Index Diachronica: involving /_#/

with context involving /_#/

711 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1.1.2 North Omotic to Dizinx2 → k / _#
6.1.1.8 North Omotic to Zayse-Zergullax3 → ɡ / V_#
6.2.2.1.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-BoreafrasianV → ∅ / _# “in nominals”
6.2.2.1.3 Ancient Egyptian to Copticr → l / #o_#
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabicaː → a / ! _#
aːʔ → e / E(C)(C)_#
aː → a / {Cˤ,w}_#
6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Egyptian ArabicV → Vː / _# + suffix
6.2.2.1.10 Classical Arabic to Hassāniyya ArabicV[-long] → ∅ / C_{C,#} (except for the feminine marker)
6.2.2.1.17 Classical Arabic to Tunisian ArabicVː → V[-long] / _# (except as below)
6.2.2.1.18 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrew— aː → oː / ! _#
— iː → eː / _#
— aj → ɛː / _#
— a → ∅ / _#
ʕ → ∅ / _{$,#}
at → aː / _# (in feminine noun endings)
6.2.2.1.19 Biblical Hebrew to Modern Israeli Hebrewh → ∅ / _#
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River AbenakiV → ∅ / _#
iw → o / _#
w → ∅ / _# ! k(ː)_
j → ∅ / _# ! P_
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis AbenakiV → ∅ / _#
iw → o / _#
w → ∅ / _# ! k(ː)_
j → ∅ / _# ! p_
7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-Atsina(W)V → ∅ / _#
7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapaho∅ → ʔ / CV[-long]_#
ʃ m → x w / B_#
ʃ k m → s tʃ b / E_#
(V[-long])N → ∅ / _#
h → ∅ / _#
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventreʃ {θ,t} m k → s ts tʲ bʲ / _{i(ː),j,#}
(V[-long])N → ∅ / _#
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfooti(ː)wi → i / _#
e → a / _#
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawarew → ∅ / {p,m}_#
V → ∅ / _# ! some monosyllables and analogical developments, in the latter of which long vowels were shortened
x → χʷ / o(ː)_{V,#}
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to MenomineeV[-long] → ∅ / _# “[does not apply in disyllabic words containing two short vowels]”
∅ → h / V[-long]_#
{w,j} → ∅ / C_#
C → ∅ / C_#
7.15 Proto-Algonquian to Ojibwe{j,w}V[-long] → ∅ / C_# in disyllables with Vː or in tri(-plus-)syllables
{w,j}V[-long] → ∅ / Vː_# (Whimemsz is unsure if this change is across-the-board or not)
V[-long] → ∅ / V[-long]{w,j}_# (Whimemsz is unsure if this change is across-the-board or not)
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to ShawneeVː → V[-long] / _#
8 Altaic8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolictʰ → d / _#
8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchakd ɣ → t x / _#
10 Austronesian10.1.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawanq → h / _#
iw uj → {i,?} i / _#
— aj aw → ej ow / _#
— aj aw → e ow / _#
C[+ voice] → C[- voice] / _#
10.1.1.1 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Balinesew → b / i_#
10.1.1.2 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sasakh → q / _# (might’ve been a retention?)
iw ow ej → i o e / _#
V(h) → V(q) / _# (again, might’ve been a retention?)
a →ə / _# (Meno-mene and Mriak-mriku only)
r → h / _# (Meno-mene and Mriak-mriku only)
10.1.1.3 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sumbawanh → q / _# (might’ve been a retention?)
w → ∅ / i_#
ej ow → e o / _#
V(h) → V(q) / _# (again, might’ve been a retention?)
