Index Diachronica: involving /ɡ/

455 results from /ɡ/   327 results to /ɡ/   33 results with context involving /ɡ/   

plain ɡʰ ɡʱ ɡʲ ɡʲʷ ɡʷ ɡʷʰ ɡʷʱ ɡʼ ɡː ɡ́ ɡ́ʰ ɡ́ʱ ɡ̌ ɡ̚ ᵑɡ

from /ɡ/

455 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.2.1 Proto-Erythrean to Proto-Cushiticɡ → k / #{d,w}V_
6.2.1.1.1 Proto-Agaw to Awngiz dz ɡ → ɡ {z,dz} ɡ(ʷ)
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-BerberɡwVq → ʕ
ɡ(w) → dʒ / #_Vd
6.2.2.1.5 Proto-Semitic to Classical Arabicɡ → ɡʲ → dʒ
6.2.2.1.11 Classical Arabic to Iraqi Arabicɡʲ → j / in southern regions
6.2.2.1.18 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrewp b t d k ɡ → b v θ ð x ɣ / non-intial singletons
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonicɡ → ∅ / iV_
ɡ → k / else
8.2 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Korean{tʰ,d} {k,ɡ} → r {h,∅} / {C,V}_{C,V}
ɡ → k / #_
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolicɡ → h / ! {C,V}_h
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkicd ɡ → t k (may have been part of a more sweeping merger; Firespeaker calls it “lenis-fortis”)
8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchakɡm rɡ → mɡ ɡr (this second one is listed as → rɡ but it might be a typo)
{d,ɡ} → j / ø_
ɡ → w / V_
8.5.2 Proto-Turkic to Sakhao oɡ ø øɡ iɡ → wo ɥø oː øː iː
a{ɡ̌(ɯ),b} {o{ɡ̌,b},aɡ̌u} u{ɡ̌,b} → ɰa wo uː
iɡ̌ → ɯː → iː (but original ɯː unaffected?)
eɡ → {je,iː,ji}
9 Austroasiatic9.1.1 Proto-Vietic to Muong Khen{kʰ,ɡʱ} → x (Presyllables don’t seem to have affected this much)
9.1.2 Proto-Vietic to Middle Vietnamesebʱ {tʰ,dʱ} {t*ʰ,d*ʱ} {kʰ,ɡʱ} → pʰ t tʰ kʰ (after *kʰ *ɡʱ, only first-register tones may occur)
(h)ə{p,b} (h)ə{t,d} (h)ə{c,ɟ} (h)ə{k,ɡ} → β dʲ ɟ ɡ
t*ʰ d ɡ → tʰ t k / _w
{əkʰ,əɡɦj} → ɟ (I think Thompson implied this was just a bit of a kludge)
10 Austronesian10.1.2.7.2 Proto-Kalamian to Karamiananenɡ → h / V_V
10.1.2.7.3 Proto-Kalamian to Kalamian Tagbanwab ɡ → β V / V_V
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorroɡʷ → ɡ / _V[+round]
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Madurese{p,t,k} b d ɡ → ʔ p t k / _#
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North Sarawakbː dː dzː ɡː → bʱ dʱ dzʱ ɡʱ (Whimemsz says these become “voiced stops with voiceless releases. . .treated as unit phonemes, not clusters)”
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiputbʱ {dʱ,dzʱ} ɡʱ → f s k
v ɡ ɟ → f k c / V_V
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lónghbʱ dʱ dzʱ ɡʱ → p t c k
b d dz ɡ → p t c k / N_
10.3 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Oceanic{nts,ns,nz,nɡʲ} {ts,z,ɡʲ} → ɡʲ s
{ŋk,ŋɡ} ɡ → ɡ k
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwb d ɡ → p t k
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerigb bʷ d ɡ → p kpʷ t k
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to Mwotlapp pʷ bʷ k ɡ → β w kpʷ ɣ k
10.3.5.7 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwapwâbw mw → ɡw ŋw (→ ɡ ŋ / _V[+ rounded])
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bayb bʷ ɡ → p pʷ k
10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to Tolomakod ɡ → r k
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejomb(ʷ) ɡ → p(ʷ) k
10.3.11.2.1 Proto-Erromango to Syeb d ɡ → p t k / {#,C}_
b d ɡ → m n ŋ / _#
b d ɡ → mp nt ŋk
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Urab d ɡ → m n ŋ / _C
b d ɡ → p t k / _#
10.3.11.3 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Tannaɡ q → k ∅
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’abʷ ɡ → kpʷ k
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Onganɟ ɡ *N *R → {ɟ,j} {ɟ,ɡ} {l,j} {l,r}
10.5.1 Proto-Ongan to Jarawaɡ → j
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to Ongeɡd ɡl → dː lː
11 Northeast Caucasian11.3 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Khinalugkː kʼ ɡ → k {kʼ,ɡ} {kʼ,kː}
11.4 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Lakɡ → kː
qʼ qʼː ɡ → {qʼ,j} qʼ {qː,ɣ}
11.5.2 Proto-Lezgic to Archikː ɡ → x {kː,ɡ}
11.5.3 Proto-Lezgic to Lezghikː ɡ → ɣ kː
11.7.2 Proto-Tsezic to Tsezkːʼ ɡ → k kʼ
12 Northwest Caucasian12.2 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Circassiank kʼ ɡ → kʲ kʲʼ ɡʲ
ɡʲʷ xʲʷ ɣʲʷ(?) → ɡʷ xʷ ʁʷ
12.2.1.2 Adyghe to Bzhedug Adyghekʲ(ː) kʲʼ ɡʲ → tʃ(ː) tʃʼ dʑ
12.2.1.4 Adyghe to Temirgoy Adyghekʲ(ː) kʲʼ kʷː ɡʲ → tʃ tʃʼ kʷ dʑ
12.2.2 Proto-Circassian to Kabardiandɮ dzʲ dzʷ dʑ ɡʲ → ʒ ʑ {v,w} ʒ dʒ
12.3 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Ubykhk kʼ ɡ x ɣ → kʲ kʲʼ ɡʲ ɕ ɣ~ʁ
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanianɡ́(ʱ) → d / %_C[+sibilant]
ɡʷ(ʱ) → {ɡ,z}
bʱ dʱ ɡ́(ʱ) → b d dh
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanianɡ́(ʱ) → d / %_C[+sibilant]
ɡʷ(ʱ) → {ɡ,z}
bʱ dʱ ɡ́(ʱ) → b d dh
17.2.2 Common Anatolian to Luwianɡ → dʒ (sporadic)
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lycian{ɡ́,ɡ} → j / _e(ː)
{ɡ́,ɡ} → ∅ / _i(ː)
ɡ → ∅ / V_V
ɡ → dʒ (sporadic)
17.2.5 Common Anatolian to Palaicɡʷ → hʷ / medially
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenianɡ́ → ts (?)
b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʷʱ → p t j k / #_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenianɡ́ → ts (?)
