Index Diachronica: involving /r/

432 results from /r/   319 results to /r/   261 results with context involving /r/   

plain rːʲ r̝̊ r̩ː

from /r/

432 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1.1.7 North Omotic to Yemsar → {r,lː} / V_
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berberr → l / #_V(V)O[+labial]
r → ʔ / C_{t,w,j}# ! C = {ɡ,m,n,r,w,ʃ,x}
6.2.2.1.3 Ancient Egyptian to Copticr → l / #(C)_c(C)# ?
r → l / #o_#
6.2.2.1.19 Biblical Hebrew to Modern Israeli Hebrewr → ʁ
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakinr → rː
7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-Atsinaθ h {s,m,n,r} → ʃ ∅ ʔ / _C
r → n / {#,V}_
r → h / C_
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfoot{θ,tʃ,ʃ,r} → t / unless adjacent to another consonant
{ʔθ,ʔr} → {ʔ,j,∅}
nr → s
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delaware{θ,l} → r → l
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menominee{s,r} → h / _O
r → n
7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-Illinois{θ,l} → r → l / V_V
{θ,l} → r → n / #_ (and possibly in other places as well)
{θ,l} → r → l
7.15 Proto-Algonquian to Ojibwe{ʔ,h}{s,r} → s
{n,r} → ∅ / _r
r → s / _k
r → n
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawneer → s / H_
r → ∅ / n_
r → ʃ / _O
r → l
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonicr → t / _{i,u}
rʲ → {r,t}
8.2 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Koreanrʲ → r
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolicrʲ → r
8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusicrʲ lʲ → r l
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkic{N,l,r,ʃ,z} → ∅ / #_
rʲ → z
8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchakɡm rɡ → mɡ ɡr (this second one is listed as → rɡ but it might be a typo)
rd → dr (possibly sporadic and/or confined to Kazakh)
10 Austronesian10.1.1.1 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Balineser → {r,h} → {∅,h}
10.1.1.2 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sasakr → h / _# (Meno-mene and Mriak-mriku only)
10.1.1.5 Proto-Polynesian to Luangiuar → l
10.1.2.4 Proto-Philippine to Ibanagr → d / #_ (?)
10.1.2.10 Proto-Philippine to Warayr → l / _#
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauanrl → lː
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabau— {l,r} → ∅ / _# (retained across morpheme boundaries)
10.3.1 Proto-Oceanic to Hawai’ianŋ r v → n l w
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwdr *r → d r
r → ɡʟ
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerigndr *R → d r
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to Mwotlapndr → d
r → j
10.3.5 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-New Caledoniar → ʈ
10.3.6 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruzr → ∅ / d_
r → l
10.3.6.3 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Natügur → l / _{u,#}
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bayv t l r → p dr n w / _#
10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to Tolomako{z,dr} → ts
10.3.9.1 Proto-Utupua to Asuboadr s l → {d,ɟ} {∅,s} {n,∅}
t r l → {j,s} {j,∅} j / _u
r → {l,n,∅}
10.3.9.2 Proto-Utupua to Nebaor → {l,∅} / _u
r *R → l ∅
10.3.9.3 Proto-Utupua to Tanibilip t {r,l} → ∅ s j / _u
dr → ɟ / _i
{r,l} → l (occasionally → ∅?)
10.3.10 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Vanikoror → ∅ / d_
10.3.10.1 Proto-Vanikoro to Bumar → l / ! _#
10.3.10.2 Proto-Vanikoro to Tanemar → l / ! _#
10.3.10.3 Proto-Vanikoro to Vanor → l / ! _{u,#}
10.3.11 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Southern Vanuatudr → {d,r}
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejom{r,h} → ∅ / _#
10.3.11.2 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Erromangor → *L (some sort of lateral?) / occasionally
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Uranr → d
10.3.11.3.2 Proto-Tanna to Lenakelr → {l,i}
r → l / _Vl
10.3.11.3.3 Proto-Tanna to North Tannar → l / _{o,E}
r → i
10.3.11.3.4 Proto-Tanna to Southwest Tannar → l
10.3.11.3.5 Proto-Tanna to Whitesandsr → {l,i}
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’andr *R → d r
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to Onge{w,r} → ∅ / {a,e}_#
10.6.3 Proto-Paiwan to Southern Paiwank r → ʔ ɣ
11 Northeast Caucasian11.1.1 Proto-Avar-Andic to Akhvakh{l,r} → ∅ (sometimes, only from original *l)
11.3 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Khinalugr → n / _C
r → {r,∅}
11.6 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Nakhr → d / #_
11.7.2 Proto-Tsezic to Tsezr → {r,l,∅}
12 Northwest Caucasian12.1 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Abazgirʲ → r
12.2 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Circassianr l → tː tħ / #_
12.3 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Ubykh{r,l} lʲ → d r / #_
r rʲ → r~ʁ ɮ
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.1 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Proto-Dravidianrt → ʈ / V_V
r̀ → r̲
ŕ → r / V_V
n nː rn → {n̲,r} n̲(ː) ɳ / V_V
nr̀ → n̲r̲
14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamiter̀ → r / V_{V,C}
ŕ → rː / V_V
nr̀ → nr
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamilr → ɾ “in most dialects”
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanianl r → l(ː) r(ː)
{m̩,n̩} l̩ r̩ → e uj {ri,ir}
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanianl r → {l,ɫ} {ɾ,r}
{m̩,n̩} l̩ r̩ → e uj {ri,ir}
17.2 Proto-Indo-European to Common Anatolianr → ∅ / #_ (unclear)
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenian{sr,rs} → rː
r → rː / _N
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenian{sr,rs} → rː
r → rː / _N
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenian{sr,rs} → rː
r → rː / _N
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenian{sr,rs} → rː
r → rː / _N
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenian{sr,rs} → rː
r → rː / _N
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenian{sr,rs} → rː
r → rː / _N
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenian{sr,rs} → rː
r → rː / _N
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestanrt → š (Alex Fink says that the realization of /š/ “is unclear”)
{l̩,r̩} → ər(ə(r))
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishr̩ l̩ → {ri,ra} {li,la} / _{S,R} (which vowel crops up is unpredictable)
r̩ l̩ → {ra,ar} {la,al} / _{s,CC,V,#} (the results are unpredictable)
p t k kʷ b d ɡ m n l r s → f θ x xʷ v ð ɣ M N L R h / V(#)_{R,V} (“We don’t know the exact values of lenited /m n l r/. We can guess that lenited m became a nasalized labial continuant of some sort, but beyond that, we don’t know.”)