10.1.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Philippine*D → d / _#
*R → {l,ɡ} / _#
10.1.2.1 Proto-Philippine to Bicolə → u / _#
h *j → ∅ d / _#
10.1.2.2 Proto-Philippine to Cebuanoh *j → ∅ d / _#
h → ∅ / _#
10.1.2.3 Proto-Philippine to Hiligaynon*j → d / _#
h → ∅ / _#
10.1.2.5 Proto-Philippine to Ifugao*j → ɡ / _#
ay → e / _#
10.1.2.6 Proto-Philippine to IlocanoR → {ɡ,r} / _#
10.1.2.7.1 Proto-Kalamian to Agutaynenk → ∅ / _{V,#}
s → t / _#
∅ → ʔ / V_#
10.1.2.7.2 Proto-Kalamian to Karamiananenk → ∅ / _{V,#}
s → t / _#
∅ → ʔ / V_#
10.1.2.7.3 Proto-Kalamian to Kalamian Tagbanwak → ∅ / _{V,#}
∅ → ʔ / V_#
10.1.2.8 Proto-Philippine to Kankanay*j → ɡ / _#
10.1.2.9 Proto-Philippine to Tagalogu → o / _#
h *j → ∅ d / _#
uj iw → oj uj / _#
10.1.2.10 Proto-Philippine to Warayh → ∅ / _#
r → l / _#
10.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Batakw → ∅ / i_#
10.2.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Chamici iw u → ɔj ? ɔw / _#
C[+ voice] → C[- voice] / _#
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorrok → ∅ / _# (sporadic)
k → h / ! _#
d → ∅ / _#
l → d / _{C,#}
O → O[-voiced] / _{C,#}
10.2.3 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Malayicj → t / _#
h → ʔ / _# (sometimes)
{iw,uj} → i / _#
— aj aw → i u / _#
— aj aw → aj aw / _#
C[+ voice] → C[- voice] / _#
10.2.3.1 Proto-Malayic to (Standard) Malayə → a / _(C…)#
h → ∅ / ! _# (sporadic)
10.2.4 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Malayo-Javanic— aw aj → əw əj / _#
— aw aj → aw aj / _#
10.2.4.1 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Javaneseiw uj → ju i / _#
— əw əj → i u / _#
— aw aj → e ó / _#
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Madureseɭ → lʔ / _#
R → ʔ / _#
{p,t,k} b d ɡ → ʔ p t k / _#
ij uw → uj {uj,ój} / _#
C[+ voice] → C[- voice] / _#
10.2.4.3 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Sundaneseiw uj → {ju,i} oj / _#
— əw əj → o e / _#
— aw aj → o aj / _#
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauan{aw,əw} → o / _#
ə → ∅ / _#
ŋ → ∅ / C_#
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North Sarawakh → ∅ / _#
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiputai au → ai̯ au̯ / _#
i u → əi̯ əu̯ / _#
∅ → h / a_#
ʀ → {l,ɾ} / ! _# (the latter is more common)
l → ∅ / ! _# (irregular)
s → ∅ / _#
ʀ → ʔ / _# “(in a handful of forms)”
a → i / O[+voiced]…_(C)# “(blocked if there was an intervening nasal, and sometimes if there was an intervening voiceless stop or liquid)”
i u → əi̯ əu̯ / _(ʔ)#
k ŋ → ʔ ∅ / Və̯_#
{l,ɾ} → n / _#
b d → p t / _#
10.2.6.2 Proto-North Sarawak to Proto-Kenyahʀ → h / _#
s → h / _#
h → ∅ / _#
S → S[-voice] / _#
l → n / _#
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lónghp → k / u_#
u → ɯ / _(C)# ! _ʔ#
a → o / _# “(not in all forms)”
ʔ → ∅ / _# “(but aʔ → əʔ in some forms)”
k → ʔ / _#
a → ɛ / {t,n}_#
{p,t} n → c̚ ɲ / {i,ɛ}_#
m → ɲ / i_#
ŋ → ŋ̊ / _#
{p,t} {m,n} → k ŋ / ɯ_#
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabauh → ∅ / ! _# (some exceptions)
a → o / _(C…)#
— ə → a / _(C…)# (eventually spread to everywhere)
— {p,t,k} s → ʔ h / _#
— {l,r} → ∅ / _# (retained across morpheme boundaries)
10.3 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Oceanicaw → o / _#
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to HiwC → ∅ / _#
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to Mwotlapb β d → m p n / _{C,#}
10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to CaaàcN → ∅ / _#
V → ∅ / #(C)V(C)(C)_#
ⁿS → N / _#
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-NêlêmwaV → ∅ / _#, often
k → c / _#
ⁿS → N / _#
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to NyelâyuV → ∅ / #(C)V(C)(C)_#
C → ∅ / _# “sometimes”
t̪ ʈ → r l / _#
ⁿS → N / _#
10.3.5.6 Proto-New Caledonia to PwaameiV → ∅ / _# (sporadic?)
10.3.5.7 Proto-New Caledonia to PwapwâV → ∅ / _# (sporadic?)
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-YunagaV → ∅ / _#
ⁿS → N / _#
10.3.5.8.1 Proto-Yunaga to Yunaga 1C → ∅ / _#
10.3.6 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Reefs/Santa CruzC → ∅ / _#
10.3.6.3 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Natügur → l / _{u,#}
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark BayC → ∅ / _#
V[+ high] → ∅ / _# ! {p,z,d(r)}_
v t l r → p dr n w / _#
ɣ s d → ∅ {j dr} / _#
V → e / C_# ! C = j
10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to TolomakoC → ∅ / _#
10.3.9 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-UtupuaC → ∅ / _# (except for *k?)
10.3.9.1 Proto-Utupua to Asuboak → {∅,s} / _#
10.3.9.3 Proto-Utupua to Tanibilik → {∅,j} / _#
10.3.10 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Vanikoro{s,*R} → r / _#
10.3.10.1 Proto-Vanikoro to Bumap → ∅ / _#
r → l / ! _#
10.3.10.2 Proto-Vanikoro to Tanemap → v / _#
r → l / ! _#
10.3.10.3 Proto-Vanikoro to Vanor → l / ! _{u,#}
s → r / _#
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to AnejomC → ∅ / _# ! C = t
t → s / _#
V → ∅ / _# (with very few exceptions)
{r,h} → ∅ / _#
10.3.11.2.1 Proto-Erromango to Syeb d ɡ → m n ŋ / _#
a → e / _#
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Urab d ɡ → p t k / _#
u → e / ɣ_# (? this change is a bit unclear)
ɣ → ∅ / _#
10.3.11.3.3 Proto-Tanna to North Tannakʷ → p / _#
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’ab d → m n / _{C,#}
10.4.1 Proto-Micronesian to MarshalleseV → ∅ / _#
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-OnganS → ∅ / _#
{m,ɲ} n → {ɲ,∅} {ŋ,∅} / _# (first change marked “in progress?”)
