Index Diachronica: involving /ə/

298 results from /ə/   279 results to /ə/   14 results with context involving /ə/   

plain əː ə́ ə̃ ə̃ː ə̄ ə̆ ə̯ ə̰

from /ə/

298 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berberə → i
6.2.2.1.14 Classical Arabic to Moroccan Arabic{u,ə} → ∅ / ! C_C(C)#
ə → a / near ħ ʕ
ə → ɐ / near emphatics
ə → ɪ / else
6.2.2.1.19 Biblical Hebrew to Modern Israeli Hebrewə → a / near gutturals
ə → ɛ / #R_C or when breaking up what would otherwise be a three-consonant cluster; in the case of two schwas, only the first one is dropped
ə → ∅ / else
7 Algonquian7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawarewe → wə → oː / ! adjacent to {p,m,k}
{a,ə} → ∅ / _{x,h} “in the odd-numbered of any sequence of one or more short-vowel open syllables”; such vowels are considered “weak”
ə[+weak] → ∅ / #_C
ə[+weak] → ∅ / _C[+voiced] (sporadic)
a[+weak] ə[+weak] → ə ∅ / a_Z[+voiced]
ə → o / _h{p,kʷ,w,m}
ə → i / _hC
ə → o / _x{p,kʷ,V[+round]}
ə → o / {p,m}_x
ə → a / _x “[i]n a nonrounding environment”
ə → o / _ŋkʷ
9 Austroasiatic9.1.1 Proto-Vietic to Muong Khen(h)ə{p,b} → t / _l
9.1.2 Proto-Vietic to Middle Vietnamese(h)ə{p,b} (h)ə{t,d} (h)ə{c,ɟ} (h)ə{k,ɡ} → β dʲ ɟ ɡ
((h)ə)p d → b t / _l
{əkʰ,əɡɦj} → ɟ (I think Thompson implied this was just a bit of a kludge)
9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnameseə → ∅ / {i,ɨ}_{p,m.w}
ə → ∅ / ɨ_j
ə → ∅ / u_{m,j}
ə(ː) ɛ → ɨ ɛə / _K
10 Austronesian10.1.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Bali-Sasak-SumbawanHəS → (h)ə(N)S / #_
10.1.2.1 Proto-Philippine to Bicolə → a / V_V
ə → u / _#
10.1.2.2 Proto-Philippine to Cebuanoə → u
10.1.2.3 Proto-Philippine to Hiligaynonə → u
10.1.2.4 Proto-Philippine to Ibanagə → a
10.1.2.5 Proto-Philippine to Ifugaoə → o
10.1.2.9 Proto-Philippine to Tagalogə → i
10.1.2.10 Proto-Philippine to Warayə → u
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorroə → u
ə → ∅ / VC_CV
10.2.3.1 Proto-Malayic to (Standard) Malayə → a / _(C…)#
10.2.4.1 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Javaneseə → u / _h#
— əw əj → i u / _#
HəS → (h)əNS
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to MadureseHəS → (h)əNS / #_
10.2.4.3 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Sundanese— əw əj → o e / _#
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauanə → ∅ / #_
ə → {e,o} / stressed; “(result of /e/ or /o/ unpredictable)”
{aw,əw} → o / _#
wə → u / #_
ə → ∅ / _j
ə → ∅ / _#
ə → ∅ “(sporadic)”
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North Sarawakə → ∅ / adjacent to a vowel
ə → ∅ / _V
ə → ∅ VC_CV
ə → ∅ / #_UU(U…)# “(i.e., in word-initial position in prepenultimate syllables)
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiputə → a / _ʔ#
ə → ∅ / adjacent to a vowel
əi̯ əu̯ → ai̯ au̯ / ! O[+voiced] earlier in the word
ə → {ə,a} / _C# “(free variants)”
ə → ∅ / #_
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lónghə → ∅ / #_
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabau— ə → a / _(C…)# (eventually spread to everywhere)
10.3.11.2.1 Proto-Erromango to Syeə → {o,e}
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Uraə → i
10.3.11.3.1 Proto-Tanna to Kwameraə → a / in U#
ə → e / else
10.3.11.3.4 Proto-Tanna to Southwest Tannaə → a / in U#
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Onganu a ə → {u,o} {a,e} e
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamil— eCə oCə → Ceː Coː / #_
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Aleutə → ∅ / #_, “under certain conditions not yet discovered”
15.2 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Eskimoə → ∅ / t_, “in certain positions”
