Index Diachronica: involving /N/

198 results from /N/   45 results to /N/   111 results with context involving /N/   

plain

from /N/

198 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-OmoticVNC → VːC[+voiced]
6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North OmoticN → ∅ / V_{C[+sibilant],p}
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River AbenakiN → ∅ / _O
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis AbenakiN → ∅ / _RO
7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapaho(V[-long])N → ∅ / _#
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventre(V[-long])N → ∅ / _#
7.6 Proto-Algonquian to Northern East CreeN → h / _S
7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East CreeN → h / _S
7.8 Proto-Algonquian to Plains CreeN → h / _S
7.9 Proto-Algonquian to Swampy CreeN → h / _S
7.10 Proto-Algonquian to Woods CreeN → h / _S
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to MenomineeN → h / _{O,r}
7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-IllinoisVNs VNʃ → V[+nas]z V[+nas]ʒ / not universal?
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaq{ʔ,h,N} → ∅ / _C
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to ShawneeN → ∅ / _O
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-JaponicN → {m,n}
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkic{N,l,r,ʃ,z} → ∅ / #_
9 Austroasiatic9.1.1 Proto-Vietic to Muong KhenN[-voiced] W[-voiced] → N[+voiced] W[+voiced]
9.1.2 Proto-Vietic to Middle VietnameseN[-voiced] W[-voiced] → N[+voiced] W[+voiced]
10 Austronesian10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to KiputNS[-voice] → Sː
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma LónghN → ∅ / _S “(sporadic)”
10.3.5 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-New CaledoniaNS → ⁿS
10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to CaaàcN → ∅ / _#
10.3.5.3 Proto-New Caledonia to Nemi-Pije-FwaiONV → SʰṼ / Pije and Fwai
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-NêlêmwaSN → N[- voice]
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to NyelâyuSN → N[- voice]
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-YunagaSN → N[- voice]
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Onganɟ ɡ *N *R → {ɟ,j} {ɟ,ɡ} {l,j} {l,r}
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to OngeN → n / _{d,l}
13 Chumashan13.3 Proto-Chumash to InseñoˀN ˀw → N w
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.1 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to NafriN → ŋ / _#
16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central SentaniN → m / _#
16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern SentaniN → m / _#
16.1.4 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Western SentaniN → ŋ / _#
16.1.5 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to TablaN → ŋ / _#
17 Indo-European17.2.3 Common Anatolian to LycianN{F[+voice],T} → nD
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh ArmenianNs sN → s N
N → w / S_S
VN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
N → n / _#, in monosyllables
N̩ → n / _#
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan ArmenianNs sN → s N
N → w / S_S
VN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
N → n / _#, in monosyllables
N̩ → n / _#
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul ArmenianNs sN → s N
N → w / S_S
VN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
N → n / _#, in monosyllables
N̩ → n / _#
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert ArmenianNs sN → s N
N → w / S_S
VN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
N → n / _#, in monosyllables
N̩ → n / _#
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia ArmenianNs sN → s N
N → w / S_S
VN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
N → n / _#, in monosyllables
N̩ → n / _#
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast ArmenianNs sN → s N
N → w / S_S
VN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
N → n / _#, in monosyllables
N̩ → n / _#
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest ArmenianNs sN → s N
N → w / S_S
VN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
N → n / _#, in monosyllables
N̩ → n / _#
17.7.2.1 West Germanic to Anglo-FrisianVN → Ṽː / _F
