Index Diachronica: involving /∅/

159 results from /∅/   1519 results to /∅/   3 results with context involving /∅/   

from /∅/

159 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabic∅ → F / N_{O,r} ! m_f
∅ → i / #al$_z
6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Egyptian Arabic∅ → e / CVCC_CVCV (applies across word boundaries)
6.2.2.1.12 Classical Arabic to Eastern Libyan Arabic∅ → ə / C_CV(ː,V)CC
6.2.2.1.13 Classical Arabic to Western Libyan Arabic∅ → ə / CCV(ː,V)C_C
7 Algonquian7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapaho∅ → ʔ / CV[-long]_#
∅ → h / #_V
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventre∅ → ʔ / #_V
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfoot∅ → x / _s ! _C{C,#}
∅ → s / {i(ː),#e}_t
∅ → s / k_i(ː)
∅ → j / {oːw,iːj}_i#
∅ → i / r_w
∅ → i / #_jC
∅ → i / C_jV#
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menominee∅ → h / V[-long]_#
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawnee∅ → ʔ / C{v,d}_{ʃp,ʃk,hV}
∅ → h / #_V
∅ → i / #C_jVː “(for some speakers)”
8 Altaic8.1.1 Early Middle Japanese to Modern Japanese∅ → w / _o
8.5.1.2 Proto-Kypchak to Kyrgyz∅ → U / #_{l,r} (not sure what 〈U〉 represents here; maybe just some sort of back vowel?)
10 Austronesian10.1.2.5 Proto-Philippine to Ifugao∅ → j / _iw#
10.1.2.7.1 Proto-Kalamian to Agutaynen∅ → ʔ / #_
∅ → ʔ / V_#
10.1.2.7.2 Proto-Kalamian to Karamiananen∅ → ʔ / #_
∅ → ʔ / V_#
10.1.2.7.3 Proto-Kalamian to Kalamian Tagbanwa∅ → ʔ / #_
∅ → ʔ / V_#
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorro∅ → j / i_a
∅ → w / u_a
∅ → w / a_u
∅ → w / #_V
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauan∅ → w / u_V
∅ → j / i_V
∅ → ə / C_C “(for certain consonant combinations, which the paper doesn’t specify)”
∅ → ŋ / #_V
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiput∅ → h / a_#
10.3.5.4 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Northern∅ → j / #_a
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bay∅ → h / #_V (“it isn’t clear if this happens unconditionally”)
10.4.1 Proto-Micronesian to Marshallese∅ → ɰ / #_aC[-low]
∅ → j / #_{aC[+low],V[-back],C[-back]}
∅ → w / #_{C[+round],V[+round]}
10.5.1 Proto-Ongan to Jarawa∅ → a / h#_ (that’s not a typo; this happens across the word boundary)
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to Onge∅ → e / C_#
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamil∅ → ɨ / _N#
∅ → ʉ / {l,ɭ}_# if {M,Vː} previously in the lexeme
∅ → {ɨ,ʉ} / to break up clusters
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Aleut∅ → t / #_s
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’ik∅→ n / #_iN (This one is sort of a guess, given a singular example in the text that isn’t really commented upon)
17 Indo-European17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— ∅ → a / CR_HC
— ∅ → i / C{l,r}S
— ∅ → a / C_RC
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishp t k kʷ b d ɡ ∅ → b d ɡ ɡʷ mb nd ŋɡ n / n#_”V
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scots∅ → ə̆ / _{n,r}
17.7.2.1.13 Middle English to Yola∅ → ɛ / uː_d
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard German∅ → ə / M_r% (I don’t know what Mr. Ciupak means by 〈M〉)
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norse∅ → t / s_r
∅ → j / {y,e}(ː)_a
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandic∅ → u / C_r#
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Norn∅ → b / m_l
∅ → h / #_V
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-Aryan∅ → a / #_z
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polish∅ → h / _ъ
∅ → d / r_z
∅ → t / s_r “in ‘stręczyć’”
17.11.2 Proto-Slavic to Old Russian∅ → j / #_a
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latin∅ → t / sː_r
∅ → p / m_{s,t,l}
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalan∅ → e / #_sC
∅ → {e,o} / CL_#
∅ → {e,o} / rː_#
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French∅ → s / t_j
∅ → b / m_{r,l}
∅ → d / {n,l,ɲ,z_r
∅ → t / s_r
∅ → e / #_sC
∅ → j / {ʃ,ʒ,sj,zj}”{a,é}_ in U[+open]
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal∅ → i / #_sC
∅ → k / #s_l
∅ → b / m_l
∅ → d / z_r
∅ → b / m_r
∅ → t / s_r
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardinian∅ → i / _s (“[m]ainly Logudorese”)
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanish— ∅ → b / m_ɾ
— ∅ → d / n_ɾ
17.13.2 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian B∅ → t / {N,L}_S
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Cocama∅ → i / j_#, in monosyllables
18.4.7 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Parintintín∅ → ŋ / {#,V}_w
18.4.9.1.5 Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoró to Zoró∅ → ʔ / V_#
20 Khoisan20.2.1 Proto-Kx’a to ǂHoan∅ → a / o_m
21 Lakes Plain21.1 Proto-Lakes Plain to Proto-Far West∅ → echo vowel / C_CV
21.2.1 Proto-Tariku to Proto-Central Tariku∅ → echo vowel / C_CV
21.2.1.1 Proto-Central Tariku to Edopi∅ → dz / _î
21.2.2.1 Proto-East Tariku to Biritai∅ → dz / î_V
21.2.2.3 Proto-East Tariku to Eritai∅ → dz → î_V
21.2.2.4 Proto-East Tariku to Kai∅ → dz / î_V
21.2.2.5 Proto-East Tariku to Obokuitai∅ → dz / îV
21.2.2.6 Proto-East Tariku to Sikaritai∅ → dz / î_V
21.2.2.7 Proto-East Tariku to Waritai∅ → dz / î_V
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.1 Proto-Chibchan to Arhuaco∅ → u / w_V
24 Macro-Pama-Nyungan24.1.2 Proto-Paman to Awŋtim∅ → j / #(C)iː(C)_V ! _i
∅ → w / #(C)uː(C)_V ! _u
∅ → a / #(C)aː(C)_V ! _a
24.1.7 Proto-Paman to Yinwum∅ → j / #iː(C)_a
∅ → w / #uː(C)_a
25 Macro-Panoan25.1.4 Proto-Tacanan to Tacana∅ → j / k_e
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.30 Proto-Athabaskan to Hare Slavey-Hare∅ → j / _e
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1.1 Proto-Bantu to Sebirwa∅ → ɡ / #n_V (in verbs)
33 Penutian33.3.1.2 Buena Vista Yokuts to Hometwoli∅ → h / V(ː)_, when stressed (only sometimes, “particularly before consonants”)
35 Salishan35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack Halkomelem∅ → V0 / ”V03_
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to Nooksack∅ → V0 / ”V03ʔ_
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old Mandarin∅ → w / P_V
∅ → w / C_o# ! C = {K,C[+pharyngeal]}
∅ → w / C̣_aŋ
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan La∅ → j / çm_
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Nao∅ → n / _pr
∅ → dz / #_j
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu Ta∅ → j / rN_
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokee∅ → Vː[+high rising tone] / C_# (“usually one of [/aː iː ʌ̃ː/ with this tone], the conditions are unclear”)
∅ → i / C_R
37.1.2 Proto-Iroquoian to Proto-Northern Iroquoian∅ → i(ː) / #_(C)(C)CVC(C)(C)#
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayuga∅ → a / w_j
∅ → h / {t,k}_n
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huron∅ → k / s_(h)w
∅ → a / CC_ʔ
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandot∅ → w / {o(ː),õ(ː)}_V
∅ → j / {e(ː),ẽ(ː),i(ː)}_V
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneida∅ → e / w_r (and “probably. . .in other environments”)
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Mohawk∅ → e / {tsh,s,n}_r
∅ → e / w_j
∅ → e / n_k(ʷ)
∅ → e / {t,k}_{r,n}
∅ → e / {#,V}s_n
∅ → e / t_w
∅ → e / {#,V}s_w
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneida∅ → i / {V,t}n_k(ʷ)V
— ∅ → e / C_{n,l}V(H)#
— ∅ → o / C_wV(H)#
— ∅ → i / C_jV(H)#
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Seneca∅ → h / k_n
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscarora∅ → t / hs_r
∅ → j / k_e(ː)
37.2.1 Proto-Siouan to Catawba∅ → ʔ / C_# (only sometimes?) (*)
37.2.5.2 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Hidatsa∅ → V / x_k
37.2.7.2 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Ofo∅ → V / k_m
37.2.7.3 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Tutelo∅ → V / k_m
42 Uralic42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnish∅ → ʋ / #_{yː,øː,oː}
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livonian∅ → ʔ / (C)V_CV
43 Uto-Aztecan43.1 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Comanche∅ → h / Vu_k
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basque∅ → a / #_{ra,ro} (sporadic)
∅ → e / #_r
∅ → e / #_{s̺,s̻}C
∅ → j / V_{N,s̺,s̻}S
∅ → j / u_V (eastern dialects)
∅ → m / o$_V (Orozko Biscayan)
∅ → V / Vk_# (Zeberio Biscayan)
46 Vowel Shifts46.11 Middle Chinese to Cantonese Vowel Shift (“The Inner-Outer Flip”)∅ → ə / C[+ labiovelar]_i
∅ → ə / _u

to /∅/

1519 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Omotict → ∅ / _s#
w → ∅ / #C_V, except _i(ː)
6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North OmoticN → ∅ / V_{C[+sibilant],p}
6.1.1.1 North Omotic to Benchx2 s3 → ∅ ʃ / V_V
{ʔ,hx} → ∅
6.1.1.2 North Omotic to Dizinx2 → ∅ / V_V
ʔ → ∅
6.1.1.3 North Omotic to Kafax2 → ∅ / V_V
6.1.1.5 North Omotic to Shekkachox2 → ∅ / V_V
h1 → {h,∅} / #_
6.1.1.6 North Omotic to Wolayttax2 → ∅ / V_V
6.1.1.7 North Omotic to Yemsax2 → ∅ / V_V
h1 → {h,∅} / #_
6.1.1.8 North Omotic to Zayse-Zergullax2 → ∅ / V_V
6.1.2.1 South Omotic to Aarih1 → ∅
6.2.1.1.1 Proto-Agaw to Awngi{x,ɢ}(ʷ) → ∅ / at word boundaries
ʔ → ∅
6.2.1.1.2 Proto-Agaw to Blin{x,ɢ}(ʷ) → ∅ / at word boundaries
6.2.1.1.3 Proto-Agaw to Kemantney{x,ɢ}(ʷ) → ∅ / at word boundaries
x → ∅
ʔ → ∅
6.2.1.1.4 Proto-Agaw to Xamtanga{x,ɢ} → ∅
{xʷ,ɢʷ} → ∅ / at word boundaries
ʔ → ∅
6.2.2.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-Chadicŋ → ∅ / V_{ts,q}
6.2.2.1.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-BoreafrasianV → ∅ / _# “in nominals”
ŋ → ∅ / #_CV
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berberl → ∅ / #{d,tʼ}_VC
q → ∅ / _i
6.2.2.1.4 Proto-Boreafrasian to Proto-Semiticw → ∅ / _C
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabicj → ∅ / Ck_$
ʔ h → ∅ x
j(ː) → ∅ / V_E
{u,a,i} → ∅ / _%, when stressed (short only)
a → ∅ / _t, in the feminine ending
6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Egyptian Arabic{i,u} → ∅ / VC_CV when unstressed (short only)