— {l,h}l {l,h}r l{p,s,n} r{p,s} ln → lː rː lː rː (lː?) / [anything]_
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshl r → ɬ r̥ / #_
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle Englishhn {wl,hl} hr → w l r
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle Englishhn {wl,hl} hr → w l r
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle Englishhn {wl,hl} hr → w l r
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle Englishhn {wl,hl} hr → w l r
17.7.2.2.1 Old Low Franconian to Middle Dutch{ol,al} {ar,er} or → ɔu aːr oːr / _C[+dental]
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norser → ∅ / {ð,f}_{ɡ,ɣ}
r → ∅ / k_{n,s}
r → ∅ / m_m
r → ∅ / t_{k,s}
rː{r,ʀ} sʀ → rː sː
{l(ː),n}{r,ʀ} → ∅ / V{ː,V}_
nː lː rː sː → n l r s / C_
r → ∅ / {p,t,k}_Vr
rː lː → r l / {p,t,k,f,s}_
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandic{l(ː),rl} → ɬ / v_#
{l(ː),rl} C → ɬ C[- voice] / _{S[- voice],s}
r → r̥ / S[- voice] / _#
{l(ː),rl} C → ɬ C[- voice] / S_ ! Sː_
{l(ː),rl} rː → dɬ r̥ / _#
{r̥n,r̥n̥,rn̥ → tn̥
rn → tn̥ / _#
r → t / _n
{r,r̥,l}ɬ → tɬ
r̥l → tɬ
{lː,rl} → tɬ / _#
{lː,rl} → tl
hr hn → r̥ n̥ / #_
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Norntr → rd
rn {lː,rl} → ɲ ʎ
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittitem̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar al
— r → ∅ / #_
— r → ∅ / _# “sometimes??”
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-Aryanr → l
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavicl̩ r̩ → {ьl,ъl} {ьr,ъr}
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishɔl ɔr ɛl ɛr → lɔ rɔ lɛ rɛ / T_T
ɔr ɔl → ra la / #_T “in syllables with long vowels”
ɔr ɔl → rɔ lɔ / #_T
ьr → i(ː)ʐ → {ɛ(ː)r,ɛ(ː)ʐ} → {ɛr,ɛʐ}
tʲ dʲ sʲ zʲ nʲ rʲ l lʲ → tɕ dʒ ɕ ʑ ȵ r ɫ l (this last probably not before /i/)
r̝ → ʂ / C[-voiced]_
r̝ → ʂ / _C[+voiced]
ŕ → ʐ / else
tɕts ʑr̝ → jts jr̝
v r̝ → f r̥ / C[-voiced]_
v r̝ → f r̥ / _{C[-voiced],#}
r̝̊ r̝ → ʂ ʐ
r̝ → r / {ɕ,ʑ}_
ʐr → ʑr
ɕr̝ ʑr̝ → ʂr ʐr / “‘szron’ and ‘żreć’”, respectively
trk → kr / in the name of the river “Skrwa”
rʲ → r / _{s,t͜s,l,w,n,ɲ}
17.11.2 Proto-Slavic to Old Russianor ol er el → oro olo ere ele / _$
17.12.1 Proto-Italic to Proto-Latino-Falsicanl̥ r̥ → ol {or,er} / _#
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latinl̩ l̩ː r̩ r̩ː → ol l or r
{d,n,r} → l / _l
l → r → _Vl
r…r → r…∅
{n,d}…r → r…r
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalanlj rj kj ɡj → ʎ jr ts ʒ / V_V
n → r → br / m_
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— r → s / _s
sːj zj rj → jsː jz jr
ʎ r → j ʁ
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to Italianr → ∅ / a_ju#
r → ∅ / _# (in polysyllables only)
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguesers → sː
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençalrs → sː
{l,r}w {n,ŋk,ŋɡ}w → lɡʷ ŋɡʷ → lɡ ŋɡ
rtʃj → rts (→ rs ?)
rdj rVɡ → rdz rdʒ
rdʒ → {rdʒ,rdz(→ rz)}
rtj → rts → rs
rːVɡ rːj → rdʒ ir
rtVɡ → {rdʒ,rts(→ rs)}
rtj → rts → rs
rj → rʲ → ir / V_V
rj → rʲ → r / _#
tVɡ trj → dʒ ir
rtʃ rdtʃ → r(t)s {rdz(→ rz),rts,rdʒ}
rdɡ → r{ɡ,dʒ} / _a
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanianr → s / _s
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardinianr → l / _C (sporadic)
r → urː / #_e / Logudorese
r → arː / #_(j)B / Logudorese
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanishr → {ʐ,χ}
17.12.2 Proto-Italic to Proto-Sibellianr̥ → er / _#
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tocharianp {ts,k(ʷ)} m n l r y → pj sʲ ʂ mj ɲ lj rj wj / _{E(:),y}
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makurápr → l / V[+nas]_V[+nas]
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayorór ŋʷ → n β / V[+nas]_V[+nas]
18.4.1 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Akwárak b r → {ŋ,∅} {w,m} {n,r,t} / _#
18.4.4 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guaraní{b,r} → ∅ / _#
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guarayo{b,k} r → ∅ {r,∅} / _#
18.4.6 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Kamayuráb r → p t / _#
18.4.7 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Parintintínb r → {b,∅} {r,t} / _#
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Sirionó{b,r} → ∅ / _#
25 Macro-Panoan25.1.1 Proto-Tacanan to Cavineña*ŕ → r
25.1.2 Proto-Tacanan to Chama{r,*ŕ} → {∅,w,j}
25.1.3 Proto-Tacanan to Reyesano*ŕ → ∅
25.1.4 Proto-Tacanan to Tacana*ŕ → ∅
27 Mayan27.1 Proto-Mayan to Ch’olanr → j
27.2 Proto-Mayan to Chujeanr → j
27.4 Proto-Mayan to Ixileanr → {t,j}
27.7 Proto-Mayan to Mameanr → {t,j}
r t tʃ ʃ → t tʃ ʈʂ ʂ
27.8 Proto-Mayan to Q’anjob’alanr → j
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1.2 Proto-Bantu to Tswana{tʃ,k} {ntʃ,nk,r} {ɲdʒ,nɡ} mp mb p b {d,l} m n → s tsʰ ts tʃʰ(w) tʃ(w) ʃ(w) dʒ(w) dʒ ŋw ɲ / _{ɪ,e}V
33 Penutian33.2.1 Proto-Wintuan to NomlakiVrV → {Vː,M}
r → j / _#
33.2.3 Proto-Wintuan to South Patwinr → {r,j}
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1 Proto-Sino-Tibetan to Middle Chinese(C-)r- → l-
s(-)r → ʂ-
r → ∅ / C_-
r-T- → Ṭ
w → r → ∅ / P_-
36.1.1.1 Old Mandarin to Modern Pekingese#r…î# → #î…r
36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàr → ʐ (Apparently there was some situation where this went to ∅, and then something happened with the output syllable being [ɚ])
36.3.1.1 Proto-Naish to Laze{r,s}p(ʰ) {r,s}{Np,(m)b} → f v / _V (the paper implies similar developments occurred at other POAs)
{r,s}k {r,s}Nk → f w / _V
{r,s}l {r,s}n → l̥ N̥ / %_V
36.3.1.2 Proto-Naish to Mosuo (Na){r,s}pʰ {r,s}{(N)p,(m)b} → pʰ p b / _V (the paper implies similar developments occurred with stops at other POAs)
{r,s}k {r,s}Nk → k ʁ / _V
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to Naxi{r,s}pʰ {r,s}(N)p {r,s}b {r,s}mb → pʰ p b mb / _V (the paper implies similar developments occurred with stops at other POAs)
{r,s}(N)k → k / _V
{r,s} → ∅ / %_V
{r,s}N → N̥ → hṼ → hV
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Lap b çp çb sP rP Np Nb pr {br,pj} bj → pʰ p ʝb çp sp rpʰ mpʰ mb br pʰj pj
t d Nt Nd st sd çT tr (ç)dr KT → tʰ t Ntʰ md zd st çtj trh (ç)tr kt
k sk kr ɡ Pɡ sɡ Nɡ (s)ɡr çK rK Kç → kʰ zɡw dr Nɡ pk sk mk (s)kr çk rɡj ɡçkr
çr Nç → dr mkʰj
(r)ts (r)dz → (r)tsʰ (r)ts
rnj → rɲ ?
