∅ / #C[+dental]_C[+dental]V
u → ∅ / #_vV
iv → j / #_u
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.1 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Nafrip t → f {s,h} / #_
N → ŋ / _#
16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central Sentanip b t → f p {s,h} / #_
N → m / _#
16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern Sentanip t → f {s,h} / #_
N → m / _#
16.1.4 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Western Sentanis → t / #_
N → ŋ / _#
16.1.5 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to TablaN → ŋ / _#
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanians → ɟ / #_
ə → ∅ / _#
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanians → ɟ / #_
17.2 Proto-Indo-European to Common AnatolianT h2 → D h3 / _#
r → ∅ / #_ (unclear)
j → ∅ / #_e (not widely attested)
17.2.1 Common Anatolian to HittiteD T → T T[+lenis] / #_
d → s / #_{i,j}
17.2.2 Common Anatolian to LuwianD T → T T[+lenis] / #_
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to LycianD → T / #_
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to Lydiand → t / {#,N}_
{m,n} → ʋ / _# “(that’s a Greek nu, I’m not sure what it’s supposed to represent)”
j u → ð w / #_
17.2.5 Common Anatolian to PalaicD T → T T[+lenis] / #_
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʷʱ → p t j k / #_
VN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
N → n / _#, in monosyllables
N̩ → n / _#
V → (?) / _(C)#
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
ɡʷʱ → ɡʱ / #_
VN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
N → n / _#, in monosyllables
N̩ → n / _#
V → (?) / _(C)#
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armeniant → tʰ / {aw,ow}_ ! #_
ɡʷʱ → dʒ / #_{e,i}
bʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡ(ʷ)ʱ → b j k / #_
VN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
N → n / _#, in monosyllables
N̩ → n / _#
V → (?) / _(C)#
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡ(ʷ)ʱ → p t j k / #_
VN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
N → n / _#, in monosyllables
N̩ → n / _#
V → (?) / _(C)#
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ / ! _#
VN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
N → n / _#, in monosyllables
N̩ → n / _#
V → (?) / _(C)#
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
ɡʷʱ → dʒ / #_{e,i}
bʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʷʱ → b j ɡ / #_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡ(ʷ)ʱ → p t j k / #_
VN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
N → n / _#, in monosyllables
N̩ → n / _#
V → (?) / _(C)#
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
ɡʷʱ → dʒ / #_{e,i}
bʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʷʱ → b j ɡ / #_
VN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
N → n / _#, in monosyllables
N̩ → n / _#
V → (?) / _(C)#
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— H → a / C_C ! #_
— H → a / #R_C
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishp → f / {V,#}_
r̩ l̩ → {ra,ar} {la,al} / _{s,CC,V,#} (the results are unpredictable)
ɡʷ → b / #_V ! _u(ː)
ɡʷ → b / #_N
p t k kʷ b d ɡ m n l r s → f θ x xʷ v ð ɣ M N L R h / V(#)_{R,V} (“We don’t know the exact values of lenited /m n l r/. We can guess that lenited m became a nasalized labial continuant of some sort, but beyond that, we don’t know.”)
m → n / V_#; “[i]t is thought that the vowel needs to be unstressed, but this is not certain”
Vː → V / _N#; “[i]t is thought that the long vowel probably needed to be unstressed- again, this is uncertain”
p t k kʷ b d ɡ ∅ → b d ɡ ɡʷ mb nd ŋɡ n / n#_”V
oː → uː / _(C…)#
oːi → uː / _#
— e → i / _(C…)#
— o → a / _{(C…),u}#
— {ai,oi} → iː / _#
w → f / #_
w → ∅ / {#,C}C_
w → ∅ / V_{V,#}
— {p,t} → ∅ / #s_r
— {p,t} → ∅ / #s_ “(although it says that occasionally st > t / #_)”
V → ∅ / C_# when unstressed ! C = j
C(…C) → ∅ / _# ! /l r/ and clusters containing them; “[t]his remained a phonologically conditioned rule in OIr”
eː → ia / _{#,Cʲ} when stressed; “ai and oi remain, but are written as <ae ai oe oi> seemingly randomly”
— a → e / _#
V → Vː / _#, when stressed; “[t]his remained as a phonologically conditioned rule in OIr”
V → ∅ / #UU(_)U(U(_)U) / unstressed; this “remained as a phonologically conditioned rule in OIr”; “[t]hat’s a little unclear, so let me try and enumerate: in words of more than three syllables, every other vowel (only the even ones) dropped, if it’s unstressed. In some words, syncope didn’t apply because it would create an unwieldy consonant cluster: so PIE *komaktyom → OIr cumachte, not *cumchte”
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle WelshVː → V / _#
V → ə / _(C)#, also in proclitics
a o → ei {ɨ,ei} / _(C…)j(C…)#
a → {ɨ,ei} / _(C…)j(C…)#
V → ɨ / _(C…)j(C…)#
V → ∅ / _#
w → ɡw / #_
ɔ → ə / #_sC
l r → ɬ r̥ / #_
ɣ → ə / _#
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothic— V[- long] → ∅ / _# ! V = u
— V[- long] → ∅ / U_C# ! V = u
— aj → a / U_#
j → i / C_# “after the loss of a final vowel or syllable”