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to ScotsN → ∅ / _C ! _%C
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old NorseVN → Ṽ / _# ! in #U
NS[- voice] → S[- voice]ː
uN yN iN VN → o øː eː Vː / _{s,f}
N(ː) k k(ː) N(ː)ɡ ɡ(ː) ɣ → ɲc(ː) c(ː) ɲɟ(ː) ɟ(ː) ʝ / _{i,j}
N(ː) k k(ː) N(ː)ɡ ɡ(ː) ɣ → ɲc(ː) c(ː) ɲɟ(ː) ɟ(ː) ɟ / _{i,j}
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early IcelandicN → N[- voice] / O_#
17.10 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iranian{e,o,o2,N̊} → a
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-AryanVN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-AryanVN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-AryanVN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-AryanVN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavic{O,N} → ∅ / _$
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to PortugueseN → ∅ / V[+nas]_$C ! C = S
N → ∅ / V[+nas]_$V
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old ProvençalVN → Vː / _S (except for the prefixes con-, in-); I’m assuming this change happened in Vulgar Latin and then vowel length went to quality
N → ∅ / _#, in polysyllables
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.1.1 Pre-Bakairi to Eastern BakairiVNV → ṼṼ / ! _(C)#
18.1.2 Pre-Bakairi to Western BakairiV[- stress]NV → ṼṼ
18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to CocamaeN → y / _#
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to GuarayoaN eN iN ɨN uN → ã ẽ ı̃ ɨ̃ ũ / _#
18.4.7 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to ParintintíneN → ı̃ / _#
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to SirionóaN eN iN ɨN uN → ã ẽ ı̃ {ɨ̃,ĩ} õ / _#
18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to UrubuaN iN uN → {aN,ã} ı̃ {uN,ũ} / _#
24 Macro-Pama-Nyungan24.1.2 Proto-Paman to Awŋtim(N)S → F / #(C)V_
24.1.3 Proto-Paman to LinŋitiÉ£(N)S → F / #(C)V_
N → ∅ / #NV_SV
24.1.5 Proto-Paman to MpalicanNVS → VⁿS / #_
24.1.6 Proto-Paman to Uraði(N)S → F / #(C)V_
24.1.7 Proto-Paman to YinwumNVS → VⁿS / #_
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-BantuS[+ lenis] N[+ lenis] → S[- lenis] N[- lenis] / in C1 position
N[+ lenis] N[-lenis] → N[- lenis] ⁿS / in C2 position
30.1.1.1 Proto-Bantu to SebirwaNC → C[-voiced] / #_ (in nouns)
NC → N[+same POA]C / #_ (in verbs)
30.1.2 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-ManengubaN[+ lenis] → N[- lenis] / in C1 position
30.2 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Potou-Akanic(N)V1[+mid +nas](l̃) → CV[-nas]n
30.2.1.1 Proto-Akanic to AkanN → S (I’m not sure what’s going on here in the paper, but here it is presented anyway for your enjoyment)
35 Salishan35.2.2 Proto-Interior Salish to Thompson Nasal-to-Vowel ShiftsN[- glottalized] → e / _O[+ same POA] “‘in primary forms’”
36 Sino-Tibetan36.3.1.1 Proto-Naish to Lazea u i iN → e y ɯ i / T_%
iN → æ / {P,C}r_%
{Np,mb} → b / _V (the paper implies similar developments occurred at other POAs)
{r,s}p(ʰ) {r,s}{Np,(m)b} → f v / _V (the paper implies similar developments occurred at other POAs)
{r,s}k {r,s}Nk → f w / _V
N̥V → hṼ
36.3.1.2 Proto-Naish to Mosuo (Na)iN → æ / {P,C}r_
{iN,u} i → i ɯ / T_
{Np,mb} → b / _V
{r,s}pʰ {r,s}{(N)p,(m)b} → pʰ p b / _V (the paper implies similar developments occurred with stops at other POAs)
{r,s}k {r,s}Nk → k ʁ / _V
N̥V → hṼ
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to Naxia iN {i,u} → e ɚɯ / T_%
iN → ɚ / {P,C}r_%
N → ∅ / _pV
{r,s}pʰ {r,s}(N)p {r,s}b {r,s}mb → pʰ p b mb / _V (the paper implies similar developments occurred with stops at other POAs)
{r,s}(N)k → k / _V
{r,s}N → N̥ → hṼ → hV
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Lap b çp çb sP rP Np Nb pr {br,pj} bj → pʰ p ʝb çp sp rpʰ mpʰ mb br pʰj pj
t d Nt Nd st sd çT tr (ç)dr KT → tʰ t Ntʰ md zd st çtj trh (ç)tr kt
k sk kr ɡ Pɡ sɡ Nɡ (s)ɡr çK rK Kç → kʰ zɡw dr Nɡ pk sk mk (s)kr çk rɡj ɡçkr
(ʔ)kj (s)ɡj Nkj → (k)tç (s)kj Ndʒ
çr Nç → dr mkʰj
NTS PTS KTS sTS çTS → {Ndz,mts} kts(ʰ) ptsʰ sts {sts,rj}
N → m / _{ŋ.nj}
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiap çp (ç)b rP Np Nb pr {br,pj} → p. ç.w (ç)p rp. kj m.p n.br p.j
t st tr d sd (ç)dr Nt çT KT → t. s.d tr. t s.t (ç.)tr m.t. n.dr ɡ.t
N → ∅ / _ɡ
kj Nkj ʔkj ɡj sɡj → kj. nj ɡ.tsʰ kj skj.