b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
ɡʷʱ → ɡʱ / #_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenianɡ́ → ts (?)
b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
ɡʷʱ → dʒ / #_{e,i}
bʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡ(ʷ)ʱ → b j k / #_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenianɡ́ → ts (?)
b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡ(ʷ)ʱ → p t j k / #_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenianɡ́ → ts (?)
b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ / ! _#
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenianɡ́ → ts (?)
b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
ɡʷʱ → dʒ / #_{e,i}
bʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʷʱ → b j ɡ / #_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡ(ʷ)ʱ → p t j k / #_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenianɡ́ → ts (?)
b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
ɡʷʱ → dʒ / #_{e,i}
bʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʷʱ → b j ɡ / #_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestanbʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ → b d z
ḱ ɡ́ → s z
k(ʷ) ɡ(ʷ)(ʱ) → tʃ dʒ / _E
k kʷ ɡ(ʷ)(ʱ) → x k ɡ / else
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— ɡʷ → b
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishɡʷ → b / #_V ! _u(ː)
ɡʷ → b / #_N
ɡʷ → b / C_V
ɡʷ → ɡ
p t k kʷ b d ɡ m n l r s → f θ x xʷ v ð ɣ M N L R h / V(#)_{R,V} (“We don’t know the exact values of lenited /m n l r/. We can guess that lenited m became a nasalized labial continuant of some sort, but beyond that, we don’t know.”)
p t k kʷ b d ɡ ∅ → b d ɡ ɡʷ mb nd ŋɡ n / n#_”V
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshp t k {b,m} d ɡ → b d ɡ v ð ɣ / _V
mb nd ŋɡ → mː nː ŋː
17.6 Proto-Indo-European to Dacianbʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → b d ɡ́ ɡ ɡʷ
ḱ ɡ́ → ts dz
{kʷ,kw} {ɡʷ,ɡw} → tʃ dʒ (→ s~z z ?) / _E
{kʷ,kw} {ɡʷ,ɡw} → k ɡ / else
17.7 Proto-Indo-European to Common Germanicbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → β ð ɣ
b d ɡ → p t k
17.7.2.1 West Germanic to Anglo-Frisiank ɡ → tʃ j(?)
17.7.2.1.1 Anglo-Frisian to Old Englishk ɣ ɡ → tʃ ʝ dʒ / “in certain complex circumstances”
17.7.2.1.4 Midlands Middle English to Early Modern Englishmb ŋɡ → m ŋ / _#
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scotsoɡ → ʌu
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsɔ{ɡ,j} → ʌu
17.7.2.1.11 Scots to Falkirk Scotsɡ → ʝ / V_# ! _C “(most times)”
17.7.2.1.14 Anglo-Frisian to Old Frisiank ɡ → tʃ j / _E
ɡ → j / E_
17.7.2.1.15 North Frisian Lenitionp t k → b d ɡ → v r ɣ / Vː_{V,#}
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlautb d ɡ → p t k
17.7.2.5 West Germanic to Old Low Germanɡ → k / ŋ_#
ɡ → ʝ / _E (singleton only)
ɡ → ɣ / _V (singleton only)
ɡ → x / _#
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norseb {w,v} d ð ɡ → p f t θ k / _#
{ɡ,ɣ} → ∅ / l_{ð,t}
{ɡ,ɣ} → ∅ / r_{d,n,t}
{t(ː),ɡː}k → kː
ɡ → ∅ / #_n
N(ː) k k(ː) N(ː)ɡ ɡ(ː) ɣ → ɲc(ː) c(ː) ɲɟ(ː) ɟ(ː) ʝ / _{i,j}
N(ː) k k(ː) N(ː)ɡ ɡ(ː) ɣ → ɲc(ː) c(ː) ɲɟ(ː) ɟ(ː) ɟ / _{i,j}
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandicɡ ɟ → ɣ j / V_V
ɡ → ɣ / V_#
b d {ɡ,ɣ} → p t k / _S
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornb d ɡ → p t k / #_
ɡ → k / _# (sporadic)
ɡn ɡl → nj lj
k ɡ → c ɟ / _{E,j}
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornɡ(ː) → dʒ / _iV
k ɡ → c ɟ / _E
ɡl → lɡ
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
b d ɡ → v ð ɣ / V_V
ɡ x → j ç / _{ɛ,i}
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.10 Proto-Indo-European to Mycenaean Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittiteḱ ɡ́ ɡ́ʱ → k ɡ ɡʱ
bʱ dʱ ɡʱ → p t k
kʷ ɡʷ ɡʷʱ → ku ɡu ku
17.10 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iraniank ɡ ɡʱ → c ɟ ɟʱ / _e,i,j
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-Aryan{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʱ} {j,v} → h ∅ / V_V
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-Aryan{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʱ} {j,v} → h ∅ / V_V
b {d,dʒ,ɡ} → v j / V_V
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-Aryan{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʱ} {j,v} → h ∅ / V_V
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-Aryan{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʱ} {j,v} → h ∅ / V_V
17.10.1.5 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Vedic Sanskrit{pʂ,cʂ,ɟʐʱ,ɡʐʱ} → kʂ
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavicbʱ dʱ {ɡʱ,ɡ́ʱ} ɡʷʱ → b d ɡ ɡʷ
