Index Diachronica: involving /ʔ/

211 results from /ʔ/   195 results to /ʔ/   48 results with context involving /ʔ/   

plain ʔʷ ʔː ʔˤ ʔ̊

from /ʔ/

211 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1.1.1 North Omotic to Bench{ʔ,hx} → ∅
6.1.1.2 North Omotic to Dizinʔ → ∅
6.2.1.1.1 Proto-Agaw to Awngiʔ → ∅
6.2.1.1.3 Proto-Agaw to Kemantneyʔ → ∅
6.2.1.1.4 Proto-Agaw to Xamtangaʔ → ∅
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berberʔ → ʕ / _V{n,r,ɡ}
6.2.2.1.4 Proto-Boreafrasian to Proto-Semiticʔ → ʕ / #K_r#
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabicʔ h → ∅ x
aːʔ → e / E(C)(C)_#
6.2.2.1.10 Classical Arabic to Hassāniyya Arabicʔ → {∅,j,w} / depending on the environment; again, the article is unclear
6.2.2.1.19 Biblical Hebrew to Modern Israeli Hebrewʔ → ∅ / ! in onset of U[+stress] (colloquial)
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakiʔ → h / _l
ʔs ʔts → sː tsː
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenakiʔ → h / _l
ʔs ʔts → sː tsː
7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapahohʔ → ʔh
({C,#}V)ʔ → ({C,#}Vː)∅ / _C
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventrehʔ → ʔh
({C,#}V[-long])ʔ → ({C,#}Vː[+falling tone])∅ / _C
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfoot{ʔθ,ʔr} → {ʔ,j,∅}
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawareʔ → h / _C ! C = l, or when reduplicated
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menomineeiː oː oʔ → eː uː uʔ “[blocked when or a C+G sequence follows anywhere in the word, but does apply if æ(ː) intervenes before any following or C+G]”
7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-Illinois{ʔ,h}{ɬ,l} → hs
{θ,ʃ,tʃ,ç,x,ʔ} → h / _C
{h,ʔ} → ∅ / _m
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaq{ʔ,h,N} → ∅ / _C
ʔ{θ,ʃ} ʔl → s ∅
7.15 Proto-Algonquian to Ojibwe{θ,s,h,ʔ} → ∅ / _{p,t,tʃ,k}
{ʔ,h}{s,r} → s
{ʔ,h} → ∅ / _ʃ
7.16 Proto-Algonquian to Piscatawayʔ → h / _C
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawneeʔ → ∅ / C{v,l,s}_C
ʔ → ∅ / _CC
10 Austronesian10.1.2.7 Proto-Philippine to Proto-Kalamian{h,ʔ} → ∅
10.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Batak{ts,ʈ} {ɟʝ͡,ɖ} {lʲ,ɲ} {ʔ,x,s,h} ʀ → t d n ∅ r (velar fricative is conjectured; changes → d “unsure”)
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North Sarawak{ʔ,h} → ∅ / #_
{ʔ,h} → ∅ / V1[+high]_V2
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiputʔ → ∅ / V_V
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lónghʔ → ∅ / _# “(but aʔ → əʔ in some forms)”
10.3.1 Proto-Oceanic to Hawai’ian{h,ʔ} → ∅
10.7.1 Proto-Rukai to Budai Rukai{v,ʔ} ð → ∅ j
12 Northwest Caucasian12.2.1 Proto-Circassian to Adygheʔ(ʷ)~qʼ(ʷ) → ʔ(ʷ)
12.2.2 Proto-Circassian to Kabardianʔ~qʼ → ʔʷ
13 Chumashan13.6 Proto-Chumash to Ventureñoʔ → ∅ / _#
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.1.1 Pre-Bakairi to Eastern Bakairiʔ → ∅ / _C[+ fricative - voiced]
18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makurápʔ → ∅
18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekensʔ → ∅
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayoróʔ → ∅
18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Cocamaʔ ts ŋ → ∅ {ts,tʃ} n