ij → i / _# “after the loss of a final vowel or syllable”
β ð ɣ → ɸ θ x / V_(s)#
ɣ → ɡ / #_
z → s / _#, though “[t]his s was dropped when it came to stand after an original s through the loss of a vowel”, though it “remained when protected by a particle”
17.7.2 Common Germanic to West Germanicβ ð ɣ → b d ɡ / {#,”V}_
oː → uː / _#
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
m → n → ∅ / _# when unstressed
ɣ → ɡ / #_
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
m → n → ∅ / _# when unstressed
ɣ → ɡ / #_
{e,ɑ,o} → ə → ∅ / _#
17.7.2.1.4 Midlands Middle English to Early Modern Englishmb ŋɡ → m ŋ / _#
a ɑ {ɛ,ɪ,ɤ} → ɑː ɔː ɜː / _ɹ{C,#}
17.7.2.1.5 Early Modern English to American Englishɪ → i / _# when unstressed
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishɪ → iː / _# when unstressed
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
n → ∅ / _# when unstressed (not clear as to whether m → n beforehand in this position or not)
ɣ → ɡ / #_
{e,ɑ,o} → ə → ∅ / _#, when unstressed (it appears this sound may also have gone to /ɪ/)
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scotst → ∅ / {p,k}_# (“except in some inflected forms” for *kt)
d → ∅ / l_#
{ɸ,x} → ∅ / _# (seems to be sporadic)
— V → Vː / _{r,F[+voiced],$,#}
— əi → aɪ / _{r,F[+voiced],$,#} (pursuant to the above)
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to ScotsS[+ voice] → S[- voice] / _#
dʒ → tʃ / _#
θ → f / {V,r}_# (sometimes blocked)
t → ʔ / _#
17.7.2.1.11 Scots to Falkirk ScotspVn tVn kVn → ʔm̩ ʔn̩ ʔŋ̩ / _#
k → ç / V_# ! _C “(sometimes)”; “(except when phonemic)”
ɡ → ʝ / V_# ! _C “(most times)”
p b → ɸ β / {#,V}_ ! _C
n → ∅ / V_V# “in some disyllabic words”
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
m → n → ∅ / _# when unstressed
f θ s ɣ → v ð z ɡ / #_
{e,ɑ,o} → ə / _#
17.7.2.1.13 Middle English to YolaF → F[+ voice] / #_ ! F = ʍ
U → U[+ stress] / #U_ (often)
17.7.2.1.15 North Frisian Lenitionp t k → b d ɡ → v r ɣ / Vː_{V,#}
17.7.2.2 West Germanic to Old Low Franconianh → ∅ / #_C
jan → en / CC_#
17.7.2.2.1 Old Low Franconian to Middle Dutchiu → ju / #_ (in some northern dialects)
17.7.2.2.2 Middle Dutch to Modern Dutchl → u / o_{t,d}#
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germans → ʃ / #_{l,m,n,w,p,t}
Vː → V[- long] / _%Cə{r,l,n}# (some exceptions)
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlautp t k → f z x / _#
p t k → pf ts kx / #_
s → ʃ / #_{p,t}
sk → ʃ / #_
17.7.2.5 West Germanic to Old Low Germanɡ → k / ŋ_#
ɡ → x / _#
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norsei → eː / _ʀ#
b {w,v} d ð ɡ → p f t θ k / _#
j → ∅ / #_
e → i / #(C)(C)(C)_(C)(C)(C){i,j}
a → ∅ / C(C)_{ʀ,s,t,θ}#
VN → Ṽ / _# ! in #U
a → ∅ / _{ʀ,s,t,θ}#
oː → u / _#
a → ∅ / CC_U#
a(ː) ae → o(ː) ɒø / #(C)(C)(C)_(C)(C)(C)u
a → ∅ / _U#
{B,E} → ∅ / CC_{ʀ,s,t,θ}# ! B = ɒ
u → o / _m#
u → ∅ / _({ʀ,s,t,θ})#
{B,E} → ∅ / CC_U# ! B = ɒ
V → Vː / _l{P,w,k,#}
{B,E} → ∅ / _U# ! B = ɒ
u → o / _m#
wa we wi → ɒː øː yː / #P_
w → ∅ / #P_Vː
au {ai,ey,ei} æ{y,i} øy Vː → o e æ ø V / #(C)(C)(C)_CC
V[- long] → ∅ / #U_UU
u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / #(C)(C)_ʀ
{v,w} → ∅ / #_V[+ round]
lː nː → l n / C_#
ai wi (w)V → eː weː (w)Vː / _h#
i → eː / _#
V{θ,ð} → Vː / #(C)(C)(C)_{l,r}
β ð ɣ → b d ɡ / #_
hw → ∅ / ! #_
w → v / #_
ɡ → ∅ / #_n
f θ → v ð / #_
k → h / #_{v,n}
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandick → ç / _#
t → ð / V_# “in some verbal endings”
∅ → u / C_r#
ɡ → ɣ / V_#
{l(ː),rl} → ɬ / v_#
N → N[- voice] / O_#
{l(ː),rl} rː → dɬ r̥ / _#
S[- voice] → Sʰ / #v_V
V → Vː / _(C)#, in monosyllables
nː → tn̥ / V_#
rn → tn̥ / _#
{lː,rl} → tɬ / _#
h → k / #_{v,w}
hl → ɬ / #_
hr hn → r̥ n̥ / #_
n̥ → m̥ / p_#
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornd → ∅ / n_# (sometimes)
b d ɡ → p t k / #_
ɡ → k / _# (sporadic)
f → ∅ / _{l,b,v,n,#}
θ → h / #_B
ð → θ / _#
l → ∅ / _# ?
oː → øː / _(C)(C)#
ei → eː / _C(ː,V)# (V can be a syllabic consonant)
V[- long] → ∅ / _#
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornb → v / #_ (sporadic?)
tj → tʃ / _#
f → v / #_ (sporadic?)
v → w / #_
n → ∅ / _m#
ð → ∅ / _#
∅ → h / #_V
17.7.4 Common Germanic to Vandalich → ∅ / #_
w → {ɡw,v} / #_
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian Greeks → h / #_
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greeks → h / #_
tʃ → t / #_
n → ∅ / _#
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greeks → h / #_
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greeks → h / #_
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan Greeks → h / #_
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric Greeks → h / #_
tʃ → t / #_
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian Greeks → h / #_
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greeks → h / #_
tʃ → s / #_
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greeks → h / #_
17.8.10 Proto-Indo-European to Mycenaean Greeks → h / #_
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittitem → ∅ / _#
— r → ∅ / #_
— r → ∅ / _# “sometimes??”