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiap çp (ç)b rP Np Nb pr {br,pj} → p. ç.w (ç)p rp. kj m.p n.br p.j
t st tr d sd (ç)dr Nt çT KT → t. s.d tr. t s.t (ç.)tr m.t. n.dr ɡ.t
r → ∅ / _t
sk rK → j sɡ
kr (s)ɡr → n.br (s)kr
ts (r)dz dʒ PTS KTS sTS çTS → {tsʰ,s} (r)ts tsʰ ɡ.ts s.{ts,pj} {s.ts,br}
rm rn → mj rw
rnj → r.mj
a ap at ar am aj → e eb e(d) er om e.i
36.3.2.1.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Hanniuor → ro
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Top b pr br çp → p.j p br pj ʃb
d(r) → t
r → s / _k
sɡr → skr
ts {dz,KTS} NTS rdz dzl dʒ → s ts {dz,mtʃ.} rts tsl tʃ.
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtse(N)p Nb sP çp çb pr br {p,b}j → (m)pʰ (m)p sp ʝb çp br pʰj pʰj
(N)t (N)d st sd KT çT tr dr çtr → (N)tʰ mt zd st kt çt(j) trh tr çtr
(P)ɡ sɡ çK Nɡ k sk rk (s)ɡj (ʔ)kj → (p)k sk çk mk kʰ zɡ Nɡ (s)kj (ʔ)kʰj
Nkj (s)ɡr Kç kr skr ɡr → mɡj (s)kr ɡçkr kʰr zɡr Nɡr
ts (r)dz dzl dʒ NTS PTS Kts KTS sTS çTS → tsʰ (r)ts Ndz tsl ts ptç ktç kts sts {s,ç}ts
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Mo{p,b} Np pr {s,r}P çb Nb → p mp mbr sp ʃp p.s
Nt tr d KT çT → mt. tʂ t kt ʃt
kr rk {rK,Pɡ} ɡ Pɡ sɡ → k.r rk. pk k sk
rs → sr
lts rts NTS PTS STS → lɖʐ rts. {mdzr,mtʃ} nt. sts
es er → or ər
36.3.2.2.5 Proto-rGyalrongic to Trungkr → dz
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Naod(r) çT → t ʃt
k {sɡ,çK} Nɡ rK → k. sk mɡ nk
nj rnj → nj rɲ
ut u{k,n} ur → ud uo uɛ
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu Tadr çdr → ʈ ʂʈdz
k rk kr kj Nkj ɡr → kʰdz nɡ kʰr tʃh dʒ nkʰr
ts dz rdz dʒ → {ʈʂ,ʒ} tsj rtsʰ ʈʂ
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassupr b → br p
k kr kj ɡ → k. k.r ts. ɡ
36.3.3.1 Old Tibetan to Amdo dialects{d,ɡ,s,l,r} → {h,r} / #_
k(ʰ){r,j} ɡ{r,j} → tɕ(ʰ) dʑ
sr → ʂ / #_
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoianr → ts / _i
37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokee{n,r} → ∅ / _j
r → l
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayugar → n / _(h)j
r → w / {o(ː),õ(ː)}_{a(ː),e(ː),ẽ(ː),i(ː)}
r → j / {e(ː),ẽ(ː),i(ː)}_{a(ː),o(ː),õ(ː)}
r → ∅ / VH_
r → ∅ / _H
r → ∅ / w_
r → ∅ / V_V
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huron{r,w} → ∅ / _j
r → h / ʃ_
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagaara → aː / “unaccented syllables only”
Vr → Vː / _C
rV → Vː / C_
r → j / {e(ː),ẽ(ː),i(ː)}_V
r → w / {o(ː),õ(ː)}_V
r → ∅
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Mohawk— r → l
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneidar → l
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecar → n / _(h)j
r → ∅ / Vh_
r → j / C[-glottal](h)_{o(ː),õ(ː)
r → h / s_
r → j / i(ː)_V
r → w / {o(ː),õ(ː)}_V
r → ∅
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscaroran r w j → n̥ r̥ w̥ j̊ / _{#,O}
37.1.2.6.1 Tuscarora to Western Tuscarorar̥ w̥ j̊ → s f ʃ
37.1.2.6.2 Tuscarora to Eastern Tuscarorar → ∅ / st_
37.2.2 Proto-Siouan to Dakotar → d / s_
tʲr → {st,ʃt}
r → d / x_
37.2.2.1 Dakota to Santee Dakota{pr,mt} → md
kr → hd / #_
kr → ɡj / medial
37.2.2.2 Dakota to Teton Dakota{pr,mt} kr → bl ɡl
37.2.2.3 Dakota to Yankton Dakotar → d / k_
37.2.3 Proto-Siouan to Mandantʲr → sV0rV0
r → ∅ / k_
37.2.4 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Čiwere-Winnebagokr → kV0rV0
37.2.4.1 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Čiwerepr → bl
sr → {θl,ʃl}
tʲr → ʃV0rV0
kr → ɡl
r → l / x_
37.2.4.2 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Winnebagopr {sr,xr} sn km → pV0rV0 ʃV0rV0 sV0nV0 kV0wV0
37.2.5.2 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Hidatsakr → kV0rV0 / #_
r → ∅ / {C,V}k_{C,V}
37.2.6.1 Proto-Dhegiha to Kansar L(ʲ) → d j / #_ (*)
tʲr kr → ʃt l
37.2.6.2 Proto-Dhegiha to Omaha-Poncapr sr tʲr kr → bθ sn ʃn ɡθ
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to Osagepr sr tʲr kr → bð sts ʃd ɡð
r → ð / x_
37.2.7.1 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Biloxir → {d,n}
37.2.7.2 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Ofosr kr → ft kV0lV0
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.1 Proto-Tai to Ahompl b{l,r} → v pj
{l,r} → ∅ / {d,ɗ}_
r → l / K_
38.1.1.2 Proto-Tai to Saekpr b{l,r} vr → v bj d
{l,r} → ∅ / {n,ɗ}_
38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Tai{l,r} → ∅ / n,ɗ_
b{l,r} → pj
tr → tʰ(r)_
kl kr → {kj,tʃ} kʰj
{l,r} → ∅ / ŋ_
xr → kʰ{l,r}
38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchowpr → pʰ / _{ɯ,e,i}
pr → pʰj
{r,s,z} tʃʰ dʒ → ɬ ʃ tʃ
38.1.1.3.2 Central Tai to Nungpr → pʰ / _{ɯ,e,i}
pr → pʰj
38.1.1.3.3 Central Tai to Taypr → tʰ
38.1.1.3.4 Central Tai to Thopr → tʰ
38.1.1.3.5 Central Tai to T’ien-Paopr → tʰ
r → r̥
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Tai{kʰ,ɡ}{l,r} → tʃ
k{l,r} → {kj,tʃ}
{l,r} → ∅ / ɗ_
t{l,r} → r̥
xr x {x,ɣ}ʷ → r̥ h {w,v,h}
38.1.1.4.1 North Tai to Dioi{r,r̥} → ð
38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-Ai{r,r̥} → l
38.1.1.4.3 North Tai to Wu-Mingr̥ → r
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Taipr → t
{l,r} → ∅ / t,ɗ_
tʰl tʰr → tʰ r̥
z r → s r̥
xr → h
38.1.1.5.1 Southwest Tai to Laobl br → p pʰ
r̥ → h
ɡ{l,r} → kʰ
38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lübl br → p pʰ
r̥ → r̥ / “literary”
r̥ → h
ɡl ɡr → k kʰ
38.1.1.5.3 Southwest Tai to Shanbl br → p pʰ