iʔ uʔ → j w / C_V
V0ʔV0 → V0ː
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guarayoʔ ts → {ʔ,∅} {ts,tʃ}
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Sirionóʔ ts → ∅ {s,ʃ}
20 Khoisan20.2.3 Proto-Kx’a to Southeastern !Xunʔ → ∅ / _nQ
22 Macro-Arawakan22.2 Proto-Arawá to Banawá-Jamamadiʔ → ∅
22.4 Proto-Arawá to Jarawaraʔ → ∅
22.5 Proto-Arawá to Kulína-Deníʔ → ∅ / #_
22.6 Proto-Arawá to Sorowaháʔ → ∅ / #_, possibly everywhere?
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.2 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Lencan{ʔ,h} → ∅
23.1.3 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Misumalpan{ʔ,h} → ∅
27 Mayan27.4 Proto-Mayan to IxileanCVʔVC → CVʔC
27.5 Proto-Mayan to Kaqchikel-Tz’utujilCVʔVC → CVʔC
27.6 Proto-Mayan to Core K’iche’CVʔVC → CVʔC
27.7 Proto-Mayan to MameanCVʔVC → CVʔC
28 Muskogean28.2.2 Proto-Western Muskogean to Choctawʔ → ∅/ _#
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.20 Proto-Southern Athabaskan to Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan{s,z}(ʔ) {ʃ,ʒ}(ʔ) {ɬ,ɮ}(ʔ) → s ʃ ɬ / _#
29.1.1.1.21 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Kiowa Apache{xʲ,j}ʔ {x,ɣ}ʔ → ∅ h(ʔ) / _#
Vnʔ VnC → V[+ nas] V[+ nas]C / _#
29.1.1.1.22 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Jicarillaxʲ xʔ j ɣʔ → h ʔ ∅ ʔ / E_#
xʲ xʔ j ɡʔ → ih iʔ i iʔ / _#
xʲʔ jʔ → h ʔ / _#
Vnʔ VnC → V[+ nas] V[+ nas]C / _#
29.1.1.1.23 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Lipan{xʲ,j}ʔ → ∅ / _#
Vnʔ VnC → V[+ nas] V[+ nas] / _#
29.1.1.1.25 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Chiricahua{xʲ,j}ʔ → ∅ / _#
Vnʔ → V[+ nas] / _#
{s,z}(ʔ) {ʃ,ʒ}(ʔ) {ɬ,ɮ}(ʔ) → s ʃ ɬ / _#
29.1.1.1.26 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Mescalero{xʲ,j}ʔ → ∅ / _#
Vnʔ → V[+ nas] / _#
ʔ → ∅ / {s,ʃ,ɬ}_#
z(ʔ) ʒ(ʔ) ɮ(ʔ) → dz dʒ dɮ / _#
29.1.1.1.27 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Navajoxʲ(ʔ) j(ʔ) → h ʔ / _#
{x,ɣ}ʔ → {ʔ,ɡ} (Hoijer notes a reflex “-g-”)
{s,z}(ʔ) {ʃ,ʒ}(ʔ) {ɬ,ɮ}(ʔ) → s ʃ ɬ / _#
29.1.1.1.28 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to San Carlosxʲʔ jʔ → h ʔ / _#
{x,ɣ}ʔ → ɡ
{s,z}(ʔ) {ʃ,ʒ}(ʔ) {ɬ,ɮ}(ʔ) → s ʃ ɬ / _#
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinoʔ → ∅ (?)