h → ∅ / in coda
6.2.2.1.8 Classical Arabic to Coastal Hadhrami ArabicV[-long] → ∅ / #C_C, in some words
6.2.2.1.9 Classical Arabic to Wādı̄ Hadhrami ArabicV[-long] → ∅ / #C_C (sporadic?)
6.2.2.1.10 Classical Arabic to Hassāniyya Arabicʔ → {∅,j,w} / depending on the environment; again, the article is unclear
V[-long] → ∅ / C_{C,#} (except for the feminine marker)
6.2.2.1.14 Classical Arabic to Moroccan Arabic{u,ə} → ∅ / ! C_C(C)#
6.2.2.1.18 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrew— a → ∅ / _#
— u → ∅ / ! _Cː
ʕ → ∅ / _{$,#}
j → ∅ / E_ (not clear whether only short E or long also)
6.2.2.1.19 Biblical Hebrew to Modern Israeli Hebrewə → ∅ / else
h → ∅ / _#
ʔ → ∅ / ! in onset of U[+stress] (colloquial)
h → ∅ (colloquial)
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River AbenakiN → ∅ / _O
a → ∅ / #_OO
V → ∅ / _#
w → ∅ / _# ! k(ː)_
j → ∅ / _# ! P_
w → ∅ / C_ ! C = K
j → ∅ / _C
i → ∅ / #w_
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis AbenakiN → ∅ / _RO
V[- high - long] → ∅ / #C_OO
a → ∅ / #_OO
V → ∅ / _#
w → ∅ / _# ! k(ː)_
j → ∅ / _# ! p_
w → ∅ / C_ ! C = K
j → ∅ / C_
{R,h} → ∅ / V_V (sporadic?)
7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-Atsina(W)V → ∅ / _#
W → ∅ / C_i(ː)
θ h {s,m,n,r} → ʃ ∅ ʔ / _C
p k → k ∅
7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapaho({C,#}V)ʔ → ({C,#}Vː)∅ / _C
(V[-long])N → ∅ / _#
n → ∅ / _j
j → ∅ / C_
h → ∅ / _#
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventre({C,#}V[-long])ʔ → ({C,#}Vː[+falling tone])∅ / _C
j → ∅ / {ʃ,θ}
(V[-long])N → ∅ / _#
n → ∅ / _j
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfooth → ∅ / ! _C
{ʔθ,ʔr} → {ʔ,j,∅}
w → ∅ / C_
hi → ∅ / aː_
w → ∅ / {a,o}_iC
e → ∅ / O_ in #U (not universal)
{me,ne} → ∅ / #_O “(followed by truncation of following x)”
tsi → ∅ / $_OO “(before a prefix; the first obstruent of the follow[ing] cluster then becomes ʔ)
7.5 Proto-Algonquian to Cheyennep t k → {hp,∅} ht {hk,∅}
C[- nasal] → ∅ / near nasals
m → ∅ / near nasals
p → {t,∅} / near consonants
W → ∅ / near nasals or t
7.6 Proto-Algonquian to Northern East Cree{n,q,h} → ∅ / _s
7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East Cree{n,q,h} → ∅ / _s
7.8 Proto-Algonquian to Plains Cree{n,q,h} → ∅ / _s
7.9 Proto-Algonquian to Swampy Cree{n,q,h} → ∅ / _s
7.10 Proto-Algonquian to Woods Cree{n,q,h} → ∅ / _s
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawarew → ∅ / m_C
w → ∅ / {p,m}_#
w → ∅ / ! {k,p,m}_
j → ∅ / C_
h → ∅ / _{s,x}
k → ∅ / h_ (sometimes restored via analogy, e.g., in verbs)
V → ∅ / _# ! some monosyllables and analogical developments, in the latter of which long vowels were shortened
{a,ə} → ∅ / _{x,h} “in the odd-numbered of any sequence of one or more short-vowel open syllables”; such vowels are considered “weak”
ə[+weak] → ∅ / #_C
ə[+weak] → ∅ / _C[+voiced] (sporadic)
a[+weak] ə[+weak] → ə ∅ / a_Z[+voiced]
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to MenomineeV[-long] → ∅ / _# “[does not apply in disyllabic words containing two short vowels]”
H → ∅ / _m
w → ∅ / h_V
{w,j} → ∅ / C_#
C → ∅ / C_#
7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-IllinoismV[-long] → ∅ / #_{ʰC,s,ʃ} (allophonic, “optional”)
{h,ʔ} → ∅ / _m
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaqn{θ,l} h{θ,ʃ} → ∅ s
{ʔ,h,N} → ∅ / _C
ʔ{θ,ʃ} ʔl → s ∅
x → ∅ / _{p,k}
7.15 Proto-Algonquian to Ojibwew → ∅ / {t,r}_i
{θ,s,h,ʔ} → ∅ / _{p,t,tʃ,k}
{ʔ,h} → ∅ / _ʃ
{n,r} → ∅ / _r
H → ∅ / _m
{j,w}V[-long] → ∅ / C_# in disyllables with Vː or in tri(-plus-)syllables
{w,j}V[-long] → ∅ / Vː_# (Whimemsz is unsure if this change is across-the-board or not)
V[-long] → ∅ / V[-long]{w,j}_# (Whimemsz is unsure if this change is across-the-board or not)
j → ∅ / C_
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawneer → ∅ / n_
N → ∅ / _O
j → ∅ / C_i(ː)
j → ∅ / {tʃ,ʃ}_eː
j → ∅ / {tʃ,ʃ,w}_aː
w → ∅ / t_i
V[-long] → ∅ / _{ʃp,ʃk}
V[-long] → ∅ / C_ʔC
V[-long] → ∅ / _hV
ʔ → ∅ / C{v,l,s}_C
ʔ → ∅ / _CC
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonicɡ → ∅ / iV_
ŋ → {∅,n} #_ else
j → {j,∅}
8.1.1 Early Middle Japanese to Modern Japanesew → ∅ / ! _{a,o}
j → ∅ / _e
w → ∅ / _o
w → ∅ / k_a
8.2 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Korean{tʰ,d} {k,ɡ} → r {h,∅} / {C,V}_{C,V}
ŋ → {ŋ,∅}
j → {j,∅}
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolicŋ → {∅,j} / #_
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkic{pʰ,ŋ} → {∅,j} / #_
{N,l,r,ʃ,z} → ∅ / #_
8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-KypchakV[- long] → ∅ (shared with Old Turkic)
h → ∅ (shared with Old Turkic)
8.5.1.1 Proto-Kypchak to Kazakhw → ∅ / ɯ_
8.5.1.2 Proto-Kypchak to Kyrgyzj → ∅ / _l (sporadic?)
ɣ → ∅ / V_V
æ Vh {ʕ,h} → ɑː Vː ∅ (seems to have largely been confined to loanwords from Persian)
8.5.2 Proto-Turkic to Sakhad s {ʃ,z} → t ∅ s / V_V
s → ∅ / #_
9 Austroasiatic9.1.1 Proto-Vietic to Muong Khenm → ∅ / _l
w → ∅ / tʰV_k (conjectured)
9.1.2 Proto-Vietic to Middle Vietnameset → ∅ / _ɹ (only first-register tones can occur in this environment)
l → ∅ / {i,e}_
9.1.2.1 Middle Vietnamese to Hanoi Vietnamesew → ∅ / tV_wk (conjectured)
9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnamesem → ∅ / _l
{c,ɲ} → ∅ / else
ə → ∅ / {i,ɨ}_{p,m.w}
ə → ∅ / ɨ_j
ə → ∅ / u_{m,j}
w → ∅ / tV_wk (conjectured)
10 Austronesian10.1.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawanw → ∅ / #_
{q,h} → ∅
10.1.1.1 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Balineser → {r,h} → {∅,h}
h → {∅,h}
10.1.1.2 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sasakh → ∅
10.1.1.3 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sumbawanh → ∅
w → ∅ / i_#
S[+ voice] → ∅ / _N
S[+ voice] → ∅ / N_
b → ∅ / medial (sporadic)
10.1.1.5 Proto-Polynesian to Luangiua{q,h} → ∅
10.1.2.1 Proto-Philippine to Bicolh *j → ∅ d / _#
q → ∅
10.1.2.2 Proto-Philippine to Cebuanoh *j → ∅ d / _#
q → ∅
h → ∅ / _#
10.1.2.3 Proto-Philippine to Hiligaynonh → ∅ / _#
q → ∅
10.1.2.4 Proto-Philippine to Ibanag{q,h} → ∅
10.1.2.5 Proto-Philippine to Ifugao{q,h} → ∅
10.1.2.6 Proto-Philippine to Ilocano{q,h} → ∅
10.1.2.7 Proto-Philippine to Proto-Kalamian{h,ʔ} → ∅
10.1.2.7.1 Proto-Kalamian to Agutaynenk → ∅ / _{V,#}
10.1.2.7.2 Proto-Kalamian to Karamiananenk → ∅ / _{V,#}
10.1.2.7.3 Proto-Kalamian to Kalamian Tagbanwak → ∅ / _{V,#}
10.1.2.8 Proto-Philippine to Kankanay{h,q} → ∅
10.1.2.9 Proto-Philippine to Tagalogh *j → ∅ d / _#
q → ∅ (not sure what happens word-finally to it)
10.1.2.10 Proto-Philippine to Warayh → ∅ / _#
q → ∅
10.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Batakw → ∅ / i_#
{ts,ʈ} {ɟʝ͡,ɖ} {lʲ,ɲ} {ʔ,x,s,h} ʀ → t d n ∅ r (velar fricative is conjectured; changes → d “unsure”)
q → ∅ / #_ (sometimes; “represented by *h in PB”)
10.2.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Chamicw → ∅ / #_
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorroə → ∅ / VC_CV
V → ∅ / VC_CV (sporadic)
k → ∅ / _# (sporadic)
h → ∅
d → ∅ / _#
10.2.3 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Malayicw → ∅ / #_
h → ∅ / else
H → {∅,h} / _əNS / #_
10.2.3.1 Proto-Malayic to (Standard) Malayh → ∅ / ! _# (sporadic)
10.2.4 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Malayo-Javanicq h → h ∅
10.2.4.1 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to JavaneseR → ∅
h → ∅ / #_
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Madureseb → {w,∅} / #_
h → ∅
10.2.4.3 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Sundanesew → {∅,c} / #_
R → {∅,r,j}
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauanə → ∅ / #_
h → ∅
ə → ∅ / _j
j → ∅ / C_i
ə → ∅ / _#
ə → ∅ “(sporadic)”
ŋ → ∅ / C_#
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North Sarawak{ʔ,h} → ∅ / #_
{ʔ,h} → ∅ / V1[+high]_V2
h → ∅ / _#
ə → ∅ / adjacent to a vowel
ə → ∅ / _V
ə → ∅ VC_CV
ə → ∅ / #_UU(U…)# “(i.e., in word-initial position in prepenultimate syllables)
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiputʔ → ∅ / V_V
k → ∅ / V_V “(in some forms)”
s → ∅ / V_V (sporadic)
ə → ∅ / adjacent to a vowel
l → ∅ / ! _# (irregular)
s → ∅ / _#
k ŋ → ʔ ∅ / Və̯_#
(C)V → ∅ / #_C… “(irregular)”
ə → ∅ / #_
10.2.6.2 Proto-North Sarawak to Proto-Kenyahɻ → ∅
h → ∅ / _#
CV → ∅ / _NCVC “(in reduplications)”
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lónghʔ → ∅ / _# “(but aʔ → əʔ in some forms)”
ə → ∅ / #_
N → ∅ / _S “(sporadic)”
h → ∅ / V_V
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabauh → ∅ / ! _# (some exceptions)
— {l,r} → ∅ / _# (retained across morpheme boundaries)
10.3.1 Proto-Oceanic to Hawai’ian{h,ʔ} → ∅
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwp pʷ {c,*j} k q → β βʷ s ɣ ∅
C → ∅ / _#
s → h → ∅ (sporadic)
”V[+ high(er)] → ∅ / _CV
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerigp pʷ k q → β w ɣ ∅
V → ∅ / #_C”V
V → ∅ / CVC_C”V
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to Mwotlapq → ∅
V[- high] → ∅ / {ɔ,ɛ,ɪ}C_
V1 → ∅ / _”V2
V → ∅ / (C)V_VC”V
10.3.5 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-New Caledonia*R → ∅
V → ∅ / _C”V
10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to Caaàck → ∅ / _{o,a}
N → ∅ / _#
V → ∅ / #(C)V(C)(C)_#
{p,pw,k} → ∅ / V_V
10.3.5.4 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-NorthernC → ∅ / _$(possessive suffix)#
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-NêlêmwaV → ∅ / _#, often
k → ∅ / _{o,a}
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to NyelâyuV → ∅ / #(C)V(C)(C)_#
C → ∅ / _# “sometimes”