r̥ → h
ɡl ɡr → k kʰ
38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siameser̥ → h
38.1.1.5.5 Southwest Tai to Black Taibl br → p pʰ
r̥ → h
38.1.1.5.6 Southwest Tai to White Taibl br → p pʰ
r̥ → h
{kʰ,ɣ} ɡ ɡ{l,r} → x k tʃ
41 Trans-New Guinea41.5.1.4 Proto-Gorokan to Gender → ʔ / _O
41.5.1.5 Proto-Gorokan to Gimiʔv ʔm ʔɡ ʔr → t p k v
41.5.1.6 Proto-Gorokan to Hua{N,r} → ʔ / _{#,C}
41.5.1.7 Proto-Gorokan to Kamanor → ʔ / _#
41.5.1.8 Proto-Gorokan to Moveʔv ʔm ʔɡ ʔr ʔh → p b k t {s,f}
41.5.1.9 Proto-Gorokan to Siane{N,r} → ʔ / _C
41.5.1.10 Proto-Gorokan to Yagariaʔv ʔm ʔɡ ʔr ʔh → p b k t {s,f}
41.5.2.1 Proto-Kainantu to AuyanaN{w,d,r} nj → ŋk nt (not sure if *nj is supposed to be *ɲɟ)
r → ʔ / _{N,#}
r → ∅ / _S[- voice]
41.5.2.3 Proto-Kainantu to Gadsupnw nr → mb nd
41.5.2.4 Proto-Kainantu to UsarufaN{w,r} Nj → ʔk ʔt
r → ʔ / _C
42 Uralic42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnish(t(ː))sn kx(tx) rn ln → sː xː rː lː
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnishlð rð → lː rː
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livoniant ts s(C) n l r → tʲ tsʲ sʲ(C) nʲ lʲ rʲ / _i
dj lj rj ɡj → dʲ lːʲ rːʲ jɡ
lʋ rʋ jʋ → lː rː jː
44 Vasconic44.1 Proto-Vasconic to Aquitanianr[+ fortis] → ɾ / _#
r[+ fortis] → r
44.2 Proto-Basque to Basque{ɾ,r} → ∅ / #_
r → ɾ / _#
Cr → Cɾ → CVɾ (perhaps not a sound change per se, just a historical tendency)
{ɾ,r} → ʎ / {i,j}_ (eastern dialects)
46 Vowel Shifts46.10 Late Proto-Finnic to Savonian Vowel Shiftli ni ri si → lʲi nʲi rʲi sʲi
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.1 List 1: Simple Consonant Changesr → ɡʟ → ɣ (Hiw) (http://is.gd/jCDLO1)

to /r/

319 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1.1.7 North Omotic to Yemsar → {r,lː} / V_
6.2.1.1.2 Proto-Agaw to Blint → r / medially
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berberl → r / #nV_C
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakil → r
nr → rː
θ → r
7.10 Proto-Algonquian to Woods Creel → {r,ð}
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delaware{θ,l} → r → l
{θ,ʃ} → {r,l}
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menomineeθ → r
7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-Illinois{θ,l} → r → l / V_V
{θ,l} → r → n / #_ (and possibly in other places as well)
{θ,l} → r → l
7.15 Proto-Algonquian to Ojibweθ → r
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonicrʲ → {r,t}
l lʲ → r s / else
8.2 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Korean{tʰ,d} {k,ɡ} → r {h,∅} / {C,V}_{C,V}
rʲ → r
l(ʲ) → r / else
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolicrʲ → r
8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusicrʲ lʲ → r l
8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchakɡm rɡ → mɡ ɡr (this second one is listed as → rɡ but it might be a typo)
rd → dr (possibly sporadic and/or confined to Kazakh)
10 Austronesian10.1.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Bali-Sasak-SumbawanR → r
10.1.1.1 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Balineser → {r,h} → {∅,h}
10.1.1.2 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sasakd → r / medial (Meno-mene and Mriak-mriku only)
10.1.2.1 Proto-Philippine to Bicol*j {*D,z} → r d / V_V
10.1.2.2 Proto-Philippine to Cebuano*D d → l r / V_V
{*j,*Z} z → l r / V_V
10.1.2.3 Proto-Philippine to Hiligaynon{*Z,*j} z → l r / V_V
10.1.2.4 Proto-Philippine to Ibanag*D → r
*Z → r
z → r / V_V
10.1.2.6 Proto-Philippine to IlocanoR → {ɡ,r} / _#
R → r
10.1.2.7 Proto-Philippine to Proto-Kalamiand → r / V_V
10.1.2.9 Proto-Philippine to Tagalog {*D,*j} {d,z} → l r / V_V
10.1.2.10 Proto-Philippine to Waray{*D,*Z} → r / V_V
*j → r / V_V
10.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Batak{ts,ʈ} {ɟʝ͡,ɖ} {lʲ,ɲ} {ʔ,x,s,h} ʀ → t d n ∅ r (velar fricative is conjectured; changes → d “unsure”)
10.2.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-ChamicR q → r h
l n → r l / #_ (sporadic)
d j → r ɭ (sporadic)
10.2.3 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-MalayicR → r
10.2.4.1 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Javanese{l,d} z → r d
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to MadureseR → r
10.2.4.3 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Sundanese{l,j} z → r j
R → {∅,r,j}
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauanj l → r j
ʀ → r / _C[+dental]
d → r
n dz → l r
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lónghd → r / V_V “(irregular)”
10.3 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Oceanicd → r
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwdr *r → d r
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerigndr *R → d r
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to MwotlapR → r
d → r (sporadic)
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-Nêlêmwapw p t ʈ k c → (v)w v r l ɣ j / V_V
pwʰ pʰ tʰ kʰ → fw f rʰ x / in Nelemwa
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to Nyelâyup pw t̪ ʈ c → v (v)w r l j / V_V
t̪ ʈ → r l / _#
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bay*R → {∅,r}
v t l r → p dr n w / _#
ɣ s d → ∅ {j dr} / _#
ɣ s d → ∅ {j dr} / “before a post-tonic vowel”
10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to Tolomako*R → {∅,r} (the former seems more common)
