Index Diachronica: involving /ɑ/

95 results from /ɑ/   56 results to /ɑ/   4 results with context involving /ɑ/   

plain ɑː ɑ́ ɑ̃ ɑ̃ː ɑ̄

from /ɑ/

95 matches

17 Indo-European17.7.2.1.1 Anglo-Frisian to Old Englishɑ̃ː → õː
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle Englisheɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː
ɑɣ → ɑw
{eɑh,eɑç,eɑx,eɑʝ,eɑɣ} → ɑw
eːɑw iːw → ew ju
{ɑːw,ɑːɣ,oːw} → ɔːw
{o(ː)ht,ɑːht} → ow
ɑː y(ː) → ɔː e(ː)
ɑ e o → ɑː ɛː oː / in U[+open] ! in #U with the following U containing /iː/ or ending in one of /m n r l/
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle Englisheɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː
ɑɣ → ɑw
{eɑh,eɑç,eɑx,eɑʝ,eɑɣ} → ɑw
eːɑw iːw → ew ju
{ɑːw,ɑːɣ,oːw} → ɔːw
{ɑːht,o(ː)ht} → ow
ɑː y(ː) → ɔː i(ː)
ɑ e o → ɑː ɛː oː / in U[+open] ! in #U with the following U containing /iː/ or ending in one of /m n r l/
{e,ɑ,o} → ə → ∅ / _#
17.7.2.1.4 Midlands Middle English to Early Modern Englisha ɑ {ɛ,ɪ,ɤ} → ɑː ɔː ɜː / _ɹ{C,#}
ɑʊ → ɑː / _P
ɑʊ → ɑː / _N (sometimes)
ɑʊ → ɔː / else
17.7.2.1.5 Early Modern English to American Englishæː ɑː ɔː → æə~eə ɑ ɔ
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishɜːɹ ɑːɹ ɔːɹ eːɹ oːɹ iːɹ uːɹ → ɜː ɑː ɔː ɛə ɔə ɪə ʊə / syllable-finally
ɑ → ɒ
17.7.2.1.7 Early Modern English to British Englishɜːɹ ɑːɹ ɔːɹ eːɹ oːɹ iːɹ uːɹ → ɜː ɑː ɔː ɛə ɔə ɪə ʊə / syllable-finally
ɑ → ɒ
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle Englisheɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː
ɑɣ → ɑw
{eɑh,eɑç,eɑx,eɑʝ,eɑɣ} → ɑw
eːɑw iːw → ew ju
{ɑːw,ɑːɣ,oːw} → ɔːw
{ɑːht,o(ː)ht} → ow
ɑ e o → ɑː ɛː oː / in U[+open] ! in #U with the following U containing /iː/ or ending in one of /m n r l/
{e,ɑ,o} → ə → ∅ / _#, when unstressed (it appears this sound may also have gone to /ɪ/)
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scotsol al → ou ɑː → ʌu {ɑ,ɔ}
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsɑ → a / ! _{l,r} (sporadic)
æː(ɑ) eː(o) → ɛ iː
æ(ɑ) → e
ɑː → e / ! _{ŋ,n}
{ɔu,ɑu} → ɑ
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle Englisheɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː
ɑɣ → ɑw
{eɑh,eɑç,eɑx,eɑʝ,eɑɣ} → ɑw
eːɑw iːw → ew ju
{ɑːw,ɑːɣ,oːw} → ɔːw
{ɑːht,o(ː)ht} → ow
ɑː → ɔː
ɑ e o → ɑː ɛː oː / in U[+open] ! in #U with the following U containing /iː/ or ending in one of /m n r l/
{e,ɑ,o} → ə / _#
17.7.3 Common Germanic to Proto-Norseo(u) {ɔ,ɑ,au,ai,æ} {ja,jE,æ(i),e(i),y} → u a i
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekɑː → æː
ɑj → ɛː
ɑu ɛu eu → ɑv ɛv ev