32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to Tlapanecʔ → ∅ / #_
33 Penutian33.3.1.3 Buena Vista Yokuts to TulamniVʔ → Vː / stressed
35 Salishan35.1.1 Proto-Central Salish to ComoxV3ʔ → V3(ː)ʔ / _#
ʔ → ∅ V3_RV
ʔ → ∅ V3R_V
35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack Halkomelemʔn → ∅ / m_
V3ʔ → V3(ː) / _#
ʔ → ∅ / V1_#
V3ʔ → V3ː / _O
V3ʔR → V3ːR
ʔ → ∅ / VR_V3
lʔn → lː / V3_V
ʔ → ∅ / V1_#
35.1.3 Proto-Central Salish to Cowichan HalkomelemV03ʔ(V0) → {V03ː,V03ʔV0}
V3ʔR → {V3ʔR,V3ːRʔ} / _V
35.1.4 Proto-Central Salish to Musqueam Halkomelemʔn → ∅ / m_
V3ʔ → V3{ː,ʔ} / _O
V03ʔV0 → {V3ː,V03ʔV0}
V3ʔR → {V3ʔR,V3ːRʔ} / _V
35.1.5 Proto-Central Salish to Klallammʔn → nʔ
V03ʔ(V0) → V03ʔV0
35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to Lushootseedmʔn → d
V3ʔ → V3(ʔ) / _O
Rʔ → ʔR / V3C
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to NooksackʔR → {ʔS,R} / V3_V
ʔ → ∅ / VR_V3
ʔ → ∅ / V3R_{C,#}
ʔ → ∅ / V1R_#
ʔ → ∅ / V1_#
35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straitsmʔ → ∅ / _n
ʔ → ∅ / V3l_nV
ʔ → {∅,ʔ} / V3R_{C,#}
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern Straitsmʔn → nʔ
ʔR → Rʔ / V3_V
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern Straitsmʔn → nʔ
35.1.11 Proto-Central Salish to Sooke Northern Straitsmʔn → nʔ
35.1.12 Proto-Central Salish to Pentlatchʔ → ∅ / V3_O
ʔ → ∅ / V3R_{V,#}
35.1.13 Proto-Central Salish to Secheltʔ → ∅ / m_n
ʔ → ∅ / V_V3
ʔ → ∅ / V1_#
35.1.14 Proto-Central Salish to SqamishʔR → Rʔ / V3_V
35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to TwanaʔR → ʔ{R,b} / V3_V
Rʔ → ʔR / V3_#
ʔ → ∅ / V1R_#
ʔ → ∅ / V3R_C
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1.1 Old Mandarin to Modern Pekingeseʔ → ∅
36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàʔ → ŋ / _V[-high]
ʔ → ∅ / _{j,i,y}
ʔ → ∅ / _u (not always? Perhaps some variation with [ɣ] here?)
{long-tail vowel thingʔ,əʔ} → ɛʔ
iʔ iw → eʔ ew / C̣_ (the latter with variant iɛu?)
iʔ → ieʔ (→ i[truncated vowel-thing]ʔ?)
uʔ → oʔ (occasionally → uɛʔ?)
ujʔ → uɛʔ (dialectally → uɔʔ?)
yʔ → yɛʔ / {l,C[+dental +sibilant]}_ in “QYS -juət-type” finals, dialectally?
yʔ → oʔ (eventually → {ʊʔ,(i)uʔ?) / {l,C[+dental +sibilant]}_, in “QYS -k-types”
yʔ → yʔ(~yɛʔ?) / {∅,C[+guttural]}, in -juət-types
yʔ → ioʔ (→ iʊʔ dialectally?) / {∅,C[+guttural]}_, in -k-types
yʔ → {ɥʔ,yʔ,uʔ} / C̣, in -juət-types
yʔ → oʔ (→ ʊʔ?) / C̣_, in -k-types
yjʔ → yʔ
je jeʔ yeʔ → ɛ ɛʔ uɛʔ / C̣_
je jeʔ → iɛ iɛʔ
yeʔ → yɛʔ (→ {uɔʔ,yɔʔ} in southern speech?)
wɔʔ → uɔʔ / C[+guttural]_
wɔʔ → ɔʔ / else
aʔ → ɔʔ / C[+guttural]_
jaʔ → iaʔ
waʔ → aʔ / C[+labiodental]_
waʔ → uaʔ
awʔ → ɔʔ (“Trigault gives a variant in -ɛʔ, which becomes general in the later GH varieties”)
{jawʔ,wawʔ} → ɔʔ / C̣_
jawʔ wawʔ → iɔʔ uɔʔ
əjʔ əw {əm,ən} → eʔ ɛu ɛn
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan La(ʔ)kj (s)ɡj Nkj → (k)tç (s)kj Ndʒ
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiakj Nkj ʔkj ɡj sɡj → kj. nj ɡ.tsʰ kj skj.
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtse(P)ɡ sɡ çK Nɡ k sk rk (s)ɡj (ʔ)kj → (p)k sk çk mk kʰ zɡ Nɡ (s)kj (ʔ)kʰj
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Moʔkj → ktʃ.
