Index Diachronica: involving /l/

402 results from /l/   276 results to /l/   162 results with context involving /l/   

plain lːʲ l̩ː

from /l/

402 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1.1.1 North Omotic to Benchl → d / #_VC
l → n / #_VN
6.1.1.3 North Omotic to Kafal → d / #_VC
l → n / #_Vb
6.1.1.5 North Omotic to Shekkachol → d / #_VC
l → n / #_Vb
6.1.1.6 North Omotic to Wolayttal → n / #_VN
6.1.1.7 North Omotic to Yemsal → n / #_VC
6.1.1.8 North Omotic to Zayse-Zergullal → n / #_VN
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berberl → ∅ / #{d,tʼ}_VC
tlʼ → dl / #_Vħr
l → j / #_iC ?
l → r / #nV_C
l → n
6.2.2.1.4 Proto-Boreafrasian to Proto-Semitictlʼ → ɬ / _C[+sibilant]
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabic{l,n}j → jː
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakihl → sː
l → n / #_
l → r
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenakinθ nl → sː {sː,hl}
7.5 Proto-Algonquian to Cheyenne{(t)l,θ} → t
7.6 Proto-Algonquian to Northern East Creelwi → jo
l → h / _k
{n,q,h}ʃ {n,q,h}l → s {h,j,hj}
l → j
7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East Creelwi → jo
l → h / _k
{n,q,h}ʃ {n,q,h}l → ʃ l
l → j
7.8 Proto-Algonquian to Plains Creelwi → jo
l → h / _k
{n,q,h}ʃ {n,q,h}l → s {h,j,hj}
l → j
7.9 Proto-Algonquian to Swampy Creelwi → jo
l → h / _k
{n,q,h}ʃ {n,q,h}l → ʃ l
l → n
7.10 Proto-Algonquian to Woods Creelwi → jo
l → s / _k
{n,q,h}ʃ {n,q,h}l → s {h,j,hj}
l → {r,ð}
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delaware{θ,l} → r → l
{nθ,nl} → hl
7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-Illinois{θ,l} → r → l / V_V
{θ,l} → r → n / #_ (and possibly in other places as well)
{θ,l} → r → l
{ʔ,h}{ɬ,l} → hs
{θ,l} → t / n_
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaqn{θ,l} h{θ,ʃ} → ∅ s
ʔ{θ,ʃ} ʔl → s ∅
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonicl(ʲ) → n / #_
l lʲ → r s / else
8.2 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Koreanl(ʲ) → n / #_
l(ʲ) → r / else
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolicl → {n,l} / #_
lʲ → dʒ / #_i
lʲ → d / #_
lʲ → l
8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusicrʲ lʲ → r l
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkic{N,l,r,ʃ,z} → ∅ / #_
9 Austroasiatic9.1.2 Proto-Vietic to Middle Vietnamesel → ∅ / {i,e}_
l → j / else
9.1.2.1 Middle Vietnamese to Hanoi Vietnamesebl → z
ml → mɲ → ɲ (Thompson seems to indicate that this may have become [l] as well; only seems to have occurred with second-register tones)
9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnamese{bl,tl} → ʈ (?)
10 Austronesian10.1 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Malayo-Polynesians ts lʲ → h t n
10.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Batak{ts,ʈ} {ɟʝ͡,ɖ} {lʲ,ɲ} {ʔ,x,s,h} ʀ → t d n ∅ r (velar fricative is conjectured; changes → d “unsure”)
10.2.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Chamicl n → r l / #_ (sporadic)
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorrol → d / _{C,#}
10.2.4.1 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Javanese{l,d} z → r d
10.2.4.3 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Sundanese{l,j} z → r j
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauanj l → r j
rl → lː
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiputl → ∅ / ! _# (irregular)
{l,ɾ} → n / _#
10.2.6.2 Proto-North Sarawak to Proto-Kenyahl → n / _#
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabau— {l,r} → ∅ / _# (retained across morpheme boundaries)
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwl → j
10.3.5 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-New Caledonia{l,ɲ} → n
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bayv t l r → p dr n w / _#
10.3.9.1 Proto-Utupua to Asuboadr s l → {d,ɟ} {∅,s} {n,∅}
t r l → {j,s} {j,∅} j / _u
10.3.9.2 Proto-Utupua to Nebaol → ∅ (occasionally?)
10.3.9.3 Proto-Utupua to Tanibilip t {r,l} → ∅ s j / _u
{r,l} → l (occasionally → ∅?)
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejoml → tʃ / _{o,E}
10.3.11.3 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Tannal → r
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to Ongeɡd ɡl → dː lː
10.6 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Paiwanl *L → ɭ ʎ
10.7 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-RukaiR l L → {r,ʔ} ɭ l
11 Northeast Caucasian11.1 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Proto-Avar-Andicl → {l,r}
11.1.1 Proto-Avar-Andic to Akhvakh{l,r} → ∅ (sometimes, only from original *l)
11.4 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Lakm l → {m,n} {l,∅}
11.6 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Nakhl → r / _#
11.7 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Proto-Tsezicl → {l,r}
12 Northwest Caucasian12.1 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Abazgilʲ → r / #_
lʲ → l~ɣʲ
12.2 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Circassianr l → tː tħ / #_
l → ɮ
tsʷ lʲ {qʲʷ,qˤʷ} → sʷ d qʷ / #_ (data not given for non-initial forms)
12.3 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Ubykh{r,l} lʲ → d r / #_
l lʲ → ∅~j l~ɣʲ
{ɮʲ,lʲ} → ɮ
13 Chumashan13.6 Proto-Chumash to Ventureñoˀm ˀn ˀl ˀj → m n l j
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.1 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Proto-Dravidianl lː → {l,ɭ} ɭ(ː) / V_V
l → ɭ / V_#
14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamitel → n / V_#
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamill ɭ → lːʉ ɭːʉ / _#(C)V[-long]
{ɾ,l,ɭ} → ∅ / V_S
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Aleutl̥ → l
15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow Iñupiaql̥ → l / medial
l̥ → t / _C
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic Iñupiaql̥ → ʁ / _C
Some metathesis in consonant clusters, the conditions of which are not elaborated upon; the given example cited within the text is lʁ → ʁl
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie Iñupiaql̥ → t / _C
15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales Iñupiaql̥ → t / C_
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanianl r → l(ː) r(ː)
{m̩,n̩} l̩ r̩ → e uj {ri,ir}
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanianl r → {l,ɫ} {ɾ,r}
{m̩,n̩} l̩ r̩ → e uj {ri,ir}
17.2.2 Common Anatolian to Luwian{d,l} → r “in Hieroglyphic Luwian, occasionally”
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to Lydianl → ʎ / _{i,j}
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenianl → ɫ / {C,lV}_
l → ɫ / V_V
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenianl → ɫ / {C,lV}_
l → ɫ / V_V
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenianl → ɫ / {C,lV}_
l → ɫ / V_V
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenianl → ɫ / {C,lV}_
l → ɫ / V_V
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenianl → ɫ / {C,lV}_
l → ɫ / V_V
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenianl → ɫ / {C,lV}_
l → ɫ / V_V
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenianl → ɫ / {C,lV}_
l → ɫ / V_V
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestanl → r
{l̩,r̩} → ər(ə(r))
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishr̩ l̩ → {ri,ra} {li,la} / _{S,R} (which vowel crops up is unpredictable)
r̩ l̩ → {ra,ar} {la,al} / _{s,CC,V,#} (the results are unpredictable)
p t k kʷ b d ɡ m n l r s → f θ x xʷ v ð ɣ M N L R h / V(#)_{R,V} (“We don’t know the exact values of lenited /m n l r/. We can guess that lenited m became a nasalized labial continuant of some sort, but beyond that, we don’t know.”)