q → ∅
jʰ j → h ∅ / _i
10.3.5.6 Proto-New Caledonia to PwaameiV → ∅ / _# (sporadic?)
k c → ∅ {j,∅} / V_V
10.3.5.7 Proto-New Caledonia to PwapwâV → ∅ / _# (sporadic?)
p pw t {k,c} → {v,∅} w l ∅ / V_V
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Yunagak → ∅ / _{o,a}
p pw t̪ ʈ k c → v w ð l ∅ j / V_V
V → ∅ / _#
10.3.5.8.1 Proto-Yunaga to Yunaga 1C → ∅ / _#
10.3.6 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruzp → ∅ / _B
r → ∅ / d_
C → ∅ / _#
10.3.6.1 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Äiwoo{t,k} → ∅ / V_V
k → {k,∅} / #_
q → {k,∅}
10.3.6.2 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Naguk → {k,∅} / #_
q *R → ∅ {l,∅}
10.3.6.3 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Natügut k → l ∅ / V_V
q *R → ∅ {l,∅}
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark BayC → ∅ / _#
q → ∅
*R → {∅,r}
V[+ high] → ∅ / _# ! {p,z,d(r)}_
p ŋ → f ∅ / ”V_V
ɣ s d → ∅ {j dr} / _#
ɣ s d → ∅ {j dr} / “before a post-tonic vowel”
V → ∅ / {”V,j}_
10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to TolomakoC → ∅ / _#
q → ∅
*R → {∅,r} (the former seems more common)
10.3.9 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Utupuap q → v ∅ (in general, seems like there was something going on with conditioning in the case of *p?)
w → ∅ (? Tanibili [w] may just be phonetically determined)
C → ∅ / _# (except for *k?)
10.3.9.1 Proto-Utupua to Asuboadr s l → {d,ɟ} {∅,s} {n,∅}
c ɲ → ∅ {ɲ,j}
t r l → {j,s} {j,∅} j / _u
k → {k,∅} / #_
k → {∅,s} / _#
r → {l,n,∅}
*R → {l,∅}
10.3.9.2 Proto-Utupua to Nebaot k → r ∅ / #_ (though *t seems to have occasionally survived?)
r → {l,∅} / _u
r *R → l ∅
l → ∅ (occasionally?)
c ɲ → ∅ n
10.3.9.3 Proto-Utupua to Tanibili{s,*R} → ∅
p t {r,l} → ∅ s j / _u
k → {k,∅} / #_
t k → {t,r,kʷ,∅} ∅ / V_V
k → {∅,j} / _#
d c ɲ → ɟ {s,∅} n
{r,l} → l (occasionally → ∅?)
10.3.10 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Vanikorop → ∅ / _u
p q → {v,p} ∅
r → ∅ / d_
k → ∅ / V_V
10.3.10.1 Proto-Vanikoro to Bumap t → ∅ {s,k} / _u
p → ∅ / _#
k → ∅ / #_
c *R → ∅ {l,∅}
10.3.10.2 Proto-Vanikoro to Tanemapʷ w → b ∅
t → {∅,t} / #_
c *R → ∅ {l,∅}
10.3.10.3 Proto-Vanikoro to Vanow → {∅,w}
c *R → {j,∅} l
10.3.11 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Southern Vanuatu*R → ∅
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to AnejomC → ∅ / _# ! C = t
k → ∅ / V_V (sporadic?)
q → ∅
V → ∅ / _# (with very few exceptions)
{r,h} → ∅ / _#
10.3.11.2.1 Proto-Erromango to Syes → ∅ / _C (occasionally blocked)
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Urah → ∅
ɣ → ∅ / _#
k → ∅ (perhaps doesn’t always happen but happens often)
10.3.11.3 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Tannaɡ q → k ∅
10.3.11.3.1 Proto-Tanna to Kwameraɣ → ∅
10.3.11.3.2 Proto-Tanna to Lenakelɣ → ∅ / E_
ɣ → ∅ / _E
10.3.11.3.3 Proto-Tanna to North Tannakʷ → ∅ / _u
kʷ → ∅ / _a (rare)
v → ∅ / _i
ɣ → ∅ / #_
ɣ → ∅ / _E
10.3.11.3.4 Proto-Tanna to Southwest Tannaɣ → ∅ / #_
10.3.11.3.5 Proto-Tanna to Whitesandskʷ → ∅ / u_
kʷ → ∅ / _u
ɣ → ∅ / {#,E}_
ɣ → ∅ / _E
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’ap pʷ k q → β w ɣ ∅
V → ∅ / #_C”V
V → ∅ / CVC_C”V
10.4.1 Proto-Micronesian to MarshalleseV → ∅ / _#
V → ∅ / ”VC_
V → ∅ / “in CV reduplications”
f → ∅ / #_{C[-low],V[-low]}
{ç,s} x → tᵚ ∅
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Onganb → ∅ / #_{u,i}
q → ∅ / #_V
S → ∅ / _#
h → {h,j,∅} (Blevins has marked what apparently is *ɟ but I’m assuming it’s an error)
{m,ɲ} n → {ɲ,∅} {ŋ,∅} / _# (first change marked “in progress?”)
10.5.1 Proto-Ongan to Jarawae → ∅ / _# (?)
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to Onge{w,r} → ∅ / {a,e}_#
10.7.1 Proto-Rukai to Budai Rukai{v,ʔ} ð → ∅ j
11 Northeast Caucasian11.1.1 Proto-Avar-Andic to Akhvakh{l,r} → ∅ (sometimes, only from original *l)
11.3 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Khinalugr → {r,∅}
11.4 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Lakm l → {m,n} {l,∅}
11.5.6 Proto-Lezgic to Udits tsː tsʼ tsːʼ dz → {∅,s} tʃ {∅,tsʼ} {tsʼ,tʃʼ} z
t → ∅ / s_
tʃ tʃː tʃʼ tʃːʼ dʒ → {∅,ʃ} tʃ ∅ tʃʼ {dʒ,tʃ}
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → {∅,x} q {∅,qʼ} qʼ {ɣ,l}
q qʼ qːʼ ɢ → ∅(?) ∅ qʼ ɣ
11.7.2 Proto-Tsezic to Tsezr → {r,l,∅}
12 Northwest Caucasian12.3 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Ubykhl lʲ → ∅~j l~ɣʲ
13 Chumashan13.4 Proto-Chumash to Obispeño{ˀm,ˀn} → {∅,ʔ} (the former is more likely)
ˀj → ∅
13.5 Proto-Chumash to Purisimeñoˀj → ∅
13.6 Proto-Chumash to Ventureñoʔ → ∅ / _#
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.1 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Proto-Dravidiant → ∅ / #_VrC
s → ∅ / #V_{r̀,l}
s → ∅ / C_V
s → ∅ / V_C
14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamite{i,e,u} → ∅ / #_{t,n}a
k ŋk ŋkː → ∅ k kː / V_V
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamil{k,v} → ∅ / V_V
{ɭ,ɽ} → ∅ (sporadic, the latter very much so and contributing some compensatory lengthening)
{ɾ,l,ɭ} → ∅ / V_S
ɨ ʉ → ∅ / ! _#
j → ∅ / V[-front]_#
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Aleuti →∅ / #_{z,dʒ}
ə → ∅ / #_, “under certain conditions not yet discovered”
15.2 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Eskimoə → ∅ / t_, “in certain positions”
15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow Iñupiaqə → ∅ / else
v → ∅ / u_i
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic Iñupiaqv → ∅ / u_a
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie Iñupiaqv → ∅ / u_i
15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales Iñupiaqv → ∅ / u_V
v → ∅ / V_u
ɣ → ∅ / V_u
ɣ → ∅ / u_V
15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’ikS → ∅ / #_F
ə → ∅
i → ∅ / #C[+dental]_C[+dental]V
v → ∅ / u[+short]_V[+short]
v → ∅ / V[+short]_u[+short]
u → ∅ / #_vV
dʒ → ∅ / i_i
ə → ∅ / _dʒ{a,u}, except in #U
a → ∅ / _dʒa, except in #U
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’ikS → ∅ / #_F
ə → ∅
i → ∅ / #C[+dental]_C[+dental]V
a → ∅ / C[+velar]_C[+velar]
v → ∅ / u[+short]_V[+short]
v → ∅ / V[+short]_u[+short]
u → ∅ / #_vV
dʒ → ∅ / i_i
ə → ∅ / _dʒ{a,u} except in #U
a → ∅ / _dʒa (except in #U?)