15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow Iñupiaqə → i / at word boundaries
ə → u / u_
ə → a / a_
ə → ∅ / else
ədʒ → i / _{a,u} (except in #U)
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic Iñupiaqə → u / u_
ə → a / a_
ə → i / else
ədʒ → i / _{a,u} (except in #U)
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie Iñupiaqə → u / u_
ə → a / a_
ə → i / else
ədʒ → i / _{a,u} (except in #U)
15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales Iñupiaqə → u / u_
ə → a / a_
ə → i / else
ədʒ → i / _{a,u} (except in #U)
15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’ikə → a / _#
ə → ∅
ə → i / u_
ə → ∅ / _dʒ{a,u}, except in #U
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’ikə → a / _#
ə → ∅
ə → i / {u,a}_ (though aə seems to have become i in some circumstances)
ə → ∅ / _dʒ{a,u} except in #U
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’ikə → a /
ə → ∅ / #_
ə → i / {u,a}_
ə → ∅ / _dʒ{a,u} except in #U
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’ikə → a / _#
ə → ∅ / #_
ə → i / {u,a}_ (though aə seems to have become i in some circumstances)
ə → ∅ / _dʒ{a,u} except in #U
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.1 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Nafriə → o / _(C)o
ə → e / _{C[+palatal],E}
ə → æ / ! _{B,K,H}
16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central Sentaniə → o / _(C)o
ə → e / _{C[+palatal],E}
ə → æ / ! _{B,K,H}
16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern Sentaniə → o / _(C)o
ə → e / _{C[+palatal],E}
ə → æ / ! _{B,K,H}
16.1.4 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Western Sentaniə → o / _(C)o
ə → e / _{C[+palatal],E}
ə → æ / ! _{B,K,H}
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanianə → ∅ / _#
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle English{e,ɑ,o} → ə → ∅ / _#
17.7.2.1.4 Midlands Middle English to Early Modern Englishəɪ əʊ → ɑi æʊ / “in some parts of South-Eastern England”
əɪ əʊ → aɪ aʊ / “in most of Britain”
17.7.2.1.5 Early Modern English to American Englisheə → eː
iə → ɪ (ongoing)
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishuː → ʊə → uː / _ɫ ! in Queensland and New South Wales
ə → ɪ / _{k,ɡ,tʃ,dʒ,ʃ,ʒ,v}
ɔə → ɔː
ɛə ʊə → ɛː ɔː (ongoing)
ʊə → oː / ! {j,dʒ}_
ʊə → ʉːwə / “almost always otherwise, but see [above vowel changes after /ɫ/ is formed]”
oə → oː
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle English{e,ɑ,o} → ə → ∅ / _#, when unstressed (it appears this sound may also have gone to /ɪ/)
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scots— əi → aɪ / _{r,F[+voiced],$,#} (pursuant to the above)
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germany(ː) yə ø(ː) øy → i(ː) iə e(ː) ei (intermittent)
uə yə iə → uː yː iː
ə → ∅ / unstressed, but not in every case
17.10 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iranianə → ∅ / #_
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-Aryanə → i
əː → oː / w_
əː → eː
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavic{a,o,ə} → e / j_
{a,o,ə} → o
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to FrenchV[-high] → ə → ∅ / _V “(except that a is kept before o)”
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tochariann̩ → ə → ∅ / C_#
”ɨ ”ə ɨ[- stress] ə[- stress] → ɨ a a ə
17.13.1 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian A{a,ɛ}i əj → e i
{a,ɛ}u əw → o u
ə → ∅ / _%
17.13.2 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian B{a,ɛ}u əw → au u
{a,ɛ}i əj → ai i
ə → ∅ / _%, when unstressed