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoianʔ → ∅ / C_
37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to CherokeeVʔ → Vː[+low falling tone] / _C
{Vh,Vʔ} → Vː / _#
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayugaʔ → ∅ / _nk(ʷ)
Vʔ → ʔV / “in odd-numbered unaccented non-final syllables;” ! {ʔ,h}_
37.1.2.1.2 Cayuga to Lower Cayugatʔ tsʔ kʔ kʷʔ → tʼ tsʼ kʼ kʷʼ
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandot{ʔ,h} → ∅ / _nh
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneidaʔ → ∅ / ”Vː[+falling tone]_C
CʔV0 → CV0ʔV0
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneidaʔ → ∅ / ”Vː_
{h,ʔ} → ∅ / _R “in post-tonic syllables”
ʔ → h / _C “in post-tonic syllables”
— CVʔ → C̊V̊ʔ̊ / _#
— ʔ → h / _C#
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecaʔ → ∅ / _nk(ʷ)
37.1.2.6.1 Tuscarora to Western Tuscarorajʔ → ʔj
37.2 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Siouanʔ → ∅ / V_
37.2.3 Proto-Siouan to MandanCʔV0 → CV0ʔV0
37.2.5.1 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Crowʔ → ∅ / _C
37.2.5.2 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Hidatsaʔ → ∅ / C_
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to Osageʔ → ∅ / p_
37.2.7.1 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Biloxiʔ → ∅ / C_
37.2.7.2 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Ofoʔ → ∅ / C_
37.2.7.3 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Tuteloʔ → ∅ / C_
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.3.3 Central Tai to Tay(ʔ)j → ʒ
38.1.1.3.4 Central Tai to Tho(ʔ)j → ʒ
38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lüʔ → ∅ / _j
39 Tanoan39.2 Proto-Tanoan to Kiowaʔ → ∅
40 Totozoquean40.2 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Totonacanʔ → ∅
41 Trans-New Guinea41.5.1.1 Proto-Gorokan to Asaroʔ{l,d} ʔɡ → t k
41.5.1.2 Proto-Gorokan to North Foreʔ → n / before modal suffixes
41.5.1.3 Proto-Gorokan to South Foreʔ → n / before modal suffixes
41.5.1.5 Proto-Gorokan to Gimiʔ → ∅ / _#
ʔv ʔm ʔɡ ʔr → t p k v
41.5.1.8 Proto-Gorokan to Moveʔv ʔm ʔɡ ʔr ʔh → p b k t {s,f}
41.5.1.9 Proto-Gorokan to Sianeʔŋɡ ʔd → ŋk t
41.5.1.10 Proto-Gorokan to Yagariaʔv ʔm ʔɡ ʔr ʔh → p b k t {s,f}
41.5.2.2 Proto-Kainantu to Awaʔ → ∅ / _{p,t}
ʔw ʔb ʔd ʔɡ → m p t k
43 Uto-Aztecan43.3 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Luiseñoʔ → ∅ / #_
43.4 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Nahuatl{ʔ,h} → ∅
43.5.1.1 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Kawaiisuhkʷ hʔ (h)S Sː → w ʔ S[+ voiced] S[- voiced - long] / V_V
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.1 Proto-Pai to Chapaiʔ → ∅ / _{ɲ,j}
45.1.2 Proto-Pai to Paipaiʔ → ∅ / _ɲ

to /ʔ/

195 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Omoticq ʕ → ʔ h
6.1.1.7 North Omotic to Yemsatʃ ʒ → ʔj s
6.1.1.8 North Omotic to Zayse-Zergullapʼ → ʔp
6.2.2.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-Chadicħ ʕ → h ʔ
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-BerberCVʕ → ħʔ / ! C = ɡw
q → ʔ / _C[+dental]
{h,ħ} → ʔ / KV_
q → ʔ / h_
r → ʔ / C_{t,w,j}# ! C = {ɡ,m,n,r,w,ʃ,x}
6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Egyptian Arabicq → ʔ / except in several words, two of which are al-Qâhira and musîqâ
6.2.2.1.11 Classical Arabic to Iraqi Arabicʕ → ʔˤ
6.2.2.1.19 Biblical Hebrew to Modern Israeli Hebrewx ʕ → χ ʔ