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’ikS → ∅ / #_F
ə → ∅ / #_
i → ∅ / #C[+dental]_C[+dental]V
a → ∅ / C[+velar]_C[+velar]
v → ∅ / u[+short]_V[+short]
v → ∅ / V[+short]_u[+short]
u → ∅ / #_vV
dʒ → ∅ / i_i
ə → ∅ / _dʒ{a,u} except in #U
a → ∅ / _dʒa (except in #U?)
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’ikS → ∅ / #_F
ə → ∅ / #_
i → ∅ / #C[+dental]_C[+dental]V
a → ∅ / C[+velar]_C[+velar]
v → ∅ / u[+short]_V[+short]
v → ∅ / V[+short]_u[+short]
u → ∅ / #_vV
dʒ → ∅ / i_i
ə → ∅ / _dʒ{a,u} except in #U
a → ∅ / _dʒa (except in #U?)
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.5 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Tablai → ∅ / V_ (with a few exceptions)
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albaniani̯ → ∅ / E_
ə → ∅ / _#
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albaniani̯ → ∅ / E_
n → ∅ / V_C?
17.2 Proto-Indo-European to Common Anatolianh1 → ∅
h3 → ∅ / “medially”
r → ∅ / #_ (unclear)
j → ∅ / #_e (not widely attested)
17.2.1 Common Anatolian to Hittitej → ∅ / V_V
17.2.2 Common Anatolian to Luwian{ḱ,k} → ∅ / _i(ː)
k → ∅ / V_V
k → ∅ / _N
j → ∅ / z_
hh h → h ∅ / ”Vː_u
hh h → h ∅ / u_”Vː
h → ∅ / _w ! at word boundaries
hh → ∅ / _{w,m,n,r,l} “medially, and sporadically”
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lycian{ɡ́,ɡ} → ∅ / _i(ː)
ɡ → ∅ / V_V
j → ∅ / ts_
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to Lydian{h2,h3} → ∅
j → ∅ / C_
n → ∅ / _P “(leaves nasalization on the previous vowel)”
17.2.5 Common Anatolian to Palaich → ∅ / ”Vː_u
h → ∅ / u_”Vː
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestanhx → ∅
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— H → ∅ / V_C when pretonic
— h → ∅ / C_
— H → ∅ / “if not in a syllabic position”
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishf → ∅ / else
— n → ∅ / {i,o,u}_{p,t,k,s}
w → ∅ / {#,C}C_
w → ∅ / {θ,x}_
w → ∅ / V_{V,#}
— {p,t} → ∅ / #s_r
— {p,t} → ∅ / #s_ “(although it says that occasionally st > t / #_)”
— s → ∅ / [anything]{l,r}_O
V → ∅ / C_# when unstressed ! C = j
C(…C) → ∅ / _# ! /l r/ and clusters containing them; “[t]his remained a phonologically conditioned rule in OIr”
j → ∅
V → ∅ / #UU(_)U(U(_)U) / unstressed; this “remained as a phonologically conditioned rule in OIr”; “[t]hat’s a little unclear, so let me try and enumerate: in words of more than three syllables, every other vowel (only the even ones) dropped, if it’s unstressed. In some words, syncope didn’t apply because it would create an unwieldy consonant cluster: so PIE *komaktyom → OIr cumachte, not *cumchte”
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshs → ∅ / V_V
s → ∅ / x_
{au,eu,ou} → ∅
V → ∅ / _#
V → ∅ / _[+intertonic]
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothic— V[- long] → ∅ / _# ! V = u
— V[- long] → ∅ / U_C# ! V = u
w → ∅ / oː_j
i → ∅ / _ji
s → ∅ / V[- long]r_#
s → ∅ / in “[t]he prep[osition]. us…in compounds before st”, though this seems to have been less common
17.7.2 Common Germanic to West Germanicz → {r,∅}
17.7.2.1 West Germanic to Anglo-Frisianh → ∅ / V_V
{i,u} → ∅ / -# ! VC_
17.7.2.1.1 Anglo-Frisian to Old English{i,u} → ∅/ _# ! V[-long]C_#
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle Englishm → n → ∅ / _# when unstressed
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle Englishm → n → ∅ / _# when unstressed
{e,ɑ,o} → ə → ∅ / _#
17.7.2.1.5 Early Modern English to American Englishj → ∅ / {θ,s,z,l,n,t,d}_ when in onset position
w → ∅ / C_ɹ for some C (toward(s), quart(er), sword)
t → ∅ / f_n̩
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishj → ∅ / %{θ,s,z,l}_”V
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle Englishn → ∅ / _# when unstressed (not clear as to whether m → n beforehand in this position or not)
{e,ɑ,o} → ə → ∅ / _#, when unstressed (it appears this sound may also have gone to /ɪ/)
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scotsb → ∅ / m_l
t → ∅ / {p,k}_# (“except in some inflected forms” for *kt)
d → ∅ / n_
d → ∅ / l_#
f → ∅ “in certain contexts”
{ɸ,x} → ∅ / _# (seems to be sporadic)
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to ScotsN → ∅ / _C ! _%C
t → ∅ / p_
{f,v} → ∅ / {l,r,V}_ (sometimes blocked)
ð → ∅ / {l,r,V}_C
θ → ∅
k → ∅ / n_t (sporadic)
m → ∅ / _n
l → ∅ / u_
{w,k} → ∅ / _{n,r}
17.7.2.1.11 Scots to Falkirk Scotsn → ∅ / V_C (in words of more than one syllable)
n → ∅ / V_V# “in some disyllabic words”
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle Englishm → n → ∅ / _# when unstressed
e → ∅ / if another /e/ one syllable previous
17.7.2.1.13 Middle English to YolaC → ∅ / C_%
17.7.2.1.14 Anglo-Frisian to Old Frisianh → ∅ / V_V
17.7.2.2 West Germanic to Old Low Franconianh → ∅ / #_C
j → ∅ / CC_
h → ∅ / V_V
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard German{h,j} → ∅ / V_V
w → ∅ / {ou,øy,yː}_
ə → ∅ / unstressed, but not in every case
17.7.3 Common Germanic to Proto-Norseβ → ∅ / V_B
n → ∅ / V{ː,V}_hV
w → ∅ / _w
j → ∅ / _i
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norsej → ∅ / #_
a → ∅ / C(C)_{ʀ,s,t,θ}#
a → ∅ / _{ʀ,s,t,θ}#
w → ∅ / C_o
a → ∅ / CC_U#
a → ∅ / _U#
{B,E} → ∅ / CC_{ʀ,s,t,θ}# ! B = ɒ
E → ∅ / _{ʀ,s,t,θ}
u → ∅ / _({ʀ,s,t,θ})#
{B,E} → ∅ / CC_U# ! B = ɒ
{B,E} → ∅ / _U# ! B = ɒ
w → ∅ / #P_Vː
V[- long] → ∅ / #U_UU
b → ∅ / m_s
d → ∅ / {l,m}_{b,ɡ,k,l,m,n,s}
ð → ∅ / n_ ! ɡ_
ð → ∅ / r_{m,l,ɡ,n}
{f,β,p} → ∅ / r_n
{f,β,p} → ∅ / l_{d,ɡ,n,ð,t}
{ɡ,ɣ} → ∅ / l_{ð,t}
{ɡ,ɣ} → ∅ / r_{d,n,t}
k → ∅ / l_s
k → ∅ / r_{m,s,t}
k → ∅ / s_l,t
l → ∅ / ŋ_s
l → ∅ / r_{m,s}
l → ∅ / s_t
n → ∅ / f_{d,s,t}
n → ∅ / l_b
n → ∅ / m_{s,b}
n → ∅ / ŋ_{s,w}
n → ∅ / r_{s,t,w}
n → ∅ / t_s
r → ∅ / {ð,f}_{ɡ,ɣ}
r → ∅ / k_{n,s}
r → ∅ / m_m
r → ∅ / t_{k,s}
t → ∅ / {ɡ,ɣ}_s
t → ∅ / p_{ɡ,ɣ,n}
t → ∅ / r_k
t → ∅ / s_{k,l,n,s}
{s,z} → ∅ / {r,ʀ}_N
{v,w} → ∅ / #_V[+ round]
{l(ː),n}{r,ʀ} → ∅ / V{ː,V}_
{t,θ,d,ð} → ∅ / n_l
{t,θ,d,ð} → ∅ / l_n
h → ∅ / C_t
hw → ∅ / ! #_
F[- voice] → ∅ / {s,f,x,h,t}_{p,t,k}
ɡ → ∅ / #_n
r → ∅ / {p,t,k}_Vr
j → ∅ / Ḱ_
j → ∅ / {c,ɟ}_
j → ∅ / _eː
eː j → e ∅ / Cw_
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early IcelandicO → ∅ / {F[- same POA],r,l}_O
S → ∅ / N[+ same POA]_S
v → ∅ / {u,o,a}ː_
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornn → ∅ / m_
d → ∅ / n_# (sometimes)
f → ∅ / _{l,b,v,n,#}
f → ∅ / Vː_V
h → ∅ / _{l,n,r}
ð → ∅ /{a,E}_
s → ∅ / {t,k,r}_l
ɣ → ∅
l → ∅ / V_V
l → ∅ / _{m,s,k}
l → ∅ / _# ?
V[- long] → ∅ / _#
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornn → ∅ / _m#
ð → ∅ / _#
s → ∅ / k_l
h → ∅ / _{V,w,j} (sporadic)
h → ∅ / _l
h → {∅,h,k} / _r
h → {∅,h,k,s} / _n
a → ∅ / C[+ dental/alveolar]_u
17.7.4 Common Germanic to Vandalich → ∅ / #_
z → ∅ (seems to have been complete by the Sixth Century)
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian Greekh → ∅
n → ∅ / _s
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekh → ∅
n → ∅ / _s
w → ∅
j → ∅ / Vː_
h → ∅
ɔ → ∅ / in the suffixes -ios and -ion
n → ∅ / _#
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greekh → ∅
n → ∅ / _s
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greekh → ∅
n → ∅ / _s
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan Greekh → ∅
n → ∅ / _s
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric Greekh → ∅
n → ∅ / _s
h → ∅ (in those “dialects of the western fringe of Asia Minor and the near-by islands”)
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian Greekh → ∅
n → ∅ / _s
h → ∅
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekh → ∅
n → ∅ / _s
w → ∅
h → ∅ (in Eastern Ionic)
j → ∅ / Vː_
h → ∅
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greekh → ∅
n → ∅ / _s
17.8.10 Proto-Indo-European to Mycenaean Greekh → ∅
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittitem → ∅ / _#
h3 → ∅ / _o “(according to Kortlandt)”
— r → ∅ / #_
— r → ∅ / _# “sometimes??”