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.2.1 Proto-Ofaié-Jê to Proto-Jêə → ∅ / C_CV (not sure if this happened all the time or not)
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.1 Proto-Athabaskan to Ahtnaɑ ə ʊ → a e o
29.1.1.1.4 Proto-Athabaskan to Chilcotine {ɑ,ə} → i {e,ɪ}
29.1.1.1.8 Proto-Athabaskan to Dena’inae a u {ə,ʊ} → a u i ə
29.1.1.1.9 Proto-Athabaskan to Dogribɑ ə ʊ u → a e o i
29.1.1.1.10 Proto-Athabaskan to Easter Gwich’ina u {ɑ,ə} ʊ → {i,e} ju a o
29.1.1.1.11 Proto-Athabaskan to Hana ɑ ə ʊ → æ a {ə,ë} o
29.1.1.1.12 Proto-Athabaskan to Holikachukə → ∅ / {R,F}_#
29.1.1.1.14 Proto-Athabaskan to Lower Koyukonə → ∅ / {R,F}_#
29.1.1.1.17 Proto-Athabaskan to Sarceeɑ́ ə́ ʊ́ → ɑ̄ ə̄ ʊ̄
{e,ə} ʊ → ɑ u
29.1.1.1.29 Proto-Athabaskan to Bearlake Slavey-Hareɑ ə ʊ → a ɛ o
29.1.1.1.31 Proto-Athabaskan to Mountain Slavey-Hareɑ ə ʊ → a e o
29.1.1.1.32 Proto-Athabaskan to Slavey Slavey-Hareɑ ə ʊ → a e o
29.1.1.1.33 Proto-Athabaskan to Tahltan-Kaska-Tagishɑ ə ʊ → a {i,e} u
29.1.1.1.37 Proto-Athabaskan to Tanacrossɑ ə ʊ → {æ̆,ă} æ̆ ŏ
29.1.1.1.39 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Tananaə → {a,ɨ} (→ ø in the Northway dialect)
29.1.1.1.41 Proto-Athabaskan to Northern Tutchone{ɑ,ə,ʊ} → {a,o}
29.1.1.1.42 Proto-Athabaskan to Southern Tutchone{ɑ,ə,ʊ} → {a,o}
30 Niger-Congo30.3.1.1.9 Proto-Vhe to Avénoə → e / _{i,j}
30.3.1.1.10 Proto-Vhe to Awalan{o,ɔ} ə → u i / _i
30.3.1.1.11 Proto-Vhe to Kpándoə ə̃ → ɛ ɛ̃
30.3.1.1.12 Proto-Vhe to Pecı́ə ə̃ → ɛ ɛ̃
30.3.1.1.13 Proto-Vhe to Tɔ̣wunə → e / _{i,j}
30.3.1.1.14 Proto-Vhe to Wacı́ə → e / _{i,j}
33 Penutian33.3.1 Proto-Yokuts to General Yokutseː əː → e ə (as a result of ablaut)
33.3.1.3 Buena Vista Yokuts to Tulamniɨ(ː) ə(ː) → i(ː) e(ː)
33.3.2.2 Proto-Nim-Yokuts to Northern Yokutsɨ(ː) ə(ː) → i(ː) e(ː)
35 Salishan35.1.1 Proto-Central Salish to Comox{a33} → {ə3,a3}
{i33} → ə3
{i31} → {ə1,i1,i3}
{i11} → i1
35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack Halkomelem{u33} → {o33,a3}
{a33} → {ɛ33}
{i31} → ə1
{i11} → ə1
35.1.3 Proto-Central Salish to Cowichan Halkomelem{a33} → ə3
{i31} → ə1
{i11} → ə1
35.1.4 Proto-Central Salish to Musqueam Halkomelem{u33} → ə3
{a33} → {ɛ33}
{i31} → ə1
{i11} → ə1
35.1.5 Proto-Central Salish to Klallam{u33} → ə3
{a33} → ə3
{i33} → ə3
{i31} → ə1
{i11} → ə1
35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to Lushootseed{u33} → a3
{a33} → {ə3,a3}
{i33} → {i11}
{i31} → {i3,i1}
{i11} → {ə1,i1}
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to Nooksackə1 → æ2 / a3C(C)_
ə1 → æ2 / _C(C)a3
ə1 → æ2 / in some other unspecified circumstances
{u33} → o3
{a33} → æ3
{i31} → i3
{i11} → {i21}
35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straits{u33} → ə1
{a33} → ə3
{i31} → ə1
{i11} → ə1
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern Straits{a33} → {ə3,e3}
{i31} → ə1
{i11} → {ə1,i1}
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern Straits{u33} → ə3
{a33} → ə3
{i31} → ə1
{i11} → ə1
35.1.11 Proto-Central Salish to Sooke Northern Straits{u33} → ə3
{a33} → ə3
{i31} → ə1
{i11} → ə1
35.1.12 Proto-Central Salish to Pentlatch{a33} → ə3
{i31} → i3
{i11} → {i1,∅}
35.1.13 Proto-Central Salish to Sechelt{u33} → u3
{a33} → ə3
{i31} → i3
{i11} → {i1,∅}
35.1.14 Proto-Central Salish to Sqamish{u33} → ə3
{a33} → {a33}
{i31} → i3
{i11} → {i1,∅}
35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to Twana{a33} → {ə3,a3}
{i31} → {i3,i1}
{i11} → i1
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1 Proto-Sino-Tibetan to Middle ChineseKwə- → Kʷɨ-
36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuà{long-tail vowel thingʔ,əʔ} → ɛʔ
əjʔ əw {əm,ən} → eʔ ɛu ɛn
əjŋ → ɛn (varies with ɛn?)
