Index Diachronica: involving /R/

63 results from /R/   24 results to /R/   76 results with context involving /R/   

plain

from /R/

63 matches

7 Algonquian7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenaki{R,h} → ∅ / V_V (sporadic?)
10 Austronesian10.1.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Bali-Sasak-SumbawanR → r
10.1.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Philippine*R → ɡ / #_
*R → {l,ɡ} / _#
10.1.2.1 Proto-Philippine to Bicol*R → ɡ
10.1.2.2 Proto-Philippine to Cebuano*R → ɡ
10.1.2.4 Proto-Philippine to Ibanag*R → ɡ
10.1.2.6 Proto-Philippine to IlocanoR → {ɡ,r} / _#
R → r
10.1.2.7 Proto-Philippine to Proto-Kalamian*R ɲ → l n
10.1.2.9 Proto-Philippine to Tagalog*R → ɡ
10.1.2.10 Proto-Philippine to Waray*R → ɡ
10.2.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-ChamicR q → r h
10.2.3 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-MalayicR → r
10.2.4.1 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to JavaneseR → ∅
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to MadureseR → ʔ / _#
R → r
10.2.4.3 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to SundaneseR → {∅,r,j}
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerigndr *R → d r
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to MwotlapR → r
10.3.5 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-New Caledonia*R → ∅
10.3.6.1 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Äiwoo*R → l
10.3.6.2 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Naguq *R → ∅ {l,∅}
10.3.6.3 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Natüguq *R → ∅ {l,∅}
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bay*R → {∅,r}
10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to Tolomako*R → {∅,r} (the former seems more common)
10.3.9.1 Proto-Utupua to Asuboa*R → {l,∅}
10.3.9.2 Proto-Utupua to Nebaor *R → l ∅
10.3.9.3 Proto-Utupua to Tanibili{s,*R} → ∅
10.3.10 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Vanikoro{s,*R} → r / _#
10.3.10.1 Proto-Vanikoro to Bumac *R → ∅ {l,∅}
10.3.10.2 Proto-Vanikoro to Tanemac *R → ∅ {l,∅}
10.3.10.3 Proto-Vanikoro to Vanoc *R → {j,∅} l
10.3.11 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Southern Vanuatuk *R → ɣ r “(frequently)”
*R → ∅
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’andr *R → d r
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Onganɟ ɡ *N *R → {ɟ,j} {ɟ,ɡ} {l,j} {l,r}
10.7 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-RukaiR l L → {r,ʔ} ɭ l
10.8 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Tsouic{*C,d} j *R → c z r
13 Chumashan13.1 Proto-Chumash to BarbareñoR[- glottalized]VˀR → ˀRVR[- glottalized] / _$
R[- glottalized]VOʼ → ˀRVO[- ejective] / _$
17 Indo-European17.2.2 Common Anatolian to LuwianD R → Dː Rː / ”e_ in U[+open]
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old IrishVOR → VːR; “this is a tad unclear, because in some instances it didn’t seem to apply”
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-AryanR̊H → {u,i}R / _V (sporadic)
R̊H → {u,i}ːR / _C
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to PolishOR → RO / V_C
RO → OR / C_V
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-TocharianR H → uR ɨ / C_{C,#} when syllabic
R Hn̩ → ɛR ɨn / #_C
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.7 Proto-Athabaskan to Deg Hit’anR F → R[-voiced] F[-voiced] / _# in suffixes
30 Niger-Congo30.2.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic to Proto-AkanicR[-voiced] R[+voiced] W → Z[-voiced] O[-voiced] F / #_
35 Salishan35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack HalkomelemV3ʔR → V3ːR
35.1.3 Proto-Central Salish to Cowichan HalkomelemV3ʔR → {V3ʔR,V3ːRʔ} / _V
35.1.4 Proto-Central Salish to Musqueam HalkomelemV3ʔR → {V3ʔR,V3ːRʔ} / _V
35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to LushootseedRʔ → ʔR / V3C
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to NooksackʔR → {ʔS,R} / V3_V
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern StraitsʔR → Rʔ / V3_V
35.1.14 Proto-Central Salish to SqamishʔR → Rʔ / V3_V
35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to TwanaʔR → ʔ{R,b} / V3_V
Rʔ → ʔR / V3_#
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to CayugaR → ∅ / ʔ_#
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneida— R → R̊ / _#
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to SenecaR → ∅ / _h

to /R/

24 matches

13 Chumashan13.1 Proto-Chumash to BarbareñoR[- glottalized]VˀR → ˀRVR[- glottalized] / _$
R[- glottalized]VOʼ → ˀRVO[- ejective] / _$
17 Indo-European17.2 Proto-Indo-European to Common AnatolianH → R / VR_V
17.2.2 Common Anatolian to LuwianD R → Dː Rː / ”e_ in U[+open]
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishp t k kʷ b d ɡ m n l r s → f θ x xʷ v ð ɣ M N L R h / V(#)_{R,V} (“We don’t know the exact values of lenited /m n l r/. We can guess that lenited m became a nasalized labial continuant of some sort, but beyond that, we don’t know.”)
VOR → VːR; “this is a tad unclear, because in some instances it didn’t seem to apply”
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-AryanR̊H → {u,i}R / _V (sporadic)
R̊H → {u,i}ːR / _C
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to PolishOR → RO / V_C
RO → OR / C_V
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-TocharianR H → uR ɨ / C_{C,#} when syllabic
R Hn̩ → ɛR ɨn / #_C
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.7 Proto-Athabaskan to Deg Hit’anR F → R[-voiced] F[-voiced] / _# in suffixes
30 Niger-Congo30.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Bantuʄ C → c R / #_
35 Salishan35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack HalkomelemV3ʔR → V3ːR
35.1.3 Proto-Central Salish to Cowichan HalkomelemV3ʔR → {V3ʔR,V3ːRʔ} / _V
35.1.4 Proto-Central Salish to Musqueam HalkomelemV3ʔR → {V3ʔR,V3ːRʔ} / _V
35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to LushootseedRʔ → ʔR / V3C
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to NooksackʔR → {ʔS,R} / V3_V
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern StraitsʔR → Rʔ / V3_V
35.1.14 Proto-Central Salish to SqamishʔR → Rʔ / V3_V
35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to TwanaʔR → ʔ{R,b} / V3_V
Rʔ → ʔR / V3_#
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneida— R → R̊ / _#