Kʷ ḱ ɡ́ → K s z
k ɡ x → tʃ ʒ ʃ / _{e(ː)(i),i(ː)}
k ɡ x → ts dz s / _{æː,i}
k ɡ x → ts dz s / “After some syllables with front vowels”
kj ɡj xj → tʃ ʒ ʃ
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishk ɡ → kʲ ɡʲ / _ɛ where the vowel is from a yer or a borrowing
kɨ ɡɨ → kʲi ɡʲi
ɡ → ∅ / _d
17.12 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Italicḱ ǵ → k ɡ
ǵʰ gʷʰ → ɡʰ xʷ
bʰ dʰ gʰ → pʰ tʰ dʰ → ɸ θ x
17.12.1 Proto-Italic to Proto-Latino-Falsicanɡʷ → w
ɡʰ → f / #_
ɡʰ → {d,h,ɡ}
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latin{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʷʱ} → f / #_
ḱ ɡ́ → k ɡ
ɡʱ → ɡ / ŋ_
ɡ → ∅ / _h
ɡʷ(ʱ) → ɡu / ŋ_
ɡʷ → v
ɡʷʱ → f / _r
ɡʷʱ → v / V_V
{k,ɡ} → ŋ / _n
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalanp b t d k ɡ → β {β,w} ∅ {j,w} ɣ {j,∅,ɡ} / V_rV
{kl,ɡl} → ʎ / V_V (the latter is irregular)
ɡn tj → ɲ ∅ / V_V
lj rj kj ɡj → ʎ jr ts ʒ / V_V
k ɡ → ∅ {∅,ʒ} / V_{i,e} (ɡ → ʒ is learned)
ɡ → ∅ / V_V%”V
j ɡj ts z n → tʃ i w s ∅ / _#
ɡ → ʒ / #_{i,e}
kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ / #_{i,e}
ɡʷ → ɡw / #_a
ɡʷ → ɡ / C_{i,e}
ɡʷ → ɡw / C_a
ɡ → ∅ / V_dV
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to Frenchk ɡ → tj dj / _E
{ɡn,nj} → ɲ
k ɡ → t d / {n,r}_r
{kl,ɡl,lj} → ʎ
{k,ɡ} → ∅ / V_B
{k,ɡ} → ∅ / B_a
{k,ɡ} → j / _{a,C}
— ɡ → ∅ / _j
k ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _a
kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to Italiank ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _E
ɡ → ∅ / a_V
{dj,ɡj} lj {nj,ɡn} → dʒ ʎ ɲ
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portugueseɡ → ɡʲ → dʲ → dʒ → ʒ / #_{i,e}
nɡi → ɲ
{kl,ɡl} → ʎ
ɡ → ∅ / #_l
kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ / #_{i,e,o}
ɡʷ → ɡw / #_
ɡʷ → ɡw / C_a
ɡ → {∅,ʒ} / V_{i,e} (ɡ → ʒ is learned)
ɡ → j / V_r
ks ɡn tj → ʃ ɲ {z,s} / V_V (tj → s is learned)
ɡj → {ʒ,j} / V_V (ɡj → j is learned)
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençalb d ɡ → β ð ɣ / V_V
k ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _E
ɡ → ∅ / V_(VC…)”V
kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ / _B
{d,ɡ} → ∅ / _j
(s)k ɡ → (s)tʃ dʒ / #_a (in the north and northeast)
kʷ ɡʷ → kw ɡw (in western dialects)
kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ (else)
b {d,dz,dʒ} z ʒ ɡ → p {t,ts,tʃ} s ʃ k / _(s)#
ɡ → k / B_ (your guess is probably better than mine)
ɡ → {k,j} / V_ (if /j/ resulted, it dropped after /i/; forms with k are “most persistent in the west” and more common overall)
ɡ → j / _a (in the north and east; further → dʒ in the north)
ɡ → ɡ / _{o,u/y}
ɡ → j → dʒ / “[b]etween the last two vowels of a proparoxytone”, though it dropped early in some dialects
{t,d}l {k,ɡ}l → lː ʎ
p k tʃ b ɡ β j → b ɡ i {b,u,u→y→i} ∅ {u,u→y→i} i / _r
βw tw → wː dw → ɡʷ ɡʷ → ɡ ɡ
{d,k}w → ɡʷ → ɡ
(kʷ → ɡʷ → ɡ ?)
{l,r}w {n,ŋk,ŋɡ}w → lɡʷ ŋɡʷ → lɡ ŋɡ
dVɡ (n)dVɡ → dʒ(?) ndʒ
rdj rVɡ → rdz rdʒ
rːVɡ rːj → rdʒ ir
rtVɡ → {rdʒ,rts(→ rs)}
tVɡ trj → dʒ ir
rdɡ → r{ɡ,dʒ} / _a
stɡ → s{ɡ,dʒ}
kt ɡd → it id (in the north, northeast, and southwest)
{tʃ,k}t ɡd → tʃ dʒ (else)
ɡ → ∅ / _m
ɡn{d,t} → ŋn{d,t} → ɲ{d,t} → {(i)nd,ɲd,ndʒ} or t(ʃ)
ɡn → ŋn → ɲ
17.12.1.1.7 Vulgar Latin to Rhaeto-Romancek ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _a (note the similarity with some varieties of Old Provençal)
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romaniankʷ ɡʷ → p b / V_a
ɡ → m / _n
k ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _E
kj ɡj → tʃ {j,∅} (ɡj → ∅ is rare)
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardiniankw ɡw → pː bː / #_ (“[o]nly Logudorese”)
b d ɡ → β ð ɣ / “except in Nuorese”
ɡn → nː
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanishk ɡ → tʃ dʒ → ts dz / _{j,i,e,ɛ}
{k,ɡ} → x → j / _{t,s,n,l}
{jl,lj} {jn,nj} {jɡ,ɡj} → ʎ ɲ ʝː
ɡ → {∅,ɣ} / V_V
d ɡ → ð ɣ / V_V
— ndzVɡ → nɡ
b ɡ → β ɣ / {l,ɾ}_
17.12.2 Proto-Italic to Proto-Sibellianḱ ɡ́ kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ p b
{ɡ́ʰ,x} {ɸ,θ,ɡʷʰ} → h f
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makurápɡʷ → β / _V[-nas]
18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekensɡ → k
ɡʷ → k / _o
ɡʷ ŋɡ → kʷ k / _V[-nas]
ɡʷ → kʷ / #_V[+nas]
18.3.3 Proto-Tuparí to Tuparíkʷ ɡ → ∅ k
ɡʷ → ∅ / _o
ɡʷ ŋɡ → β k / _V[-nas]
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayoróɡʷ → ɡ / _o
ŋɡ → k / ! _V[-nas]
18.4.9.1.4 Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoró to Suruíᵑɡ → ɡ / #_ (possibly all prenasalized consonants?)
18.4.9.1.5 Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoró to Zoróᵑɡ → ɡ / #_ (possibly all prenasalized consonants?)