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Mohawk— wə̃ → ũ / {h,s}_
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscaroraə̃(ː) → ɨ̃(ː) / ! “when both short and stressed”
37.1.2.6.2 Tuscarora to Eastern Tuscaroraə̃(ː) a(ː) o(ː) → ɨ̃(ː) ɔ(ː) u(ː) (“in all positions”)
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Taiiə → ı̆ / _C%
38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchowɨə → ɨ̆ / _C%
uə → ŭ
u̯əi uəi uai i̯əu iau → oːi uːi uːiau oːu
əi → ai
u̯əi → oːi
{o,ə} → a / _ɨ
i̯əu → au
{uəi,uai} iau → uːi eːu
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Taiiə → ı̆ / _C%
uɨ̯ ua̯ → ɨə uɔ̯ → ɨː ɔː
38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-Aiɨ̆ə → ɨ̆ / _C%
uə → ŭ
ɨə̯~ɨa̯ → ɨː / _%
ɨə̯~ɨa̯ → ɨ / _C%
Cʷə → Cɔ
ə → {a,ɒ,ɑ,ʌ} ?
ɨa̯~ɨə̯ → iː / j_
ɨa̯~ɨə̯ → ɨː
ua~uə → uː
ɨ̯a~ɨə → ɨː
{əi,ɛi,ei} → ai
u̯əi ɔi → (w)iː oːi
ə → a / _{u,ɨ}
i̯əu → uː
uəi uai iau → iː oːi eːu
38.1.1.4.3 North Tai to Wu-Mingəi → ai
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Taiɨə → ɨː
iə → ı̆ / _C% (not in all languages)
38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lüəi → ai
38.1.1.5.3 Southwest Tai to Shanəi → ai
38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siameseu{o,ə} ɨu → uː ɨː
{u̯əi,ɔi} → ɔːi
əɨ → ai
{o,ə} ɛ → a ɛː / _u
ɨ̯əu au → au aːu
uəi → uai
38.1.1.5.6 Southwest Tai to White Taiəi → ai
40 Totozoquean40.2 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Totonacan{ə,ɔ} {ə̰,ɔ̰} → a a̰
42 Uralic42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livonianə → ∅ / _#
ə → ∅ / VC_CV
46 Vowel Shifts46.5 Old English-to-Scots Vowel Shifts— əi → aɪ / _{r,F[+voiced],$,#} (pursuant to the above)
46.7 Great Vowel Shift (English)iː uː → əj əw → ɑj ɑw
46.11 Middle Chinese to Cantonese Vowel Shift (“The Inner-Outer Flip”)uə yə → ɔ œ / _{n,t}
ə → ∅ / i_{ŋ,k}
ə → a
ə → a / _{i,u}
iəu → au
a → ə → ∅ / i_u
ə → ∅ / W_
46.15 Proto-Japanese to Old Japanese Vowel Shift{ɨ,ə} → o
{u,ɨ}i {,a,i {ɨi,i{a,ə}} u{ɨ,a,ə} → wi e je wo
46.19 Southern [United States] Shift (English)ɛj(ə) ɪj(ə) i eɪ → ej(ə) ij(ə) ɪi ɛi

to /ə/

279 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.2.2 Proto-Erythrean to Proto-North Erythrean{e,o} {i,u} → a ə
6.2.2.1.4 Proto-Boreafrasian to Proto-Semitic{i,u} → ə
6.2.2.1.12 Classical Arabic to Eastern Libyan Arabic∅ → ə / C_CV(ː,V)CC
6.2.2.1.13 Classical Arabic to Western Libyan Arabic∅ → ə / CCV(ː,V)C_C
6.2.2.1.14 Classical Arabic to Moroccan Arabic{a,i} → ə / short only; the change of short a blocked for some speakers before ħ ʕ
u → ə / short only, except near “a labial or velar consonant”
6.2.2.1.18 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrew— i iː u uː → eə iːə oə uːə / _R
— a → ə / _R if ə in an adjacent syllable
— a → ə / R_ if ə in an adjacent syllable
— i → ə / _R if a frontal allophone of ə in an adjacent syllable
— i → ə / R_ if a frontal allophone of ə in an adjacent syllable
— u → ə / _R if a backed allophone of ə in an adjacent syllable
— u → ə / R_ if a backed allophone of ə in an adjacent syllable
7 Algonquian7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawarewe → wə → oː / ! adjacent to {p,m,k}
a[+weak] ə[+weak] → ə ∅ / a_Z[+voiced]
V[+high] → ə / _j
V[+high] → ə / _w (sporadic)
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menomineewa ja → uə̯ iə̯ / C_