17.10 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iranianə → ∅ / #_
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-AryanVH → Vː / _{C,#}
∅ → a / #_z
k → ∅ / #_t
p → ∅ / #_st
Vm → Ṽ / _(#){s,ɕ}
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-AryanC(C) → ∅ / C_#
VN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#
e o → i u / _#
Vː → V[-long] / _#
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-AryanC(C) → ∅ / C_#
VN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#
e o → i u / _#
Vː → V[-long] / _#
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-AryanC(C) → ∅ / C_#
VN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#
e o → i u / _#
Vː → V[-long] / _#
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-AryanC(C) → ∅ / C_#
VN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#
e o → i u / _#
Vː → V[-long] / _#
17.10.1.5 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Vedic Sanskrit{s,ʂ} → h / _#C[- voice]
{s,ʂ} → r / _#C[+ voice]
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishɔr ɔl → ra la / #_T “in syllables with long vowels”
ɔr ɔl → rɔ lɔ / #_T
ji → i / #_
O[+voice] → O[-voice] / _# (unless followed by some type of voiced consonant, be it any type of consonant or just an obstruent—this differs by location)
i → ∅ / _# “in the infinite and imperative desinences. . .some verbs have never been affected due to a potential ‘difficult’ cluster that would result, instead they got an analogical final -j extension”
pʲ mʲ fʲ → p m f / _#
ɛ̃ → ɛ / _{#,l,ɫ}
ɔ̃ → ɔ / _# (in some regions or dialects)
ɔ̃ → ɔɰ̃ / _# (in standard registers/pronunciations)
v r̝ → f r̥ / _{C[-voiced],#}
p → ∅ / #_p
w → ∅ / C_#
17.11.2 Proto-Slavic to Old Russianje → o / #_
j → ∅ / #_u
∅ → j / #_a
17.12.1 Proto-Italic to Proto-Latino-Falsicanɡʰ → f / #_
{ɸ,θ} → f / #_
l̥ r̥ → ol {or,er} / _#
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latin{i,o} → e / _#
{i,e} → ∅ / _# (sometimes)
a → e / _C(C)#
e → i / _{s,t}#
o → u / _C(C)# ! {u,w}_
{ai,ei,oi} → ei → iː / _(C)(C)#
Vː → V[-long] / _{m,(n)t,l,r}#
Vː → V[-long] / _#
bʱ → h / #_ (in rustic dialects)
{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʷʱ} → f / #_
t → ∅ / C_#
d → ∅ / Vː_#
s → θ → f / #_r
sː → s / _#
Vː → V / _C(C)# “(irregular: often before -m, -t, -nt, but never before ?s)”
17.12.1.1.1 Classical Latin vs. Vulgar Latinm → n / _# “(in certain common monosyllabic words, as well as some common compounds of them)”
m → ∅ / _#
j → ʝ / #_V
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalan{m,n,t} → ∅ / _#
V → ∅ / ”V%C_L(C)V(C)# (irregular)
V → ∅ / ”V%L_C(C)V(C)# (irregular)
V → ∅ / ”V%s_t(C)V(C)# (irregular)
i → j / ”V_#
u → w / ”ɛ_#
∅ → e / #_sC
k → j / _s#
ja → je / #_ (irregular)
∅ → {e,o} / CL_#
∅ → {e,o} / rː_#
V → ∅ / ”V%_(C)(C)V(C)# (“irregular; e is kept before n”)
— d → w / _V#
iː → ∅ / _#
{i,e(ː),ae} → ∅ / _(C)#
{u(ː),o(ː)} → ∅ / _#
w → ∅ / u_#
j ɡj ts z n → tʃ i w s ∅ / _#
{b,v} → w / V_#
d → t / _#
l → ʎ / #_
k → ts → s / #_{i,e}
ɡ → ʒ / #_{i,e}
j → dʒ → ʒ / #_
kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ / #_{i,e}
kʷ → k / #_a%”V
kʷ → kw / #_”a
ɡʷ → ɡw / #_a
{a,o} → ∅ / #_ (rare)
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— {m,n} → ∅ / _# in polysyllables
— m → n / _#
è → iɛ / _C#
j tj → dʒ ts / #_
k → j / _s#
∅ → e / #_sC
ɛ → ɛa / _l{C,#}
l → u / _{C,#}
{lːe,lːo} → u / {e,o}_# “[this is actually an analogical development, but it applies as regularly as a sound law]”
e → ə / #(C…)_(%…)” in U[+open]
e → ɛ / #(C…)_(%…)” in U[+closed] or _V (?)
a → ə / #{tʃ,dʒ}_(%…)” in U[+open]
t → ∅ / V_#
ɛ → i / _C(C…)i#
V → ∅ / _# “(except in monosyllables or after another vowel)” ! V = a
ai → e / _#
ɲ → in / _{C,#}
O[+voiced] → O[-voiced] / _#
{t,s} → ∅ / _#
k → ∅ / V[+nas]_#
{n,m} → ∅ / C_#
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to Italianr → ∅ / a_ju#
au → u / #_ (sporadically, e.g. audire → udire)
j → dʒ / #_
l → j / #C_
{t,d,k,m,n,s} → ∅ / _#
r → ∅ / _# (in polysyllables only)
taːte → ”ta / _#
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to PortugueseV → ∅ / _L(C)(C)V(C)# (irregular)
e → iː / ”_%ɪː#
iː → ∅ / {k,s}_#
{i(ː),e(ː),ae} → e / _#
uiː → ui / _#
{u(ː),o(ː)} → o → u / _#
ɛ ɔ → e o / _(”u)#
e → ∅ / el_#
V → a / _{n,r}(C)V(C)# (irregular)
V → V[+nas] / #N_ (rare)
{ã,ãe,õe} → ão / _#
e → ∅ / {l,n,r,s,k}_#
e → ∅ / ”{i,e}_#
e → i / _(C)(C)V(C)#
k → ts → s / #_{i,e}
k → ɡ / #_{a,r} (rare)
ɡ → ɡʲ → dʲ → dʒ → ʒ / #_{i,e}
j → dʒ → ʒ / #_
pl → {ʃ,pr} / #_
fl → {ʃ,fr} / #_
kl → kʎ → tʃ → ʃ / #_
ɡ → ∅ / #_l
kʷ → kw / #_”a
kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ / #_{i,e,o}
ɡʷ → ɡw / #_
k → j / _s#
a → ∅ / ”ɔ_#
{e,i} → ∅ / {L,N}_(C)(C)V(C)#
o → ∅ / _(C)(C)V(C)#
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— a → a / _# in monosyllables and oxytones (Rouergue, Limousin, Auvergne, Dauphiné)
— e → i / _(C…)i{C(C…)V,#}
— o → y / _i# (in Bordeaux, Auvergne, and some of Languedoc)
— e → i / _(C…)i(C…)#
— e u → e o / _nt#
N → ∅ / _#, in polysyllables
∅ → i / #_sC
k → ∅ / _s{C,#} (the latter in polysyllables only)
(s)k ɡ → (s)tʃ dʒ / #_a (in the north and northeast)
tʃ → ts → s / #_
j → dʒ / #_ (but not in Béarn)
∅ → k / #s_l
i → e / #_sC
b {d,dz,dʒ} z ʒ ɡ → p {t,ts,tʃ} s ʃ k / _(s)#
j → i / _(s)#
ð → ∅ / _#
ð → t / _s#
β → u / V_(s)#
β → {∅,f} / C_(s)# (the latter is rare)
n → ∅ / V_# (did not occur in extreme western areas, some northern areas, the southeast, and the east)
n → ∅ / _s# (except for eastern and southeastern dialects)
n → ∅ / r_(s)#?