— {l,h}l {l,h}r l{p,s,n} r{p,s} ln → lː rː lː rː (lː?) / [anything]_
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshl → ɬ / _t
l r → ɬ r̥ / #_
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle Englishhn {wl,hl} hr → w l r
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle Englishhn {wl,hl} hr → w l r
17.7.2.1.5 Early Modern English to American Englishl → ɫ / “in some conditions”
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishl → ɫ (the conditions of this are not elaborated upon)
sj zj lj → ʃ ʒ j~ɫj / else “(j~ɫj fluctuation is formality)”
17.7.2.1.7 Early Modern English to British Englishl → ɫ / “in coda”
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle Englishhn {wl,hl} hr → w l r
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scotsol al → ou ɑː → ʌu {ɑ,ɔ}
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsl → ∅ / u_
l → u / {ɔ,ɑ}_
17.7.2.1.11 Scots to Falkirk Scotsl → ʟ
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle Englishhn {wl,hl} hr → w l r
17.7.2.2.1 Old Low Franconian to Middle Dutch{ol,al} {ar,er} or → ɔu aːr oːr / _C[+dental]
17.7.2.2.2 Middle Dutch to Modern Dutchl → u / o_{t,d}#
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norsel → ∅ / ŋ_s
l → ∅ / r_{m,s}
l → ∅ / s_t
l(ː)ʀ n(ː)ʀ → lː nː / ”Vː_ (or all V_ ?)
{l(ː),n}{r,ʀ} → ∅ / V{ː,V}_
nː lː rː sː → n l r s / C_
lː nː → l n / C_#
ðl(ː) ðn(ː) → lː nː
lθ nθ → lː nː
lθ nθ → lː nː
rː lː → r l / {p,t,k,f,s}_
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandic{l(ː),rl} → ɬ / v_#
{l(ː),rl} C → ɬ C[- voice] / _{S[- voice],s}
{l(ː),rl} C → ɬ C[- voice] / S_ ! Sː_
{l(ː),rl} rː → dɬ r̥ / _#
{r,r̥,l}ɬ → tɬ
{ɬl,ɬː → tɬ
r̥l → tɬ
{lː,rl} → tɬ / _#
{lː,rl} → tl
hl → ɬ / #_
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornɡn ɡl → nj lj
l → ∅ / V_V
l → ∅ / _{m,s,k}
l → ∅ / _# ?
lm → ml (sporadic)
lː → ʎ
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornlm → ml
nd ld (→ nː lː ?) → ɲ ʎ
ɡl → lɡ
vl → lv
n l → ɲ ʎ / _C
rn {lː,rl} → ɲ ʎ
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittitem̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar al
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-Aryanls lt ld(ʱ) ln → ʂ ʈ ɖ(ʱ) ɳ / “disputed”
17.10.1.5 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Vedic Sanskritl → r
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavicl̩ r̩ → {ьl,ъl} {ьr,ъr}
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishɛl → lɔ / T_T “in certain cases (mostly after a PSl. palato-alveolar”)
ɔl ɔr ɛl ɛr → lɔ rɔ lɛ rɛ / T_T
ɔr ɔl → ra la / #_T “in syllables with long vowels”
ɔr ɔl → rɔ lɔ / #_T
ъl → ɔ(ː)ɫ / P_
ъl → ɛɫ / K_
ъl → ɫu / else
ьl → ɫu / C[+dental]_
ьl → ɛɫ / P_C[+dental -palatalized]
ьl → il / P_
ьl → ɔ(ː)ɫ
tʲ dʲ sʲ zʲ nʲ rʲ l lʲ → tɕ dʒ ɕ ʑ ȵ r ɫ l (this last probably not before /i/)
plv → pf
slʲ → ∅ / _s
stʲkl → ɕtɕkl → {ɕ,s}kɫ → ʂkɫ
17.11.2 Proto-Slavic to Old Russianor ol er el → oro olo ere ele / _$
17.12.1 Proto-Italic to Proto-Latino-Falsicanl̥ r̥ → ol {or,er} / _#
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latinl̩ l̩ː r̩ r̩ː → ol l or r
l → r → _Vl
l → r / lV_ “(in suffixes with l if root already has l)”
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalanl → ∅ / {o,u}_CV
l → w / V_CV (“although l was usually restored later”)
{kl,ɡl} → ʎ / V_V (the latter is irregular)
lj rj kj ɡj → ʎ jr ts ʒ / V_V
l → ʎ / #_
lː nː → ʎ ɲ
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French{kl,ɡl,lj} → ʎ
l → u / _{C,#}
l → ∅ / {i,u}_
{lːe,lːo} → u / {e,o}_# “[this is actually an analogical development, but it applies as regularly as a sound law]”
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to ItaliankVl → kːj / unstressed
{dj,ɡj} lj {nj,ɡn} → dʒ ʎ ɲ
l → j / #C_
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguese{olt,okt} → ujt → ut
pl → {ʃ,pr} / #_
l → r / b_
fl → {ʃ,fr} / #_
{fl,skl} → ʃ
kl → kʎ → tʃ → ʃ / #_
{kl,ɡl} → ʎ
pl bl p t → br {br,l} b d / V_V (bl → l is learned)
sːj (m)nj lj rj → jʃ ɲʎ jr / V_V
s l → z ∅ / V_V
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençallː → l (in the south)
l → w / V_s
l → u / _s# (in many dialects)
{t,d}l {k,ɡ}l → lː ʎ
{l,r}w {n,ŋk,ŋɡ}w → lɡʷ ŋɡʷ → lɡ ŋɡ