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonica → ə / _Ce
{a,e,o,æ} i u y ø → ə i ua {u,ə} {ə,u} / _Ce
e i {o,u} æ ø y → {ə,a} {i,ə} ə a {ə,u} {u,ə} / _Co
9 Austroasiatic9.1.2 Proto-Vietic to Middle Vietnamesea ɔ → ɨə uə
9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnameseə(ː) ɛ → ɨ ɛə / _K
10 Austronesian10.1.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Bali-Sasak-SumbawanHəS → (h)ə(N)S / #_
10.1.1.1 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Balinesea → ə
10.1.1.2 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sasaka →ə / _# (Meno-mene and Mriak-mriku only)
10.2.3.1 Proto-Malayic to (Standard) MalayV → ə / _(C…)UU#
10.2.4 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Malayo-Javanic— aw aj → əw əj / _#
10.2.4.1 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to JavaneseHəS → (h)əNS
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to MadureseHəS → (h)əNS / #_
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauan∅ → ə / C_C “(for certain consonant combinations, which the paper doesn’t specify)”
V → ə / unstressed
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North Sarawaka → ə / _UU(U…)#
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiputi u → əi̯ əu̯ / _#
u → əw / _V “(also cases of (C)u → w /__V)”
i → əj / _V “(also cases of (C)i → j /__V)”
i u → əi̯ əu̯ / _(ʔ)#
{i,ɛ} {u,ɔ} → iə̯ uə̯ / _{k,ŋ}# “(and also sporadically before final *t and *n and some other consonants)
ə → {ə,a} / _C# “(free variants)”
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lónghi → iə / _ŋ#
i u → əj əw / _V(C)#
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabau— u i → uə iə / _{k,ŋ,h,l,r}#
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiw”V → ə / _CV
a(C)V[+ high] a(C)V[+ mid] aCa → ɔ(C) a(C) {ɔ,a}(C)ə
e(C){V[- low]} e(C)a → e(C) e(C)ə
i(C)V[+ high] i(C)V[+ mid] i(C)a → i(C) i(C)ə {e,i}(C)ə
o(C)V[+ high] o(C)V[+ mid] o(C)a → ɵ(C) o(C) ɔ(C)ə
u(C)V[+ high] u(C)e u(C)o u(C)a → {u,i}(C) u(C)ə e(C)ə {u,ɵ}(C)ə
10.3.11 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Southern Vanuatua → ə / _Ca
10.3.11.3 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Tannao e → {u,ə} i
a → ə / _Ca
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Ongane → ə / _N when unstressed ! Ḱ_ (?; included here based on a comment earlier in the paper, but not listed on the correspondence list)
10.5.1 Proto-Ongan to Jarawae → ə / _N, when unstressed (?)
e → {e,ə,o} / _V
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to Ongee → ə / _N, when unstressed (?)
e → {e,ə,o} / _V
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.1 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Nafrie → ə / _C{a,ə,u} (seems to have become a in a few instances)
16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central Sentanie → ə / _C{a,ə,u} (seems to have become a in a few instances)
16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern Sentanie → ə / _C{a,ə,u} (seems to have become a in a few instances)
16.1.4 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Western Sentanie → ə / _C{a,ə,u} (seems to have become a in a few instances)
16.1.5 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Tablae → ə / unstressed (possibly only in disyllables?)