d ɡ → r k
10.3.9.2 Proto-Utupua to Nebaot k → r ∅ / #_ (though *t seems to have occasionally survived?)
t → {r,t} / _B
t → {r,t} / V_V
10.3.9.3 Proto-Utupua to Tanibilit → {t,r,kʷ} / #_ (I’m not kidding. That’s what’s listed as the reflexes.)
t k → {t,r,kʷ,∅} ∅ / V_V
10.3.10 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Vanikoro{s,*R} → r / _#
10.3.10.3 Proto-Vanikoro to Vanos → r / _#
10.3.11 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Southern Vanuatuk *R → ɣ r “(frequently)”
dr → {d,r}
10.3.11.2.1 Proto-Erromango to Sye*L → r
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Urat → r / ! at word boundaries
10.3.11.3 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Tannal → r
10.3.11.3.1 Proto-Tanna to Kwamerat → r
10.3.11.3.2 Proto-Tanna to Lenakelt → r
10.3.11.3.3 Proto-Tanna to North Tannaz → r
10.3.11.3.4 Proto-Tanna to Southwest Tannat → r
10.3.11.3.5 Proto-Tanna to Whitesandsd → r / _ŋ (occasionally elsewhere as well)
z → r
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’andr *R → d r
10.4.1 Proto-Micronesian to Marshallesep {t,ts} c → pʲ tʲ rʲ
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Onganɟ ɡ *N *R → {ɟ,j} {ɟ,ɡ} {l,j} {l,r}
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to Onged → r / V_{V,#}
10.7 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-RukaiR l L → {r,ʔ} ɭ l
10.8 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Tsouic{*C,d} j *R → c z r
11 Northeast Caucasian11.1 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Proto-Avar-Andicl → {l,r}
11.3 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Khinalugr → {r,∅}
11.5.2 Proto-Lezgic to Archid → r / _#
11.6 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Nakhl → r / _#
11.7 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Proto-Tsezicl → {l,r}
11.7.2 Proto-Tsezic to Tsezr → {r,l,∅}
12 Northwest Caucasian12.1 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Abazgirʲ → r
lʲ → r / #_
12.3 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Ubykh{r,l} lʲ → d r / #_
r rʲ → r~ʁ ɮ
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.1 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Proto-Dravidianr̀ → r̲
ŕ → r / V_V
n nː rn → {n̲,r} n̲(ː) ɳ / V_V
nr̀ → n̲r̲
14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamiter̀ → r / V_{V,C}
ŕ → rː / V_V
nr̀ → nr
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.5 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Tablad → r / medially
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanianl r → l(ː) r(ː)
{m̩,n̩} l̩ r̩ → e uj {ri,ir}
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanianl r → {l,ɫ} {ɾ,r}
{m̩,n̩} l̩ r̩ → e uj {ri,ir}
17.2.2 Common Anatolian to Luwian{d,l} → r “in Hieroglyphic Luwian, occasionally”
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenian{sr,rs} → rː
r → rː / _N
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenian{sr,rs} → rː
r → rː / _N
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenian{sr,rs} → rː
r → rː / _N
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenian{sr,rs} → rː
r → rː / _N
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenian{sr,rs} → rː
r → rː / _N
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenian{sr,rs} → rː
r → rː / _N
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenian{sr,rs} → rː
r → rː / _N
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestanl → r
{l̩,r̩} → ər(ə(r))
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishr̩ l̩ → {ri,ra} {li,la} / _{S,R} (which vowel crops up is unpredictable)
r̩ l̩ → {ra,ar} {la,al} / _{s,CC,V,#} (the results are unpredictable)
— {l,h}l {l,h}r l{p,s,n} r{p,s} ln → lː rː lː rː (lː?) / [anything]_
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshl r → ɬ r̥ / #_
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothics → r / in “[t]he prep[osition]. us…before r in compounds”
17.7.2 Common Germanic to West Germanicz → {r,∅}
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle Englishhn {wl,hl} hr → w l r
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle Englishhn {wl,hl} hr → w l r
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle Englishhn {wl,hl} hr → w l r
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle Englishhn {wl,hl} hr → w l r
17.7.2.1.15 North Frisian Lenitionp t k → b d ɡ → v r ɣ / Vː_{V,#}
17.7.2.2.1 Old Low Franconian to Middle Dutch{ol,al} {ar,er} or → ɔu aːr oːr / _C[+dental]
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norseʀ → r_n
ʀ → r / C_n
rː{r,ʀ} sʀ → rː sː
nː lː rː sː → n l r s / C_
ʀ → r
rː lː → r l / {p,t,k,f,s}_
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandicr → r̥ / S[- voice] / _#
{l(ː),rl} rː → dɬ r̥ / _#
hr hn → r̥ n̥ / #_
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Norntr → rd
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittitem̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar al
17.10.1.5 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Vedic Sanskrit{s,ʂ} → r / _#C[+ voice]
l → r
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavicl̩ r̩ → {ьl,ъl} {ьr,ъr}
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishɔl ɔr ɛl ɛr → lɔ rɔ lɛ rɛ / T_T
ɔr ɔl → ra la / #_T “in syllables with long vowels”
ɔr ɔl → rɔ lɔ / #_T
ьr → i(ː)ʐ → {ɛ(ː)r,ɛ(ː)ʐ} → {ɛr,ɛʐ}
tʲ dʲ sʲ zʲ nʲ rʲ l lʲ → tɕ dʒ ɕ ʑ ȵ r ɫ l (this last probably not before /i/)
t → r / tV_
tɕts ʑr̝ → jts jr̝
v r̝ → f r̥ / C[-voiced]_
v r̝ → f r̥ / _{C[-voiced],#}
r̝ → r / {ɕ,ʑ}_
ʐr → ʑr
ɕr̝ ʑr̝ → ʂr ʐr / “‘szron’ and ‘żreć’”, respectively
trk → kr / in the name of the river “Skrwa”
rʲ → r / _{s,t͜s,l,w,n,ɲ}
17.11.2 Proto-Slavic to Old Russianor ol er el → oro olo ere ele / _$
17.12.1 Proto-Italic to Proto-Latino-Falsicanz → r
l̥ r̥ → ol {or,er} / _#
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latinl̩ l̩ː r̩ r̩ː → ol l or r
s → z → r / V_V
n → r / _r
s → z → r / r_
l → r → _Vl
l → r / lV_ “(in suffixes with l if root already has l)”
r…r → r…∅
{n,d}…r → r…r
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalanlj rj kj ɡj → ʎ jr ts ʒ / V_V
n → r → br / m_
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to Frenchn → r / {ɡ,p}_
sːj zj rj → jsː jz jr
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguesepl → {ʃ,pr} / #_
l → r / b_
fl → {ʃ,fr} / #_
pl bl p t → br {br,l} b d / V_V (bl → l is learned)
sːj (m)nj lj rj → jʃ ɲʎ jr / V_V
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençals → r / _n (in a few dialects)
rtʃj → rts (→ rs ?)