7 Algonquian7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-Atsinaθ h {s,m,n,r} → ʃ ∅ ʔ / _C
7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapahohʔ → ʔh
∅ → ʔ / CV[-long]_#
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventrehʔ → ʔh
∅ → ʔ / #_V
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfoot{ʔθ,ʔr} → {ʔ,j,∅}
hkw → ʔk
m → ʔ / _p
nkw → ʔː
ntʃ → ʔt
θp tʃp ʃp → {x,sː} ʔp sːp
7.5 Proto-Algonquian to Cheyenne{kC,Ck} → ʔ
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menomineeiː oː oʔ → eː uː uʔ “[blocked when or a C+G sequence follows anywhere in the word, but does apply if æ(ː) intervenes before any following or C+G]”
7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-Illinoish → ʔ / _{s,ʃ}
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawnee{h,s,tʃ,θ} → ʔ / _O
∅ → ʔ / C{v,d}_{ʃp,ʃk,hV}
10 Austronesian10.1.1.5 Proto-Polynesian to Luangiuak t → ʔ k
10.1.2.7.1 Proto-Kalamian to AgutaynenO[- voice] → ʔ / _C
∅ → ʔ / #_
∅ → ʔ / V_#
10.1.2.7.2 Proto-Kalamian to Karamiananen{t,k} q → ʔ k / _C
s → ʔ / _C
∅ → ʔ / #_
∅ → ʔ / V_#
10.1.2.7.3 Proto-Kalamian to Kalamian Tagbanwa∅ → ʔ / #_
∅ → ʔ / V_#
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorrop c q → f s ʔ
ɟ → ʔ
10.2.3 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Malayich → ʔ / _# (sometimes)
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Madureseɭ → lʔ / _#
R → ʔ / _#
h → ʔ / V0V0
{p,t,k} b d ɡ → ʔ p t k / _#
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North Sarawakq → ʔ
h → ʔ / V0_V0
h → ʔ / a_{i,u}
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiputʀ → ʔ / _# “(in a handful of forms)”
k ŋ → ʔ ∅ / Və̯_#
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lónghk → ʔ / _#
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabau— {p,t,k} s → ʔ h / _#
10.3.1 Proto-Oceanic to Hawai’iank t → ʔ k
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerigt → ʔ “often”
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’at → ʔ “often”
10.6.1 Proto-Paiwan to Northern Paiwanc ɟ q ɭ → t d ʔ l
10.6.3 Proto-Paiwan to Southern Paiwank r → ʔ ɣ
10.7 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-RukaiR l L → {r,ʔ} ɭ l
12 Northwest Caucasian12.1 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Abazgiqˤʲ qˤʲː qˤʲʼ → q ʔ ħ(?)
12.2 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Circassianqʲʼ ʁʲ → ʔ ʁ
qʲʷː qʲʷ ɢʲʷ,ʁʲʷ} χʲʷ → qʷː ʔʷ ʁʷ χʷ
{qˤʲ,χˤʲ} qˤʲ ʁˤʲ {qˤʲː qˤʲʼ} → ħ ʔ j
qˤʲʷ {qˤʲʷː,qˤʲʷ} ʁˤʲʷ → ħ ʔʷ w~ʁʷ
12.2.1 Proto-Circassian to Adygheʔ(ʷ)~qʼ(ʷ) → ʔ(ʷ)
12.2.1.1 Adyghe to Abadzekh Adyghetʃʼ tɬʼ → ʔaj~ʔ ɬʼ
12.2.2 Proto-Circassian to Kabardianʔ~qʼ → ʔʷ
13 Chumashan13.4 Proto-Chumash to ObispeñoSʼ → ʔ
{ˀm,ˀn} → {∅,ʔ} (the former is more likely)
17 Indo-European17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotst → ʔ / V_V
t → ʔ / _#
17.7.2.1.11 Scots to Falkirk ScotspVn tVn kVn → ʔm̩ ʔn̩ ʔŋ̩ / _#
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.2.2 Proto-Ofaié-Jê to Ofaié-Xavantek(ʷ) → ʔ / _#
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guarayoʔ ts → {ʔ,∅} {ts,tʃ}
18.4.9.1.5 Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoró to Zoró∅ → ʔ / V_#
19 Kartvelian19.3 Proto-Kartvelian to Zanq qʼ → x {kʼ,qʼ,ʔ}
20 Khoisan20.1.2 Proto-Khoe to ǁAnih → j~ʔ / _E
h → h~ʔ
20.1.8 Proto-Khoe to Tetiǂ ǂ̃n ǂˀ → c ɲ ʔj
h → j~ʔj / _E
h → h~ʔj
20.1.9 Proto-Khoe to Tsʔixah → j~ʔj / _E