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greek{eː,ej} ɛː ɑ(ː)j {oj,ɔːj} → iː eː ɛː {y,ø}
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekɑː → æː
ɑj → ɛː
19 Kartvelian19.3 Proto-Kartvelian to Zanɛ ɑ → ɑ ɔ
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.1 Proto-Athabaskan to Ahtnaɑ ə ʊ → a e o
29.1.1.1.2 Proto-Athabaskan to Babineu ɑ ʊ → {o,u} ə u
29.1.1.1.3 Proto-Athabaskan to Beaverɑ → ə
29.1.1.1.4 Proto-Athabaskan to Chilcotine {ɑ,ə} → i {e,ɪ}
29.1.1.1.5 Proto-Athabaskan to Chipewyanɑ ʊ → a o
29.1.1.1.6 Proto-Athabaskan to Dakelhu {ɑ,ʊ} → {o,u} ə
29.1.1.1.7 Proto-Athabaskan to Deg Hit’ane u a {ɑ,ʊ} → a i u ə
29.1.1.1.9 Proto-Athabaskan to Dogribɑ ə ʊ u → a e o i
29.1.1.1.10 Proto-Athabaskan to Easter Gwich’ina u {ɑ,ə} ʊ → {i,e} ju a o
29.1.1.1.11 Proto-Athabaskan to Hana ɑ ə ʊ → æ a {ə,ë} o
29.1.1.1.12 Proto-Athabaskan to Holikachuki e a u {ɑ,ʊ} → e a ɔ o ŭ
29.1.1.1.14 Proto-Athabaskan to Lower Koyukone a ɑ ʊ → a o ŏ ŭ
29.1.1.1.15 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Koyukone a ɑ ʊ → a o ŏ ŭ
29.1.1.1.16 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Kuskokwim Kolchane a {ɑ,ʊ} → a o ŭ
29.1.1.1.17 Proto-Athabaskan to Sarceeɑ́ ə́ ʊ́ → ɑ̄ ə̄ ʊ̄
29.1.1.1.29 Proto-Athabaskan to Bearlake Slavey-Hareɑ ə ʊ → a ɛ o
29.1.1.1.31 Proto-Athabaskan to Mountain Slavey-Hareɑ ə ʊ → a e o
29.1.1.1.32 Proto-Athabaskan to Slavey Slavey-Hareɑ ə ʊ → a e o
29.1.1.1.33 Proto-Athabaskan to Tahltan-Kaska-Tagishɑ ə ʊ → a {i,e} u
29.1.1.1.37 Proto-Athabaskan to Tanacrossɑ ə ʊ → {æ̆,ă} æ̆ ŏ
29.1.1.1.38 Proto-Athabaskan to Lower Tananae a {ɑ,ʊ} → æ ɔ ŭ
29.1.1.1.39 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Tanana{a,ɑ} e i u ʊ → e(a) {i,ea} ju {a,ɨ} o
29.1.1.1.41 Proto-Athabaskan to Northern Tutchone{ɑ,ə,ʊ} → {a,o}
29.1.1.1.42 Proto-Athabaskan to Southern Tutchone{ɑ,ə,ʊ} → {a,o}
42 Uralic42.1 Proto-Uralic to Pre-Finnicɤ(ː?) ɑː æː → ɑ(ː?) oː eː / stressed
42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnicɑ → e / ”{o,u}(X)C_j
ɑ → o / ”{a,e,i}(X)C_j
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livonianɑ æ → æe / _(C…)i
ɑ → ə / VC(C)ɑC(C)_# when unstressed
VCːɑ → VːCɑ
ɑː au → ɔː ɔu (though sometimes ɑː develops, apparently at least partially due to metathesis?)
46 Vowel Shifts46.2 California Vowel Shift (English)ɑ → ɔ (does not occur in Sacramento)
46.10 Late Proto-Finnic to Savonian Vowel Shiftɑː æː ɑi æi → uɑ iæ ɑe æe
ɑu ou → ɑː oː
46.12 Northern Cities Vowel Shift (English)ɑ ɔ → a ɑ
46.19 Southern [United States] Shift (English)ɑɹ → ɒɹ (“often”)
æ/ɑː → æɪ