17.10 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iranianə → ∅ / #_
*H → ∅ / S_
t → ∅ / _ʃt
d → ∅ / _ʒdʱ
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-Aryank → ∅ / #_t
p → ∅ / #_st
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-AryanC(C) → ∅ / C_#
{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʱ} {j,v} → h ∅ / V_V
v → ∅ / {t,d}_
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-AryanC(C) → ∅ / C_#
{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʱ} {j,v} → h ∅ / V_V
v → ∅ / {t,d}_
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-AryanC(C) → ∅ / C_#
{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʱ} {j,v} → h ∅ / V_V
v → ∅ / {t,d}_
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-AryanC(C) → ∅ / C_#
{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʱ} {j,v} → h ∅ / V_V
17.10.1.5.1 Vedic Sanskrit to Classical SanskritH → ∅
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavic{O,N} → ∅ / _$
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polish— {ь,ъ} → ∅] / in even syllables counting iambic from U# or a syllable not containing a yer
ɔvi → ∅
V → ∅ / unstressed (sporadic)
i → ∅ / _# “in the infinite and imperative desinences. . .some verbs have never been affected due to a potential ‘difficult’ cluster that would result, instead they got an analogical final -j extension”
{i,ɨ} → ∅ / _jV when unstressed
j → ∅ / _ɛ “in participial and deverbal forms originally with alveolopalatal consonants in the onsets of two consecutive syllables”
v → ∅ / x_o
p → ∅ / #_p
{z,s,ʂ} → ∅ / _sC
x → ∅ / _r “in the word ‘robak’”
t → ∅ / s_{ɫ,w}
ɕ → ∅ / tr̝_tɕ
ɡ → ∅ / _d
w → ∅ / {r,b}_
d → ∅ / ɫ_ɲ
d → ∅ / r_ts
d → ∅ / _n “in arch. ‘jeno’”
{b,p} → ∅ / _n “in verbs in -nąć”
v → ∅ / _stv
t → ∅ / ʈʂ_v in “czworo”
s → ∅ / _ɫza in “słza”
dʲ → ∅ / r_n
slʲ → ∅ / _s
w → ∅ / C_#
w → ∅ / C_C (sporadic)
ɕ → ∅ / t_ɕtɕ
17.11.2 Proto-Slavic to Old Russian{t,d} → ∅ / V_lV
j → ∅ / #_u
j → ∅ / V_u (sporadic)
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latin{i,e} → ∅ / _# (sometimes)
w → ∅ / s_o
h → ∅ / b_
t → ∅ / C_#
d → ∅ / Vː_#
d → ∅ / C_
ɡ → ∅ / _h
kʷ → ∅ / C_C
w → ∅ / ɡV_{l,r}
z → ∅ / _C[+voiced]
z → ∅ / _{l,r}
r…r → r…∅
n → ∅ / V[+nas]_
17.12.1.1.1 Classical Latin vs. Vulgar Latinm → ∅ / _#
h → ∅
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalanh → ∅
n → ∅ / _s
{m,n,t} → ∅ / _#
V → ∅ / ”V%C_L(C)V(C)# (irregular)
V → ∅ / ”V%L_C(C)V(C)# (irregular)
V → ∅ / ”V%s_t(C)V(C)# (irregular)
u → w → ∅ / (“when in unstressed penult or between first and tonic syllables; irregular”)
l → ∅ / {o,u}_CV
p b t d k ɡ → β {β,w} ∅ {j,w} ɣ {j,∅,ɡ} / V_rV
p k → ∅ j / V_tV
k → ∅ / Vn_tV
ɡn tj → ɲ ∅ / V_V
V → ∅ / _%”V (rare)
V → ∅ / ”V%_(C)(C)V(C)# (“irregular; e is kept before n”)
s → ∅ / V_V%”V
k ɡ → ∅ {∅,ʒ} / V_{i,e} (ɡ → ʒ is learned)
ɡ → ∅ / V_V%”V
— d → z → ∅ / V_V
iː → ∅ / _#
{i,e(ː),ae} → ∅ / _(C)#
{u(ː),o(ː)} → ∅ / _#
V → ∅ / “between first and tonic syllables; except when C_CC, _n”; “if there are multiple vowels between the initial and tonic syllables, the vowel directly before the tonic is usually dropped” ! V = a
w → ∅ / u_#
j ɡj ts z n → tʃ i w s ∅ / _#
t → ∅ / V_sV
b → m → ∅ / Vm_V
ɡ → ∅ / V_dV
C → ∅ / C1_C2 ! C2 = L
{a,o} → ∅ / #_ (rare)
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— h → ∅
— n → ∅ / _{f,v,s}
— {m,n} → ∅ / _# in polysyllables
— u → ∅ / CC_V
d → ∅ / _j
j → ∅ / V_”E
V → ∅ / in the unstressed penult
V → ∅ / intertonic ! V = a
C → ∅ / C1_C2 ! C2 = {r,l}
v → ∅ / V_B
ð → ∅ / _r
{k,ɡ} → ∅ / V_B
{k,ɡ} → ∅ / B_a
— ɡ → ∅ / _j
t → ∅ / {ʃ,s}
d → ∅ / _{z,ʒ}
j → ∅ / s_ (sː_?)
l → ∅ / {i,u}_
t → ∅ / V_#
V → ∅ / _# “(except in monosyllables or after another vowel)” ! V = a
s → ∅ / _C
{p,b} → ∅ / _{t,d}
v → ∅ / _C
v → ∅ / C_
ð → ∅
V[-high] → ə → ∅ / _V “(except that a is kept before o)”
{t,s} → ∅ / _#
k → ∅ / V[+nas]_#
{n,m} → ∅ / C_#
j → ∅ / {ʃ,ʒ}_V[-nas]
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to Italianr → ∅ / a_ju#
ɡ → ∅ / a_V
{t,d,k,m,n,s} → ∅ / _#
r → ∅ / _# (in polysyllables only)
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portugueseh → ∅
n → ∅ / _s
V → ∅ / ”V%L(C)(C)V(C)# (irregular)
V → ∅ / _L(C)(C)V(C)# (irregular)
V → ∅ ”V%s_t(C)V(C)# (irregular)
w → ∅ / _V
iː → ∅ / {k,s}_#
e → ∅ / el_#
N → ∅ / V[+nas]_$C ! C = S
N → ∅ / V[+nas]_$V
e V → o ∅ / _? (irregular)
V → ∅ / _”V (irregular)
e → ∅ / {l,n,r,s,k}_#
e → ∅ / ”{i,e}_#
{e,i} → ∅ / {l,m,r}_ when between #U and U[+stress]
{e,i} → ∅ / k_t when between #U and U[+stress]
o → ∅ / _{r,l} when between #U and U[+tonic]
ɡ → ∅ / #_l
d → ∅ / V_V
ɡ → {∅,ʒ} / V_{i,e} (ɡ → ʒ is learned)
p → ∅ / V_{t,s}V
k → ∅ / Vn_tV
j → ∅ / i_ʒV
C → ∅ / C1_C2 ! C2 = L
s l → z ∅ / V_V
a → ∅ / ”ɔ_#
j → {∅,ʒ} / V_V (j → ʒ is learned)
m → ∅ / _n
{e,i} → ∅ / {L,N}_(C)(C)V(C)#
o → ∅ / _(C)(C)V(C)#
d → ∅ / V_V (in Portugal)
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— E → ∅ / _e
— B → ∅ / _o
— V → ∅ (though /a/ seemed to resist this)
— V → ∅ / _r (seemed to be an intermittent change)
— V → ∅ (again, /a/ seemed to resist this change, which was itself generally blocked by analogy)
— V → ∅ / “penult of paroxytones”, though /a/ often remained “as an indistinct e”, probably /ə/
— V → ∅ / lv_r (dialect-dependent)
— V → ∅ / R_(C…)
K → ∅ / _l (not always, but this was a general change)
h → ∅
d → ∅ / V_V (seems to have happened in the north and northeast at some point)
ɡ → ∅ / V_(VC…)”V
j → ∅ / V_”E
N → ∅ / _#, in polysyllables
w → v → ∅ / _u (“restored by analogy in many words”)
w → v → ∅ / _”o
w → ∅ / C_B (when from earlier B?)
k → ∅ / _s{C,#} (the latter in polysyllables only)
{d,ɡ} → ∅ / _j
ð → ∅ / _#
β → {∅,f} / C_(s)# (the latter is rare)
n → ∅ / V_# (did not occur in extreme western areas, some northern areas, the southeast, and the east)
n → ∅ / _s# (except for eastern and southeastern dialects)
n → ∅ / r_(s)#?
{p,b} → ∅ / R_s# (unless blocked by analogy)
β → ∅ / when pretonic and immediately adjacent to a back vowel
ð → z (except in some northern and eastern dialects where → ∅)
j → ∅ / _”E (else)
p k tʃ b ɡ β j → b ɡ i {b,u,u→y→i} ∅ {u,u→y→i} i / _r
ð → ∅ / au_
w → ∅ / s_ ?
j → ∅ / n_# (in many dialects)
nt nd → {∅,n} ∅ / _# (in some Languedoc and Gascon areas)
t → ∅ / rd_
t → ∅ / r_m (sometimes)
k → ∅ / s_b (sporadic?)
{p,t} → ∅ / s_m (sporadic?)
p → ∅ / s_t
b → {∅,u} / _rɡ
b → ∅ / _s{t,k}
b → {∅,b} / _t
b → ∅ / _ts
tʃ k → {i,s} {∅,k} / _m
ɡ → ∅ / _m
k → ∅ / _sk (else)
p → ∅ / _f
p → ∅ / _t “except in parts of Languedoc and Gascony”
{d,l} → ∅ / _#
t → ∅ / _# ! “in the preterit of verbs”, though it tended to drop “in strong preterits”
17.12.1.1.7 Vulgar Latin to Rhaeto-Romancea V → e (= /ə/?) ∅ / in final syllables (though Friulian preserves the ending -is)
C[+ voiced] → ∅ / V_V (only for obstruents?)