20.2.2 Proto-Kx’a to Northwestern !Xunʕ → ʔ / _m
22 Macro-Arawakan22.3 Proto-Arawá to Hypothetical Arawán Substratep → ʔ
22.7 Proto-Arawá to Paumarípʰ t → ɸ ʔ / medial
25 Macro-Panoan25.1.2 Proto-Tacanan to Chamaɗ → {ʔ,∅} / ! #_
27 Mayan27.4 Proto-Mayan to IxileanCVʔVC → CVʔC
27.5 Proto-Mayan to Kaqchikel-Tz’utujilCVʔVC → CVʔC
ɓ w → ʔ j / VCV_#
27.6 Proto-Mayan to Core K’iche’CVʔVC → CVʔC
27.7 Proto-Mayan to MameanCVʔVC → CVʔC
28 Muskogean28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western MuskogeanC1[+ weak] C2[+ weak] → ʔ h / V_V#
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.21 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Kiowa Apache{xʲ,j}ʔ {x,ɣ}ʔ → ∅ h(ʔ) / _#
29.1.1.1.22 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Jicarillad → ʔ / _#
xʲ xʔ j ɣʔ → h ʔ ∅ ʔ / E_#
xʲ xʔ j ɡʔ → ih iʔ i iʔ / _#
xʲʔ jʔ → h ʔ / _#
29.1.1.1.27 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Navajoxʲ(ʔ) j(ʔ) → h ʔ / _#
x ɣ → h ʔ / _#
{x,ɣ}ʔ → {ʔ,ɡ} (Hoijer notes a reflex “-g-”)
29.1.1.1.28 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to San Carlosxʲʔ jʔ → h ʔ / _#
29.1.1.1.29 Proto-Athabaskan to Bearlake Slavey-HareC → {h,ʔ} / _#
29.1.1.1.31 Proto-Athabaskan to Mountain Slavey-HareC → {h,ʔ} / _#
29.1.1.1.32 Proto-Athabaskan to Slavey Slavey-HareC → {h,ʔ} / _#
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.2 Proto-Chatino to Tataltepec Chatinoç → ʔ (? Not sure if I’m reading the phone(me)s right on this one)
32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinoh → ʔ / _ã
32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to Tlapanech → CVʔV / _# (or possibly in just any final syllable?)
33 Penutian33.1.1.4 Proto-Costanoan to Rumsenh → {h,x,ʔ}
35 Salishan35.1.1 Proto-Central Salish to ComoxV3ʔ → V3(ː)ʔ / _#
35.1.3 Proto-Central Salish to Cowichan HalkomelemV03ʔ(V0) → {V03ː,V03ʔV0}
V3ʔR → {V3ʔR,V3ːRʔ} / _V
35.1.4 Proto-Central Salish to Musqueam HalkomelemV3ʔ → V3{ː,ʔ} / _O
V03ʔV0 → {V3ː,V03ʔV0}
V3ʔR → {V3ʔR,V3ːRʔ} / _V
35.1.5 Proto-Central Salish to Klallammʔn → nʔ
V03ʔ(V0) → V03ʔV0
35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to LushootseedV3h → V3{ː,ʔ} / _C
V3ʔ → V3(ʔ) / _O
Rʔ → ʔR / V3C
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to NooksackʔR → {ʔS,R} / V3_V
35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straitsʔ → {∅,ʔ} / V3R_{C,#}
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern Straitsmʔn → nʔ
ʔR → Rʔ / V3_V
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern Straitsmʔn → nʔ
35.1.11 Proto-Central Salish to Sooke Northern Straitsmʔn → nʔ
35.1.14 Proto-Central Salish to SqamishʔR → Rʔ / V3_V
35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to TwanaʔR → ʔ{R,b} / V3_V
Rʔ → ʔR / V3_#
35.2.1 Proto-Interior Salish to Columbian and Okanagan Nasal-to-Vowel Shiftsnˀ → aʔ / _# (all other Interior Salishan languages have /eʔ/ in this position)
35.3 Shuswap to Eastern Shuswap Nasal-to-Vowel Shiftsem emˀ → u uʔ / w_ in U[- stressed]
em emˀ → a aʔ / in U[- stressed] ! {p(’),m(ˀ)}_
en enˀ → i iʔ / {ts(’),s,j(ˀ)}_ in U[- stressed]
en enˀ → a ʔ / in U[- stressed] ! {t(’),lʲ,{n,l}(ˀ)}_
35.4 Shuswap to Spokane-Kalispel Shuswap Nasal-to-Vowel Shiftsn nˀ → i iʔ / C_s
n nˀ → i iʔ / _{i,ʃ} (sporadic)
36 Sino-Tibetan36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuà{long-tail vowel thingʔ,əʔ} → ɛʔ
iʔ iw → eʔ ew / C̣_ (the latter with variant iɛu?)