19 Kartvelian19.2 Proto-Kartvellian to Svanɡ → {ɡ,dʒ}
21 Lakes Plain21.1.1 Proto-Far West to Awerab d ɡ → β~w ɾ~∅ ɣ / V_V
22 Macro-Arawakan22.2 Proto-Arawá to Banawá-Jamamadikʰ ɡ → k w
22.4 Proto-Arawá to Jarawarakʰ ɡ → k w
22.5 Proto-Arawá to Kulína-Deníɡ → w
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.5 Proto-Chibchan to Motilónɡ → ∅
23.1.1.1.6 Proto-Chibchan to Tuneboɡ ɡʷ → ∅ b
26 Mande26.1 Proto-Mande to Bobotʼ {kʼ,ɡ} → t k
kp ɡb → k ɡw
26.4 Proto-Mande to Gurokp {kpʼ,ɡb} → p b
26.5 Proto-Mande to Kono-Vai{ɡ,w,kp} kpʼ ɡb → k kp b
26.6 Proto-Mande to Southwest Mande{tʼ,d} {kʼ,ɡ} → l k
kp kpʼ ɡb → {k,B} kp B (it’s unclear what this 〈B〉 is)
26.7 Proto-Mande to Mandekan{k,ɡ,kp} {kpʼ,ɡb} → s b
26.11 Proto-Mande to Semblatʼ {kʼ,ɡ,w} → {t,d} k
ɡb → b
26.12 Proto-Mande to Soninkatʼ {kʼ,ɡ} → {t,d} k
kp ɡb → k b
26.13 Proto-Mande to Susukp ɡb → k b
29 Na-Dene29.1 Proto-Na-Dene to Proto-Athabaskan-Eyakkʲ kʲʼ ɡʲ xʲ → ts tsʼ dz s
29.1.1 Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak to Proto-Athabaskank kʼ kʷ kʷʼ ɡ ɡʷ → kʲ kʲʼ tʂ tʂʼ ɡʲ ɖʐ
29.1.1.1.22 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Jicarillaxʲ xʔ j ɡʔ → ih iʔ i iʔ / _#
29.1.2 Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak to Eyakkʲ kʲʼ ɡʲ xʲ → ts tsʼ dz {s,ʃ}
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1.1 Proto-Bantu to Sebirwap t d c ɟ k ɡ → ɸ ɹ {d,l} tʰ ∅ h {∅,ɡ}
30.1.1.2 Proto-Bantu to Tswana{p,t,tʃ,k} {mp,nt,ɲtʃ,nk} {(m)b,(n)d,(ɲ)dʒ,(n)ɡ} {m,n} → s tsʰ ts ɲ / _iV
{tʃ,k} {ntʃ,nk,r} {ɲdʒ,nɡ} mp mb p b {d,l} m n → s tsʰ ts tʃʰ(w) tʃ(w) ʃ(w) dʒ(w) dʒ ŋw ɲ / _{ɪ,e}V
{p,t,tʃ,k} {mp,nt,ɲtʃ,nk} {(m)b,(n)d,(ɲ)dʒ,(n)ɡ} {m,n,ɲ} → sw tsʰw tsw ɲw / _iV
{tʃ,k} {ɲtʃ,nk} {ndʒ,nɡ} → s tsʰ ts / _{i,ɪ,e}
mp nt ɲtʃ nk mp nd ɲdʒ nɡ → pʰ tʰ tɬʰ qʰ p t tɬ k
p t tʃ k {dʒ,ɡ} ɲ → h r tɬʰ χ ∅ n
30.1.2 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-Manenguba’p ’t ’d/d2 c {’ɟ} ’k ɡ → f l ɟ s ∅ {w,∅} {k,w} / in C1 position
30.3.1.1.3 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Fon{t,k}j {d,ɡ}j → tʃ dʒ
30.3.1.1.4 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Gen{t,k}j {d,ɡ}j → tʃ dʒ
30.3.1.1.6 Proto-Phla-Pherá to Aladak ɡ → ʃ ʒ / _i
30.3.1.1.8 Proto-Vhe to Adángbek ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _i
30.3.1.1.9 Proto-Vhe to Avénok ɡ s → ts dz ʃ / _i
30.3.1.1.10 Proto-Vhe to Awalans {k,ts} {ɡ,dz} → ʃ tʃ dʒ / _i
30.3.1.1.11 Proto-Vhe to Kpándo{t,k} {d,ɡ} → ts dz / _i
30.3.1.1.12 Proto-Vhe to Pecı́{k,ts} {ɡ,dz} → tʃ dʒ / _i
30.3.1.1.13 Proto-Vhe to Tɔ̣wunk ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _i
30.3.1.1.14 Proto-Vhe to Wacı́{k,ts} {ɡ,dz} → tʃ dʒ / _i
31 Nyulnyulan31.1 Proto-Nyulnyulan to Bardiaɡu → o
36 Sino-Tibetan36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàb d dz ɡ → {p,pʼ} {t,tʼ} {ts,tsʼ} {k,kʼ}
36.3.1.1 Proto-Naish to LazeS{b,ɡ} Sk → v h / _V
36.3.1.2 Proto-Naish to Mosuo (Na)S{b,ɡ} Sk → ∅ h
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to NaxiSb Sk Sɡ → b ? ɡ / _V
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Lak sk kr ɡ Pɡ sɡ Nɡ (s)ɡr çK rK Kç → kʰ zɡw dr Nɡ pk sk mk (s)kr çk rɡj ɡçkr
(ʔ)kj (s)ɡj Nkj → (k)tç (s)kj Ndʒ
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiakj Nkj ʔkj ɡj sɡj → kj. nj ɡ.tsʰ kj skj.
kr (s)ɡr → n.br (s)kr
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Tok (N)ɡ → k. (m)k
Nkj ɡj sɡj → mj ts stʃj
sɡr → skr
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtse(P)ɡ sɡ çK Nɡ k sk rk (s)ɡj (ʔ)kj → (p)k sk çk mk kʰ zɡ Nɡ (s)kj (ʔ)kʰj
Nkj (s)ɡr Kç kr skr ɡr → mɡj (s)kr ɡçkr kʰr zɡr Nɡr
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Mokr rk {rK,Pɡ} ɡ Pɡ sɡ → k.r rk. pk k sk
ɡj → cç ? (might be → tsç?)
ɡ → ∅ / #_r
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Naok {sɡ,çK} Nɡ rK → k. sk mɡ nk
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu TaNp Nb Nt Nɡ Nç → sts mp mtʰ mk ntsʰdz
k rk kr kj Nkj ɡr → kʰdz nɡ kʰr tʃh dʒ nkʰr
ɡ → ∅ / _r
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassuk kr kj ɡ → k. k.r ts. ɡ
ɡ ç → ∅ zɡ / _r
36.3.3.1 Old Tibetan to Amdo dialects{d,ɡ,s,l,r} → {h,r} / #_
k(ʰ){r,j} ɡ{r,j} → tɕ(ʰ) dʑ
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.2.4.1 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Čiwereɡ → ŋ
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.1 Proto-Tai to Ahomɡl → k(w)
38.1.1.2 Proto-Tai to Saek{ɡ,x} → kʰ
38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Taiɡ x → k kʰ
38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchowɡl → kj
38.1.1.3.3 Central Tai to Tayɡ → ∅ / _l
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Tai{kʰ,ɡ}{l,r} → tʃ
{pʰ,b} ɓ {tʰ,d} ɗ {kʰ,ɡ} {kʷʰ,ɡ} → p b t d k kʷ
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Taiɡʷ → kʷʰ
38.1.1.5.1 Southwest Tai to Laoɡ{l,r} → kʰ
ɡ ɣ → kʰ ɡ
38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lüɡl ɡr → k kʰ
{kʰ,ɣ} ɡ → x k
38.1.1.5.3 Southwest Tai to Shanɡl ɡr → k kʰ
ɡ ɣ → k kʰ
38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siameseŋ ɡ ɣ → {h,ʃ} kʰ ɡ
38.1.1.5.5 Southwest Tai to Black Taiɡ ɡl → k tʃ
38.1.1.5.6 Southwest Tai to White Tai{kʰ,ɣ} ɡ ɡ{l,r} → x k tʃ
39 Tanoan39.1 Proto-Tanoan to Jimezk(ʷ)ʰ kʷ(ʼ) ɡ ɡʷ → h ɡ k kʷ
39.2 Proto-Tanoan to Kiowakʷ kʷʰ kʷʼ ɡʷ → k kʰ kʼ ɡ
39.3 Proto-Tanoan to Taoskʰ kʰʷ ɡ ɡʷ → x xʷ k w
39.4 Proto-Tanoan to Tewakʰ kʷʰ ɡʷ → x xʷ w
41 Trans-New Guinea41.2 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Asmatᵐb ᵑɡ → p k / V_V
41.3 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Binandereŋ ᵑɡ → ∅ ɡ / #_
ᵐb ⁿd ᵑɡ nj → {p,ᵐb} {ⁿd,z} k z / V_V
41.4 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kaeti{p,ᵐb} ŋɡ → b ɡ / #_
ᵑɡ → ɡ
ⁿd ᵑɡ → d k
41.5.1.1 Proto-Gorokan to Asaroʔ{l,d} ʔɡ → t k
41.5.1.5 Proto-Gorokan to Gimiʔv ʔm ʔɡ ʔr → t p k v
41.5.1.8 Proto-Gorokan to Moveʔv ʔm ʔɡ ʔr ʔh → p b k t {s,f}
41.5.1.9 Proto-Gorokan to Sianeʔŋɡ ʔd → ŋk t
41.5.1.10 Proto-Gorokan to Yagariaʔv ʔm ʔɡ ʔr ʔh → p b k t {s,f}
41.5.2.2 Proto-Kainantu to Awaʔw ʔb ʔd ʔɡ → m p t k
41.8 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kiwait ᵐb ⁿd {k,ᵑɡ} nj → {r,t} p {d,t} ɡ r / V_V
41.9 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Selepetᵑɡ → ɡ
41.10 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Telefolᵐb ⁿd ᵑɡ → b n k / V_V
41.11 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Middle Wahgiᵑɡ → {ᵑɡ,ŋ} / V_V
42 Uralic42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishb d ɡ → β ð ɣ / ! N_
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnishmb nd ŋɡ → mː nː ŋː
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livoniandj lj rj ɡj → dʲ lːʲ rːʲ jɡ