rdj rVɡ → rdz rdʒ
rdʒ → {rdʒ,rdz(→ rz)}
rtj → rts → rs
rːVɡ rːj → rdʒ ir
rtVɡ → {rdʒ,rts(→ rs)}
rtj → rts → rs
rj → rʲ → ir / V_V
rj → rʲ → r / _#
sj → ʒ → {r,z} (rare)
tVɡ trj → dʒ ir
rtʃ rdtʃ → r(t)s {rdz(→ rz),rts,rdʒ}
rdɡ → r{ɡ,dʒ} / _a
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanianl → r / V_V
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardinianl → r / C_ (sporadic)
d → r / V_V (“[s]ome Campidanese”)
r → urː / #_e / Logudorese
r → arː / #_(j)B / Logudorese
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanishnː lː ɾɾ → ɲ ʎ r
17.12.2 Proto-Italic to Proto-Sibellianr̥ → er / _#
17.12.2.1 Proto-Sibellian to Oscanz → r
17.12.2.2 Proto-Sibellian to Umbriand → rs / V_V
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tocharianp {ts,k(ʷ)} m n l r y → pj sʲ ʂ mj ɲ lj rj wj / _{E(:),y}
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.2.1 Proto-Ofaié-Jê to Proto-JêVS → r / C_V
18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makurápt → r / _”V
18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekenst → r / _”V
18.3.3 Proto-Tuparí to Tuparít → r / _V
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayorót → r / _”V
18.4.1 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Akwárak b r → {ŋ,∅} {w,m} {n,r,t} / _#
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guarayo{b,k} r → ∅ {r,∅} / _#
{Vm,Vŋ} Vn → V[+nas] {Vr,V[+nas]} / _#
18.4.7 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Parintintínb r → {b,∅} {r,t} / _#
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.1 Proto-Chibchan to Arhuacos d → z r / _(V)j
23.1.1.1.6 Proto-Chibchan to Tunebo{d(V)s,n(V)j} n(V)s → r {VsV,r}
d(V)j → r(V)
d → r
m n h j → b {n,r,∅} {h,∅} {j,∅}
25 Macro-Panoan25.1.1 Proto-Tacanan to Cavineña*ŕ → r
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1.2 Proto-Bantu to Tswanap t tʃ k {dʒ,ɡ} ɲ → h r tɬʰ χ ∅ n
32 Oto-Manguean32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to Tlapanec{ns,nt} nkʷ nj nw → (n)d (m)b r m
33 Penutian33.2.3 Proto-Wintuan to South Patwinr → {r,j}
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1 Proto-Sino-Tibetan to Middle Chinesew → r → ∅ / P_-
36.1.1.1 Old Mandarin to Modern Pekingese#r…î# → #î…r
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Lap b çp çb sP rP Np Nb pr {br,pj} bj → pʰ p ʝb çp sp rpʰ mpʰ mb br pʰj pj
t d Nt Nd st sd çT tr (ç)dr KT → tʰ t Ntʰ md zd st çtj trh (ç)tr kt
k sk kr ɡ Pɡ sɡ Nɡ (s)ɡr çK rK Kç → kʰ zɡw dr Nɡ pk sk mk (s)kr çk rɡj ɡçkr
çr Nç → dr mkʰj
NTS PTS KTS sTS çTS → {Ndz,mts} kts(ʰ) ptsʰ sts {sts,rj}
(r)ts (r)dz → (r)tsʰ (r)ts
rnj → rɲ ?
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiap çp (ç)b rP Np Nb pr {br,pj} → p. ç.w (ç)p rp. kj m.p n.br p.j
t st tr d sd (ç)dr Nt çT KT → t. s.d tr. t s.t (ç.)tr m.t. n.dr ɡ.t
kr (s)ɡr → n.br (s)kr
ts (r)dz dʒ PTS KTS sTS çTS → {tsʰ,s} (r)ts tsʰ ɡ.ts s.{ts,pj} {s.ts,br}
rm rn → mj rw
rnj → r.mj
a ap at ar am aj → e eb e(d) er om e.i
36.3.2.1.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Hanniuçl → rts
or → ro
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Top b pr br çp → p.j p br pj ʃb
sɡr → skr
ts {dz,KTS} NTS rdz dzl dʒ → s ts {dz,mtʃ.} rts tsl tʃ.
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtse(N)p Nb sP çp çb pr br {p,b}j → (m)pʰ (m)p sp ʝb çp br pʰj pʰj
(N)t (N)d st sd KT çT tr dr çtr → (N)tʰ mt zd st kt çt(j) trh tr çtr
Nkj (s)ɡr Kç kr skr ɡr → mɡj (s)kr ɡçkr kʰr zɡr Nɡr
ts (r)dz dzl dʒ NTS PTS Kts KTS sTS çTS → tsʰ (r)ts Ndz tsl ts ptç ktç kts sts {s,ç}ts
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Mo{p,b} Np pr {s,r}P çb Nb → p mp mbr sp ʃp p.s
kr rk {rK,Pɡ} ɡ Pɡ sɡ → k.r rk. pk k sk
rs → sr
lts rts NTS PTS STS → lɖʐ rts. {mdzr,mtʃ} nt. sts
es er → or ər
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Naonj rnj → nj rɲ
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu Tak rk kr kj Nkj ɡr → kʰdz nɡ kʰr tʃh dʒ nkʰr
ts dz rdz dʒ → {ʈʂ,ʒ} tsj rtsʰ ʈʂ
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassupr b → br p
k kr kj ɡ → k. k.r ts. ɡ
36.3.3.1 Old Tibetan to Amdo dialects{d,ɡ,s,l,r} → {h,r} / #_
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoiankʰ → r
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscaroran r w j → n̥ r̥ w̥ j̊ / _{#,O}
37.2 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Siouanθ → r
37.2.3 Proto-Siouan to MandanL → r / _V[-nas]
tʲr → sV0rV0
sn → {ʃV0nV0,sV0rV0}
37.2.4 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Čiwere-Winnebagokr → kV0rV0
37.2.4.1 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to ČiwereLʲ → r / _V[-nas]
tʲr → ʃV0rV0
37.2.4.2 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to WinnebagoL → r
Lʲ → r / _V[-nas]
pr {sr,xr} sn km → pV0rV0 ʃV0rV0 sV0nV0 kV0wV0
mt → r
37.2.5 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Crow-HidatsaL(ʲ) → r
37.2.5.1 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Crown → r / ! at word boundaries
37.2.5.2 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Hidatsan → r
kr → kV0rV0 / #_
sn → tsV0rV0
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Taitr → tʰ(r)_
xr → kʰ{l,r}
38.1.1.3.4 Central Tai to Thoz → {r,s}
38.1.1.3.5 Central Tai to T’ien-Paor → r̥
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Tait{l,r} → r̥
xr x {x,ɣ}ʷ → r̥ h {w,v,h}