Nç → n.pj.
N → m. / _ŋ
Nn → m / _j
36.3.2.1.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to HanniuNTS → mnj
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Tok (N)ɡ → k. (m)k
Nkj ɡj sɡj → mj ts stʃj
C[+ sibilant]w ç Pç Nç çl → s ʂ ʃ mʃ ʃl
ts {dz,KTS} NTS rdz dzl dʒ → s ts {dz,mtʃ.} rts tsl tʃ.
ŋ(w) N{ŋ,nj} → ȵ mɳ
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtse(N)p Nb sP çp çb pr br {p,b}j → (m)pʰ (m)p sp ʝb çp br pʰj pʰj
(N)t (N)d st sd KT çT tr dr çtr → (N)tʰ mt zd st kt çt(j) trh tr çtr
(P)ɡ sɡ çK Nɡ k sk rk (s)ɡj (ʔ)kj → (p)k sk çk mk kʰ zɡ Nɡ (s)kj (ʔ)kʰj
Nkj (s)ɡr Kç kr skr ɡr → mɡj (s)kr ɡçkr kʰr zɡr Nɡr
N P K → m p k / _ç
ts (r)dz dzl dʒ NTS PTS Kts KTS sTS çTS → tsʰ (r)ts Ndz tsl ts ptç ktç kts sts {s,ç}ts
N → m / _{ŋ,ɲ}
36.3.2.2.3 Proto-rGyalrongic to Patits dʒ NTS → {s,tʃ.} tʃ. m
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Mo{p,b} Np pr {s,r}P çb Nb → p mp mbr sp ʃp p.s
Nt tr d KT çT → mt. tʂ t kt ʃt
lts rts NTS PTS STS → lɖʐ rts. {mdzr,mtʃ} nt. sts
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku NaoNb → p.
k {sɡ,çK} Nɡ rK → k. sk mɡ nk
(P)ç Nç çl → (b)ɕ np.j ʂl
ts dz NTS KTS sTS → tʃ ts {ts,m} ɡts sp
Nnj → mɲ
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu TaNp Nb Nt Nɡ Nç → sts mp mtʰ mk ntsʰdz
k rk kr kj Nkj ɡr → kʰdz nɡ kʰr tʃh dʒ nkʰr
NTS KTS lTS → mʈʂ {kts,ʈʂʰ} bɖʐ
Nnj → mɲ ?