{p,b} → ∅ / R_s# (unless blocked by analogy)
ts → s / _# (Provence, Limousin, some Languedoc and Gascon)
ð → i / _C ! _s#
l → u / _s# (in many dialects)
j → ∅ / n_# (in many dialects)
rj → rʲ → r / _#
nt nd → {∅,n} ∅ / _# (in some Languedoc and Gascon areas)
nd → n / _# (in western areas and for some speakers of Limousin)
d → t / n_#
{d,l} → ∅ / _#
t → ∅ / _# ! “in the preterit of verbs”, though it tended to drop “in strong preterits”
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanian{m,n,s} → ∅ / _# in polysyllables
m s → n i / _#
— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e / _#
s → i / #(C…)V_#
k → ∅ / _s#
{s,t} → ∅ / _#
e → a / i_(C…){a,e}#
”elːa → e”a / _#
ja → e / r_#
a → e / C[+palatal]_#
a o → ə u / ”U…_#
e → ə / ”U…P_(C…)V# ! V = i
e → ə / ou_#
u → ∅ / ! {OL,”V}_#
a → a / #(C…)V…C[+palatal]_…”U
a o → ə u / #(C…)V…_…”U
e → i / #(C…)V…_n…”U
e → ə / #(C…)V…{t,d,n}_…”U
e → ə / #{r,P}_…”U
o → u / #C…_…”U
{t,d} → ∅ / n_#
Ci → Cʲ / _# ! R…R_#
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardinianh → ∅ / {#,C}_
m → ∅ / _#
v → b / #_
kw ɡw → pː bː / #_ (“[o]nly Logudorese”)
w → ∅ / #k_V
e → ∅ / u_#
{i,j} → ɡ / #_e
r → urː / #_e / Logudorese
r → arː / #_(j)B / Logudorese
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanish{t,k} → ∅ / _#
i u → e o / _(C)#
Vɾ → ɾV / C_#
e → ∅ / V{d,s,n,l,ɾ}_#
t → ∅ / _#
n → ŋ / _#
17.12.2 Proto-Italic to Proto-Sibellianr̥ → er / _#
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tochariann̩ → ə → ∅ / C_#
R H → uR ɨ / C_{C,#} when syllabic
R Hn̩ → ɛR ɨn / #_C
h2e → ə / _#
u → wə / #_
(h1)e (h1)eː → jə jɛː / #_
17.13.1 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian AV → ∅ / _#
17.13.2 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian Bs → ∅ / n_#
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.1.1 Pre-Bakairi to Eastern BakairiVNV → ṼṼ / ! _(C)#
18.2.1 Proto-Ofaié-Jê to Proto-JêVm → Ṽ / _#
18.2.2 Proto-Ofaié-Jê to Ofaié-Xavantem → w / _#
k(ʷ) → ʔ / _#
ŋ → j̃ / #_ (not sure if this nasalizes the following vowel or not)
18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makurápk → ∅ / _#
ð nŋʷ → c β / #_V[-nas]
ɨ → ∅ / ! #_{p,β}e
18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekensɡʷ → kʷ / #_V[+nas]
ŋʷ → kʷ / #_V[-nas]
ɨ → i / #_{p,βe}
18.3.3 Proto-Tuparí to Tuparíᵐb ŋʷ → p β / #_V[-nas]
n → ∅ / ! #_V[-nas]
ŋ → k / #_V[+nas]
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayoróbʷ → β / #_V[+nas]
18.4.1 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Akwárak b r → {ŋ,∅} {w,m} {n,r,t} / _#
a → {ɨ,o} / _N#
o → a / ! o(C…)_(C…)#
18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Cocama∅ → i / j_#, in monosyllables
j → i / _#, in polysyllables
b → ∅ / _#
a → ∅ / _j#
eN → y / _#
o → u(a) / ! o(C…)_(C…)#
18.4.3 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guajajarab → ∅ / u_#
a → ə / _N#
o → u / ! o(C…)_(C…)#
18.4.4 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guaraní{b,r} → ∅ / _#
V{m,n} → V[+nas] / _#
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guarayo{b,k} r → ∅ {r,∅} / _#
{Vm,Vŋ} Vn → V[+nas] {Vr,V[+nas]} / _#
aN eN iN ɨN uN → ã ẽ ı̃ ɨ̃ ũ / _#
18.4.6 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Kamayuráb r → p t / _#
18.4.7 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Parintintínk → {ŋ,∅} / _#
∅ → ŋ / {#,V}_w
b r → {b,∅} {r,t} / _#
eN → ı̃ / _#
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Sirionók → ∅ / _#
V{m,n} → V[+nas] / _#
j → {j,i} / _#
w → {ɡ,k} / {#,V}_
{b,r} → ∅ / _#
a → {∅,o,e} / _j#
aN eN iN ɨN uN → ã ẽ ı̃ {ɨ̃,ĩ} õ / _#
18.4.9 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Classical Tupii → ı̃ / ʔ_# (sporadic)
18.4.9.1.1 Proto-Monde to Gaviãop → v / _#
18.4.9.1.2 Proto-Monde to Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoróv → w / #_
18.4.9.1.3 Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoró to Cinta LargaV → Vː / _#
18.4.9.1.4 Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoró to Suruíᵑɡ → ɡ / #_ (possibly all prenasalized consonants?)
b → m / #_
18.4.9.1.5 Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoró to Zoró∅ → ʔ / V_#
ᵑɡ → ɡ / #_ (possibly all prenasalized consonants?)