10.5.1 Proto-Ongan to Jarawan → ŋ / _# (?)
e → ∅ / _# (?)
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to Ongen → ŋ / _# (?)
d → r / V_{V,#}
{w,r} → ∅ / {a,e}_#
∅ → e / C_#
10.6.2 Proto-Paiwan to Central Paiwanw → v / _#
11 Northeast Caucasian11.5.2 Proto-Lezgic to Archid → r / _#
11.6 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Nakh{tsː,tʃː,dz,dʒ} → tː / _#
l → r / _#
13 Chumashan13.6 Proto-Chumash to Ventureñoʔ → ∅ / _#
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.1 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Proto-Dravidians → j / V_{V,#}
l → ɭ / V_#
14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamitel → n / V_#
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamilaː eː iː oː uː → a ɛ i o u / _#
am an {aːm,aːn} → õ æ̃ ã / _#
um → ũ / _#
l ɭ → lːʉ ɭːʉ / _#(C)V[-long]
∅ → ʉ / {l,ɭ}_# if {M,Vː} previously in the lexeme
ɨ ʉ → ∅ / ! _#
j → ∅ / V[-front]_#
j → jːi / E_#
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Aleut{t,ð} → n / _#
15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow Iñupiaqɣ ʁ → k q / _#
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic Iñupiaqm n ŋ t {{ɣ,ʁ} → {k,q}} → p t k n ŋ / _#
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie Iñupiaqɣ ʁ → k q / _#
15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales Iñupiaqɣ ʁ → k q / _#
15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’ikɣ ʁ → k q / _#
ə → a / _#
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’ikɣ ʁ → x χ / _#
ə → a / _#
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’ikɣ ʁ → k q / _#
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’ikɣ ʁ → k q / _#
ə → a / _#
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.1 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to NafriN → ŋ / _#
16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central SentaniN → m / _#
16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern SentaniN → m / _#
16.1.4 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Western SentaniN → ŋ / _#
16.1.5 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to TablaN → ŋ / _#
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanianə → ∅ / _#
17.2 Proto-Indo-European to Common AnatolianT h2 → D h3 / _#
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to Lydian{m,n} → ʋ / _# “(that’s a Greek nu, I’m not sure what it’s supposed to represent)”
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh ArmenianVN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
N → n / _#, in monosyllables
N̩ → n / _#
V → (?) / _(C)#
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan ArmenianVN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
N → n / _#, in monosyllables
N̩ → n / _#
V → (?) / _(C)#
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul ArmenianVN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
N → n / _#, in monosyllables
N̩ → n / _#
V → (?) / _(C)#
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert ArmenianVN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
N → n / _#, in monosyllables
N̩ → n / _#
V → (?) / _(C)#
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenianbʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ / ! _#
VN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
N → n / _#, in monosyllables
N̩ → n / _#
V → (?) / _(C)#
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast ArmenianVN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
N → n / _#, in monosyllables
N̩ → n / _#
V → (?) / _(C)#
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest ArmenianVN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
N → n / _#, in monosyllables
N̩ → n / _#
V → (?) / _(C)#
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishr̩ l̩ → {ra,ar} {la,al} / _{s,CC,V,#} (the results are unpredictable)
m → n / V_#; “[i]t is thought that the vowel needs to be unstressed, but this is not certain”
oː → uː / _(C…)#
oːi → uː / _#
— e → i / _(C…)#
— o → a / _{(C…),u}#
— {ai,oi} → iː / _#
w → ∅ / V_{V,#}
V → ∅ / C_# when unstressed ! C = j