44 Vasconic44.1 Proto-Vasconic to Aquitanianɡ → k / #_ (sometimes?)
44.2 Proto-Basque to Basque{ɡ,ɣ} → {ɟ,ʝ} / {E,j}_
ɡ → dʒ / {E,j}_ (“in some Biscayan areas”)
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.1 List 1: Simple Consonant Changeskʲ ɡʲ → k ɡ (Danish)
r → ɡʟ → ɣ (Hiw) (http://is.gd/jCDLO1)
47.2 List 2: Conditional or complex consonant changesb d ɡ → bː dː ɡː / V_V (some dialects of Italian; there may be more to it than this, since words like “repubblica” are in standard Italian and not just dialects)

to /ɡ/

327 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1.1.4 North Omotic to Maalex2 → ɡ / V_V
6.1.1.8 North Omotic to Zayse-Zergullax2 → ɡ / n_
x3 → ɡ / V_#
6.1.2.1 South Omotic to Aari{x1,x2} → ɡ
6.1.2.2 South Omotic to Dimekʼ → ɡʼ / #_
6.2.1 Proto-Erythrean to Proto-Cushiticɣ → ɡ / #_Vx$
6.2.1.1.1 Proto-Agaw to Awngiz dz ɡ → ɡ {z,dz} ɡ(ʷ)
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berberk → ɡ / _{w,j}
6.2.2.1.4 Proto-Boreafrasian to Proto-Semiticɣ → ɡ / #_VCH
ɣ(w) → ɡ / #_Vx
6.2.2.1.5 Proto-Semitic to Classical Arabicɡ → ɡʲ → dʒ
6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Egyptian Arabicdʒ → ɡ
6.2.2.1.8 Classical Arabic to Coastal Hadhrami Arabicq → ɡ
6.2.2.1.9 Classical Arabic to Wādı̄ Hadhrami Arabicdˤ q → ðˤ ɡ
6.2.2.1.10 Classical Arabic to Hassāniyya Arabicdˤ q → ðˤ ɡ
6.2.2.1.11 Classical Arabic to Iraqi Arabick q → tʃ {ɡ,q} (ɡ is more common)
6.2.2.1.12 Classical Arabic to Eastern Libyan Arabicdˤ dʒ q → ðˤ ʒ ɡ
6.2.2.1.13 Classical Arabic to Western Libyan Arabicq dʒ → ɡ ʒ
6.2.2.1.14 Classical Arabic to Moroccan Arabicq → {q,ɡ}
dʒ → {d,ɡ} / if s or z occur somewhere else in the word
6.2.2.1.15 Classical Arabic to Sa‘idi Arabicq x ɣ → ɡ χ ʁ
6.2.2.1.16 Classical Arabic to Sudanese Arabicdʒ q → ɡʲ ɢ
6.2.2.1.17 Classical Arabic to Tunisian Arabicdˤ q → ðˤ {ɡ,q}
6.2.2.1.19 Biblical Hebrew to Modern Israeli Hebreww θ ð ɣ → v t d ɡ (sometimes)
8 Altaic8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolick → ɡ / ! #_
kʰ → ɡ / {C,V}_h
ŋ → ɡ / #_u
8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusick → {k,ɡ} / #_
k → ɡ
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkick → ɡ / _(V)r
8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchakɡm rɡ → mɡ ɡr (this second one is listed as → rɡ but it might be a typo)
ŋ → ɡ / syllable-final
9 Austroasiatic9.1.2 Proto-Vietic to Middle Vietnamese(h)ə{p,b} (h)ə{t,d} (h)ə{c,ɟ} (h)ə{k,ɡ} → β dʲ ɟ ɡ
10 Austronesian10.1.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Philippine*R → ɡ / #_
*R → {l,ɡ} / _#
10.1.2.1 Proto-Philippine to Bicol*j → ɡ / #_
*R → ɡ
10.1.2.2 Proto-Philippine to Cebuano*R → ɡ
10.1.2.4 Proto-Philippine to Ibanag*j → ɡ / possible exception in word-initial position?
*R → ɡ
10.1.2.5 Proto-Philippine to Ifugao*j → ɡ / _#
10.1.2.6 Proto-Philippine to Ilocano*j → ɡ
R → {ɡ,r} / _#
10.1.2.8 Proto-Philippine to Kankanay*j → ɡ / _#
10.1.2.9 Proto-Philippine to Tagalog*R → ɡ
10.1.2.10 Proto-Philippine to Waray*R → ɡ
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorroɾ → ɡ
j w → dz ɡʷ
ɡʷ → ɡ / _V[+round]
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North Sarawakbː dː dzː ɡː → bʱ dʱ dzʱ ɡʱ (Whimemsz says these become “voiced stops with voiceless releases. . .treated as unit phonemes, not clusters)”
10.3 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Oceanic{nts,ns,nz,nɡʲ} {ts,z,ɡʲ} → ɡʲ s
{ŋk,ŋɡ} ɡ → ɡ k
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwr → ɡʟ
10.3.5.3 Proto-New Caledonia to Nemi-Pije-Fwaibw mw → ɡ ŋ
10.3.5.6 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwaameibw mw → ɡ ŋ
10.3.5.7 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwapwâbw mw → ɡw ŋw (→ ɡ ŋ / _V[+ rounded])
10.3.10.1 Proto-Vanikoro to Bumaŋ → {ŋ,ɡ} (ŋ remains when _i)
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Onganɟ ɡ *N *R → {ɟ,j} {ɟ,ɡ} {l,j} {l,r}
11 Northeast Caucasian11.1.3 Proto-Avar-Andic to Avarq qːʼ ɢ → x {q(ː)ʼ,ɡh} qʼ (not sure if that last 〈gh〉 should be ɣ)
11.2 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Dargitɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ → k {xʲː,kː} kʰ {ɡ,q}(?)