17 Indo-European17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenian{i,u} → ə / in some unstressed syllables
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenian{i,u} → ə / in some unstressed syllables
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenian{i,u} → ə / in some unstressed syllables
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenian{i,u} → ə / in some unstressed syllables
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenian{i,u} → ə / in some unstressed syllables
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenian{i,u} → ə / in some unstressed syllables
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenian{i,u} → ə / in some unstressed syllables
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestan{l̩,r̩} → ər(ə(r))
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle WelshV → ə / _(C)#, also in proclitics
ɔ → ə / #_sC
ɣ → ə / _#
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle English{e,ɑ,o} → ə → ∅ / _#
17.7.2.1.5 Early Modern English to American Englishæː ɑː ɔː → æə~eə ɑ ɔ
æ → ɛə / _{n,m} “and others depending on dialect”
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishɜːɹ ɑːɹ ɔːɹ eːɹ oːɹ iːɹ uːɹ → ɜː ɑː ɔː ɛə ɔə ɪə ʊə / syllable-finally
oʊ iː → ɔʊ ɪə / _ɫ
oʊ iː → əʊ ɪi / else
uː → ʊə → uː / _ɫ ! in Queensland and New South Wales
ɫ → əɫ / ! if one of the above vowel changes after the formation of /ɫ/ apply
ɪ → ə / unstressed
ʊə → ʉːwə / “almost always otherwise, but see [above vowel changes after /ɫ/ is formed]”
17.7.2.1.7 Early Modern English to British Englishɜːɹ ɑːɹ ɔːɹ eːɹ oːɹ iːɹ uːɹ → ɜː ɑː ɔː ɛə ɔə ɪə ʊə / syllable-finally
oʊ → əʊ
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle English{e,ɑ,o} → ə → ∅ / _#, when unstressed (it appears this sound may also have gone to /ɪ/)
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scots— ai → ɛi → əi / when stem-final
— ai oi ui ei au ou iu ɛ(o)u → eː oe əi iː {ɑː,ɔː} ʌu ju j(ʌ)u
— ɛː → ɛi (→ əi?) / in some northern varieties
— iː eː ɛː aː oː uː {øː,yː} → əi i {i,e} e o u ø
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scots∅ → ə̆ / _{n,r}
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle English{e,ɑ,o} → ə / _#
17.7.2.2.1 Old Low Franconian to Middle Dutch{ie,ia,io} uo → iə uə
V → ə / if short and unstressed
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germany(ː) yə ø(ː) øy → i(ː) iə e(ː) ei (intermittent)
∅ → ə / M_r% (I don’t know what Mr. Ciupak means by 〈M〉)
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Norny → ə / _r(ː)
eː → {ɒ,ə} / w_
17.10 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-IranianH → ə / “syllabic”
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-Aryanuʐ aʐ iʐ → uː əː iː
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to Frencha → ə / intertonic
e → ə / #(C…)_(%…)” in U[+open]
a → ə / #{tʃ,dʒ}_(%…)” in U[+open]
a → ə
V → ə / _{CC,tʃ,dʒ} ! _{nt,nɡ,mp,rt,rd}
V[-high] → ə → ∅ / _V “(except that a is kept before o)”
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— V → “indistinct e” (probably /ə/) if dropping it would create ugly consonant clusters:
17.12.1.1.7 Vulgar Latin to Rhaeto-Romancea V → e (= /ə/?) ∅ / in final syllables (though Friulian preserves the ending -is)
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romaniana o → ə u / ”U…_#