C(…C) → ∅ / _# ! /l r/ and clusters containing them; “[t]his remained a phonologically conditioned rule in OIr”
eː → ia / _{#,Cʲ} when stressed; “ai and oi remain, but are written as <ae ai oe oi> seemingly randomly”
— a → e / _#
V → Vː / _#, when stressed; “[t]his remained as a phonologically conditioned rule in OIr”
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle WelshVː → V / _#
V → ə / _(C)#, also in proclitics
V → ∅ / _#
ɣ → ə / _#
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothic— V[- long] → ∅ / _# ! V = u
— aj → a / U_#
j → i / C_# “after the loss of a final vowel or syllable”
ij → i / _# “after the loss of a final vowel or syllable”
β ð ɣ → ɸ θ x / V_(s)#
z → s / _#, though “[t]his s was dropped when it came to stand after an original s through the loss of a vowel”, though it “remained when protected by a particle”
17.7.2 Common Germanic to West Germanicoː → uː / _#
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle Englishm → n → ∅ / _# when unstressed
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle Englishm → n → ∅ / _# when unstressed
{e,ɑ,o} → ə → ∅ / _#
17.7.2.1.4 Midlands Middle English to Early Modern Englishmb ŋɡ → m ŋ / _#
17.7.2.1.5 Early Modern English to American Englishɪ → i / _# when unstressed
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishɪ → iː / _# when unstressed
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle Englishn → ∅ / _# when unstressed (not clear as to whether m → n beforehand in this position or not)
{e,ɑ,o} → ə → ∅ / _#, when unstressed (it appears this sound may also have gone to /ɪ/)
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scotst → ∅ / {p,k}_# (“except in some inflected forms” for *kt)
d → ∅ / l_#
{ɸ,x} → ∅ / _# (seems to be sporadic)
— V → Vː / _{r,F[+voiced],$,#}
— əi → aɪ / _{r,F[+voiced],$,#} (pursuant to the above)
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to ScotsS[+ voice] → S[- voice] / _#
dʒ → tʃ / _#
θ → f / {V,r}_# (sometimes blocked)
t → ʔ / _#
17.7.2.1.11 Scots to Falkirk ScotspVn tVn kVn → ʔm̩ ʔn̩ ʔŋ̩ / _#
k → ç / V_# ! _C “(sometimes)”; “(except when phonemic)”
ɡ → ʝ / V_# ! _C “(most times)”
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle Englishm → n → ∅ / _# when unstressed
{e,ɑ,o} → ə / _#
17.7.2.1.15 North Frisian Lenitionp t k → b d ɡ → v r ɣ / Vː_{V,#}
17.7.2.2 West Germanic to Old Low Franconianjan → en / CC_#
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlautp t k → f z x / _#
17.7.2.5 West Germanic to Old Low Germanɡ → k / ŋ_#
ɡ → x / _#
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norseb {w,v} d ð ɡ → p f t θ k / _#
VN → Ṽ / _# ! in #U
oː → u / _#
u → ∅ / _({ʀ,s,t,θ})#
lː nː → l n / C_#
i → eː / _#
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandick → ç / _#
t → ð / V_# “in some verbal endings”
ɡ → ɣ / V_#
{l(ː),rl} → ɬ / v_#
N → N[- voice] / O_#
{l(ː),rl} rː → dɬ r̥ / _#
V → Vː / _(C)#, in monosyllables
nː → tn̥ / V_#
rn → tn̥ / _#
{lː,rl} → tɬ / _#
n̥ → m̥ / p_#
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornd → ∅ / n_# (sometimes)
ɡ → k / _# (sporadic)
f → ∅ / _{l,b,v,n,#}
ð → θ / _#
l → ∅ / _# ?
oː → øː / _(C)(C)#
V[- long] → ∅ / _#
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Norntj → tʃ / _#
ð → ∅ / _#
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekn → ∅ / _#
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittitem → ∅ / _#
— r → ∅ / _# “sometimes??”
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-AryanVH → Vː / _{C,#}
Vm → Ṽ / _(#){s,ɕ}
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-AryanC(C) → ∅ / C_#
VN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#
e o → i u / _#
Vː → V[-long] / _#
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-AryanC(C) → ∅ / C_#
VN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#
e o → i u / _#
Vː → V[-long] / _#
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-AryanC(C) → ∅ / C_#
VN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#
e o → i u / _#
Vː → V[-long] / _#
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-AryanC(C) → ∅ / C_#
VN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#