11.3 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Khinalugtɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → k {k,xʲ} {kʼ,ɡ} {kʼ,kː} kʼ
kː kʼ ɡ → k {kʼ,ɡ} {kʼ,kː}
11.5.2 Proto-Lezgic to Archikː ɡ → x {kː,ɡ}
11.5.3 Proto-Lezgic to Lezghitɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ {ɣʲ,ɡ} qʼ k(ʼ) {kː,ɣʲ}
11.5.5 Proto-Lezgic to Tabassarantɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ {ɣʲ,ɡ} k kː ɣʲ
12 Northwest Caucasian12.1 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Abazgikʷː → ɡʷ
12.2 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Circassiank kʼ ɡ → kʲ kʲʼ ɡʲ
ɡʲʷ xʲʷ ɣʲʷ(?) → ɡʷ xʷ ʁʷ
12.2.1.4 Adyghe to Temirgoy Adygheɣ → ɣ~ɡ
12.2.2 Proto-Circassian to Kabardianpː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː {tʃː,tɕː} kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → b d dz v ɕ ʒ dʒ ɡʷ qʼ~qχ qʷʼ~qχʷ
12.3 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Ubykhk kʼ ɡ x ɣ → kʲ kʲʼ ɡʲ ɕ ɣ~ʁ
kʷː xʷ → ɡʷ x
kʲʷː xʲʷ ɣʲʷ(?) → ɡʲ kʲʼ xʲ ʁʲ
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.1 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Nafrip k → b ɡ / V_V
16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central Sentanip k → b ɡ / V_V
16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern Sentanip k → b ɡ / V_V
16.1.4 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Western Sentanip k → b ɡ / V_V
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanianɡʷ(ʱ) → {ɡ,z}
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanianɡʷ(ʱ) → {ɡ,z}
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lycianh3 → ɡ / _B
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armeniant k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armeniant k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
ɡʷʱ → ɡʱ / #_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armeniant k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armeniant k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armeniant k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ / ! _#
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armeniant k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
bʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʷʱ → b j ɡ / #_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armeniant k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
bʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʷʱ → b j ɡ / #_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestank kʷ ɡ(ʷ)(ʱ) → x k ɡ / else
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishɡʷ → ɡ
p t k kʷ b d ɡ ∅ → b d ɡ ɡʷ mb nd ŋɡ n / n#_”V
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshp t k {b,m} d ɡ → b d ɡ v ð ɣ / _V
w → ɡw / #_
17.6 Proto-Indo-European to Dacianbʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → b d ɡ́ ɡ ɡʷ
{kʷ,kw} {ɡʷ,ɡw} → k ɡ / else
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothicɣ → ɡ / #_
ɣ → ɡ / C_V
17.7.2 Common Germanic to West Germanicβ ð ɣ → b d ɡ / {#,”V}_
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle Englishɣ → ɡ / #_
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle Englishɣ → ɡ / #_
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle Englishj tʃ → ɡ k
ɣ → ɡ / #_
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle Englishf θ s ɣ → v ð z ɡ / #_
17.7.2.1.15 North Frisian Lenitionp t k → b d ɡ → v r ɣ / Vː_{V,#}
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germanw j → b ɡ / {l,r}_ (occasionally otherwise)
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlautɣ → ɡ
17.7.2.5 West Germanic to Old Low Germanvː ɣː hː → bː ɡː xː (perhaps not strictly a sound change, but worth noting)
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norseβ ð ɣ → b d ɡ / #_
β ð ɣ → b d ɡ / {m,n,ŋ,l}_
β ɣ → b ɡ / r_
ɣ → ɡ / _{r,ʀ,θ,ð}
ɣ → ɡ / _{E,j}
ɣ → ɡː / _j
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornp(ː) t(ː) k(ː) → b(ː) d(ː) ɡ(ː) / {V,R}_{V,R}
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornp t k → b d ɡ / V_V (the second V at least can be a syllabic consonant)
pː tː kː → b d {ɡ,ɣ} / V_V
ɡl → lɡ
17.7.4 Common Germanic to Vandalicwː → ɡ
w → {ɡw,v} / #_
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
p t k → b d ɡ / N_
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.10 Proto-Indo-European to Mycenaean Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittiteḱ ɡ́ ɡ́ʱ → k ɡ ɡʱ
kʷ ɡʷ ɡʷʱ → ku ɡu ku
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavicbʱ dʱ {ɡʱ,ɡ́ʱ} ɡʷʱ → b d ɡ ɡʷ
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishk ɡ → kʲ ɡʲ / _ɛ where the vowel is from a yer or a borrowing
kɨ ɡɨ → kʲi ɡʲi
d → ɡ / _n
17.12 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Italicḱ ǵ → k ɡ
ǵʰ gʷʰ → ɡʰ xʷ
17.12.1 Proto-Italic to Proto-Latino-Falsicanɡʰ → {d,h,ɡ}
xʷ → {w,ɡʷ}
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latinḱ ɡ́ → k ɡ
ɡʱ → ɡ / ŋ_
ɡʷ(ʱ) → ɡu / ŋ_
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalanp b t d k ɡ → β {β,w} ∅ {j,w} ɣ {j,∅,ɡ} / V_rV
k j → ɡ ʒ / V_V
kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ / #_{i,e}
kʷ → ɡ / V_{i,e}
kʷ → ɡw / V_a
ɡʷ → ɡw / #_a
ɡʷ → ɡ / C_{i,e}
ɡʷ → ɡw / C_a
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— w → ɡu / “from Germanic loanwords”
kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to Italiant k → d ɡ / V_r
tj ks w → ts sː ɡw
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguesek → ɡ / #_{a,r} (rare)
ɡ → ɡʲ → dʲ → dʒ → ʒ / #_{i,e}
kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ / #_{i,e,o}
kʷ → ɡ / V_{i,e}
kʷ → ɡw / V_a
ɡʷ → ɡw / #_
ɡʷ → ɡw / C_a
p t k → b d ɡ / V_r
k → ɡ / V1_V2 ! V2 = ɔ
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençalkʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ / _B
p t k s → b d ɡ z / V_V (this b → v?)