ktj klj → is ʎ
l{tj,tʃj} ldʒ → lts ldz → uts udz → us uz
lː{j,Vdʒ} lnj → ʎ ɲ
lvj → lbj → ubj
l → u / _{t,s} (Languedoc)
l → u / _{d,s} (Rouergue)
l → u / _{t,d,s} (else)
{d,l} → ∅ / _#
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanianli → lj / _V
l → lj / _i
lː → ∅ / _i
”elːa → e”a / _#
l → r / V_V
{n,l} → ∅ / _j
l → j / {k,ɡ}_
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardiniannd {lː,ld} → ɳɖ ɖː / V_V
l → ∅ / rk_ (sporadic)
l → r / C_ (sporadic)
l{i,j} → lː → {ts,dz,ldz,dʒ,lː} (“varies”)
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanish{jl,lj} {jn,nj} {jɡ,ɡj} → ʎ ɲ ʝː
nː lː ɾɾ → ɲ ʎ r
kl pl → ʎ {ʎ,tʃ}
fl → ʎ (sporadic)
— dn dl → nd ld
— ml nɾ → lm ɾn (sometimes)
— mn ml → mbɾ mbl
l → u / _C (sometimes)
l → ɾ / _$
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tocharianp {ts,k(ʷ)} m n l r y → pj sʲ ʂ mj ɲ lj rj wj / _{E(:),y}
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Chibchanl → ɾ
26 Mande26.1 Proto-Mande to Bobol → d
26.5 Proto-Mande to Kono-Vail → d
26.7 Proto-Mande to Mandekanl → d
26.11 Proto-Mande to Semblal → d
26.13 Proto-Mande to Susul → d
28 Muskogean28 Muskogeanl → j / a_i
28.1.2 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Creekkl → kː
28.1.6 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Seminoletl → tː
28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western Muskogeantl st → lː tː
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1.1 Proto-Bantu to Sebirwat d l → {ʈ,tʲ} {ɖ,dʲ} {ɭ,lʲ,ʎ} (The paper is a bit unclear as to which is meant, as the transcription and the textual aspects of the paper seem to disagree here)
l → d / n_
30.1.1.2 Proto-Bantu to Tswana{tʃ,k} {ntʃ,nk,r} {ɲdʒ,nɡ} mp mb p b {d,l} m n → s tsʰ ts tʃʰ(w) tʃ(w) ʃ(w) dʒ(w) dʒ ŋw ɲ / _{ɪ,e}V
30.1.1.3.6 Proto-Sam to Lower Pokomol → d̪
30.2 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Potou-Akanic(N)V1[+mid +nas](l̃) → CV[-nas]n
V[+nas](ʋ̃,l̃) → V[-nas](m,n) / #J[+voiced]_
30.2.1.1 Proto-Akanic to Akanl l̃ → j j̃ / #_
ʋ l → w ɹ / #(C)V_
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinol → {lʲ,n} “under obscure conditions”
32.1.2 Proto-Chatino to Tataltepec Chatinol n → lʲ nʲ / e_ in U[-long -stress]
et el en → itʲ elʲ enʲ
32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinolʲ → l / #_ in U[-long -stress]
lʲ → lj / else
33 Penutian33.1.1 Proto-Utian to Proto-Costanoan (Ohlone)l → ɾ / ! _$ or o_
33.1.1.1 Proto-Costanoan to Chochenyol → ɾ / V_V
33.1.1.3 Proto-Costanoan to Mutsunl → ɾ / V_V
33.1.1.4 Proto-Costanoan to Rumsenl → ɾ / V_V
33.3.2.1 Proto-Nim-Yokuts to Proto-Tule-Kaweahl → t
35 Salishan35.1.1 Proto-Central Salish to Comoxl(ʲ) → w / _u
l(ʲ) → w / u_
l(ʲ) → j / else
35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack Halkomelemlʲ → l
lʔn → lː / V3_V
35.1.4 Proto-Central Salish to Musqueam Halkomelemlʲ → l
35.1.5 Proto-Central Salish to Klallaml(ʲ) → j
35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to Lushootseedlʲ → l
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to Nooksacklʲ → l
35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straitslʲ → l
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern Straitslʲ → l
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern Straitslʲ → l
35.1.11 Proto-Central Salish to Sooke Northern Straitsl(ʲ) → j
35.1.12 Proto-Central Salish to Pentlatchlʲ → l
35.1.13 Proto-Central Salish to Secheltlʲ → l
35.1.14 Proto-Central Salish to Sqamishlʲ → j
35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to Twanalʲ → l
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1 Proto-Sino-Tibetan to Middle Chinese(C-)l- → {d,ji}-
s-l- → {tʰ,z}-
l → ∅ / s_-
{m,ŋ}l- → dʑ-
Cl- → T(ʑ)-
36.3.1.1 Proto-Naish to Laze{r,s}l {r,s}n → l̥ N̥ / %_V
l̥ → ɬ / %_V
36.3.1.2 Proto-Naish to Mosuo (Na)l̥ → ɬ / %_V
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to Naxin̥ → l̥ → h / %_V
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiaçl → sj
lTS → l.dz
36.3.2.1.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Hanniuçl → rts
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham ToC[+ sibilant]w ç Pç Nç çl → s ʂ ʃ mʃ ʃl
ts {dz,KTS} NTS rdz dzl dʒ → s ts {dz,mtʃ.} rts tsl tʃ.