e o → i u / _#
Vː → V[-long] / _#
17.10.1.5 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Vedic Sanskrit{s,ʂ} → h / _#C[- voice]
{s,ʂ} → r / _#C[+ voice]
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to PolishO[+voice] → O[-voice] / _# (unless followed by some type of voiced consonant, be it any type of consonant or just an obstruent—this differs by location)
i → ∅ / _# “in the infinite and imperative desinences. . .some verbs have never been affected due to a potential ‘difficult’ cluster that would result, instead they got an analogical final -j extension”
pʲ mʲ fʲ → p m f / _#
ɛ̃ → ɛ / _{#,l,ɫ}
ɔ̃ → ɔ / _# (in some regions or dialects)
ɔ̃ → ɔɰ̃ / _# (in standard registers/pronunciations)
v r̝ → f r̥ / _{C[-voiced],#}
w → ∅ / C_#
17.12.1 Proto-Italic to Proto-Latino-Falsicanl̥ r̥ → ol {or,er} / _#
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latin{i,o} → e / _#
{i,e} → ∅ / _# (sometimes)
{ai,ei,oi} → ei → iː / _(C)(C)#
Vː → V[-long] / _#
t → ∅ / C_#
d → ∅ / Vː_#
sː → s / _#
17.12.1.1.1 Classical Latin vs. Vulgar Latinm → n / _# “(in certain common monosyllabic words, as well as some common compounds of them)”
m → ∅ / _#
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalan{m,n,t} → ∅ / _#
i → j / ”V_#
u → w / ”ɛ_#
∅ → {e,o} / CL_#
∅ → {e,o} / rː_#
iː → ∅ / _#
{i,e(ː),ae} → ∅ / _(C)#
{u(ː),o(ː)} → ∅ / _#
w → ∅ / u_#
j ɡj ts z n → tʃ i w s ∅ / _#
{b,v} → w / V_#
d → t / _#
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— {m,n} → ∅ / _# in polysyllables
— m → n / _#
l → u / _{C,#}
{lːe,lːo} → u / {e,o}_# “[this is actually an analogical development, but it applies as regularly as a sound law]”
t → ∅ / V_#
V → ∅ / _# “(except in monosyllables or after another vowel)” ! V = a
ai → e / _#
ɲ → in / _{C,#}
O[+voiced] → O[-voiced] / _#
{t,s} → ∅ / _#
k → ∅ / V[+nas]_#
{n,m} → ∅ / C_#
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to Italian{t,d,k,m,n,s} → ∅ / _#
r → ∅ / _# (in polysyllables only)
taːte → ”ta / _#
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portugueseiː → ∅ / {k,s}_#
{i(ː),e(ː),ae} → e / _#
uiː → ui / _#
{u(ː),o(ː)} → o → u / _#
ɛ ɔ → e o / _(”u)#
e → ∅ / el_#
{ã,ãe,õe} → ão / _#
e → ∅ / {l,n,r,s,k}_#
e → ∅ / ”{i,e}_#
a → ∅ / ”ɔ_#
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— a → a / _# in monosyllables and oxytones (Rouergue, Limousin, Auvergne, Dauphiné)
N → ∅ / _#, in polysyllables
b {d,dz,dʒ} z ʒ ɡ → p {t,ts,tʃ} s ʃ k / _(s)#
j → i / _(s)#
ð → ∅ / _#
β → u / V_(s)#
β → {∅,f} / C_(s)# (the latter is rare)
n → ∅ / V_# (did not occur in extreme western areas, some northern areas, the southeast, and the east)
n → ∅ / r_(s)#?
ts → s / _# (Provence, Limousin, some Languedoc and Gascon)
j → ∅ / n_# (in many dialects)
rj → rʲ → r / _#
nt nd → {∅,n} ∅ / _# (in some Languedoc and Gascon areas)
nd → n / _# (in western areas and for some speakers of Limousin)
d → t / n_#
{d,l} → ∅ / _#
t → ∅ / _# ! “in the preterit of verbs”, though it tended to drop “in strong preterits”
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanian{m,n,s} → ∅ / _# in polysyllables
m s → n i / _#
— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e / _#
s → i / #(C…)V_#
{s,t} → ∅ / _#
”elːa → e”a / _#
ja → e / r_#
a → e / C[+palatal]_#
a o → ə u / ”U…_#
e → ə / ou_#
u → ∅ / ! {OL,”V}_#
{t,d} → ∅ / n_#
Ci → Cʲ / _# ! R…R_#
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardinianm → ∅ / _#
e → ∅ / u_#
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanish{t,k} → ∅ / _#
i u → e o / _(C)#
Vɾ → ɾV / C_#
e → ∅ / V{d,s,n,l,ɾ}_#
t → ∅ / _#
n → ŋ / _#
17.12.2 Proto-Italic to Proto-Sibellianr̥ → er / _#
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tochariann̩ → ə → ∅ / C_#
R H → uR ɨ / C_{C,#} when syllabic
h2e → ə / _#
17.13.1 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian AV → ∅ / _#
17.13.2 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian Bs → ∅ / n_#
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.1.1 Pre-Bakairi to Eastern BakairiVNV → ṼṼ / ! _(C)#
18.2.1 Proto-Ofaié-Jê to Proto-JêVm → Ṽ / _#
18.2.2 Proto-Ofaié-Jê to Ofaié-Xavantem → w / _#