18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Urubuk → {k,∅} / _#
Vn → V[+nas] / _# (sometimes)
j b → {j,i} ∅ / _#
u → o / ! o(C…)_(C…)#
aN iN uN → {aN,ã} ı̃ {uN,ũ} / _#
20 Khoisan20.2.1 Proto-Kx’a to ǂHoanVn ŋ → V[+nas] ∅ / _#
20.2.2 Proto-Kx’a to Northwestern !Xuna → ∅ / #_m
n → ∅ / _#
20.2.3 Proto-Kx’a to Southeastern !Xuna → ∅ / #_m
n → ∅ / _#
21 Lakes Plain21.1 Proto-Lakes Plain to Proto-Far Westku →∅ / #_
CV → ∅ / _# (possibly only when CV_#, possibly sporadic)
21.1.1 Proto-Far West to Awerab → β~m / #_V[-high]
ti → s / #_V
t d → t~ɾ~n n / #_
21.1.2 Proto-Far West to Saponip d → p~f n / #_
ti → s / #_V
b → β~m / #_V[+ low]
21.1.3 Proto-Far West to Rasawati → s / #_V
b → β~m / #_V[+ low]
21.2.1 Proto-Tariku to Proto-Central TarikuiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.1.1 Proto-Central Tariku to EdopiC → ∅ / _#
b k → m~b ∅ / #_
d → d~n~l / #_a
21.2.1.2 Proto-Central Tariku to IauCV → ∅ / _#
b k → m~b ∅ / #_
d → d~l~n / #_a
21.2.2.1 Proto-East Tariku to BiritaiC → ∅ / _#
iC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.2 Proto-East Tariku to DoutaiC → ∅ / _#
iC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.3 Proto-East Tariku to Eritaib C → ∅ d / _#
iC uC → î û / _{C,#}
iC → iC~i / _{C,#} (not sure how this plays in with the change mentioned earlier about extra-high vowels; I must have misread something)
21.2.2.4 Proto-East Tariku to KaiC → ∅ / _#
iC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.5 Proto-East Tariku to Obokuitaib C → b̚ ɡ̚ / _#
iC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.6 Proto-East Tariku to Sikaritaib C → b~∅ {d,ɡ} / _#
iC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.7 Proto-East Tariku to WaritaiC → ∅ / _#
iC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.3 Proto-Tariku to Proto-West TarikuiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.3.1 Proto-West Tariku to Deirateb → m / #_a
21.2.3.2 Proto-West Tariku to Faiab d → m n / #_a
21.2.3.3 Proto-West Tariku to Fayub d → m n / #_a
21.2.3.4 Proto-West Tariku to Kirikirib d → m n / #_a
21.2.3.5 Proto-West Tariku to Sehudateb → m / #_a
21.2.3.6 Proto-West Tariku to Tauseb → m / #_a
21.2.3.7 Proto-West Tariku to Weirateb d → m n / #_a
22 Macro-Arawakan22.1 Proto-Arawá to Arawápʰ → p / #_
ɗ → t / #_
22.2 Proto-Arawá to Banawá-Jamamadiɓ → b / #_
22.3 Proto-Arawá to Hypothetical Arawán Substratee → i / #_
22.4 Proto-Arawá to Jarawaraɓ → b / #_
22.5 Proto-Arawá to Kulína-Deníɓ → b / #_
ʔ → ∅ / #_
22.6 Proto-Arawá to Sorowaháe → ɨ / _#
ɗ → d / #_
ʔ → ∅ / #_, possibly everywhere?
22.7 Proto-Arawá to Paumaríe → {a,i} / #_
pʰ → p / #_
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.3 Proto-Chibchan to Kogis → ∅ / #_
24 Macro-Pama-Nyungan24.1.1 Proto-Paman to AritinŋitiÉ£C → ∅ / #_
i[-long]C → Cj / #_ ! _i
u[-long]C → Cw / #_
a[-long]C → Ca / #_ (! _a?)
24.1.2 Proto-Paman to AwŋtimiC aC uC → Cj Ca Cw / #_ ! before an identical vowel
(N)S → F / #(C)V_
∅ → j / #(C)iː(C)_V ! _i
∅ → w / #(C)uː(C)_V ! _u
∅ → a / #(C)aː(C)_V ! _a
C → ∅ / #_
24.1.3 Proto-Paman to LinŋitiÉ£(N)S → F / #(C)V_
N → ∅ / #NV_SV
C → ∅ / #_
24.1.4 Proto-Paman to MbiywomC → ∅ / #_
i[-long]C → Cj / #_ ! _i
u[-long]C → Cw / #_
a[-long]C → Ca / #_ (! _a?)
24.1.5 Proto-Paman to MpalicanNVS → VⁿS / #_
C → ∅ / #_
24.1.6 Proto-Paman to Uraði(N)S → F / #(C)V_
24.1.7 Proto-Paman to Yinwuma → i / #C[+palatal]V[-long]C_
i → e / #(C)aC[-palatal]_
NVS → VⁿS / #_
C → ∅ / #_
∅ → j / #iː(C)_a
∅ → w / #uː(C)_a
25 Macro-Panoan25.1.2 Proto-Tacanan to Chamaɗ → {ʔ,∅} / ! #_
25.1.3 Proto-Tacanan to Reyesanots → tʃ / #_
25.1.4 Proto-Tacanan to Tacanak → kʷ / #_i
x → h / #_
27 Mayan27.5 Proto-Mayan to Kaqchikel-Tz’utujilh → j / _#
ɓ w → ʔ j / VCV_#
27.10 Proto-Mayan to Yucatecant → tʃ / _#
28 Muskogean28.1 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Eastern MuskogeanVC[+ weak] → ∅ / _V#
28.1.1 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to AlabamakV → ∅ / V_#
28.1.2 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to CreekV1kV2 → V2ː / #((C)V(C))(C)_#
V1k → ∅ / _#
kʷ → k / #_
28.1.3 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to HitchitiV → ∅ / Vk_#