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtsel → ∅ / #ç_
ts (r)dz dzl dʒ NTS PTS Kts KTS sTS çTS → tsʰ (r)ts Ndz tsl ts ptç ktç kts sts {s,ç}ts
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Molts rts NTS PTS STS → lɖʐ rts. {mdzr,mtʃ} nt. sts
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Nao(P)ç Nç çl → (b)ɕ np.j ʂl
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu Taçl → sɬ
NTS KTS lTS → mʈʂ {kts,ʈʂʰ} bɖʐ
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to WassuPç çl → ʃ ʃn
ts dzl NTS → {tʃ.,j} tsl m
36.3.3.1 Old Tibetan to Amdo dialects{d,ɡ,s,l,r} → {h,r} / #_
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.1 Proto-Tai to Ahompl b{l,r} → v pj
{l,r} → ∅ / {d,ɗ}_
N[- voice] l̥ → N[+ voice] l
ɡl → k(w)
38.1.1.2 Proto-Tai to Saekpr b{l,r} vr → v bj d
{l,r} → ∅ / {n,ɗ}_
l → ∅ / tʰ_
38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Tai{l,r} → ∅ / n,ɗ_
l → ∅ / p_{ɯ,e,i}
l → j / p_
b{l,r} → pj
l → ∅ / t_
kl kr → {kj,tʃ} kʰj
{l,r} → ∅ / ŋ_
38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchowɡl → kj
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Tai{kʰ,ɡ}{l,r} → tʃ
k{l,r} → {kj,tʃ}
l → ∅ / p(ʰ),b_E
l → j / p(ʰ),b_V
{l,r} → ∅ / ɗ_
t{l,r} → r̥
38.1.1.4.1 North Tai to Dioikl → ð
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Tail → ∅ / {p,k(ʰ),ŋ}_
{l,r} → ∅ / t,ɗ_
tʰl tʰr → tʰ r̥
38.1.1.5.1 Southwest Tai to Laobl br → p pʰ
ɡ{l,r} → kʰ
38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lübl br → p pʰ
ɡl ɡr → k kʰ
38.1.1.5.3 Southwest Tai to Shanbl br → p pʰ
ɡl ɡr → k kʰ
38.1.1.5.5 Southwest Tai to Black Taibl br → p pʰ
ɡ ɡl → k tʃ
38.1.1.5.6 Southwest Tai to White Taibl br → p pʰ
{kʰ,ɣ} ɡ ɡ{l,r} → x k tʃ
40 Totozoquean40.1 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Mixe-Zoqueanl → j
41 Trans-New Guinea41.5.1.1 Proto-Gorokan to AsaroNl → nd
ʔ{l,d} ʔɡ → t k
41.6 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kalaml → ɽ
42 Uralic42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnicðʲ sʲ tsʲ(ː) lʲ → ð s ts(ː) l
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnish(t(ː))sn kx(tx) rn ln → sː xː rː lː
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnishlð rð → lː rː
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livoniant ts s(C) n l r → tʲ tsʲ sʲ(C) nʲ lʲ rʲ / _i
dj lj rj ɡj → dʲ lːʲ rːʲ jɡ
lʋ rʋ jʋ → lː rː jː
43 Uto-Aztecan43.1 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Comanche{ŋ,l} → n
43.2 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Hopil h → n ∅ / medially
43.3 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Luiseñol → n / medially
43.4 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Nahuatll → n / #_
43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhaml → ɲ / #_ “(in doubt; initial *l occurs in too few cognates to be sure. Apparently PUA initial *l was rare and is of questionable certainty whether it existed at all.)”
l → ɭ
l → i / {p,m,k(ʷ),w}_# “in all dialects, and varies by dialect after other consonants”
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basquel → ɾ / V_V
l n →ʎ ɲ / E_
46 Vowel Shifts46.10 Late Proto-Finnic to Savonian Vowel Shiftli ni ri si → lʲi nʲi rʲi sʲi

to /l/

276 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Omoticɬ → l
6.1.1.7 North Omotic to Yemsar → {r,lː} / V_
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berbertlʼ → dl / #_Vħr
r → l / #_V(V)O[+labial]
6.2.2.1.3 Ancient Egyptian to Copticn → l / #_Vb
n → l / #_(V){s,ʃ,h}V{m,b}#
n → l / #_V{m,b}{s,ʃ,h}
n → l / #_Vk
n → l / mV_C
n → l / CV_m
r → l / #(C)_c(C)# ?