38.1.1.4.3 North Tai to Wu-Mingr̥ → r
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Taitʰl tʰr → tʰ r̥
z r → s r̥
38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lür̥ → r̥ / “literary”
41 Trans-New Guinea41.2 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Asmatp t nj → {t,r} {r,s,t} s / _#
41.3 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Binanderet → {r,s} / V_i
41.8 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kiwait ᵐb ⁿd {k,ᵑɡ} nj → {r,t} p {d,t} ɡ r / V_V
41.9 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Selepett ᵐb nj s → r {b,p} ⁿd {s,d} / V_V
42 Uralic42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnish(t(ː))sn kx(tx) rn ln → sː xː rː lː
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnishlð rð → lː rː
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livoniant ts s(C) n l r → tʲ tsʲ sʲ(C) nʲ lʲ rʲ / _i
dj lj rj ɡj → dʲ lːʲ rːʲ jɡ
lʋ rʋ jʋ → lː rː jː
43 Uto-Aztecan43.1 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Comanchep t ts s → v r ∅ h
44 Vasconic44.1 Proto-Vasconic to Aquitaniann[- fortis] n[+ fortis] → {n,r}(?) n
r[+ fortis] → r
44.2 Proto-Basque to Basqueɾ → r / _C
46 Vowel Shifts46.10 Late Proto-Finnic to Savonian Vowel Shiftli ni ri si → lʲi nʲi rʲi sʲi
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.1 List 1: Simple Consonant Changesmb nd → ʙ dr (Nias)

with context involving /r/

261 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North Omotice → i / p_r
e(ː) → i(ː) / #C[+sibilant]_{d,n,r}
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berberf → p / #_V{Z,C[-voice],r}
ʔ → ʕ / _V{n,r,ɡ}
tlʼ → dl / #_Vħr
6.2.2.1.4 Proto-Boreafrasian to Proto-Semiticʔ → ʕ / #K_r#
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabic∅ → F / N_{O,r} ! m_f
u → o / _{ʕ,ɣ,x,r}
u → o / {ʕ,ɣ,x,r}_
7 Algonquian7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfootw → j / {r,k}_i#
∅ → i / r_w
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to MenomineeN → h / _{O,r}
7.15 Proto-Algonquian to Ojibwew → ∅ / {t,r}_i
{n,r} → ∅ / _r
8 Altaic8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkicy → i / {r(ʲ),l(ʲ)}_e
i → e / {r(ʲ),l(ʲ)}_e
tʰ → d / #_(V){lʲ,r(ʲ)}
k → ɡ / _(V)r
8.5.1.2 Proto-Kypchak to Kyrgyz∅ → U / #_{l,r} (not sure what 〈U〉 represents here; maybe just some sort of back vowel?)
10 Austronesian10.1.1.3 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sumbawanu → i / _{s,t,r,n,l} (blocked in Pusu)
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabau— u i → uə iə / _{k,ŋ,h,l,r}#
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark BayV[+ high] → ∅ / _# ! {p,z,d(r)}_
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Ura{s,t} → h / _{n,l,r}
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.1 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Proto-Dravidiant → ∅ / #_VrC
s → ∅ / #V_{r̀,l}
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albaniand dʱ → ð / r_
s → ʃ / V{i̯,u̯,r,k}_V
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albaniand dʱ → ð / r_
s → ʃ / V{i̯,u̯,r,k}_V
17.2.1 Common Anatolian to Hittitee → a / _{r,l} (sporadic)
aj aw → ɛː uː / !_{s,n,r,l}
17.2.2 Common Anatolian to Luwianhh → ∅ / _{w,m,n,r,l} “medially, and sporadically”
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestanh → ŋ / a_ra
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— p → b / _{r,l}
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irish— {p,t} → ∅ / #s_r
— s → ∅ / [anything]{l,r}_O
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshp t k → f θ x / {r,l}_
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothic— u → ɔ / _{r,h} (unless this r “arose from older s by assimilation”)
— i → ɛ / _{r,h,ʍ}
β → b / {r,l}_
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scots— a → {ɛ,e} / _rC
— V → Vː / _{r,F[+voiced],$,#}
— əi → aɪ / _{r,F[+voiced],$,#} (pursuant to the above)
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsɑ → a / ! _{l,r} (sporadic)
ɪ → ɜ / _{K,r}
o → ʌ / P_r
{f,v} → ∅ / {l,r,V}_ (sometimes blocked)
ð → ∅ / {l,r,V}_C
θ → f / {V,r}_# (sometimes blocked)
V → Vː / _{r,F[+ voice],V,#}
∅ → ə̆ / _{n,r}
t → d / r_
{w,k} → ∅ / _{n,r}
s → ʂ / _{t,r}
t → ʈ / _r
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germans → ʃ / r_
w j → b ɡ / {l,r}_ (occasionally otherwise)
Vː → V[- long] / _%Cə{r,l,n}# (some exceptions)
V → Vː / _r{t,d,s,ts} (except /ə/)
∅ → ə / M_r% (I don’t know what Mr. Ciupak means by 〈M〉)
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norsee → ja / ! {{h,k,ŋ}n,w,v,l,r}_, _{u,o,i}
e → jɒ / _(C)(C)(C)u ! {{h,k,ŋ}n,w,v,l,r}_
e → ja / _(C)(C)(C)u ! {{h,k,ŋ}n,w,v,l,r}_
ð → ∅ / r_{m,l,ɡ,n}
{f,β,p} → ∅ / r_n
{ɡ,ɣ} → ∅ / r_{d,n,t}
k → ∅ / r_{m,s,t}
l → ∅ / r_{m,s}
n → ∅ / r_{s,t,w}
t → ∅ / r_k
{s,z} → ∅ / {r,ʀ}_N
V{θ,ð} → Vː / #(C)(C)(C)_{l,r}
ai → aː / _r
β ɣ → b ɡ / r_
ɣ → ɡ / _{r,ʀ,θ,ð}
nː → ð / _{r,ʀ}
∅ → t / s_r
Sː → S[- long] / _{r}ː
r → ∅ / {p,t,k}_Vr
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandic∅ → u / C_r#
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornh → ∅ / _{l,n,r}
s → ∅ / {t,k,r}_l
s → ʃ / _Vr ?
o → ø / _Cr
ɒ → ʌ / _r(ː)
ɒ → ɪ / _rC
a aː → ɛ øː / _r
æ → eː / _{ð,r}
ey → ɛ / _r
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornh → {∅,h,k} / _r
a → {o,ɔ} / _{K,r} (! K = w ?)