28.1.4 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to KorasatiVkV → ”V / _#
28.1.5 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to MikasuriV → ∅ / Vk_#
28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western MuskogeanC1[+ weak] C2[+ weak] → ʔ h / V_V#
V → ∅ / V{k,ʔ,h}_#
xʷ → h / %_{o,i}(C)#
a → o / xʷ_#
i → ∅ / #(C)V(C)(C)V(C)(C)_# (sporadic in the case of other vowels)
28.2.1 Proto-Western Muskogean to Chickasawh → ∅ / _#
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.7 Proto-Athabaskan to Deg Hit’anR F → R[-voiced] F[-voiced] / _# in suffixes
29.1.1.1.12 Proto-Athabaskan to Holikachukə → ∅ / {R,F}_#
29.1.1.1.14 Proto-Athabaskan to Lower Koyukonə → ∅ / {R,F}_#
29.1.1.1.19 Proto-Athabaskan to Proto-Southern AthabaskanVnC → V[+ nas]C / _#, unless C = ʔ
29.1.1.1.20 Proto-Southern Athabaskan to Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan{s,z}(ʔ) {ʃ,ʒ}(ʔ) {ɬ,ɮ}(ʔ) → s ʃ ɬ / _#
29.1.1.1.21 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Kiowa Apached → ∅ / _#
{xʲ,j}ʔ {x,ɣ}ʔ → ∅ h(ʔ) / _#
Vnʔ VnC → V[+ nas] V[+ nas]C / _#
x ɣ → h ∅ / _#
29.1.1.1.22 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Jicarillad → ʔ / _#
xʲ xʔ j ɣʔ → h ʔ ∅ ʔ / E_#
xʲ xʔ j ɡʔ → ih iʔ i iʔ / _#
xʲʔ jʔ → h ʔ / _#
Vnʔ VnC → V[+ nas] V[+ nas]C / _#
29.1.1.1.23 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Lipand → ∅ / _#
xʲ j → ʃ ∅ / _#
{xʲ,j}ʔ → ∅ / _#
{x,ɣ} → ∅ / _(ʔ)#
Vnʔ VnC → V[+ nas] V[+ nas] / _#
29.1.1.1.25 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Chiricahuad → ∅ / _#
xʲ j → ʃ ∅ / _#
{xʲ,j}ʔ → ∅ / _#
{x,ɣ} → ∅ / _(ʔ)#
Vnʔ → V[+ nas] / _#
{s,z}(ʔ) {ʃ,ʒ}(ʔ) {ɬ,ɮ}(ʔ) → s ʃ ɬ / _#
29.1.1.1.26 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Mescaleroxʲ j → ʃ ∅ / _#
{xʲ,j}ʔ → ∅ / _#
{x,ɣ} → ∅ / _(ʔ)#
Vnʔ → V[+ nas] / _#
ʔ → ∅ / {s,ʃ,ɬ}_#
z(ʔ) ʒ(ʔ) ɮ(ʔ) → dz dʒ dɮ / _#
29.1.1.1.27 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Navajoxʲ(ʔ) j(ʔ) → h ʔ / _#
x ɣ → h ʔ / _#
{s,z}(ʔ) {ʃ,ʒ}(ʔ) {ɬ,ɮ}(ʔ) → s ʃ ɬ / _#
29.1.1.1.28 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to San Carlosx(ʲ) {j,ɣ} → h ∅ / _#
xʲʔ jʔ → h ʔ / _#
Vnˀ → V[+ nas] / _#
{s,z}(ʔ) {ʃ,ʒ}(ʔ) {ɬ,ɮ}(ʔ) → s ʃ ɬ / _#
29.1.1.1.29 Proto-Athabaskan to Bearlake Slavey-HareC → {h,ʔ} / _#
29.1.1.1.31 Proto-Athabaskan to Mountain Slavey-HareC → {h,ʔ} / _#
29.1.1.1.32 Proto-Athabaskan to Slavey Slavey-HareC → {h,ʔ} / _#
30 Niger-Congo30.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Bantuʋ̃ → l̃ / #_
u ũ → i ı̃ / #R[-labial]_
ʋ̃ ɪ̃ → ũ ı̃ / #N[-labial]_
ʋ̃ → ʋ / #R[-labial]_
ʄ C → c R / #_
ɠʷ → w / #_V[-nas]
ɠʷ → w̃ / #_V[+nas]
V[+nas] → V[-nas] / #S[+voiced]_
ɪ̃ → ɛ̃ / #(C)V_C
ɰ ɰ̃ → j j̃ / #C_
ɪ ɪ̃ → i ı̃ / #(C)V[-high]C_
ʋ̃ → m / #(C)V_
O[+nas -voiced] → O[-nas] / #(C)VC_
30.1.1.1 Proto-Bantu to SebirwaNC → C[-voiced] / #_ (in nouns)
NC → N[+same POA]C / #_ (in verbs)
∅ → ɡ / #n_V (in verbs)
30.2 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Potou-AkanicC → J[+nas] / #(C)V[+nas]_
ɰɰ̃ →l l̃ / #(C)V_
C → J / #(C)V_
V[+nas](ʋ̃,l̃) → V[-nas](m,n) / #J[+voiced]_
30.2.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic to Proto-Akanicɛ → ia / #(C)_
R[-voiced] R[+voiced] W → Z[-voiced] O[-voiced] F / #_
ɰ ɰ̃ w̃ → h h̃ h̃ʷ / #_
h → ɲı̃ / #_ã
h → w / #_
t → c / #_V[-nas]
30.2.1.1 Proto-Akanic to Akanl l̃ → j j̃ / #_
V → V[-round] / #C[+dorsal]_C[-labial]
jV[+nas] → jV[-nas] / #_
f → j / #_V[-nas]
f → j̃ / #_V[+nas]
{p,ʋ̃} c k͜p → f s p / #_
n → ŋ / #(C)V_
V → ∅ / #(C)VC[-coronal]_
ʋ l → w ɹ / #(C)V_
V[+high] → V[+nas] / #(C)_N
i → ∅ / #C_a
ı̃ → ∅ / #_ã
31 Nyulnyulan31.1 Proto-Nyulnyulan to Bardi{w,j} → ∅ / #_
ɲ → ∅ / _#
V0 → ∅ / V(C)(C)V0(C)(C)_# (with some exceptions)
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinokʷ → ɾ / #_ek
nʲ → l / #_i
32.1.2 Proto-Chatino to Tataltepec Chatinot → tʃ / #_iç
ɛ → ı̃ / S_#
ɛ → i / n_#
ɛ → e / _ʔ#, in monosyllables
32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinots → tʃ / #_{a,õ}ʔ
ts → ʃ / #_ẽ
s → tʃ / #_a
lʲ → l / #_ in U[-long -stress]
ẽ → ı̃ / {t,h}_#
ẽ → ı̃ / _ʔ#
ẽ → ı̃ / ʔ_# “in one case”
32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to Tlapanecʔ → ∅ / #_
h → CVʔV / _# (or possibly in just any final syllable?)