r → l / #o_#
7 Algonquian7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenakinθ nl → sː {sː,hl}
θ → l
7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East Cree{n,q,h}ʃ {n,q,h}l → ʃ l
7.9 Proto-Algonquian to Swampy Cree{n,q,h}ʃ {n,q,h}l → ʃ l
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delaware{θ,l} → r → l
{θ,ʃ} → {r,l}
{nθ,nl} → hl
7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-Illinois{θ,l} → r → l / V_V
{θ,l} → r → l
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaqθ → l
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawneer → l
8 Altaic8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolicl → {n,l} / #_
lʲ → l
8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusicrʲ lʲ → r l
10 Austronesian10.1.1.5 Proto-Polynesian to Luangiuar → l
10.1.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Philippine*R → {l,ɡ} / _#
10.1.2.2 Proto-Philippine to Cebuano*D d → l r / V_V
{*j,*Z} z → l r / V_V
10.1.2.3 Proto-Philippine to Hiligaynon*D → l
{*Z,*j} z → l r / V_V
10.1.2.7 Proto-Philippine to Proto-Kalamian*R ɲ → l n
10.1.2.9 Proto-Philippine to Tagalog {*D,*j} {d,z} → l r / V_V
10.1.2.10 Proto-Philippine to Warayr → l / _#
10.2.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Chamicl n → r l / #_ (sporadic)
10.2.4 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Malayo-Javanicj → l
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Madureseɭ → lʔ / _#
ɭ → l
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauann dz → l r
rl → lː
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiputʀ → {l,ɾ} / ! _# (the latter is more common)
n → l / #_
10.2.6.2 Proto-North Sarawak to Proto-Kenyahd → l / #_ (sporadic)
10.3.1 Proto-Oceanic to Hawai’ianŋ r v → n l w
10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to Caaàct c → l j / V_V
VnV → ṼlṼ
10.3.5.2 Proto-New Caledonia to Jawét̪ → l / V_V
10.3.5.3 Proto-New Caledonia to Nemi-Pije-Fwait̪ → l / V_V
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-Nêlêmwapw p t ʈ k c → (v)w v r l ɣ j / V_V
VnV → ṼlṼ
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to Nyelâyup pw t̪ ʈ c → v (v)w r l j / V_V
t̪ ʈ → r l / _#
VnV → ṼlṼ
10.3.5.6 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwaameipː pwː tː ʈ kː cː → f hʷ tʰ lʰ h s
ʈ → l / V_V
10.3.5.7 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwapwâp pw t {k,c} → {v,∅} w l ∅ / V_V
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Yunagap pw t̪ ʈ k c → v w ð l ∅ j / V_V
10.3.5.8.2 Proto-Yunaga to Yunaga 2ð → l
10.3.6 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruzr → l
10.3.6.1 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Äiwoo*R → l
10.3.6.2 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Nagut → l / V_V
q *R → ∅ {l,∅}
10.3.6.3 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Natügut → {t,l} / #_
t → l / _{u,i}
t k → l ∅ / V_V
r → l / _{u,#}
q *R → ∅ {l,∅}
10.3.9.1 Proto-Utupua to Asuboar → {l,n,∅}
*R → {l,∅}
10.3.9.2 Proto-Utupua to Nebaor → {l,∅} / _u
r *R → l ∅
10.3.9.3 Proto-Utupua to Tanibili{r,l} → l (occasionally → ∅?)
10.3.10.1 Proto-Vanikoro to Bumar → l / ! _#
c *R → ∅ {l,∅}
10.3.10.2 Proto-Vanikoro to Tanemar → l / ! _#
c *R → ∅ {l,∅}
10.3.10.3 Proto-Vanikoro to Vanot → l / #_, in nouns
t → l / V_V
r → l / ! _{u,#}
c *R → {j,∅} l
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Ura*L → l
10.3.11.3.2 Proto-Tanna to Lenakelr → {l,i}
r → l / _Vl
10.3.11.3.3 Proto-Tanna to North Tannar → l / _{o,E}
10.3.11.3.4 Proto-Tanna to Southwest Tannar → l
10.3.11.3.5 Proto-Tanna to Whitesandsr → {l,i}
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Onganɟ ɡ *N *R → {ɟ,j} {ɟ,ɡ} {l,j} {l,r}
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to Ongeɡd ɡl → dː lː
10.6.1 Proto-Paiwan to Northern Paiwanc ɟ q ɭ → t d ʔ l
10.7 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-RukaiR l L → {r,ʔ} ɭ l
11 Northeast Caucasian11.1 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Proto-Avar-Andicl → {l,r}
11.4 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Laktɬ tɬː tɬ(ː)ʼ dɮ → xʲ xː kʼ {kː,l}
m l → {m,n} {l,∅}
11.5.6 Proto-Lezgic to Uditɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → {∅,x} q {∅,qʼ} qʼ {ɣ,l}
11.7 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Proto-Tsezicl → {l,r}
11.7.2 Proto-Tsezic to Tseztsː tɬː → z l / V_V
sː ʃ ʃː ɬ ɬː x → s ʒ ʃ l ɬ ɣ
r → {r,l,∅}
12 Northwest Caucasian12.1 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Abazgitɬ tɬː tɬʼ dɮ → x ts {x,tsʼ} l
lʲ → l~ɣʲ
tɬʷ(ː) tɬʼ dɮʷ → tsʷ tsʼ(ʷ) l
12.2.1 Proto-Circassian to Adygheɮ → l
12.3 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Ubykhl lʲ → ∅~j l~ɣʲ
13 Chumashan13.6 Proto-Chumash to Ventureñoˀm ˀn ˀl ˀj → m n l j
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.1 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Proto-Dravidianl lː → {l,ɭ} ɭ(ː) / V_V
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamill ɭ → lːʉ ɭːʉ / _#(C)V[-long]
ɭ → l “(again, sporadic)”
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Aleutl̥ → l
15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow Iñupiaql̥ → l / medial
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic IñupiaqSome metathesis in consonant clusters, the conditions of which are not elaborated upon; the given example cited within the text is lʁ → ʁl
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central Sentanid → l / medially
16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern Sentanid → l / medially
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanianl r → l(ː) r(ː)
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanianl r → {l,ɫ} {ɾ,r}
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishr̩ l̩ → {ri,ra} {li,la} / _{S,R} (which vowel crops up is unpredictable)
r̩ l̩ → {ra,ar} {la,al} / _{s,CC,V,#} (the results are unpredictable)
— {l,h}l {l,h}r l{p,s,n} r{p,s} ln → lː rː lː rː (lː?) / [anything]_
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle Englishhn {wl,hl} hr → w l r
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle Englishhn {wl,hl} hr → w l r
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle Englishhn {wl,hl} hr → w l r
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle Englishhn {wl,hl} hr → w l r
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norsel(ː)ʀ n(ː)ʀ → lː nː / ”Vː_ (or all V_ ?)