with context involving /R/

76 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berberʕ → i / #_VR
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot ArabicS → [+ voice] / {V,R}_V
S → [+ voice] / V_R
6.2.2.1.18 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrew— i iː u uː → eə iːə oə uːə / _R
— i u → e a / _R{$,#} (in verbs)
— a → ə / _R if ə in an adjacent syllable
— a → ə / R_ if ə in an adjacent syllable
— i → ə / _R if a frontal allophone of ə in an adjacent syllable
— i → ə / R_ if a frontal allophone of ə in an adjacent syllable
— u → ə / _R if a backed allophone of ə in an adjacent syllable
— u → ə / R_ if a backed allophone of ə in an adjacent syllable
— i → a / _R
— i → a / R_
6.2.2.1.19 Biblical Hebrew to Modern Israeli Hebrewə → ɛ / #R_C or when breaking up what would otherwise be a three-consonant cluster; in the case of two schwas, only the first one is dropped
7 Algonquian7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis AbenakiN → ∅ / _RO
i → e / _R
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanianḱ → k / _R
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanianḱ → k / _R
17.2 Proto-Indo-European to Common AnatolianH → R / VR_V
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lycians → z / _{R,j,w} “(in Milyan, this happened after the change of ḱ to s)”
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— ∅ → a / CR_HC
— H → a / #R_C
— e → a / _Ra (short a only), though “[t]he e was often restored by analogy”
— ∅ → a / C_RC
— Vː → V[-long] / _RC
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishr̩ l̩ → {ri,ra} {li,la} / _{S,R} (which vowel crops up is unpredictable)
p t k kʷ b d ɡ m n l r s → f θ x xʷ v ð ɣ M N L R h / V(#)_{R,V} (“We don’t know the exact values of lenited /m n l r/. We can guess that lenited m became a nasalized labial continuant of some sort, but beyond that, we don’t know.”)
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornp(ː) t(ː) k(ː) → b(ː) d(ː) ɡ(ː) / {V,R}_{V,R}
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittite— e(ː) → a(ː) / _R “sometimes??”
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-Aryann → ɳ / R(V)_
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— V → ∅ / R_(C…)
{p,b} → ∅ / R_s# (unless blocked by analogy)
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to RomanianCi → Cʲ / _# ! R…R_#
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-TocharianH → ɛ / _R, when R = syllabic
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.12 Proto-Athabaskan to Holikachukə → ∅ / {R,F}_#
29.1.1.1.14 Proto-Athabaskan to Lower Koyukonə → ∅ / {R,F}_#
30 Niger-Congo30.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Bantuu ũ → i ı̃ / #R[-labial]_
ʋ̃ → ʋ / #R[-labial]_
35 Salishan35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack Halkomelemʔ → ∅ / VR_V3
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to Nooksackʔ → ∅ / VR_V3
ʔ → ∅ / V3R_{C,#}
ʔ → ∅ / V1R_#
35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straitsʔ → {∅,ʔ} / V3R_{C,#}
35.1.12 Proto-Central Salish to Pentlatchʔ → ∅ / V3R_{V,#}
35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to Twanaʔ → ∅ / V1R_#
ʔ → ∅ / V3R_C
36 Sino-Tibetan36.3.1.1 Proto-Naish to Laze{a,i} → ɯ / R_%
36.3.1.2 Proto-Naish to Mosuo (Na)a → e / {R,T}_%
i → ɯ / {R,Kr}_
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to Naxia → ɯ / {R,w}_%
i → ɯ / {R,kr}_%
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokee∅ → i / C_R
37.1.2.1.1 Cayuga to Upper Cayugat k kʷ → d ɡ ɡʷ / _{V,R}
37.1.2.1.2 Cayuga to Lower Cayugat k kʷ → d ɡ ɡʷ / _{V,R} ! _V[-voiced]
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huronk → x / {#,R,ʔ,V}_{V,ʔ,R,#}
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to WyandotVh → Vː / _R
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondaga”V → ”Vː / _C(R)V
V → Vː / _”C[-glottal](R)V{ː,H} in “even numbered syllables only”
V → Vː / _KRV “in the second syllable of a word”
t tʃ k(ʷ) → d dʒ ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneida”V → ”Vː[+falling tone] / _{ʔ,hR}
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Mohawk— t tʃ k(ʷ) → d dʒ ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
— s → z / {#,V}_{V,R} ! R = j
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneida{h,ʔ} → ∅ / _R “in post-tonic syllables”
— V[-long] → V̊ / R_#
t tʃ k(ʷ) → d dʒ ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
s → z / {#,V}_{V,R}
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Seneca— t k(ʷ) → d ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscarora”V → ”Vː / _{k(ʷ),(ˀ)t}{s,R,H} (“penultimate syllables only”)
”V → ”Vː / _RR
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
42 Uralic42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnishp → β → U / _R
k → ɣ i / {i,e}_R{i,e}
k → ɣ → U / {A,O,U}_R ! R = j
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to LivonianV → Vː / _RC(C)ɑ (includes diphthongs)
o → oː / _{RC#,i}