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanianh → ∅
n → ∅ / _{f,v,s}
{m,n,s} → ∅ / _# in polysyllables
u → ∅ / CC_V
k → ∅ / _s#
{s,t} → ∅ / _#
w → ∅ / {k,ɡ}_
i → ∅ / OL_e
i → ∅ / {ts,dz,S}_V
lː → ∅ / _i
{b,v} → ∅ / V_{V,t}
p → ∅ / _s
c → ∅ / n_t
kj ɡj → tʃ {j,∅} (ɡj → ∅ is rare)
{n,l} → ∅ / _j
j → ∅ / r_
d → ∅ / _z
u → ∅ / o_e
u → ∅ / ! {OL,”V}_#
e → ∅ / P_a
{t,d} → ∅ / n_#
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardinian{b,v,w} → ∅ / V_V
h → ∅ / {#,C}_
m → ∅ / _#
l → ∅ / rk_ (sporadic)
w → ∅ / #k_V
k → ∅ / _t ?
e → ∅ / u_#
d → ∅ / V_{i,j}
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanish{t,k} → ∅ / _#
V → ∅ / C_{r,l} when unstressed and not at a word boundary
V → ∅ / {r,l}_C when unstressed and not at a word boundary
V → ∅ / C_s when unstressed and not at a word boundary (sporadic)
V → ∅ / s_C when unstressed and not at a word boundary (sporadic)
ʝ → {∅,ʒ} (the latter is rare)
ʝː → ∅ / E_
d → {∅,ð} / V_V
ɡ → {∅,ɣ} / V_V
V → ∅ / unstressed ! V = a
e → ∅ / V{d,s,n,l,ɾ}_#
— t → ∅ / _m
— d → ∅ / _n (sometimes)
— Vdz → ∅ / {nts,ndz,rdz_
t → ∅ / _#
h → ∅ “(just a reminder: from the f → h change above)”
h → ∅ / _d
h → ∅ / _tʰ
h → ∅ / _$
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tochariand → ∅ / _N
dz → ∅ / B_
n̩ → ə → ∅ / C_#
H → ∅ / V_V
17.13.1 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian Aj → ∅ / w_
ə → ∅ / _%
V → ∅ / _#
17.13.2 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian Bw → ∅ / _j
s → ∅ / n_#
ə → ∅ / _%, when unstressed
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.1.1 Pre-Bakairi to Eastern Bakairiʔ → ∅ / _C[+ fricative - voiced]
ɾ → ∅ / V_V, when neither vowel is stressed
18.1.2 Pre-Bakairi to Western Bakairiz → ∅ / V_V
C[+ fricative - voiced] → ∅ / ʔ_
ʒ → ∅
ɾ → ∅ / V_V, where at least one of the vowels is nasalized
18.2.1 Proto-Ofaié-Jê to Proto-Jêə → ∅ / C_CV (not sure if this happened all the time or not)
18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makurápt → ∅ / else
k → ∅ / _#
kʷ → ∅
β → ∅ / _i
h → ∅ / V_C
ʔ → ∅
ð → {∅,c} / else
j ŋʷ m n → ɲ m {m,p} {∅,t} / _V[+nas]
ɨ → ∅ / ! #_{p,β}e
18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekensβ → ∅ / i_
h → ∅ / V_C
ʔ → ∅
ɨ → ∅ / else
18.3.3 Proto-Tuparí to Tuparíkʷ ɡ → ∅ k
ɡʷ → ∅ / _o
β ð → ∅ {s,h} / _i
n → ∅ / ! #_V[-nas]
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayoróp t → ∅ l / _V
b → ∅ / V_V
h → ∅ / V_C
ʔ → ∅
18.4.1 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Akwárak b r → {ŋ,∅} {w,m} {n,r,t} / _#
ts → {h,∅}
u → ∅ / k_w
18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Cocamaʔ ts ŋ → ∅ {ts,tʃ} n
b → ∅ / _#
w → ∅ / k_w
a → ∅ / _j#
ã {ẽ,ı̃} ɨ̃ → a i ∅
18.4.3 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guajajarats → {h,∅}
b → ∅ / u_#
u → ∅ / k_w
18.4.4 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guaraník → ∅
ts → {tʃ,∅}
{b,r} → ∅ / _#
u → ∅ / k_w
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guarayo{b,k} r → ∅ {r,∅} / _#
ʔ ts → {ʔ,∅} {ts,tʃ}
18.4.6 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Kamayuráts → {h,j,∅}
18.4.7 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Parintintínk → {ŋ,∅} / _#
ts → {h,∅}
b r → {b,∅} {r,t} / _#
u → ∅ / k_w
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Sirionóp → {h,∅} / _{u,o}
p → {k,∅} / _w
k → ∅ / _#
ʔ ts → ∅ {s,ʃ}
u → ∅ / k_w
{b,r} → ∅ / _#
a → {∅,o,e} / _j#
18.4.9.1.1 Proto-Monde to Gaviãoh → ∅ / V_ (sporadic, likely an areal feature)
18.4.9.1.2 Proto-Monde to Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoróh → ∅ / V_
18.4.9.1.4 Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoró to Suruíh → ∅ / V_
18.4.9.1.5 Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoró to Zoróh → ∅ / V_
18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Urubup k → k ∅ / _w
k → {k,∅} / _#
j b → {j,i} ∅ / _#
u → ∅ / k_w
ɨ̃ ẽ õ → ∅ {ẽ,e} {o,õ,u,ũ}
19 Kartvelian19.3 Proto-Kartvelian to Zanɬ ʃ ʂ → ∅ {sk,ʃk} ʃ
20 Khoisan20.1.3 Proto-Khoe to Buga! !ˀ !̬ !̃ → k ∅ ɡ ŋɡ
20.1.4 Proto-Khoe to Kxoe! !ˀ ! !̃ → k ∅ ɡ ŋɡ
20.1.5 Proto-Khoe to Namats dz kxʼ → {ts,s} d ∅
20.1.8 Proto-Khoe to Teti! !ˀ !̬ !̃(n) !x → k ∅ ɡ ŋ x
ǁˀ ǁxʼ → {ǁˀ,∅} ǁˀ
20.1.9 Proto-Khoe to Tsʔixa! !ˀ !̬ !̃(n) !x → k ∅ ɡ ŋɡ x
20.2.1 Proto-Kx’a to ǂHoana → ∅ / _e (sporadic)
o → ∅ / u_
u → ∅ / o_
o → ∅ / a(C)_
Vn ŋ → V[+nas] ∅ / _#
20.2.2 Proto-Kx’a to Northwestern !Xuna → ∅ / #_m
i → ∅ / V_
a → ∅ / _e (sporadic)
u → ∅ / _o
o → ∅ / _u
a → ∅ / _(C)o
n → ∅ / _#
20.2.3 Proto-Kx’a to Southeastern !Xuna → ∅ / #_m
i → ∅ / V_
u → ∅ / _o
o → ∅ / _u
a → ∅ / _(C)o
n → ∅ / _#
ʔ → ∅ / _nQ
21 Lakes Plain21.1 Proto-Lakes Plain to Proto-Far Westɾ → ∅
ku →∅ / #_
CV → ∅ / _# (possibly only when CV_#, possibly sporadic)
21.1.1 Proto-Far West to Awerab d ɡ → β~w ɾ~∅ ɣ / V_V
21.2.1 Proto-Tariku to Proto-Central Tarikup k → ɸ ∅~k
21.2.1.1 Proto-Central Tariku to EdopiC → ∅ / _#
b k → m~b ∅ / #_
21.2.1.2 Proto-Central Tariku to IauCV → ∅ / _#
b k → m~b ∅ / #_
ɾ → ∅ / V_V
21.2.2 Proto-Tariku to Proto-East Tarikuɾ → ɾ~∅ / V_V
21.2.2.1 Proto-East Tariku to BiritaiC → ∅ / _#
V → ∅ / di_
k → ∅ / _V̂
21.2.2.2 Proto-East Tariku to DoutaiC → ∅ / _#
ɾ → ∅ / ! _C
21.2.2.3 Proto-East Tariku to Eritaib C → ∅ d / _#
21.2.2.4 Proto-East Tariku to KaiC → ∅ / _#
V → ∅ / di_
21.2.2.5 Proto-East Tariku to ObokuitaiV → ∅ / di_
21.2.2.6 Proto-East Tariku to Sikaritaib C → b~∅ {d,ɡ} / _#
21.2.2.7 Proto-East Tariku to WaritaiV → ∅ / di_
C → ∅ / _#
ɾ → ∅ / ! C_
k → ∅ / _V̂
21.2.3 Proto-Tariku to Proto-West Tarikuɾ → ɾ~∅ / V_V
k → k~∅
21.2.3.1 Proto-West Tariku to Deirateb d k → b~β ɾ~l~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.2 Proto-West Tariku to Faiab d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.3 Proto-West Tariku to Fayub d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.4 Proto-West Tariku to Kirikirib d k → b~β ɾ~l~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.5 Proto-West Tariku to Sehudateb d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.6 Proto-West Tariku to Tauseb d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.7 Proto-West Tariku to Weirateb d k → b~β ɾ~l~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