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassuts dzl NTS → {tʃ.,j} tsl m
Nnj çnj → mn ʃn
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.2.6.1 Proto-Dhegiha to KansaN → S / V_V
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.1 Proto-Tai to AhomN[- voice] l̥ → N[+ voice] l
38.1.1.2 Proto-Tai to SaekN[- voice] → N[+ voice]
38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central TaiN[- voice] → N[+ voice]
41 Trans-New Guinea41.5.1.1 Proto-Gorokan to AsaroNl → nd
N → N[+ same POA] / _S
41.5.1.2 Proto-Gorokan to North ForeN → ŋk / _V
N → ʔ / _S[- voice]
Nw Nm N{n,j} → ŋk mp nt
41.5.1.3 Proto-Gorokan to South ForeN → ʔ / _{V,S[- voice]}
Nw Nm N{n,j} → ŋk mp nt
41.5.1.6 Proto-Gorokan to Hua{N,r} → ʔ / _{#,C}
41.5.1.8 Proto-Gorokan to MoveN → ʔ / _{#,C}
41.5.1.9 Proto-Gorokan to Siane{N,r} → ʔ / _C
41.5.2.1 Proto-Kainantu to AuyanaN → [+ same POA] / _C
N{w,d,r} nj → ŋk nt (not sure if *nj is supposed to be *ɲɟ)
N → ∅ / _#
41.5.2.2 Proto-Kainantu to AwaN → n / _{v,k,s}
N → ∅ / _{p,t,#}
Nd → n
41.5.2.3 Proto-Kainantu to GadsupN → ∅ / _N
N → [+ same POA] / _C
41.5.2.4 Proto-Kainantu to UsarufaN1N2 → N2ː ?
N → ʔ / _O
N → n / _V
N{w,r} Nj → ʔk ʔt
44 Vasconic44.1 Proto-Vasconic to AquitanianN → [+ same POA] / _S
44.2 Proto-Basque to BasqueN → [+ same POA] / _C

to /N/

45 matches

9 Austroasiatic9.1.1 Proto-Vietic to Muong KhenN[-voiced] W[-voiced] → N[+voiced] W[+voiced]
9.1.2 Proto-Vietic to Middle VietnameseN[-voiced] W[-voiced] → N[+voiced] W[+voiced]
10 Austronesian10.1.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Bali-Sasak-SumbawanHəS → (h)ə(N)S / #_
10.2.4.1 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to JavaneseHəS → (h)əNS
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to MadureseHəS → (h)əNS / #_
10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to CaaàcⁿS → N / _#
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-NêlêmwaⁿS → N / _#
SN → N[- voice]
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to NyelâyuⁿS → N / _#
SN → N[- voice]
ⁿS → N / _Ṽ
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-YunagaSN → N[- voice]
ⁿS → N / _#
13 Chumashan13.3 Proto-Chumash to InseñoˀN ˀw → N w
17 Indo-European17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh ArmenianNs sN → s N
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan ArmenianNs sN → s N
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul ArmenianNs sN → s N
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert ArmenianNs sN → s N
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia ArmenianNs sN → s N
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast ArmenianNs sN → s N
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest ArmenianNs sN → s N
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishp t k kʷ b d ɡ m n l r s → f θ x xʷ v ð ɣ M N L R h / V(#)_{R,V} (“We don’t know the exact values of lenited /m n l r/. We can guess that lenited m became a nasalized labial continuant of some sort, but beyond that, we don’t know.”)
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early IcelandicN → N[- voice] / O_#
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishɛ̃ ɔ̃ → ɛ̃N ɔ̃N / _{S,A}
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to UrubuaN iN uN → {aN,ã} ı̃ {uN,ũ} / _#
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-BantuS[+ lenis] N[+ lenis] → S[- lenis] N[- lenis] / in C1 position
N[+ lenis] N[-lenis] → N[- lenis] ⁿS / in C2 position
30.1.1.1 Proto-Bantu to SebirwaNC → N[+same POA]C / #_ (in verbs)
30.1.2 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-ManengubaN[+ lenis] → N[- lenis] / in C1 position
36 Sino-Tibetan36.3.1.1 Proto-Naish to Laze{r,s}l {r,s}n → l̥ N̥ / %_V
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to Naxi{r,s}N → N̥ → hṼ → hV
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Lat d Nt Nd st sd çT tr (ç)dr KT → tʰ t Ntʰ md zd st çtj trh (ç)tr kt
k sk kr ɡ Pɡ sɡ Nɡ (s)ɡr çK rK Kç → kʰ zɡw dr Nɡ pk sk mk (s)kr çk rɡj ɡçkr
(ʔ)kj (s)ɡj Nkj → (k)tç (s)kj Ndʒ
NTS PTS KTS sTS çTS → {Ndz,mts} kts(ʰ) ptsʰ sts {sts,rj}
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtse(N)t (N)d st sd KT çT tr dr çtr → (N)tʰ mt zd st kt çt(j) trh tr çtr
(P)ɡ sɡ çK Nɡ k sk rk (s)ɡj (ʔ)kj → (p)k sk çk mk kʰ zɡ Nɡ (s)kj (ʔ)kʰj
Nkj (s)ɡr Kç kr skr ɡr → mɡj (s)kr ɡçkr kʰr zɡr Nɡr
ts (r)dz dzl dʒ NTS PTS Kts KTS sTS çTS → tsʰ (r)ts Ndz tsl ts ptç ktç kts sts {s,ç}ts
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.2.6.1 Proto-Dhegiha to Kansaũ → aN / stressed
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.1 Proto-Tai to AhomN[- voice] l̥ → N[+ voice] l
38.1.1.2 Proto-Tai to SaekN[- voice] → N[+ voice]
38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central TaiN[- voice] → N[+ voice]