k(ʷ) → ʔ / _#
18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makurápk → ∅ / _#
18.4.1 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Akwárak b r → {ŋ,∅} {w,m} {n,r,t} / _#
o → a / ! o(C…)_(C…)#
18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Cocama∅ → i / j_#, in monosyllables
j → i / _#, in polysyllables
b → ∅ / _#
eN → y / _#
o → u(a) / ! o(C…)_(C…)#
18.4.3 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guajajarab → ∅ / u_#
o → u / ! o(C…)_(C…)#
18.4.4 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guaraní{b,r} → ∅ / _#
V{m,n} → V[+nas] / _#
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guarayo{b,k} r → ∅ {r,∅} / _#
{Vm,Vŋ} Vn → V[+nas] {Vr,V[+nas]} / _#
aN eN iN ɨN uN → ã ẽ ı̃ ɨ̃ ũ / _#
18.4.6 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Kamayuráb r → p t / _#
18.4.7 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Parintintínk → {ŋ,∅} / _#
b r → {b,∅} {r,t} / _#
eN → ı̃ / _#
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Sirionók → ∅ / _#
V{m,n} → V[+nas] / _#
j → {j,i} / _#
{b,r} → ∅ / _#
aN eN iN ɨN uN → ã ẽ ı̃ {ɨ̃,ĩ} õ / _#
18.4.9 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Classical Tupii → ı̃ / ʔ_# (sporadic)
18.4.9.1.1 Proto-Monde to Gaviãop → v / _#
18.4.9.1.3 Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoró to Cinta LargaV → Vː / _#
18.4.9.1.5 Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoró to Zoró∅ → ʔ / V_#
18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Urubuk → {k,∅} / _#
Vn → V[+nas] / _# (sometimes)
j b → {j,i} ∅ / _#
u → o / ! o(C…)_(C…)#
aN iN uN → {aN,ã} ı̃ {uN,ũ} / _#
20 Khoisan20.2.1 Proto-Kx’a to ǂHoanVn ŋ → V[+nas] ∅ / _#
20.2.2 Proto-Kx’a to Northwestern !Xunn → ∅ / _#
20.2.3 Proto-Kx’a to Southeastern !Xunn → ∅ / _#
21 Lakes Plain21.1 Proto-Lakes Plain to Proto-Far WestCV → ∅ / _# (possibly only when CV_#, possibly sporadic)
21.2.1 Proto-Tariku to Proto-Central TarikuiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.1.1 Proto-Central Tariku to EdopiC → ∅ / _#
21.2.1.2 Proto-Central Tariku to IauCV → ∅ / _#
21.2.2.1 Proto-East Tariku to BiritaiC → ∅ / _#
iC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.2 Proto-East Tariku to DoutaiC → ∅ / _#
iC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.3 Proto-East Tariku to Eritaib C → ∅ d / _#
iC uC → î û / _{C,#}
iC → iC~i / _{C,#} (not sure how this plays in with the change mentioned earlier about extra-high vowels; I must have misread something)
21.2.2.4 Proto-East Tariku to KaiC → ∅ / _#
iC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.5 Proto-East Tariku to Obokuitaib C → b̚ ɡ̚ / _#
iC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.6 Proto-East Tariku to Sikaritaib C → b~∅ {d,ɡ} / _#
iC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.7 Proto-East Tariku to WaritaiC → ∅ / _#
iC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.3 Proto-Tariku to Proto-West TarikuiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
22 Macro-Arawakan22.6 Proto-Arawá to Sorowaháe → ɨ / _#
27 Mayan27.5 Proto-Mayan to Kaqchikel-Tz’utujilh → j / _#
ɓ w → ʔ j / VCV_#
27.10 Proto-Mayan to Yucatecant → tʃ / _#
28 Muskogean28.1.1 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to AlabamakV → ∅ / V_#
28.1.2 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to CreekV1kV2 → V2ː / #((C)V(C))(C)_#
V1k → ∅ / _#
28.1.3 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to HitchitiV → ∅ / Vk_#
28.1.4 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to KorasatiVkV → ”V / _#
28.1.5 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to MikasuriV → ∅ / Vk_#
28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western MuskogeanV → ∅ / V{k,ʔ,h}_#
a → o / xʷ_#
i → ∅ / #(C)V(C)(C)V(C)(C)_# (sporadic in the case of other vowels)
28.2.1 Proto-Western Muskogean to Chickasawh → ∅ / _#
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.7 Proto-Athabaskan to Deg Hit’anR F → R[-voiced] F[-voiced] / _# in suffixes
29.1.1.1.12 Proto-Athabaskan to Holikachukə → ∅ / {R,F}_#
29.1.1.1.14 Proto-Athabaskan to Lower Koyukonə → ∅ / {R,F}_#