nː lː rː sː → n l r s / C_
lː nː → l n / C_#
ðl(ː) ðn(ː) → lː nː
lθ nθ → lː nː
lθ nθ → lː nː
rː lː → r l / {p,t,k,f,s}_
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandic{lː,rl} → tl
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornɡn ɡl → nj lj
lm → ml (sporadic)
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornlm → ml
nd ld (→ nː lː ?) → ɲ ʎ
ɡl → lɡ
vl → lv
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittitem̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar al
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-Aryanr → l
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavicl̩ r̩ → {ьl,ъl} {ьr,ъr}
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishɛl → lɔ / T_T “in certain cases (mostly after a PSl. palato-alveolar”)
ɔl ɔr ɛl ɛr → lɔ rɔ lɛ rɛ / T_T
ɔr ɔl → ra la / #_T “in syllables with long vowels”
ɔr ɔl → rɔ lɔ / #_T
j → lʲ / {p,b,m,v}_ (sporadic)
ьl → il / P_
tʲ dʲ sʲ zʲ nʲ rʲ l lʲ → tɕ dʒ ɕ ʑ ȵ r ɫ l (this last probably not before /i/)
stʲkl → ɕtɕkl → {ɕ,s}kɫ → ʂkɫ
17.11.2 Proto-Slavic to Old Russianor ol er el → oro olo ere ele / _$
mj pj bj → mlʲ plʲ blʲ
17.12.1 Proto-Italic to Proto-Latino-Falsicanl̥ r̥ → ol {or,er} / _#
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latinl̩ l̩ː r̩ r̩ː → ol l or r
d → l “in many dialects”
{d,n,r} → l / _l
s → z → l / l_
n → l / l_
l → r → _Vl
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalanʎ → l / ”i_
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguesepl bl p t → br {br,l} b d / V_V (bl → l is learned)
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençallː → l (in the south)
{t,d}l {k,ɡ}l → lː ʎ
{l,r}w {n,ŋk,ŋɡ}w → lɡʷ ŋɡʷ → lɡ ŋɡ
l{tj,tʃj} ldʒ → lts ldz → uts udz → us uz
lvj → lbj → ubj
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanianli → lj / _V
l → lj / _i
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardinianr → l / _C (sporadic)
l{i,j} → lː → {ts,dz,ldz,dʒ,lː} (“varies”)
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanish— n → {l,ɾ} / _m
— n → {ɾ,l} / nɡ_
— dn dl → nd ld
— ml nɾ → lm ɾn (sometimes)
— mn ml → mbɾ mbl
ɾ → l / _$
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tocharianp {ts,k(ʷ)} m n l r y → pj sʲ ʂ mj ɲ lj rj wj / _{E(:),y}
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makurápt → l / _V
r → l / V[+nas]_V[+nas]
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayoróp t → ∅ l / _V
19 Kartvelian19.2 Proto-Kartvellian to Svanɬ ʃ ʂ → l {sɡ,ʃɡ} ʃ
21 Lakes Plain21.2.1.1 Proto-Central Tariku to Edopid → d~n~l / #_a
21.2.1.2 Proto-Central Tariku to Iaud → d~l~n / #_a
21.2.3.1 Proto-West Tariku to Deirateb d k → b~β ɾ~l~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.4 Proto-West Tariku to Kirikirib d k → b~β ɾ~l~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.7 Proto-West Tariku to Weirateb d k → b~β ɾ~l~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.4 Proto-Chibchan to Marocacerod(V)j s(V)j → lʲ dʒ
d → l
23.1.2 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Lencanb d → p l
23.1.3 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Misumalpanb d → {b,p} l
26 Mande26.2 Proto-Mande to Busad → l
26.3 Proto-Mande to Dand → l
26.4 Proto-Mande to Gurod → l
26.6 Proto-Mande to Southwest Mande{tʼ,d} {kʼ,ɡ} → l k
26.8 Proto-Mande to Manod → l
26.9 Proto-Mande to Mwad → l
26.10 Proto-Mande to Sand → l
28 Muskogean28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western Muskogeantl st → lː tː
29 Na-Dene29.1.1 Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak to Proto-Athabaskanɬ → {ɬ,l}
29.1.1.1.30 Proto-Athabaskan to Hare Slavey-Hareɬ → l
30 Niger-Congo30.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Bantuʋ̃ → l̃ / #_
30.1.1.1 Proto-Bantu to Sebirwat d l → {ʈ,tʲ} {ɖ,dʲ} {ɭ,lʲ,ʎ} (The paper is a bit unclear as to which is meant, as the transcription and the textual aspects of the paper seem to disagree here)
p t d c ɟ k ɡ → ɸ ɹ {d,l} tʰ ∅ h {∅,ɡ}
30.1.2 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-Manenguba’p ’t ’d/d2 c {’ɟ} ’k ɡ → f l ɟ s ∅ {w,∅} {k,w} / in C1 position
p t ’t {’d,d2} c k ’k → b d l {l,∅} ɟ ɡ ∅ / in C2 position
30.2 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Potou-Akanicɰɰ̃ →l l̃ / #(C)V_
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinol → {lʲ,n} “under obscure conditions”
nʲ → l / #_i
32.1.2 Proto-Chatino to Tataltepec Chatinol n → lʲ nʲ / e_ in U[-long -stress]
et el en → itʲ elʲ enʲ
32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinolʲ → l / #_ in U[-long -stress]
lʲ → lj / else
32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to Tlapanecj → l(V)
35 Salishan35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack Halkomelemn → l
lʲ → l
lʔn → lː / V3_V
35.1.4 Proto-Central Salish to Musqueam Halkomelemlʲ → l
35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to Lushootseedlʲ → l
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to Nooksacklʲ → l
35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straitslʲ → l
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern Straitslʲ → l
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern Straitslʲ → l
35.1.12 Proto-Central Salish to Pentlatchlʲ → l
35.1.13 Proto-Central Salish to Secheltlʲ → l
35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to Twanalʲ → l
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1 Proto-Sino-Tibetan to Middle Chinese(C-)r- → l-
36.3.1.1 Proto-Naish to Laze{r,s}l {r,s}n → l̥ N̥ / %_V
n̥ → l̥ / %_V
36.3.1.2 Proto-Naish to Mosuo (Na)n̥ → l̥ / %_V
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to Naxin̥ → l̥ → h / %_V
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos KialTS → l.dz
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham ToC[+ sibilant]w ç Pç Nç çl → s ʂ ʃ mʃ ʃl
ts {dz,KTS} NTS rdz dzl dʒ → s ts {dz,mtʃ.} rts tsl tʃ.