41 Trans-New Guinea41.5.1.1 Proto-Gorokan to AsaroN → N[+ same POA] / _S
41.5.2.4 Proto-Kainantu to UsarufaN1N2 → N2ː ?

with context involving /N/

111 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North Omotice → i / #N_C
6.1.1.1 North Omotic to Benchl → n / #_VN
6.1.1.6 North Omotic to Wolayttal → n / #_VN
6.1.1.8 North Omotic to Zayse-Zergullal → n / #_VN
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabic∅ → F / N_{O,r} ! m_f
7 Algonquian7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-IllinoisC[-voiced] → C[+voiced] / N_
S → ⁿS / #NV_ (sporadic)
10 Austronesian10.1.1.3 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to SumbawanS[+ voice] → ∅ / _N
S[+ voice] → ∅ / N_
10.2.3 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-MalayicH → {∅,h} / _əNS / #_
10.2.6.2 Proto-North Sarawak to Proto-KenyahCV → ∅ / _NCVC “(in reduplications)”
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lónghb d dz ɡ → p t c k / N_
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to NyelâyuV → Ṽ / _N
10.3.5.8.1 Proto-Yunaga to Yunaga 1V → Ṽ / _N#
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Ongane → ə / _N when unstressed ! Ḱ_ (?; included here based on a comment earlier in the paper, but not listed on the correspondence list)
10.5.1 Proto-Ongan to Jarawae → ə / _N, when unstressed (?)
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to Ongee → ə / _N, when unstressed (?)
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamil∅ → ɨ / _N#
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow Iñupiaq{p,v} t {k,ɣ} → m n ŋ / _N
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic Iñupiaq{p,v} t {k,ɣ} → m n ŋ / _N
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie Iñupiaq{p,v} t {k,ɣ} → m n ŋ / _N
15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales Iñupiaq{p,v} t {k,ɣ} → m n ŋ / _N
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’ik∅→ n / #_iN (This one is sort of a guess, given a singular example in the text that isn’t really commented upon)
17 Indo-European17.2.2 Common Anatolian to Luwiank → ∅ / _N
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to Lydiand → t / {#,N}_
T → D / N_
{e,a,o} → ē / _N in ”U[+closed]
{e,a,o} → ā / _N in ”U[+open]
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenianɛ o → i u / _N
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
r → rː / _N
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenianɛ o → i u / _N
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
r → rː / _N
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenianɛ o → i u / _N
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
r → rː / _N
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenianɛ o → i u / _N
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
r → rː / _N
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenianɛ o → i u / _N
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
r → rː / _N
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenianɛ o → i u / _N
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
r → rː / _N
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenianɛ o → i u / _N
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
r → rː / _N
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— p → w / B_N
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishɡʷ → b / #_N
Vː → V / _N#; “[i]t is thought that the long vowel probably needed to be unstressed- again, this is uncertain”
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshe → i / _N
17.7.2.1 West Germanic to Anglo-Frisiana → ɑ̃ / _N (short only)
aː → æː / ! _N or if nasalized
a → æ / ! _N or if nasalized, or if *B or *ã in next syllable
17.7.2.1.4 Midlands Middle English to Early Modern Englishɑʊ → ɑː / _N (sometimes)
17.7.2.1.5 Early Modern English to American Englishæ → æː (e.g., NYC) or ɑː (e.g., Boston) / _{F[-voiced],N[-voiced]} (“words which change vary between dialects”)
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishæ → æː → ɑː / _{F[-voiced],N[-voiced]}
17.7.2.1.7 Early Modern English to British Englishæ → æː → ɑː / _{F[-voiced],N[-voiced]}
17.7.2.1.11 Scots to Falkirk ScotsV → Ṽ / N_
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germanaː → oː / _{N,C[+ dental],P,h} (sporadic?)