22 Macro-Arawakan22.2 Proto-Arawá to Banawá-Jamamadiʔ → ∅
22.4 Proto-Arawá to Jarawaraʔ → ∅
22.5 Proto-Arawá to Kulína-Deníʔ → ∅ / #_
22.6 Proto-Arawá to Sorowaháʔ → ∅ / #_, possibly everywhere?
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Chibchanw → ∅
23.1.1.1.1 Proto-Chibchan to Arhuacots h → s ∅
j → ∅ / i_V
j → {j,∅}
i → ∅ / a_
i → ∅ / C”V(C)_
i → ∅ / _(C)”V
23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to ChibchaV → ∅ / s_j (sometimes)
w → {w,∅}
j → ∅
n → {n,∅}
a → ∅ / _i, when unstressed
a → ∅ / _u
u → ∅ / _a
a {e,i} → i ∅ / C”V(C)_
i → ∅ / _(C)”V
a → ∅ / _”V
23.1.1.1.3 Proto-Chibchan to Kogis → ∅ / #_
s h → {s,tʃ} {h,∅}
n j → {n,∅} {j,∅}
i → ∅ / a_ (sometimes)
23.1.1.1.4 Proto-Chibchan to Marocaceroa → ∅ / _i
i → ∅ / C”V(C)_
i → ∅ / _(C)”V
23.1.1.1.5 Proto-Chibchan to Motilónɡ → ∅
h → ∅
d → ∅ / V_s
i → ∅ / a_ (usually; sometimes the diphthong is retained or → aj)
u → ∅ / a_
u → ∅ / _a
{u,i} → ∅ / C”V(C)_
i → ∅ / _(C)”V
e → ∅ / u_C
23.1.1.1.6 Proto-Chibchan to Tuneboɡ ɡʷ → ∅ b
m n h j → b {n,r,∅} {h,∅} {j,∅}
a → ∅ / _u
{a,i} → ∅ / C”V(C)_
i → ∅ / _(C)”V
e → ∅ / u_C
23.1.2 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Lencan{ʔ,h} → ∅
23.1.3 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Misumalpan{ʔ,h} → ∅
24 Macro-Pama-Nyungan24.1.1 Proto-Paman to AritinŋitiÉ£C → ∅ / #_
24.1.2 Proto-Paman to AwŋtimC → ∅ / #_
24.1.3 Proto-Paman to LinŋitiÉ£N → ∅ / #NV_SV
C → ∅ / #_
Vː V[-long] → V[-long] ∅ / in #U
24.1.4 Proto-Paman to MbiywomC → ∅ / #_
24.1.5 Proto-Paman to MpalicanC → ∅ / #_
24.1.7 Proto-Paman to YinwumC → ∅ / #_
25 Macro-Panoan25.1.2 Proto-Tacanan to Chamaɗ → {ʔ,∅} / ! #_
{r,*ŕ} → {∅,w,j}
25.1.3 Proto-Tacanan to Reyesano*ŕ → ∅
25.1.4 Proto-Tacanan to Tacanax → {h,∅}
*ŕ → ∅
28 Muskogean28 Muskogeank → ∅ / V_C ! penult
28.1 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Eastern MuskogeanVC[+ weak] → ∅ / _V#
28.1.1 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to AlabamakV → ∅ / V_#
k → ∅
28.1.2 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to CreekV1k → ∅ / _#
28.1.3 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to HitchitiV → ∅ / Vk_#
28.1.4 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Korasatik → ∅
28.1.5 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to MikasuriV → ∅ / Vk_#
28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western MuskogeanV → ∅ / V{k,ʔ,h}_#
i → ∅ / #(C)V(C)(C)V(C)(C)_# (sporadic in the case of other vowels)
28.2.1 Proto-Western Muskogean to Chickasawh → ∅ / _#
28.2.2 Proto-Western Muskogean to Choctawʔ → ∅/ _#
29 Na-Dene29.1 Proto-Na-Dene to Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak{s,ʃ} → ∅ / _x
29.1.1.1.12 Proto-Athabaskan to Holikachukə → ∅ / {R,F}_#
29.1.1.1.13 Proto-Athabaskan to Hupah → {h,∅}
29.1.1.1.14 Proto-Athabaskan to Lower Koyukonə → ∅ / {R,F}_#
29.1.1.1.21 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Kiowa Apached → ∅ / _#
{xʲ,j}ʔ {x,ɣ}ʔ → ∅ h(ʔ) / _#
x ɣ → h ∅ / _#
29.1.1.1.22 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Jicarillaxʲ xʔ j ɣʔ → h ʔ ∅ ʔ / E_#
29.1.1.1.23 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Lipand → ∅ / _#
xʲ j → ʃ ∅ / _#
{xʲ,j}ʔ → ∅ / _#
{x,ɣ} → ∅ / _(ʔ)#
29.1.1.1.25 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Chiricahuad → ∅ / _#
xʲ j → ʃ ∅ / _#
{xʲ,j}ʔ → ∅ / _#
{x,ɣ} → ∅ / _(ʔ)#
29.1.1.1.26 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Mescalerod → ∅
xʲ j → ʃ ∅ / _#
{xʲ,j}ʔ → ∅ / _#
{x,ɣ} → ∅ / _(ʔ)#
ʔ → ∅ / {s,ʃ,ɬ}_#
29.1.1.1.28 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to San Carlosx(ʲ) {j,ɣ} → h ∅ / _#
29.1.1.1.39 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Tanana{A,F} → ∅ / _$; diphthongs sometimes lengthen in comparison
29.1.1.1.40 Proto-Athabaskan to TsetsautC → ∅ / _$ in many cases
29.1.2 Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak to Eyaks → ∅ / _x
x → ∅ / ʃ_
29.2 Proto-Na-Dene to Tlingitx → ∅ / {s,ʃ}_
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1.1 Proto-Bantu to Sebirwap t d c ɟ k ɡ → ɸ ɹ {d,l} tʰ ∅ h {∅,ɡ}
30.1.1.2 Proto-Bantu to Tswanap t tʃ k {dʒ,ɡ} ɲ → h r tɬʰ χ ∅ n
30.1.2 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-Manenguba’p ’t ’d/d2 c {’ɟ} ’k ɡ → f l ɟ s ∅ {w,∅} {k,w} / in C1 position
p t ’t {’d,d2} c k ’k → b d l {l,∅} ɟ ɡ ∅ / in C2 position
30.2.1.1 Proto-Akanic to AkanV → ∅ / #(C)VC[-coronal]_
i → ∅ / #C_a
ı̃ → ∅ / #_ã
30.3.1.1.6 Proto-Phla-Pherá to Aladaj → ∅ / {ʃ,ʒ}_
30.3.1.1.11 Proto-Vhe to Kpándoj → ∅ / {ts,dz}_
31 Nyulnyulan31.1 Proto-Nyulnyulan to Bardi{w,j} → ∅ / #_
{w,j} → ∅ / V0_V0
i{w,j} → ∅ / _a, when unstressed
j → ∅ / i_
ɲ → ∅ / _#
ib → ∅ / _i, when unstressed
V0 → ∅ / V(C)(C)V0(C)(C)_# (with some exceptions)
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinoʔ → ∅ (?)
32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to Tlapanecʔ → ∅ / #_
33 Penutian33.2.3 Proto-Wintuan to South Patwinχ → ∅ (?)
34 Quechumaran34.1 Proto-Quechumaran to Ayachucoh → ∅ / {p,t,k,q}_
34.2 Proto-Quechumaran to Boliviaʂ → ∅ / _u
j → ∅ / i_{a,u}
j → ∅ / u_ʎ
34.3 Proto-Quechumaran to Cuzcoh → ∅ / nq_
h → ∅ / #q_{i,u}
34.4 Proto-Quechumaran to Huarásh → ∅ / p_
34.5 Proto-Quechumaran to Putamayoh → ∅ / ts_
h → ∅ / #_
34.6 Proto-Quechumaran to Quitoh → ∅ / ts_
34.7 Proto-Quechumaran to Riobambah → ∅ / ts_
34.8 Proto-Quechumaran to Santiagoh → ∅ / {p,t,k}_
ʂ → ∅ / _{a,i}
h → ∅ / #_
w → ∅ / V_V
j → ∅ / i_{a,u}
j → ∅ / u_ʎ
34.9 Proto-Quechumaran to Tenah → ∅ / ts_
h → ∅ / #_
w → ∅ / #_i
35 Salishan35.1.1 Proto-Central Salish to Comoxs → ∅ / #_C
s → ∅ / #_{wa,wi}
ʔ → ∅ V3_RV
ʔ → ∅ V3R_V
35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack Halkomelemʔn → ∅ / m_
ʔ → ∅ / V1_#
ʔ → ∅ / VR_V3
ʔ → ∅ / V1_#
35.1.4 Proto-Central Salish to Musqueam Halkomelemʔn → ∅ / m_
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to Nooksackn → ∅ / mʔ_
ʔ → ∅ / VR_V3
ʔ → ∅ / V3R_{C,#}
ʔ → ∅ / V1R_#
ʔ → ∅ / V1_#
35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straitsmʔ → ∅ / _n
ʔ → ∅ / V3l_nV
ʔ → {∅,ʔ} / V3R_{C,#}
35.1.12 Proto-Central Salish to Pentlatchʔ → ∅ / V3_O
ʔ → ∅ / V3R_{V,#}
{i11} → {i1,∅}
35.1.13 Proto-Central Salish to Secheltʔ → ∅ / m_n
ʔ → ∅ / V_V3
ʔ → ∅ / V1_#
{i11} → {i1,∅}
35.1.14 Proto-Central Salish to Sqamishn → ∅ / mʔ_
{i11} → {i1,∅}
35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to Twanaʔ → ∅ / V1R_#
ʔ → ∅ / V3R_C
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1 Proto-Sino-Tibetan to Middle Chineser → ∅ / C_-
l → ∅ / s_-
w → r → ∅ / P_-
36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old Mandarinxɦ → ∅ / _j(w){?,ia,a(ta)}
? → ∅
ɦ → ∅ / else
i → ∅ / C(w)_a
ŋ → ∅ / #_ ! #_o(w)
{p,t} → ∅ / V_
w → ∅ / C̣Cʲ_?w (“optional”)
w → ∅ / w?_
36.1.1.1 Old Mandarin to Modern Pekingeseŋ → ∅ / #_
ʔ → ∅
j → ∅ / jî_
v → ∅
j → ∅ / C̣_
j → ∅ / C_weŋ
36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàŋ → ∅ / _{i,j,w,y}
ŋ → ∅ / _u / _V
ʔ → ∅ / _{j,i,y}
ʔ → ∅ / _u (not always? Perhaps some variation with [ɣ] here?)