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtsets (r)dz dzl dʒ NTS PTS Kts KTS sTS çTS → tsʰ (r)ts Ndz tsl ts ptç ktç kts sts {s,ç}ts
LTS → ldʒ
36.3.2.2.3 Proto-rGyalrongic to Patid → l
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Molts rts NTS PTS STS → lɖʐ rts. {mdzr,mtʃ} nt. sts
36.3.2.2.5 Proto-rGyalrongic to Trungun → ial
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Nao(P)ç Nç çl → (b)ɕ np.j ʂl
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassud KT → l kt
ts dzl NTS → {tʃ.,j} tsl m
36.3.3.1 Old Tibetan to Amdo dialectsd → l / _# (some dialects)
t → l / _# (further development in bLa-brang)
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeer → l
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Mohawk— r → l
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneidar → l
37.2.2.2 Dakota to Teton Dakota{pr,mt} kr → bl ɡl
37.2.4.1 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to ČiwereL → l
pr → bl
sr → {θl,ʃl}
kr → ɡl
r → l / x_
37.2.6.1 Proto-Dhegiha to KansaL → bl / #_e (*)
tʲr kr → ʃt l
mn → bl / {C,V}_{C,V}
37.2.7.2 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Ofosr kr → ft kV0lV0
37.2.7.3 Proto-Ohio-Valley to TuteloL → l
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.1 Proto-Tai to AhomN[- voice] l̥ → N[+ voice] l
r → l / K_
38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Taixr → kʰ{l,r}
38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-Ai{r,r̥} → l
38.1.1.5.3 Southwest Tai to Shanɓ ɗ → b l
38.1.1.5.5 Southwest Tai to Black Taiɓ ɗ → b l
39 Tanoan39.3 Proto-Tanoan to Taosd → l / _V[-nas]
40 Totozoquean40.2 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Totonacannʲ tʲ kʲ k → l tʃ k q
41 Trans-New Guinea41.1 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Apalɨt k ŋ → {l,t} {h,k} n / #_
42 Uralic42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnicðʲ sʲ tsʲ(ː) lʲ → ð s ts(ː) l
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnish(t(ː))sn kx(tx) rn ln → sː xː rː lː
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnishlð rð → lː rː
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livoniant ts s(C) n l r → tʲ tsʲ sʲ(C) nʲ lʲ rʲ / _i
dj lj rj ɡj → dʲ lːʲ rːʲ jɡ
lʋ rʋ jʋ → lː rː jː
43 Uto-Aztecan43.2 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Hopiw → l / {#,V[+low]}_V[+low]
43.3 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Luiseñot → l / medially
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basqued → l / #_ (except verbs)
*L (fortis) → l (or *lh → lː, which then lost gemination?)
ʎ ɲ → jl jn (“common in Low Navarrese, Labourdin, and is even regular in the High Navarrese of Sakana”)
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.2 Proto-Pai to Paipaiʃ ɬ → ʂ l
46 Vowel Shifts46.10 Late Proto-Finnic to Savonian Vowel Shiftli ni ri si → lʲi nʲi rʲi sʲi

with context involving /l/

162 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Omotica → o / #Cw_{(d)l,s3}
6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North Omotice → i / #l_{P,C[+voiced]}
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berberp → b / #dlV_
6.2.2.1.4 Proto-Boreafrasian to Proto-Semitickʼ(w) → k / #dlV_
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabic∅ → i / #al$_z
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakiʔ → h / _l
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenakiʔ → h / _l
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawneeʔ → ∅ / C{v,l,s}_C
8 Altaic8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkicy → i / {r(ʲ),l(ʲ)}_e
i → e / {r(ʲ),l(ʲ)}_e
tʰ → d / #_(V){lʲ,r(ʲ)}
8.5.1.2 Proto-Kypchak to Kyrgyzj → ∅ / _l (sporadic?)
∅ → U / #_{l,r} (not sure what 〈U〉 represents here; maybe just some sort of back vowel?)
9 Austroasiatic9.1.1 Proto-Vietic to Muong Khen(h)ə{p,b} → t / _l
m → ∅ / _l
9.1.2 Proto-Vietic to Middle Vietnamese((h)ə)p d → b t / _l
9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnamesem → ∅ / _l
10 Austronesian10.1.1.3 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sumbawanu → i / _{s,t,r,n,l} (blocked in Pusu)
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabau— u i → uə iə / _{k,ŋ,h,l,r}#
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Ura{s,t} → h / _{n,l,r}
10.3.11.3.2 Proto-Tanna to Lenakelr → l / _Vl
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to OngeN → n / _{d,l}
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.1 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Proto-Dravidianw → v / #_{i,e}lV
s → ∅ / #V_{r̀,l}
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamil∅ → ʉ / {l,ɭ}_# if {M,Vː} previously in the lexeme
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’ikF[+voice] → S[+same POA] / l̥_
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’ikF[+voice] → S / l̥_
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’ikF[+voice] → S / l̥_
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’ikF[+voice] → S / l̥_
17 Indo-European17.2.1 Common Anatolian to Hittitee → a / _{r,l} (sporadic)
aj aw → ɛː uː / !_{s,n,r,l}
17.2.2 Common Anatolian to Luwianhh → ∅ / _{w,m,n,r,l} “medially, and sporadically”
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenianl → ɫ / {C,lV}_
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenianl → ɫ / {C,lV}_
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenianl → ɫ / {C,lV}_
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenianl → ɫ / {C,lV}_
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenianl → ɫ / {C,lV}_
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenianl → ɫ / {C,lV}_
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenianl → ɫ / {C,lV}_
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— p → b / _{r,l}
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irish— s → ∅ / [anything]{l,r}_O
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshp t k → f θ x / {r,l}_
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothicβ → b / {r,l}_
17.7.2.1.5 Early Modern English to American Englishj → ∅ / {θ,s,z,l,n,t,d}_ when in onset position
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishj → ∅ / %{θ,s,z,l}_”V
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scotsb → ∅ / m_l
d → ∅ / l_#
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsɑ → a / ! _{l,r} (sporadic)
æ → ɑ / _{x,l}
{f,v} → ∅ / {l,r,V}_ (sometimes blocked)
ð → ∅ / {l,r,V}_C
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germans → ʃ / #_{l,m,n,w,p,t}
w j → b ɡ / {l,r}_ (occasionally otherwise)
e(ː) i → ø(ː) y / _{P,l,ʃ} (sporadic?)
e(ː) i → ø(ː) y / {P,l,ʃ}_ (sporadic?)