29.1.1.1.19 Proto-Athabaskan to Proto-Southern AthabaskanVnC → V[+ nas]C / _#, unless C = ʔ
29.1.1.1.20 Proto-Southern Athabaskan to Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan{s,z}(ʔ) {ʃ,ʒ}(ʔ) {ɬ,ɮ}(ʔ) → s ʃ ɬ / _#
29.1.1.1.21 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Kiowa Apached → ∅ / _#
{xʲ,j}ʔ {x,ɣ}ʔ → ∅ h(ʔ) / _#
Vnʔ VnC → V[+ nas] V[+ nas]C / _#
x ɣ → h ∅ / _#
29.1.1.1.22 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Jicarillad → ʔ / _#
xʲ xʔ j ɣʔ → h ʔ ∅ ʔ / E_#
xʲ xʔ j ɡʔ → ih iʔ i iʔ / _#
xʲʔ jʔ → h ʔ / _#
Vnʔ VnC → V[+ nas] V[+ nas]C / _#
29.1.1.1.23 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Lipand → ∅ / _#
xʲ j → ʃ ∅ / _#
{xʲ,j}ʔ → ∅ / _#
{x,ɣ} → ∅ / _(ʔ)#
Vnʔ VnC → V[+ nas] V[+ nas] / _#
29.1.1.1.25 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Chiricahuad → ∅ / _#
xʲ j → ʃ ∅ / _#
{xʲ,j}ʔ → ∅ / _#
{x,ɣ} → ∅ / _(ʔ)#
Vnʔ → V[+ nas] / _#
{s,z}(ʔ) {ʃ,ʒ}(ʔ) {ɬ,ɮ}(ʔ) → s ʃ ɬ / _#
29.1.1.1.26 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Mescaleroxʲ j → ʃ ∅ / _#
{xʲ,j}ʔ → ∅ / _#
{x,ɣ} → ∅ / _(ʔ)#
Vnʔ → V[+ nas] / _#
ʔ → ∅ / {s,ʃ,ɬ}_#
z(ʔ) ʒ(ʔ) ɮ(ʔ) → dz dʒ dɮ / _#
29.1.1.1.27 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Navajoxʲ(ʔ) j(ʔ) → h ʔ / _#
x ɣ → h ʔ / _#
{s,z}(ʔ) {ʃ,ʒ}(ʔ) {ɬ,ɮ}(ʔ) → s ʃ ɬ / _#
29.1.1.1.28 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to San Carlosx(ʲ) {j,ɣ} → h ∅ / _#
xʲʔ jʔ → h ʔ / _#
Vnˀ → V[+ nas] / _#
{s,z}(ʔ) {ʃ,ʒ}(ʔ) {ɬ,ɮ}(ʔ) → s ʃ ɬ / _#
29.1.1.1.29 Proto-Athabaskan to Bearlake Slavey-HareC → {h,ʔ} / _#
29.1.1.1.31 Proto-Athabaskan to Mountain Slavey-HareC → {h,ʔ} / _#
29.1.1.1.32 Proto-Athabaskan to Slavey Slavey-HareC → {h,ʔ} / _#
31 Nyulnyulan31.1 Proto-Nyulnyulan to Bardiɲ → ∅ / _#
V0 → ∅ / V(C)(C)V0(C)(C)_# (with some exceptions)
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.2 Proto-Chatino to Tataltepec Chatinoɛ → ı̃ / S_#
ɛ → i / n_#
32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinoẽ → ı̃ / {t,h}_#
ẽ → ı̃ / ʔ_# “in one case”
32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to Tlapanech → CVʔV / _# (or possibly in just any final syllable?)
33 Penutian33.1.1 Proto-Utian to Proto-Costanoan (Ohlone)tʃ → ʂ / _#
ɨ → e / CC_#
33.2.1 Proto-Wintuan to Nomlakir → j / _#
34 Quechumaran34.2 Proto-Quechumaran to Bolivia{k,q} → h / _{C,#}
34.6 Proto-Quechumaran to Quitok → ɡ / _#
34.7 Proto-Quechumaran to Riobambak → h / _#
34.8 Proto-Quechumaran to Santiago{k,q} → h / _{C,#}
35 Salishan35.1.1 Proto-Central Salish to ComoxV3ʔ → V3(ː)ʔ / _#
35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack HalkomelemV3ʔ → V3(ː) / _#
ʔ → ∅ / V1_#
ʔ → ∅ / V1_#
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to Nooksackʔ → ∅ / V3R_{C,#}
ʔ → ∅ / V1R_#
ʔ → ∅ / V1_#
35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straitsʔ → {∅,ʔ} / V3R_{C,#}
35.1.12 Proto-Central Salish to Pentlatchʔ → ∅ / V3R_{V,#}
35.1.13 Proto-Central Salish to Secheltʔ → ∅ / V1_#
35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to TwanaRʔ → ʔR / V3_#
ʔ → ∅ / V1R_#
35.2.1 Proto-Interior Salish to Columbian and Okanagan Nasal-to-Vowel Shiftsnˀ → aʔ / _# (all other Interior Salishan languages have /eʔ/ in this position)
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1.1 Old Mandarin to Modern Pekingeseo → e / _#
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiae → i / _#
36.3.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Japhugu o → ɯ u / _#
aŋ → o / _#
ɔk → ɤɣ / _#
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Toe → i / _{s,#}
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo MoC[+ sibilant] → s / _#
36.3.2.2.5 Proto-rGyalrongic to Trungi → əi / _#
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Naoa(t) → ɛ / _#
36.3.3.1 Old Tibetan to Amdo dialectsi → ə / _#
s → either i or a diphthong ending in i? / _#
d → l / _# (some dialects)
t → l / _# (further development in bLa-brang)
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokee{Vh,Vʔ} → Vː / _#
∅ → Vː[+high rising tone] / C_# (“usually one of [/aː iː ʌ̃ː/ with this tone], the conditions are unclear”)