— Loaned w → ɡw
β → v (though sometimes → ɡw instead if analogy interfered)
kʷ ɡʷ → kw ɡw (in western dialects)
kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ (else)
ɡ → ɡ / _{o,u/y}
p k tʃ b ɡ β j → b ɡ i {b,u,u→y→i} ∅ {u,u→y→i} i / _r
βw tw → wː dw → ɡʷ ɡʷ → ɡ ɡ
{d,k}w → ɡʷ → ɡ
(kʷ → ɡʷ → ɡ ?)
{l,r}w {n,ŋk,ŋɡ}w → lɡʷ ŋɡʷ → lɡ ŋɡ
rdɡ → r{ɡ,dʒ} / _a
stɡ → s{ɡ,dʒ}
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardinian{i,j} → ɡ / #_e
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanishp t k s ts → b d ɡ z dz / V_V
— ndzVɡ → nɡ
17.12.2 Proto-Italic to Proto-Sibellianḱ ɡ́ kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ p b
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makurápⁿd ŋ → t {ɡ,k} / _V[-nas]
18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekensk → ɡ / in U[+stress]
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayorók → ɡ / in U[+stress]
ɡʷ → ɡ / _o
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Sirionów → {ɡ,k} / {#,V}_
18.4.9.1.4 Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoró to Suruíᵑɡ → ɡ / #_ (possibly all prenasalized consonants?)
18.4.9.1.5 Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoró to Zoróᵑɡ → ɡ / #_ (possibly all prenasalized consonants?)
19 Kartvelian19.2 Proto-Kartvellian to Svanɡ → {ɡ,dʒ}
ɬ ʃ ʂ → l {sɡ,ʃɡ} ʃ
tʃ ʈʂ tɬʼ tʃʼ ʈʂʼ → {tʃk,ʃɡ} tʃ h {ʃkʼ,tʃʼkʼ} tʃʼ
dz dʒ ɖʐ → {dz,z} {dʒɡ,sɡ} {dʒ,ʒ}
19.3 Proto-Kartvelian to Zandʒ ɖʐ → {dʒɡ,dzɡ} dʒ
20 Khoisan20.1.1 Proto-Khoe to ǁ̬Ana!̬ → ɡ
20.1.2 Proto-Khoe to ǁAni! !̬ !̃ → !~k !̬~ɡ !̃(n)~ŋɡ
20.1.3 Proto-Khoe to Buga! !ˀ !̬ !̃ → k ∅ ɡ ŋɡ
!̃n → ŋɡj~!̃
20.1.4 Proto-Khoe to Kxoe! !ˀ ! !̃ → k ∅ ɡ ŋɡ
!x !̃n → x ŋɡj~!̃
20.1.5 Proto-Khoe to Namak → ɡ
! !ˀ !̃n → !ɡ ~ !̃
ǂ {ǂ̃n,ǂˀ,ǂxʼ} → ǂɡ ǂ
20.1.8 Proto-Khoe to Teti! !ˀ !̬ !̃(n) !x → k ∅ ɡ ŋ x
20.1.9 Proto-Khoe to Tsʔixa! !ˀ !̬ !̃(n) !x → k ∅ ɡ ŋɡ x
21 Lakes Plain21.1.2 Proto-Far West to Saponip b d k → p~f w ɾ ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.2.5 Proto-East Tariku to Obokuitaib C → b̚ ɡ̚ / _#
21.2.2.6 Proto-East Tariku to Sikaritaib C → b~∅ {d,ɡ} / _#
ik → ɡ / {s,k,p}_ ?
21.2.2.7 Proto-East Tariku to Waritaiik → ɡ / {s,p}_ ?
21.2.3.1 Proto-West Tariku to Deirateb d k → b~β ɾ~l~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.2 Proto-West Tariku to Faiab d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.3 Proto-West Tariku to Fayub d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.4 Proto-West Tariku to Kirikirib d k → b~β ɾ~l~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.5 Proto-West Tariku to Sehudateb d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.6 Proto-West Tariku to Tauseb d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.7 Proto-West Tariku to Weirateb d k → b~β ɾ~l~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
26 Mande26.1 Proto-Mande to Bobow → ɡ
kp ɡb → k ɡw
26.2 Proto-Mande to Busakp kpʼ → {kp,k} ɡb
26.3 Proto-Mande to Dankpʼ → ɡb
26.6 Proto-Mande to Southwest Mandew → ɡ
26.8 Proto-Mande to Manokpʼ → ɡb
26.9 Proto-Mande to Mwakpʼ → ɡb
29 Na-Dene29.1.1 Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak to Proto-Athabaskank kʼ kʷ kʷʼ ɡ ɡʷ → kʲ kʲʼ tʂ tʂʼ ɡʲ ɖʐ
29.1.1.1.27 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Navajo{x,ɣ}ʔ → {ʔ,ɡ} (Hoijer notes a reflex “-g-”)
29.1.1.1.28 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to San Carlos{x,ɣ}ʔ → ɡ
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1.1 Proto-Bantu to Sebirwap t d c ɟ k ɡ → ɸ ɹ {d,l} tʰ ∅ h {∅,ɡ}
∅ → ɡ / #n_V (in verbs)
30.1.2 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-Manengubap t ’t {’d,d2} c k ’k → b d l {l,∅} ɟ ɡ ∅ / in C2 position
’m m ’n n {’ɲ,ɲ} ŋ → m {ᵐb,m} n {ⁿd,n} ɲ {ᵑɡ,ŋ} / in C2 position
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinok → ɡ / a_a
32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to Tlapanecnk → {ɡ,ŋ} (the latter “under obscure conditions”)
33 Penutian33.3.2.2.1 Northern Yokuts to Gashowup t ʈ k → b d ɖ ɡ
34 Quechumaran34.5 Proto-Quechumaran to Putamayok → ɡ / n_
k → ɡ / _{L,j}
34.6 Proto-Quechumaran to Quitok → ɡ / _#
k → ɡ / n_
k → ɡ / _{L,j}
34.7 Proto-Quechumaran to Riobambak → ɡ / _{L,j}
k ts → ɡ dz / n_
34.9 Proto-Quechumaran to Tenak → ɡ / n_
k → ɡ / _{L,j}
35 Salishan35.1.1 Proto-Central Salish to Comoxw j → ɡ dʒ / _V
35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to Lushootseedw j → ɡʷ dz / _V
36 Sino-Tibetan36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to NaxiSb Sk Sɡ → b ? ɡ / _V
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Lak sk kr ɡ Pɡ sɡ Nɡ (s)ɡr çK rK Kç → kʰ zɡw dr Nɡ pk sk mk (s)kr çk rɡj ɡçkr
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiat st tr d sd (ç)dr Nt çT KT → t. s.d tr. t s.t (ç.)tr m.t. n.dr ɡ.t
sk rK → j sɡ
kj Nkj ʔkj ɡj sɡj → kj. nj ɡ.tsʰ kj skj.