iʔ → ieʔ (→ i[truncated vowel-thing]ʔ?)
uʔ → oʔ (occasionally → uɛʔ?)
ujʔ → uɛʔ (dialectally → uɔʔ?)
yʔ → yɛʔ / {l,C[+dental +sibilant]}_ in “QYS -juət-type” finals, dialectally?
yʔ → oʔ (eventually → {ʊʔ,(i)uʔ?) / {l,C[+dental +sibilant]}_, in “QYS -k-types”
yʔ → yʔ(~yɛʔ?) / {∅,C[+guttural]}, in -juət-types
yʔ → ioʔ (→ iʊʔ dialectally?) / {∅,C[+guttural]}_, in -k-types
yʔ → {ɥʔ,yʔ,uʔ} / C̣, in -juət-types
yʔ → oʔ (→ ʊʔ?) / C̣_, in -k-types
yjʔ → yʔ
je jeʔ yeʔ → ɛ ɛʔ uɛʔ / C̣_
je jeʔ → iɛ iɛʔ
yeʔ → yɛʔ (→ {uɔʔ,yɔʔ} in southern speech?)
wɔʔ → uɔʔ / C[+guttural]_
wɔʔ → ɔʔ / else
aʔ → ɔʔ / C[+guttural]_
jaʔ → iaʔ
waʔ → aʔ / C[+labiodental]_
waʔ → uaʔ
awʔ → ɔʔ (“Trigault gives a variant in -ɛʔ, which becomes general in the later GH varieties”)
{jawʔ,wawʔ} → ɔʔ / C̣_
jawʔ wawʔ → iɔʔ uɔʔ
əjʔ əw {əm,ən} → eʔ ɛu ɛn
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan LaK → ʔ / _s
w → ʔ / something to do with either back vowels or prefixes
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtse(P)ɡ sɡ çK Nɡ k sk rk (s)ɡj (ʔ)kj → (p)k sk çk mk kʰ zɡ Nɡ (s)kj (ʔ)kʰj
K → ʔ / _s
*w → ʔ / something to do either with back vowels or prefixes
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to CayugaVʔ → ʔV / “in odd-numbered unaccented non-final syllables;” ! {ʔ,h}_
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-OneidaCʔV0 → CV0ʔV0
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneida— CVʔ → C̊V̊ʔ̊ / _#
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscaroraˀt → tʔ / _ˀt
ˀt → ʔ / _r
ˀt → ʔn / V_{V,w,j}
37.1.2.6.1 Tuscarora to Western Tuscarorajʔ → ʔj
37.2.1 Proto-Siouan to Catawba∅ → ʔ / C_# (only sometimes?) (*)
37.2.2 Proto-Siouan to Dakotax → ʔ / ”Vk_
37.2.3 Proto-Siouan to MandanCʔV0 → CV0ʔV0
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to Osagex → ʔ / k_”V
40 Totozoquean40.1 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Mixe-Zoqueanq → ʔ
41 Trans-New Guinea41.5.1.2 Proto-Gorokan to North ForeN → ʔ / _S[- voice]
41.5.1.3 Proto-Gorokan to South ForeN → ʔ / _{V,S[- voice]}
41.5.1.4 Proto-Gorokan to Gender → ʔ / _O
41.5.1.6 Proto-Gorokan to Hua{N,r} → ʔ / _{#,C}
41.5.1.7 Proto-Gorokan to Kamanor → ʔ / _#
41.5.1.8 Proto-Gorokan to MoveN → ʔ / _{#,C}
41.5.1.9 Proto-Gorokan to Siane{N,r} → ʔ / _C
41.5.2.1 Proto-Kainantu to Auyanar → ʔ / _{N,#}
41.5.2.4 Proto-Kainantu to UsarufaN → ʔ / _O
N{w,r} Nj → ʔk ʔt
r → ʔ / _C
41.7 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kâtep k → t ʔ / _#
42 Uralic42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnishɣ → ʔ / VV0_V0 ! V0 = U
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livonian∅ → ʔ / (C)V_CV
ɦ → ʔ
43 Uto-Aztecan43.5.1.1 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Kawaiisuhkʷ hʔ (h)S Sː → w ʔ S[+ voiced] S[- voiced - long] / V_V
43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhamh → ʔ / #_
46 Vowel Shifts46.16 Development of Proto-Lolo-Burmese -i(C)# and -u(C)# to Lahu-i -i{p,k} -it -i{m,ŋ} -in → -i -ɨʔ -iʔ -ɛ -ɨ
-u -up -ut -uk -um -un -uŋ → -u -ɔʔ -əʔ -uʔ -ɔ -ə -ɛ

with context involving /ʔ/

48 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North Omotice → i / #{s,ʃ,tsʼ}_{k(w),ʔ}
e o → i u / #(ʔ)_C