33 Penutian33.1.1 Proto-Utian to Proto-Costanoan (Ohlone)tʃ → ʂ / _#
ɨ → e / CC_#
33.1.1.1 Proto-Costanoan to Chochenyokʷ → k / #_
33.1.1.3 Proto-Costanoan to Mutsunkʷ → k / #_
33.1.1.4 Proto-Costanoan to Rumsenkʷ → k / #_
33.2.1 Proto-Wintuan to Nomlakir → j / _#
33.3.1.1 General Yokuts to Buena Vista Yokutst tʰ tʼ → ts tsʰ tsʼ / #_ “(in some words, conditioning factors unclear)”
tʰ → s / #_u
33.3.2.1 Proto-Nim-Yokuts to Proto-Tule-Kaweaht tʰ tʼ → tʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ / #_ “(in some words, conditioning factors unclear)”
33.3.3 Proto-Yokuts to Palewyamit tʰ tʼ → ts tsʰ tsʼ / #_ “(in some words; conditioning factors unclear)”
{u,a} → e / _CVC#, when stressed (short only)
i → e / _CVC#, when stressed (! _H, short only)
34 Quechumaran34.2 Proto-Quechumaran to Bolivia{k,q} → h / _{C,#}
χ → qʰ / #_
34.3 Proto-Quechumaran to Cuzcoh → ∅ / #q_{i,u}
ph → p / #_VA
ph → p / #_aC[+sibilant]
kh → k / #_a
kh → k / #_ “in a word with two back vowels”
χ → qʰ / #_
34.5 Proto-Quechumaran to Putamayoh → ∅ / #_
34.6 Proto-Quechumaran to Quitotʼ → tʰ / #_i
k → ɡ / _#
ts → dz / ! #_
34.7 Proto-Quechumaran to Riobambatʼ → tʰ / #_i
k → h / _#
kh → kʰ / #_{i,u}
34.8 Proto-Quechumaran to Santiago{k,q} → h / _{C,#}
h → ∅ / #_
34.9 Proto-Quechumaran to Tenah → ∅ / #_
χ → k / #_
w → ∅ / #_i
35 Salishan35.1.1 Proto-Central Salish to Comoxs → ∅ / #_C
s → ∅ / #_{wa,wi}
V3ʔ → V3(ː)ʔ / _#
35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack HalkomelemV3ʔ → V3(ː) / _#
ʔ → ∅ / V1_#
ʔ → ∅ / V1_#
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to Nooksacks → ʃ / #_{xʲ,w{i,a},qʷa}
ʔ → ∅ / V3R_{C,#}
ʔ → ∅ / V1R_#
ʔ → ∅ / V1_#
35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straitsʔ → {∅,ʔ} / V3R_{C,#}
35.1.12 Proto-Central Salish to Pentlatchʔ → ∅ / V3R_{V,#}
35.1.13 Proto-Central Salish to Secheltʔ → ∅ / V1_#
35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to TwanaRʔ → ʔR / V3_#
ʔ → ∅ / V1R_#
35.2.1 Proto-Interior Salish to Columbian and Okanagan Nasal-to-Vowel Shiftsnˀ → aʔ / _# (all other Interior Salishan languages have /eʔ/ in this position)
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old Mandarinŋ → ∅ / #_ ! #_o(w)
∅ → w / C_o# ! C = {K,C[+pharyngeal]}
36.1.1.1 Old Mandarin to Modern Pekingeseŋ → ∅ / #_
o → e / _#
î → e / _C# ! C = r
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiae → i / _#
36.3.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Japhugu o → ɯ u / _#
aŋ → o / _#
ɔk → ɤɣ / _#
ɔ → ɤ / _{t,r}# (possibly also _s# dialectally)
a → o / _m#
b → w / #{z,r}_
ŋ → m / #_kʰ
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Toe → i / _{s,#}
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtsel → ∅ / #ç_
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Moɡ → ∅ / #_r
C[+ sibilant] → s / _#
nj → ɲ / #(r)_
j → dz / #_
36.3.2.2.5 Proto-rGyalrongic to Trungi → əi / _#
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Nao∅ → dz / #_j
a(t) → ɛ / _#
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu Taj → s / #_
36.3.3.1 Old Tibetan to Amdo dialects{d,ɡ,s,l,r} → {h,r} / #_
ʃ → x / #_ (some dialects, never when following preinitials)
i → ə / _#
sr → ʂ / #_
s → either i or a diphthong ending in i? / _#
d → l / _# (some dialects)
t → l / _# (further development in bLa-brang)
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokee{Vh,Vʔ} → Vː / _#
∅ → Vː[+high rising tone] / C_# (“usually one of [/aː iː ʌ̃ː/ with this tone], the conditions are unclear”)
s → ∅ / #h_V
37.1.2 Proto-Iroquoian to Proto-Northern Iroquoian∅ → i(ː) / #_(C)(C)CVC(C)(C)#
h → ∅ / #_s
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayuga”V(C)(C)CaCV → V(C)”(C)CaCV / _#
R → ∅ / ʔ_#
C → ∅ / {s,k}_#
Ch → ∅ / _s#
h → ∅ / Vː_#
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huronk → i / #_n
k → x / {#,R,ʔ,V}_{V,ʔ,R,#}
j → ∅ / #_V
j → ∅ / V_{V,#}
w → ∅ / #_
w → ∅ / _{r,#}
h → ∅ / #_w
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandotx → e / #_r
j → ʒ / {#,ʔ,V}_V
k → ∅ / _#
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondaga”V(ː)(C)(C)Vː → V[-long](C)”(C)CV[-long] / _#
”V(C)(C)CaCV → V(C)”(C)CaCV / _#
h → ∅ / _{k,t,ts,s}#
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneidah → ∅ / _#
h → ∅ / #_w
Vː → V / _(C)(C)(C)#
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to MohawkV0 → ∅ / ”VC(C)(C)V0ʔ_C(C)(C)#
∅ → e / {#,V}s_n
∅ → e / {#,V}s_w
— s → z / {#,V}_{V,R} ! R = j
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneida— ∅ → e / C_{n,l}V(H)#
— ∅ → o / C_wV(H)#
— ∅ → i / C_jV(H)#
— Vː[+falling tone]C(C)V(H) → V̊ː[+falling tone]C̊(C̊)V̊(H̊) / _#
— CVː[+falling tone] → C̊V̊ː[+falling tone] / _#
— CVʔ → C̊V̊ʔ̊ / _#
— V[-long] → V̊ / R_#
— OV[-long] → O̊V̊ / _#
— jV → ∅ / Ci_(H)#
— ʔ → h / _C#
— R → R̊ / _#
s → z / {#,V}_{V,R}
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecah → ∅ / _{tk,nh,sC,C#}
h → ∅ / #_w
n → t / ʔ_#
C → ∅ / s_#
C[-glottal] → ∅ / _s#
t → ∅ / k_#
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscaroraˀt → n / {#,C}_{V,w,j}
h → ∅ / #_w
h → ∅ / Vː_#
n r w j → n̥ r̥ w̥ j̊ / _{#,O}
37.2.1 Proto-Siouan to Catawba∅ → ʔ / C_# (only sometimes?) (*)
37.2.2 Proto-Siouan to Dakotamn → mV0nV0 / #_
37.2.2.1 Dakota to Santee Dakotakr → hd / #_
37.2.3 Proto-Siouan to Mandanmn → mV0nV0 / #_
37.2.4 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Čiwere-Winnebagok → ɡ / V[+nas]_ ! _#
m → ∅ / _n ! _n#
37.2.4.1 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Čiwerek → ∅ / #t_
37.2.4.2 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to WinnebagoV → ∅ / _#
tk → {tʃk,tʃɡ} / #_
37.2.5.2 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Hidatsakr → kV0rV0 / #_
37.2.6.1 Proto-Dhegiha to Kansaw → b / #_
r L(ʲ) → d j / #_ (*)
L → bl / #_e (*)
37.2.6.2 Proto-Dhegiha to Omaha-Poncaw → m / #_
mn → mV0nV0 / #_
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to Osagew → b / #_
m → ∅ / #_n
37.2.6.4 Proto-Dhegiha to QuapawL → d / #_
Lʲ → j / #_õ (*)
Lʲ → t / #_ã (*)
m → ∅ / #_n (in morphemes) (*)
37.2.7.1 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Biloxiw → ∅ / #_ (sporadic)
m → w / #_
m → ∅ / #_n
k → ∅ / #t_
37.2.7.2 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Ofow → ∅ / #_ (sporadic)
m → w / #_
m → ∅ / #_n
k → ∅ / #t_
37.2.7.3 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Tutelomn → mV0nV0 / #_ (in morphemes)
40 Totozoquean40.2 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Totonacanh → ∅ / ! #_
41 Trans-New Guinea41.1 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Apalɨt k ŋ → {l,t} {h,k} n / #_
{p,t} → ∅ / _#
41.2 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Asmatp → f / #_ (?)
t → s / #_i
k s → ∅ {t,s} / #_
p t nj → {t,r} {r,s,t} s / _#
41.3 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Binanderet → j / #_i
ŋ ᵑɡ → ∅ ɡ / #_
nj → s / #_ (?)