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayuga”V(C)(C)CaCV → V(C)”(C)CaCV / _#
R → ∅ / ʔ_#
C → ∅ / {s,k}_#
h → ∅ / Vː_#
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huronk → x / {#,R,ʔ,V}_{V,ʔ,R,#}
j → ∅ / V_{V,#}
w → ∅ / _{r,#}
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandotk → ∅ / _#
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondaga”V(ː)(C)(C)Vː → V[-long](C)”(C)CV[-long] / _#
”V(C)(C)CaCV → V(C)”(C)CaCV / _#
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneidah → ∅ / _#
Vː → V / _(C)(C)(C)#
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneida— Vː[+falling tone]C(C)V(H) → V̊ː[+falling tone]C̊(C̊)V̊(H̊) / _#
— CVː[+falling tone] → C̊V̊ː[+falling tone] / _#
— CVʔ → C̊V̊ʔ̊ / _#
— V[-long] → V̊ / R_#
— OV[-long] → O̊V̊ / _#
— jV → ∅ / Ci_(H)#
— R → R̊ / _#
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecan → t / ʔ_#
C → ∅ / s_#
t → ∅ / k_#
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscarorah → ∅ / Vː_#
n r w j → n̥ r̥ w̥ j̊ / _{#,O}
37.2.1 Proto-Siouan to Catawba∅ → ʔ / C_# (only sometimes?) (*)
37.2.4 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Čiwere-Winnebagok → ɡ / V[+nas]_ ! _#
37.2.4.2 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to WinnebagoV → ∅ / _#
41 Trans-New Guinea41.1 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Apalɨ{p,t} → ∅ / _#
41.2 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Asmatp t nj → {t,r} {r,s,t} s / _#
41.5.1.5 Proto-Gorokan to Gimiʔ → ∅ / _#
41.5.1.6 Proto-Gorokan to Hua{N,r} → ʔ / _{#,C}
41.5.1.7 Proto-Gorokan to Kamanor → ʔ / _#
41.5.1.8 Proto-Gorokan to MoveN → ʔ / _{#,C}
41.5.1.9 Proto-Gorokan to SianeC → ∅ / _#
41.5.2.1 Proto-Kainantu to AuyanaN → ∅ / _#
r → ʔ / _{N,#}
41.5.2.2 Proto-Kainantu to AwaN → ∅ / _{p,t,#}
41.6 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kalamt → {t,∅} / _#
41.7 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kâtep k → t ʔ / _#
41.9 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Selepett → t / _# (?)
ŋ → {m,ŋ} / _#
42 Uralic42.1 Proto-Uralic to Pre-Finnicŋ → k / _#, in latives
ŋ → n / _# else
m → n / _{t,tsʲ,#}
42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-FinnicV → Vː / _#
i → ∅ / Aj_#
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishj w → i U / V_{C,#}
βi → U / _#
{ks,nts} nt → s t / _#
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard FinnishVh → hV / {j,v,n,r,l}_# (also some double-metathesis triggered by the condition of being m_ ?)
{k,x} → ˟ / _#
VU → Vː / _#
42.1.1.1.2 Standard Finnish to Modern Standard Finnishn → ∅ / _#
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livonianɑ → ə / VC(C)ɑC(C)_# when unstressed
ə → ∅ / _#
43 Uto-Aztecan43.2 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Hopii → j / h_ ! _#
43.4 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Nahuatlm → n / _#
43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhami → ∅ / ts_#
l → i / {p,m,k(ʷ),w}_# “in all dialects, and varies by dialect after other consonants”
44 Vasconic44.1 Proto-Vasconic to Aquitanianś → {s(ː),ʃ} / _#
s → ʃ / i_#
r[+ fortis] → ɾ / _#
44.2 Proto-Basque to BasqueVn → Ṽ / _# (seems to have been reverted in most dialects, except for Souletin)
r → ɾ / _#
∅ → V / Vk_# (Zeberio Biscayan)
a → ∅ / V_# (Guipuscoan; happens because of reanalysis of the definite article)
V → ∅ / _#, in trisyllables
i → ∅ / _#, in disyllables
u {o,e} → ∅ a / _#, in disyllables (eastern dialects)
C[+ sibilant] → C[+ affricate] / _#
s̻ → s̺ / _{C,#} (sometimes)
its̺ → tʃ / _# (Biscayan)
oa ea → u(e) i(e) / _#
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.1 Proto-Pai to Chapaikʷ → k / _#
45.1.2 Proto-Pai to Paipaikʷ xʷ → k x / _#
45.1.3 Proto-Pai to Tipaikʷ xʷ → q χ / _# (the paper calls these “back velars”)
46 Vowel Shifts46.5 Old English-to-Scots Vowel Shifts— V → Vː / _{r,F[+voiced],$,#}
— əi → aɪ / _{r,F[+voiced],$,#} (pursuant to the above)
46.11 Middle Chinese to Cantonese Vowel Shift (“The Inner-Outer Flip”)V → Vː / _#
46.15 Proto-Japanese to Old Japanese Vowel Shifte o → je wo / _#
46.19 Southern [United States] Shift (English)aɪ → aː / _#