e o → i u / #(ʔ)_C$
7 Algonquian7.17 Proto-Algonquian to ShawneeV[-long] → ∅ / C_ʔC
Vː → V[-long] / _{ʔC,ʃp,ʃk,hV}
10 Austronesian10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiputə → a / _ʔ#
i u → əi̯ əu̯ / _(ʔ)#
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lónghu → ɯ / _(C)# ! _ʔ#
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.1.2 Pre-Bakairi to Western BakairiC[+ fricative - voiced] → ∅ / ʔ_
18.4.9 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Classical Tupii → ı̃ / ʔ_# (sporadic)
28 Muskogean28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western MuskogeanV → ∅ / V{k,ʔ,h}_#
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.23 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Lipan{x,ɣ} → ∅ / _(ʔ)#
29.1.1.1.25 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Chiricahua{x,ɣ} → ∅ / _(ʔ)#
29.1.1.1.26 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Mescalero{x,ɣ} → ∅ / _(ʔ)#
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinot → tʃ / _”{e,iʔ}
e → a / _{l,ʔn} when unstressed
32.1.2 Proto-Chatino to Tataltepec Chatinoe → a / _ʔ in U[-stress]
ɛ → e / _ʔ#, in monosyllables
32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinots → tʃ / #_{a,õ}ʔ
ẽ → ı̃ / _ʔ#
ẽ → ı̃ / ʔ_# “in one case”
35 Salishan35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to Nooksackn → ∅ / mʔ_
∅ → V0 / ”V03ʔ_
35.1.14 Proto-Central Salish to Sqamishn → ∅ / mʔ_
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1.1 Old Mandarin to Modern Pekingesei → e / C_ʔ
36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàjuŋ → iuŋ / _{∅,x,ʋ,ʔ}
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoiane → i / r_ʔ
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to CayugaR → ∅ / ʔ_#
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huronk → x / {#,R,ʔ,V}_{V,ʔ,R,#}
∅ → a / CC_ʔ
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandotj → ʒ / {#,ʔ,V}_V
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneida”V → ”Vː[+falling tone] / _{ʔ,hR}
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to MohawkV0 → ∅ / ”VC(C)(C)V0ʔ_C(C)(C)#
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneida”V → ”Vː / _ʔ
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecan → t / ʔ_#
a(ː) → õ(ː) / V[+nas]({ʔ,s})w_
37.2.3 Proto-Siouan to Mandantʲ → s / _ʔV
37.2.4 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Čiwere-Winnebagok → ɡ / _ʔ
37.2.4.1 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Čiweret → tʃ / _ʔ
37.2.4.2 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Winnebagotʲ → x / _ʔ
37.2.5.1 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Crowt → ʃ / _ʔ
37.2.6.1 Proto-Dhegiha to Kansat → ts / _ʔ
37.2.6.2 Proto-Dhegiha to Omaha-Poncak → ∅ / _ʔ
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to Osaget → ts / _ʔ
37.2.7.3 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Tutelok → ᵑk / _ʔ
42 Uralic42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to LivonianC → Cː / ʔ_V
43 Uto-Aztecan43.5.1.1 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Kawaiisuh → ∅ / _{n,s,ʔ}
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.3 Proto-Pai to Tipaiɲj → n ∅ / ʔ_