36.3.1.2 Proto-Naish to Mosuo (Na)S{b,ɡ} Sk → ∅ h
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to NaxiN → ∅ / _pV
{r,s} → ∅ / %_V
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Lan → ∅ / a_
ŋ → ∅ / i_
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiar → ∅ / _t
N → ∅ / _ɡ
w → ∅ / ŋ_
j → ∅ / n_
s → ∅ / u_
{k,j} → ∅ / i_
36.3.2.1.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Hanniuk → ∅ / {u,a}_
t → ∅ / i_
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Toj → ∅ / {ʃ,r}n_
{ŋ,j} → ∅ / i_
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtsel → ∅ / #ç_
36.3.2.2.3 Proto-rGyalrongic to Patin → ∅ / a_
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Moɡ → ∅ / #_r
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Naoj → ∅ / i_
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu Taɡ → ∅ / _r
s → ∅ / u_
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassuɡ ç → ∅ zɡ / _r
t → ∅ / a_
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoianw → ∅ / _{o,õ,ı̃}
k → ∅ / t_
p → ∅ / C_ ! s_
x → ∅ / _k
ʔ → ∅ / C_
37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeew → ∅ / h_i
w → ∅ / t(h)_
V → ∅ / C_hC
{n,r} → ∅ / _j
t → ∅ / _{k,n}
t → ∅ / n_
j → ∅ / ts_
s → ∅ / #h_V
37.1.2 Proto-Iroquoian to Proto-Northern Iroquoianh → ∅ / #_s
n → ∅ / _ti
t → ∅ / n_V
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayugah → ∅ / _nh
ʔ → ∅ / _nk(ʷ)
j → ∅ / ts_
h → ∅ / s_w
r → ∅ / VH_
r → ∅ / _H
r → ∅ / w_
r → ∅ / V_V
R → ∅ / ʔ_#
C → ∅ / {s,k}_#
Ch → ∅ / _s#
h → ∅ / Vː_#
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huronn → ∅ / t(h)_
n → ∅ / _s
n → ∅ / _i “(in pronominal prefixes only)”
k → ∅ / _n
t → ∅ / _k(ʷ)
j → ∅ / ts_
j → ∅ / #_V
j → ∅ / V_{V,#}
{r,w} → ∅ / _j
w → ∅ / #_
w → ∅ / _{r,#}
h → ∅ / #_w
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandot{ʔ,h} → ∅ / _nh
h → ∅ / {t,ts,s,k}_
x → ∅ / _{i,j}
x → ∅
k → ∅ / _#
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagan → ∅ / _s
n → ∅ / h_r
h → ∅ / w_j
r → ∅
h → ∅ / _sn
h → ∅ / _{k,t,ts,s}#
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneidan → ∅ / _s
ʔ → ∅ / ”Vː[+falling tone]_C
h → ∅ / ”Vː[+falling tone]_R
h → ∅ / _#
h → ∅ / #_w
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to MohawkV0 → ∅ / ”VC(C)(C)V0ʔ_C(C)(C)#
w → ∅ / _jh
h → ∅ / w_j
— j → ∅ / ts_
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneidaʔ → ∅ / ”Vː_
h → ∅ / _Ch
h → ∅ / k_{s,ts}
h → ∅ / _{sk,st}
h → ∅ / {st,tst}_
h → ∅ / ts_r ! “in pre-pausal forms, see also below”
{h,ʔ} → ∅ / _R “in post-tonic syllables”
— jV → ∅ / Ci_(H)#
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecan → ∅ / _s
j → ∅ / _ts
h → ∅ / _{tk,nh,sC,C#}
h → ∅ / #_w
h → ∅ / w_j
hw → ∅ / õ_
w → ∅ / _{r,j}
r → ∅ / Vh_
h → ∅ / V_V
r → ∅
ʔ → ∅ / _nk(ʷ)
R → ∅ / _h
C → ∅ / s_#
C[-glottal] → ∅ / _s#
k → ∅ / _hts
t → ∅ / k_#
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscaroraj → ∅ / tʃ_
ˀt → ∅ / _t
h → ∅ / _nh
h → ∅ / #_w
h → ∅ / k_{s,ts,tʃ}
h → ∅ / Vː_#
w → ∅ / _jh
37.1.2.6.1 Tuscarora to Western Tuscaroraw → ∅ / _j
37.1.2.6.2 Tuscarora to Eastern Tuscarorar → ∅ / st_
37.2 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Siouan{t,h} → ∅ / s_
h → ∅ / V_C
s → ∅ / h_
ʔ → ∅ / V_
37.2.1 Proto-Siouan to Catawbat → ∅ / _k, when medial
37.2.2 Proto-Siouan to Dakotat → ∅ / _k, when medial
k → ∅ / _x”V
37.2.3 Proto-Siouan to Mandant → ∅ / _s
r → ∅ / k_
t → ∅ / _k, when medial
37.2.4 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Čiwere-Winnebagow → ∅ / _t
m → ∅ / _n ! _n#
37.2.4.1 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Čiwerek → ∅ / #t_
x → ∅ / _k
x → ∅ / k_”V
37.2.4.2 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to WinnebagoV → ∅ / _#
t → ∅ / _k, when medial
37.2.5 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Crow-Hidatsat → ∅ / _k, when medial
37.2.5.1 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Crowʔ → ∅ / _C
x → ∅ / k_”V
37.2.5.2 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Hidatsaʔ → ∅ / C_
r → ∅ / {C,V}k_{C,V}
37.2.6 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Dhegihaw → ∅ / _t
k → ∅ #t_ (in morphemes)
37.2.6.2 Proto-Dhegiha to Omaha-Poncak → ∅ / _ʔ
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to Osageʔ → ∅ / p_
m → ∅ / #_n
37.2.6.4 Proto-Dhegiha to Quapawm → ∅ / #_n (in morphemes) (*)
37.2.7 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Ohio-Valleym → ∅ / {C,V}_n{C,V}
{w,m} → ∅ / _t
37.2.7.1 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Biloxiw → ∅ / #_ (sporadic)
ʔ → ∅ / C_
m → ∅ / #_n
k → ∅ / #t_
k → ∅ / ”Vs_
k → ∅ / _x”V
37.2.7.2 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Ofow → ∅ / #_ (sporadic)
ʔ → ∅ / C_
m → ∅ / #_n
k → ∅ / #t_
37.2.7.3 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Tuteloʔ → ∅ / C_
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.1 Proto-Tai to Ahomw → ∅ / m_
{l,r} → ∅ / {d,ɗ}_
tʰ → ∅ / _r
x → ∅ / _r
38.1.1.2 Proto-Tai to Saekw → ∅ / m_
{l,r} → ∅ / {n,ɗ}_
l → ∅ / tʰ_
38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Tai{l,r} → ∅ / n,ɗ_
l → ∅ / p_{ɯ,e,i}
l → ∅ / t_
d → ∅ / _{l,r}
{l,r} → ∅ / ŋ_
38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchowɨ → ∅ / _u
38.1.1.3.3 Central Tai to Tayɡ → ∅ / _l
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Tail → ∅ / p(ʰ),b_E
{l,r} → ∅ / ɗ_
n → ∅ / _r
38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-Aiɨ → ∅ / _u
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Taiw → ∅ / m_
l → ∅ / {p,k(ʰ),ŋ}_
{l,r} → ∅ / t,ɗ_
d → ∅ / _{l,r}
38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lüʔ → ∅ / _j
39 Tanoan39.1 Proto-Tanoan to Jimezh → ∅
39.2 Proto-Tanoan to Kiowaʔ → ∅
40 Totozoquean40.2 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Totonacanʔ → ∅
h → ∅ / ! #_
41 Trans-New Guinea41.1 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Apalɨ{p,t} → ∅ / _#
41.2 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Asmatk s → ∅ {t,s} / #_
41.3 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Binandereŋ ᵑɡ → ∅ ɡ / #_
41.5.1.3 Proto-Gorokan to South ForeC → ∅ / VN_V
41.5.1.5 Proto-Gorokan to Gimiʔ → ∅ / _#
41.5.1.8 Proto-Gorokan to MoveV[+ low tone] → ∅ / C_hV[+ high tone]
V[+ low tone] → ∅ / C_CV[+ high tone] if both vowels are the same
41.5.1.9 Proto-Gorokan to SianeC → ∅ / _#
41.5.2.1 Proto-Kainantu to AuyanaN → ∅ / _#
r → ∅ / _S[- voice]
41.5.2.2 Proto-Kainantu to AwaN → ∅ / _{p,t,#}
ʔ → ∅ / _{p,t}
41.5.2.3 Proto-Kainantu to GadsupN → ∅ / _N
{D,Y} → ∅ / _n
41.6 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kalamt → {t,∅} / _#
41.8 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kiwait k ᵐb → {s,t} {ɡ,∅} {b,p} / #_
42 Uralic42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnici → ∅ / æw_
i → ∅ / Aj_#
i → ∅ / {o,u}j_
j → ∅ / C_i{C,#}
n → ∅ / _tː
w → ∅ / o_st (*)
n → ∅ / _{s,ts}
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishi → ∅ / {VC,ks}_ at the ends of a suffix
e → ∅ / C[+coronal]_%
ʋ → ∅ / #_{o,u,y}
j → ∅ / _i (*)
{p,t,k} → ∅ / _st
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnisht → ∅ / s_r
ʋ → ∅ / _UC
ð → ∅ / ! ”V(X)_
ɣ → ∅ / else
h → ∅ / V[-stress](X)_V
42.1.1.1.2 Standard Finnish to Modern Standard Finnishn → ∅ / _#
d → ∅ / _r “in inherited vocabulary”
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livonianh → ∅ / {#,C}_
ə → ∅ / _#
ə → ∅ / VC_CV
ʋ → ∅ / {d,z}_
ʋ → ∅ / C_
43 Uto-Aztecan43.1 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Comanchep t ts s → v r ∅ h
s → ∅ / Vn_
{w,j} → ∅ / medial
43.2 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Hopil h → n ∅ / medially
43.3 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Luiseñoʔ → ∅ / #_
V → ∅ / “in some final syllables (conditions are unknown and it varies by dialect)”
43.4 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Nahuatlp → ∅ / {#,Vs}_
{ʔ,h} → ∅
w → ∅ / _o
43.5.1.1 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Kawaiisuh → ∅ / V_tsV
h → ∅ / _{n,s,ʔ}
k → ∅ / V_wV
43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhamV → ∅ / “when in the first syllable of a bisyllabic morpheme, if after a morpheme boundary in the word (all other first-syllable vowels have non-zero reflexes)”
i → ∅ / ts_#
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to BasqueSʰ → F → h (→ ∅) / #_
{ɾ,r} → ∅ / #_
C → ∅ / r_
ɾ → ∅ / V_V (Souletin)
b → ∅ / #_B (a few exceptions, mostly before _u)
F[+ voiced] → ∅ / V_V (sometimes, usually involving “compound surnames”?)
{w,y} → ∅ / _ja
e → ∅ / #_ (Navarrese, rare)
a → ∅ / _V
V → ∅ / Vj_
h → ∅ (western dialects)
h…h → ∅…h (“affect[s] both the oral /h/ and the nasalized aspiration”)
— V → ∅ / S_{ɾ,l} (more common in Roncalese and Salazarese, but also in Navarrese and Aescoan?)
— V → ∅ / C[+ sibilant]_ɾ (Roncalese and Salazarese)
— V → ∅ / {O,ɾ,r}_O (Roncalese, Salazarese, Navarrese, Aescoan)
e → ∅ / #Ur_
a → ∅ / V_# (Guipuscoan; happens because of reanalysis of the definite article)
V → ∅ / _#, in trisyllables
i → ∅ / _#, in disyllables
u {o,e} → ∅ a / _#, in disyllables (eastern dialects)
e → ∅ / #_e
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.1 Proto-Pai to Chapaitʃ → ∅ / _xʷ
ʔ → ∅ / _{ɲ,j}
{w,j} → ∅ / a_
45.1.2 Proto-Pai to Paipain → ∅ / _t
ʔ → ∅ / _ɲ
45.1.3 Proto-Pai to Tipait → ∅ / n_
tʃ → ∅ / _xʷ
46 Vowel Shifts46.11 Middle Chinese to Cantonese Vowel Shift (“The Inner-Outer Flip”)ə → ∅ / i_{ŋ,k}
a → ə → ∅ / i_u
ə → ∅ / W_
W → ∅ / C_
46.14 Pre-Slavic Vowel Changesi → ı̆ [ə?] → {e,a} (strong)/∅ (weak) “in modern languages”
u → ŭ [ɤ?] → {e,o,ɤ,a} (strong)/∅ (weak) “in modern languages”
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.2 List 2: Conditional or complex consonant changes{t,k} → ∅ / V_V (Marathi) probably with voiced stops as intermediates, since they also became silent

with context involving /∅/

3 matches

36 Sino-Tibetan36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàuj → uɛi / {P,C[+guttural],∅}_
juŋ → iuŋ / _{∅,x,ʋ,ʔ}
yʔ → ioʔ (→ iʊʔ dialectally?) / {∅,C[+guttural]}_, in -k-types