u y → o ø / _N (with some occasional exceptions)
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlautp t k → pf ts kx / {L,N}_
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norsei → ɪ / _NS[- voice] ! _NS(C){o,i,j}
{s,z} → ∅ / {r,ʀ}_N
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early IcelandicF → S[- voice] / _{l,N}
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornœ → iː / _N
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornb d → p t / N_
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekp t k → b d ɡ / N_
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavic{e(ː),i(ː)} {a(ː),o(ː),u(ː)} → ẽ õ / _N$
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polisho → ɔ / _N
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to LatinS[-voiced] → S[+voiced] / _N
s → z / _{N,l,r}
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalanɔ → o / _N$C
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to Frenchó → ɔ / _N
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to PortugueseV → V[+nas] / _N$C when stressed
V → V[+nas] / _N$V
V → V[+nas] / #N_ (rare)
{e,i} → ∅ / {L,N}_(C)(C)V(C)#
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— a → a / _N (Rouergue, Limousin, Auvergne, Dauphiné)
— å ɛ ɔ → a e o / _N (in Limousin and neighboring regions, the last two particularly in Limousin, Languedoc, and Gascon, though when _ɲ this change may have been blocked)
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romaniano e → u i / _N
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tochariand → ∅ / _N
17.13.2 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian B∅ → t / {N,L}_S
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.4.1 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Akwáraa → {ɨ,o} / _N#
18.4.3 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guajajaraa → ə / _N#
24 Macro-Pama-Nyungan24.1.3 Proto-Paman to LinŋitiÉ£N → ∅ / #NV_SV
30 Niger-Congo30.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Bantuʋ̃ ɪ̃ → ũ ı̃ / #N[-labial]_
30.2.1.1 Proto-Akanic to AkanV[+high] → V[+nas] / #(C)_N
30.3.1.1.8 Proto-Vhe to AdángbeV → V[+ nas] / N_
34 Quechumaran34.8 Proto-Quechumaran to Santiagow → m / _%N
36 Sino-Tibetan36.3.1.1 Proto-Naish to LazeB → o / {qʰ,(N)q}_
36.3.1.2 Proto-Naish to Mosuo (Na)B → ɔ / {qʰ,(N)q}_
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Toç → ʃ / _N
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu Ta∅ → j / rN_
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.2.6.1 Proto-Dhegiha to KansaV → V[+nas] / N_
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lüo → u / _N
e → i / _N%
38.1.1.5.6 Southwest Tai to White Taio → u / _N
e → i / _N%
41 Trans-New Guinea41.5.1.3 Proto-Gorokan to South ForeC → ∅ / VN_V
41.5.2.1 Proto-Kainantu to Auyanar → ʔ / _{N,#}
41.5.2.3 Proto-Kainantu to GadsupN → ∅ / _N
42 Uralic42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishb d ɡ → β ð ɣ / ! N_
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to BasqueV → Ṽ / _N (Souletin, perhaps in other dialects?)
b → m / _VN
∅ → j / V_{N,s̺,s̻}S
C[- voice] → C[+ voice] / {l,N}_ (not Roncalese or Souletin)
46 Vowel Shifts46.2 California Vowel Shift (English)æ → {eə̯,ɪə̯} / _N
46.19 Southern [United States] Shift (English)ɛ → ɪ / _N