41.4 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kaeti{p,ᵐb} ŋɡ → b ɡ / #_
41.5.1.3 Proto-Gorokan to South Forem n → mb nd / #_
41.5.1.5 Proto-Gorokan to Gimiʔ → ∅ / _#
41.5.1.6 Proto-Gorokan to Hua{N,r} → ʔ / _{#,C}
41.5.1.7 Proto-Gorokan to Kamanor → ʔ / _#
41.5.1.8 Proto-Gorokan to MoveN → ʔ / _{#,C}
41.5.1.9 Proto-Gorokan to SianeC → ∅ / _#
41.5.2.1 Proto-Kainantu to AuyanaN → ∅ / _#
r → ʔ / _{N,#}
41.5.2.2 Proto-Kainantu to AwaN → ∅ / _{p,t,#}
41.6 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kalamt → {t,∅} / _#
41.7 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kâtek ᵐb ⁿd → {k,h} b {s,t} / #_
p k → t ʔ / _#
41.8 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kiwait k ᵐb → {s,t} {ɡ,∅} {b,p} / #_
s → {s,t} / #_ (?)
41.9 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Selepetᵐb ⁿd s → b {s,t} {t,s} / #_
t → t / _# (?)
ŋ → {m,ŋ} / _#
41.10 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Telefol{p,ᵐb} → f / #_
s → s / #_ (?)
41.11 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Middle Wahgin ŋ → m n / #_
42 Uralic42.1 Proto-Uralic to Pre-Finnicŋ → k / _#, in latives
ŋ → n / _# else
m → n / _{t,tsʲ,#}
42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-FinnicV → Vː / _#
i → ∅ / Aj_#
j → ∅ / C_i{C,#}
tʃ tsʲ → ʃ sʲ / #_
nʲ → ni / #(C)i_V
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishj w → i U / V_{C,#}
βi → U / _#
f → ʋ / #_
ʋ → ∅ / #_{o,u,y}
∅ → ʋ / #_{yː,øː,oː}
{ks,nts} nt → s t / _#
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard FinnishVh → hV / {j,v,n,r,l}_# (also some double-metathesis triggered by the condition of being m_ ?)
{k,x} → ˟ / _#
VU → Vː / _#
e → ø / #(C…)_y
i → y / #(C…)l_y
i → y / #(C…)_væ
42.1.1.1.2 Standard Finnish to Modern Standard Finnishn → ∅ / _#
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livonianh → ∅ / {#,C}_
ɑ → ə / VC(C)ɑC(C)_# when unstressed
LV → VL / {#,V,O}_
p t(ʲ) s(ʲ) k → b d(ʲ) z(ʲ) ɡ / ! #_ or adjacent to C[-voice]
ə → ∅ / _#
o → oː / _{RC#,i}
w → ʋ / #_o
43 Uto-Aztecan43.2 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Hopii → j / h_ ! _#
w → l / {#,V[+low]}_V[+low]
43.3 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Luiseñok → q / #_V[+low]
ʔ → ∅ / #_
43.4 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Nahuatlp → ∅ / {#,Vs}_
m → n / _#
l → n / #_
43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhamp → w / {#,Vs}_
h → ʔ / #_
l → ɲ / #_ “(in doubt; initial *l occurs in too few cognates to be sure. Apparently PUA initial *l was rare and is of questionable certainty whether it existed at all.)”
i → ∅ / ts_#
l → i / {p,m,k(ʷ),w}_# “in all dialects, and varies by dialect after other consonants”
44 Vasconic44.1 Proto-Vasconic to Aquitanianś → {s(ː),ʃ} / _#
s → ʃ / i_#
r[+ fortis] → ɾ / _#
ɡ → k / #_ (sometimes?)
44.2 Proto-Basque to BasqueSʰ → F → h (→ ∅) / #_
S → S[+ voiced] / #_
Vn → Ṽ / _# (seems to have been reverted in most dialects, except for Souletin)
d → l / #_ (except verbs)
{ɾ,r} → ∅ / #_
r → ɾ / _#
b → ∅ / #_B (a few exceptions, mostly before _u)
∅ → a / #_{ra,ro} (sporadic)
∅ → e / #_r
∅ → e / #_{s̺,s̻}C
o → u / _n{C,#} (Souletin; some raising occurred elsewhere)
u i → o e / _r{C,#}
∅ → V / Vk_# (Zeberio Biscayan)
e → ∅ / #_ (Navarrese, rare)
e → j / #_V (at least a few times?)
e → ∅ / #Ur_
a → ∅ / V_# (Guipuscoan; happens because of reanalysis of the definite article)
V → ∅ / _#, in trisyllables
i → ∅ / _#, in disyllables
u {o,e} → ∅ a / _#, in disyllables (eastern dialects)
eɪ → e / #_
eð (→ e ?) → j / #_V
e → j / #_a
e → ∅ / #_e
C[+ sibilant] → C[+ affricate] / _#
s̻ → s̺ / _{C,#} (sometimes)
its̺ → tʃ / _# (Biscayan)
oa ea → u(e) i(e) / _#
s̺ → tʃ / #_ (Guipuscoan)
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.1 Proto-Pai to Chapaikʷ → k / _#
45.1.2 Proto-Pai to Paipaikʷ xʷ → k x / _#
45.1.3 Proto-Pai to Tipaikʷ xʷ → q χ / _# (the paper calls these “back velars”)
46 Vowel Shifts46.5 Old English-to-Scots Vowel Shifts— V → Vː / _{r,F[+voiced],$,#}
— əi → aɪ / _{r,F[+voiced],$,#} (pursuant to the above)
46.11 Middle Chinese to Cantonese Vowel Shift (“The Inner-Outer Flip”)V → Vː / _#
46.15 Proto-Japanese to Old Japanese Vowel Shifte o → je wo / _#
46.19 Southern [United States] Shift (English)aɪ → aː / _#