Vː → V[- long] / _%Cə{r,l,n}# (some exceptions)
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlautβ → b / _l
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norseθ → f / _l
e → ja / ! {{h,k,ŋ}n,w,v,l,r}_, _{u,o,i}
V → Vː / _l{P,w,k,#}
e → jɒ / _(C)(C)(C)u ! {{h,k,ŋ}n,w,v,l,r}_
e → ja / _(C)(C)(C)u ! {{h,k,ŋ}n,w,v,l,r}_
d → ∅ / {l,m}_{b,ɡ,k,l,m,n,s}
ð → ∅ / r_{m,l,ɡ,n}
{f,β,p} → ∅ / l_{d,ɡ,n,ð,t}
{ɡ,ɣ} → ∅ / l_{ð,t}
k → ∅ / l_s
k → ∅ / s_l,t
n → ∅ / l_b
t → ∅ / s_{k,l,n,s}
{t,θ,d,ð} → ∅ / n_l
{t,θ,d,ð} → ∅ / l_n
V{θ,ð} → Vː / #(C)(C)(C)_{l,r}
β ð ɣ → b d ɡ / {m,n,ŋ,l}_
s → ts / {l,n}ː_
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early IcelandicS[- voice] → ʰS / _{l,ɬ,m,n}
F → S[- voice] / _{l,N}
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornf → ∅ / _{l,b,v,n,#}
h → ∅ / _{l,n,r}
s → ∅ / {t,k,r}_l
u → ø / _l(ː)
a → ɔ / _{l,nd}C
œ → ø / _l
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Norn∅ → b / m_l
s → ∅ / k_l
h → ∅ / _l
aː → ɔ(u) / _{l,r}
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishɛ ɛ̃ ɛː → ɔ ɔ̃ a / _C[-palatalized +dental] (also sporadically before plain non-dentals)
ьl → ɛɫ / P_C[+dental -palatalized]
ь → aː / r_C[+dental -palatalized]
a ɛ i ɔ u ɨ ã → aː ɛː iː ɔː uː ɨː ãː / _{C/U}[+voiced][lost yer] (i.e., a voiced consonant or a cluster with one)
ɔ → ɔː / _{r,l} (sporadic, perhaps analogical)
i u → u i / {lʲ,j}_ (sporadic)
ɛ̃ → ɛ / _{#,l,ɫ}
ɔ̃ → ɔ / _{l,ɫ}
n → m / {b,p}{l,r,ʐ}V_
stʲ → ɕ / _l
rʲ → r / _{s,t͜s,l,w,n,ɲ}
tʲ dʲ → t d / _{l,n,ɲ,r,ʐ}
17.11.2 Proto-Slavic to Old Russian{t,d} → ∅ / V_lV
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to LatinVː → V[-long] / _{m,(n)t,l,r}#
t → k / _l
dʱ → b / _l
w → ∅ / ɡV_{l,r}
s → z / _{N,l,r}
V → Vː / _z{l,r}
z → ∅ / _{l,r}
{d,n,r} → l / _l
s → z → l / l_
n → l / l_
∅ → p / m_{s,t,l}
l → r / lV_ “(in suffixes with l if root already has l)”
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalanp b → b w / V_lV (the latter is irregular)
ɛ → e / ! _{rː,l,rC[-labial],nr} or _ ? w#
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French∅ → b / m_{r,l}
∅ → d / {n,l,ɲ,z_r
p → b / _l
ɛ → ɛa / _l{C,#}
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguesee → ∅ / el_#
e → ∅ / {l,n,r,s,k}_#
{e,i} → ∅ / {l,m,r}_ when between #U and U[+stress]
o → ∅ / _{r,l} when between #U and U[+tonic]
ɡ → ∅ / #_l
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— V → ∅ / lv_r (dialect-dependent)
K → ∅ / _l (not always, but this was a general change)
∅ → k / #s_l
β → u / _l
∅ → b / m_l
p j → b i / _l
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanianb → u / V_{l,r}
s → ʃ / _kl
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardiniant → k / s_l (sporadic)
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to SpanishV → ∅ / C_{r,l} when unstressed and not at a word boundary
V → ∅ / {r,l}_C when unstressed and not at a word boundary
{k,ɡ} → x → j / _{t,s,n,l}
e → ∅ / V{d,s,n,l,ɾ}_#
b ɡ → β ɣ / {l,ɾ}_
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinoe → a / _{l,ʔn} when unstressed
32.1.2 Proto-Chatino to Tataltepec Chatinotʲ → tʃ / _i[-long -stress]
32.1.4 Proto-Chatino to Zenzontepec Chatinoe → i / l_ when unstressed
33 Penutian33.1.1.1 Proto-Costanoan to Chochenyoa → e / il_
33.1.1.3 Proto-Costanoan to Mutsuna → e / il_
33.1.1.4 Proto-Costanoan to Rumsena → e / il_
35 Salishan35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straitsʔ → ∅ / V3l_nV
36 Sino-Tibetan36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan LaP → p / l_
TS → dʒ / l_
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos KiaP → p / l_
o → e / _l
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneida— ∅ → e / C_{n,l}V(H)#
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.2 Proto-Tai to Saekd → t / _{l,r}
k → t / _l
38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Taiɓ ɗ → b d / ! _{l,r}
d → ∅ / _{l,r}
38.1.1.3.3 Central Tai to Tayɡ → ∅ / _l
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Taid → ∅ / _{l,r}
38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siameseb → pʰ / _{l,r}
42 Uralic42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnics → x / _l
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard FinnishVh → hV / {j,v,n,r,l}_# (also some double-metathesis triggered by the condition of being m_ ?)
i → y / #(C…)l_y
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basqueu ũ → y ỹ / _r(p(ʰ),β,k(ʰ),ɣ,l,s̺,s̻,ʃ,h) (Souletin)
— V → ∅ / S_{ɾ,l} (more common in Roncalese and Salazarese, but also in Navarrese and Aescoan?)
C[- voice] → C[+ voice] / {l,N}_ (not Roncalese or Souletin)