to /ɑ/

56 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Egyptian Arabica(ː) → ɑ(ː) / near emphatics
a(ː) → ɑ(ː) / if ɑ(ː) is elsewhere in the word
6.2.2.1.14 Classical Arabic to Moroccan Arabicaː iː uː → ɑː eː oː / near emphatics
6.2.2.1.17 Classical Arabic to Tunisian Arabica → ɑ / near emphatics
8 Altaic8.5.1.2 Proto-Kypchak to Kyrgyzæ Vh {ʕ,h} → ɑː Vː ∅ (seems to have largely been confined to loanwords from Persian)
17 Indo-European17.7.2.1 West Germanic to Anglo-Frisiana → ɑ̃ / _N (short only)
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle Englisheɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː
ɑɣ → ɑw
{eɑh,eɑç,eɑx,eɑʝ,eɑɣ} → ɑw
ɑ e o → ɑː ɛː oː / in U[+open] ! in #U with the following U containing /iː/ or ending in one of /m n r l/
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle Englisheɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː
ɑɣ → ɑw
{eɑh,eɑç,eɑx,eɑʝ,eɑɣ} → ɑw
ɑ e o → ɑː ɛː oː / in U[+open] ! in #U with the following U containing /iː/ or ending in one of /m n r l/
17.7.2.1.4 Midlands Middle English to Early Modern Englisha ɑ {ɛ,ɪ,ɤ} → ɑː ɔː ɜː / _ɹ{C,#}
ɑʊ → ɑː / _P
ɑʊ → ɑː / _N (sometimes)
a → ɑː / “in a few words, like ‘father’”
əɪ əʊ → ɑi æʊ / “in some parts of South-Eastern England”
17.7.2.1.5 Early Modern English to American Englishæː ɑː ɔː → æə~eə ɑ ɔ
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishɜːɹ ɑːɹ ɔːɹ eːɹ oːɹ iːɹ uːɹ → ɜː ɑː ɔː ɛə ɔə ɪə ʊə / syllable-finally
æ → æː → ɑː / _{F[-voiced],N[-voiced]}
17.7.2.1.7 Early Modern English to British Englishɜːɹ ɑːɹ ɔːɹ eːɹ oːɹ iːɹ uːɹ → ɜː ɑː ɔː ɛə ɔə ɪə ʊə / syllable-finally
æ → æː → ɑː / _{F[-voiced],N[-voiced]}
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle Englisheɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː
ɑɣ → ɑw
{eɑh,eɑç,eɑx,eɑʝ,eɑɣ} → ɑw
ɑ e o → ɑː ɛː oː / in U[+open] ! in #U with the following U containing /iː/ or ending in one of /m n r l/
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scotsol al → ou ɑː → ʌu {ɑ,ɔ}
— ai oi ui ei au ou iu ɛ(o)u → eː oe əi iː {ɑː,ɔː} ʌu ju j(ʌ)u
— a ɔ u → {a,ɑ} ɔ ʌ
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsæ → ɑ / _{x,l}
{ɔu,ɑu} → ɑ
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle Englisheɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː
ɑɣ → ɑw
{eɑh,eɑç,eɑx,eɑʝ,eɑɣ} → ɑw
ɑ e o → ɑː ɛː oː / in U[+open] ! in #U with the following U containing /iː/ or ending in one of /m n r l/
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornu a e eː → ʌ ɑ ɪ ɛ / _Cː
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekɑu ɛu eu → ɑv ɛv ev
19 Kartvelian19.3 Proto-Kartvelian to Zanɛ ɑ → ɑ ɔ
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.17 Proto-Athabaskan to Sarceeɑ́ ə́ ʊ́ → ɑ̄ ə̄ ʊ̄
{e,ə} ʊ → ɑ u
36 Sino-Tibetan36.3.1.1 Proto-Naish to Lazea aS → ɑ {ɑ,u}
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to Naxia aS → ɑ {ɑ,o} / _%
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-Aiə → {a,ɒ,ɑ,ʌ} ?
42 Uralic42.1 Proto-Uralic to Pre-Finnicɤ(ː?) ɑː æː → ɑ(ː?) oː eː / stressed
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livonianæ → ɑ / unstressed
VCːɑ → VːCɑ
46 Vowel Shifts46.5 Old English-to-Scots Vowel Shiftsai oi ui ei au ou iu ɛ(o)u → eː oe əi iː {ɑː,ɔː} ʌu ju j(ʌ)u
a ɔ u → {a,ɑ} ɔ ʌ
46.7 Great Vowel Shift (English)iː uː → əj əw → ɑj ɑw
46.10 Late Proto-Finnic to Savonian Vowel Shiftɑː æː ɑi æi → uɑ iæ ɑe æe
ɑu ou → ɑː oː
46.12 Northern Cities Vowel Shift (English)ɑ ɔ → a ɑ
46.19 Southern [United States] Shift (English)aɪ → ɑeː / else (only for some speakers)
ɔ → ɑɒ (for some speakers)

with context involving /ɑ/

4 matches

17 Indo-European17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsl → u / {ɔ,ɑ}_
42 Uralic42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livonianɑ → ə / VC(C)ɑC(C)_# when unstressed
V → Vː / _RC(C)ɑ (includes diphthongs)
e o → eː oː / _Cɑ