aː → ɔ(u) / _{l,r}
y → ə / _r(ː)
17.7.4 Common Germanic to Vandalice → i / ! {w,r,h}_
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-Aryant d(ʱ) n → ʈ ɖ(ʱ) ɳ / C̣_ ! _r
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavics → x / {i,u,r,k}_
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishъ → aː / _r
ь → aː / r_C[+dental -palatalized]
ɔ → ɔː / _{r,l} (sporadic, perhaps analogical)
n → m / {b,p}{l,r,ʐ}V_
∅ → d / r_z
x → ∅ / _r “in the word ‘robak’”
ʈʂ → t / _r̝
ɕ → ∅ / tr̝_tɕ
w → ∅ / {r,b}_
d → ∅ / r_ts
∅ → t / s_r “in ‘stręczyć’”
dʲ → ∅ / r_n
ʈʂ → t / _r
tʲ dʲ → t d / _{l,n,ɲ,r,ʐ}
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latino → e / w_{r,s,t}
oː → uː / _r
V → e / %(C)(C)_%r when unstressed (with some exceptions)
Vː → V[-long] / _{m,(n)t,l,r}#
dʱ → b / rV_
dʱ → b / _Vr
w → ∅ / ɡV_{l,r}
ɡʷʱ → f / _r
s → θ → f / #_r
s → θ → b / _r
s → z / _{N,l,r}
V → Vː / _z{l,r}
z → ∅ / _{l,r}
n → r / _r
s → z → r / r_
∅ → t / sː_r
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalanp b t d k ɡ → β {β,w} ∅ {j,w} ɣ {j,∅,ɡ} / V_rV
∅ → {e,o} / rː_#
k → w / V_rV
ɛ → e / ! _{rː,l,rC[-labial],nr} or _ ? w#
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— V → ”V / ”VSr_
dj → dʒ / r_
∅ → b / m_{r,l}
∅ → d / {n,l,ɲ,z_r
∅ → t / s_r
k ɡ → t d / {n,r}_r
{p,b} {t,d} → v ð / V_{V,r}
ð → ∅ / _r
V → ə / _{CC,tʃ,dʒ} ! _{nt,nɡ,mp,rt,rd}
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to Italiant k → d ɡ / V_r
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to PortugueseV → a / _{n,r}(C)V(C)# (irregular)
e → ∅ / {l,n,r,s,k}_#
{e,i} → ∅ / {l,m,r}_ when between #U and U[+stress]
o → ∅ / _{r,l} when between #U and U[+tonic]
k → ɡ / #_{a,r} (rare)
b → v / V_{V,r}
ɡ → j / V_r
p t k → b d ɡ / V_r
dj → dz → ts → s / r_V
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— ɛ → jɛ / _{u,i,ʎ,rʲ,ʃ,ʒ,j,tʃ,dʒ} (except in some northern and western dialects, or if this u ← l or if this i ← ð)
— V → ∅ / _r (seemed to be an intermittent change)
— V → ∅ / lv_r (dialect-dependent)
v → b / r_ (sporadic)
n → ∅ / r_(s)#?
p k tʃ b ɡ β j → b ɡ i {b,u,u→y→i} ∅ {u,u→y→i} i / _r
{t,d} → ð → i / _r
∅ → d / z_r
∅ → b / m_r
∅ → t / s_r
p → b / _rj
v → {v,b} / r_j
t → ∅ / rd_
t → ∅ / r_m (sometimes)
b → {∅,u} / _rɡ
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to RomanianV → ”V / ”VSr_
b → u / V_{l,r}
j → z / rd_
ja → e / r_#
j → ∅ / r_
e → ə / #{r,P}_…”U
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardinianl → ∅ / rk_ (sporadic)
{i,j} → dʒ / Vr_V (“dialectal”)
t → d / V_rV
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to SpanishV → ∅ / C_{r,l} when unstressed and not at a word boundary
V → ∅ / {r,l}_C when unstressed and not at a word boundary
— Vdz → ∅ / {nts,ndz,rdz_
34 Quechumaran34.2 Proto-Quechumaran to Boliviaqh → h / _r
34.3 Proto-Quechumaran to Cuzcokh → k / r_
34.6 Proto-Quechumaran to Quitoq → h / {r,s}_
ɸ → p / r_
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old Mandarinʈ → ʈʂ / _r
36.3.1.1 Proto-Naish to LazeiN → æ / {P,C}r_%
36.3.1.2 Proto-Naish to Mosuo (Na)iN → æ / {P,C}r_
i → ɯ / {R,Kr}_
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to NaxiiN → ɚ / {P,C}r_%
i → ɯ / {R,kr}_%
u → ɚ / Pr_%
V% → mid tone / C_ru
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Lau → i / _{r,s}
36.3.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Japhugɔ → ɤ / _{t,r}# (possibly also _s# dialectally)
b → w / #{z,r}_
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Toj → ∅ / {ʃ,r}n_
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Moç → zɡ / _r
ɡ → ∅ / #_r
nj → ɲ / #(r)_
a → o / _r
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Nao∅ → n / _pr
P → p / r_
z → ts / r_
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu TaP t → pdz tʃ / r_
p → b / _r
ɡ → ∅ / _r
∅ → j / rN_
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassuɡ ç → ∅ zɡ / _r
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoiane → i / r_ʔ
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayugats → hs / V_ ! _{h,i,j,r}
ts → s / ! _{h,i,j,r}
37.1.2.1.1 Cayuga to Upper Cayugas → f / h_r
ts → s / _(h)r
s → ʃ / _{r,j}
37.1.2.1.2 Cayuga to Lower Cayugats → t / _(h)r
s → ʃ / _{r,j}
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huronts → ʃ / _r
w → ∅ / _{r,#}
t → k / _r
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandotx → e / #_r
n → ⁿd / _{V[-nas],r}
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagan → ∅ / h_r
Vw → Vː / _{r,j}
a(ː) o(ː) õ(ː) → æ(ː) e(ː) ẽ(ː) / r_
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneida∅ → e / w_r (and “probably. . .in other environments”)
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Mohawk∅ → e / {tsh,s,n}_r
∅ → e / {t,k}_{r,n}
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneidah → ∅ / ts_r ! “in pre-pausal forms, see also below”
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to SenecaV → Vː / _{t,k(ʷ),s,n,r,j,w} “in even penultimate syllables”
a → æ / _ra(ː)
a → e / _ro(ː)
ã → ẽ / _rõː
a(ː) → æ(ː) / r_
w → ∅ / _{r,j}
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscaroraˀt → ʔ / _r
∅ → t / hs_r
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.1 Proto-Tai to Ahomtʰ → ∅ / _r
x → ∅ / _r
k → kʰ / _r
38.1.1.2 Proto-Tai to Saekt → {p,t} / _r
d → t / _{l,r}
38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Taiɓ ɗ → b d / ! _{l,r}
v → b / _r
d → ∅ / _{l,r}
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Tain → ∅ / _r
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Taiv → b / _r
d → ∅ / _{l,r}
38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siameseb → pʰ / _{l,r}
42 Uralic42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard FinnishVh → hV / {j,v,n,r,l}_# (also some double-metathesis triggered by the condition of being m_ ?)
t → ∅ / s_r
t → z → U / _r{A,O}
t → z → @ / _r{i,e}
42.1.1.1.2 Standard Finnish to Modern Standard Finnishd → ∅ / _r “in inherited vocabulary”
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to BasqueC → ∅ / r_
u ũ → y ỹ / _r(p(ʰ),β,k(ʰ),ɣ,l,s̺,s̻,ʃ,h) (Souletin)
∅ → a / #_{ra,ro} (sporadic)
∅ → e / #_r
e → a / {V,C}_r (“mainly in the western dialects”)
u i → o e / _r{C,#}
— V → ∅ / {O,ɾ,r}_O (Roncalese, Salazarese, Navarrese, Aescoan)
e → ∅ / #Ur_
aʊ → aɪ / !_{ɾ,r,s̺,s̻} (Souletin, Roncalese)
46 Vowel Shifts46.5 Old English-to-Scots Vowel Shiftsa → {ɛ,e} / _rC
— V → Vː / _{r,F[+voiced],$,#}
— əi → aɪ / _{r,F[+voiced],$,#} (pursuant to the above)