K → ɡ. / _ç
Kts → ɡ.tsʰ.
ts (r)dz dʒ PTS KTS sTS çTS → {tsʰ,s} (r)ts tsʰ ɡ.ts s.{ts,pj} {s.ts,br}
ut uk → ud oɡ
ok → iɡ
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtse(P)ɡ sɡ çK Nɡ k sk rk (s)ɡj (ʔ)kj → (p)k sk çk mk kʰ zɡ Nɡ (s)kj (ʔ)kʰj
Nkj (s)ɡr Kç kr skr ɡr → mɡj (s)kr ɡçkr kʰr zɡr Nɡr
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Moç → zɡ / _r
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Naok {sɡ,çK} Nɡ rK → k. sk mɡ nk
ts dz NTS KTS sTS → tʃ ts {ts,m} ɡts sp
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu Tak rk kr kj Nkj ɡr → kʰdz nɡ kʰr tʃh dʒ nkʰr
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassuk kr kj ɡ → k. k.r ts. ɡ
ɡ ç → ∅ zɡ / _r
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeet ts k kʷ → d dz ɡ ɡʷ / _V
37.1.2.1.1 Cayuga to Upper Cayugat k kʷ → d ɡ ɡʷ / _{V,R}
37.1.2.1.2 Cayuga to Lower Cayugat k kʷ → d ɡ ɡʷ / _{V,R} ! _V[-voiced]
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagat tʃ k(ʷ) → d dʒ ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Mohawk— t tʃ k(ʷ) → d dʒ ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneidat tʃ k(ʷ) → d dʒ ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Seneca— t k(ʷ) → d ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscarorat k(ʷ) → d ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.2.2.1 Dakota to Santee Dakotakr → ɡj / medial
37.2.2.2 Dakota to Teton Dakota{pr,mt} kr → bl ɡl
37.2.4 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Čiwere-Winnebagok → ɡ / V[+nas]_ ! _#
k → ɡ / _ʔ
37.2.4.1 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Čiwerek → ɡ / ”V_
kr → ɡl
tk → ɡ / when medial
37.2.4.2 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Winnebagotk → {tʃk,tʃɡ} / #_
xk → ɡ
37.2.6 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Dhegihak → ɡ / ”V_
tk → ɡ / when medial
37.2.6.2 Proto-Dhegiha to Omaha-Poncapr sr tʲr kr → bθ sn ʃn ɡθ
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to Osagepr sr tʲr kr → bð sts ʃd ɡð
xk → ɡ / ”V_
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.4.1 North Tai to Dioiŋ → ɡ
38.1.1.5.1 Southwest Tai to Laoɡ ɣ → kʰ ɡ
xʷ ɣʷ → kʷ ɡʷ
38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siameseŋ ɡ ɣ → {h,ʃ} kʰ ɡ
xʷ ɣʷ → kʷ ɡʷ
38.1.1.5.5 Southwest Tai to Black Taixʷ ɣʷ → kʷ ɡʷ
39 Tanoan39.1 Proto-Tanoan to Jimezk(ʷ)ʰ kʷ(ʼ) ɡ ɡʷ → h ɡ k kʷ
39.2 Proto-Tanoan to Kiowakʷ kʷʰ kʷʼ ɡʷ → k kʰ kʼ ɡ
41 Trans-New Guinea41.3 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Binandereŋ ᵑɡ → ∅ ɡ / #_
41.4 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kaeti{p,ᵐb} ŋɡ → b ɡ / #_
ᵑɡ → ɡ
41.8 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kiwait k ᵐb → {s,t} {ɡ,∅} {b,p} / #_
t ᵐb ⁿd {k,ᵑɡ} nj → {r,t} p {d,t} ɡ r / V_V
41.9 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Selepetᵑɡ → ɡ
41.11 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Middle Wahgiᵑɡ → {ᵑɡ,ŋ} / V_V
42 Uralic42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishp t ts s k → b d s z ɡ
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livonianp t(ʲ) s(ʲ) k → b d(ʲ) z(ʲ) ɡ / ! #_ or adjacent to C[-voice]
dj lj rj ɡj → dʲ lːʲ rːʲ jɡ
43 Uto-Aztecan43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhamw → ɡ
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basqueeʊ → {e,eɡu}
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.1 List 1: Simple Consonant Changeskʲ ɡʲ → k ɡ (Danish)
r → ɡʟ → ɣ (Hiw) (http://is.gd/jCDLO1)
47.2 List 2: Conditional or complex consonant changesb d ɡ → bː dː ɡː / V_V (some dialects of Italian; there may be more to it than this, since words like “repubblica” are in standard Italian and not just dialects)

with context involving /ɡ/

33 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berberʔ → ʕ / _V{n,r,ɡ}
8 Altaic8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolicpʰ → b / #_U[+high pitch]
8.5.1.2 Proto-Kypchak to Kyrgyze → i / _ɡ
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamiln → ŋ / _{k,ɡ}
17 Indo-European17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishə → ɪ / _{k,ɡ,tʃ,dʒ,ʃ,ʒ,v}
æ → æː / _{n,m,ɡ,ɫ% ! _n,m,ɡ,ɫ}%{j,w} or a form of a strong verb
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scots— øː → wi / {k,ɡ}_ (in Mid Northern dialects)
17.7.2.5 West Germanic to Old Low Germann → ŋ / _{k,ɡ}
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norsed → ∅ / {l,m}_{b,ɡ,k,l,m,n,s}
ð → ∅ / n_ ! ɡ_
ð → ∅ / r_{m,l,ɡ,n}
{f,β,p} → ∅ / l_{d,ɡ,n,ð,t}
r → ∅ / {ð,f}_{ɡ,ɣ}
t → ∅ / {ɡ,ɣ}_s
t → ∅ / p_{ɡ,ɣ,n}
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandicn → ŋ / _{k,ɡ}
u o a ø y e i → uː oː aː øi yː ei iː / _{ɲc,ɲɟ,ŋk,ŋɡ}
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latinw → ∅ / ɡV_{l,r}
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to Frenchn → r / {ɡ,p}_
V → ə / _{CC,tʃ,dʒ} ! _{nt,nɡ,mp,rt,rd}
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— ɔ → y / _{u,P,k,ɡ,i} (in northwestern dialects)
— ɔ → ɥe / _{u,P,k,ɡ,i} (in western dialects, Limousin, and Auvergne)
— ɔ → ɥo / _{u,P,k,ɡ,i} (in Languedoc)
— ɔ → {ɥe,ɥo,ɔ} / _{u,P,k,ɡ,i} (in southern dialects)
b → {∅,u} / _rɡ
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanianw → ∅ / {k,ɡ}_
l → j / {k,ɡ}_
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanish— n → {ɾ,l} / nɡ_
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1.1 Proto-Bantu to Sebirwai u VS → j w A / _V[+high +ATR]
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.2 Proto-Chatino to Tataltepec Chatinotʲ → tʃ / _i[-long -stress]
36 Sino-Tibetan36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàjuŋ → iuŋ / _ɡ[+píng tone]
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos KiaN → ∅ / _ɡ
46 Vowel Shifts46.5 Old English-to-Scots Vowel Shiftsøː → wi / {k,ɡ}_ (in Mid Northern dialects)