e → ə / ”U…P_(C…)V# ! V = i
e → ə / ou_#
a o → ə u / #(C…)V…_…”U
e → ə / #(C…)V…{t,d,n}_…”U
e → ə / P”_(C…)B
e → ə / #{r,P}_…”U
a → ə #C(C…)_…”U
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tochariann̩ → ə → ∅ / C_#
h2e → ə / _#
u → wə / #_
u → {ə,u}
uh1 u{h2,h3} → uː → wə wɨ
i → ə / {P,K(ʷ),s}_
Ci → Cʲə
ih1 i{h2,h3} → jə jɨ
(h1)e (h1)eː → jə jɛː / #_
Ce Ceː → Cʲə Cʲɛ
ow aw ew → ɛu au əw
oy ay ey → ɛi ai əj
ɛ → ə / _$ɨ
”ɨ ”ə ɨ[- stress] ə[- stress] → ɨ a a ə
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.1.2 Pre-Bakairi to Western Bakairiɨ → ə / P_
18.4.3 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guajajaraa → ə / _N#
a → ə / if N in U#
ã ẽ ı̃ ɨ̃ {õ,ũ} → ə e i ɨ o
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.1 Proto-Chibchan to Arhuacoia → ə (“unspecified”)
23.1.1.1.4 Proto-Chibchan to Marocaceroi → ə / oC_
23.1.1.1.5 Proto-Chibchan to Motilón{ue,aja} → ə
24 Macro-Pama-Nyungan24.1.2 Proto-Paman to AwŋtimVː → ə / in #U
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.2 Proto-Athabaskan to Babineu ɑ ʊ → {o,u} ə u
29.1.1.1.3 Proto-Athabaskan to Beaverɑ → ə
29.1.1.1.6 Proto-Athabaskan to Dakelhu {ɑ,ʊ} → {o,u} ə
29.1.1.1.7 Proto-Athabaskan to Deg Hit’ane u a {ɑ,ʊ} → a i u ə
29.1.1.1.8 Proto-Athabaskan to Dena’inae a u {ə,ʊ} → a u i ə
29.1.1.1.11 Proto-Athabaskan to Hana ɑ ə ʊ → æ a {ə,ë} o
29.1.1.1.17 Proto-Athabaskan to Sarceeɑ́ ə́ ʊ́ → ɑ̄ ə̄ ʊ̄
30 Niger-Congo30.3.1.1.7 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Vhe{ɛ,e} {~ɛ,ẽ} → ə ə̃
33 Penutian33.3.1 Proto-Yokuts to General Yokutsiː ɨː uː → eː əː oː (this change sometimes did not occur)
eː əː → e ə (as a result of ablaut)
35 Salishan35.1.1 Proto-Central Salish to Comox{a33} → {ə3,a3}
{a1~i1} → {a11}
{i33} → ə3
{i31} → {ə1,i1,i3}
35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack Halkomelemu3 {u1,a1} a3 i1 → a3 ə1 ɛ3 {i11}
{u33} → {o33,a3}
{a33} → {ɛ33}
{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}
{i31} → ə1
{i11} → ə1
35.1.3 Proto-Central Salish to Cowichan Halkomelema3 u3 {a1,u1} i1 → ɛ3 a3 ə1 {i11}
{a33} → ə3
{a1~i1} → ə1
{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}
{i31} → ə1
{i11} → ə1
35.1.4 Proto-Central Salish to Musqueam Halkomelemu3 {u1,a1} a3 i1 → a3 ə1 ɛ3 {i11}
{u33} → ə3
{a33} → {ɛ33}
{a1~i1} → {ə11}
{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}
{i31} → ə1
{i11} → ə1
35.1.5 Proto-Central Salish to Klallamu1 → ə1
a1 → ə1
{u33} → ə3
{a33} → ə3
{a3~i3} → ə3
{a1~i1} → ə1
{i33} → ə3
{i31} → ə1
{i11} → ə1
35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to Lushootseedi1 → {i11}
{a33} → {ə3,a3}
{i33} → {i11}
{i11} → {ə1,i1}
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to Nooksack{i3~e3} → {i33}
{i11} → {i21}
35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straitsu3 u1 → o3 ə1
a1 → ə1
{u33} → ə1
{a33} → ə3
{a3~i3} → ə3
{a1~i1} → ə1
{i3~e3} → ə3
{i31} → ə1
{i11} → ə1
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern Straitsu3 u1 → a3 ə1
a1 → ə1
{a33} → {ə3,e3}
{a3~i3} → ə3
{a1~i1} → ə1
{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}
{i31} → ə1
{i11} → {ə1,i1}
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern Straitsu3 u1 → a3 ə1
a1 → ə1
{u33} → ə3
{a33} → ə3
{a3~i3} → ə3
{a1~i1} → {ə1,e1}
{i3~e3} → ə3
{i31} → ə1
{i11} → ə1
35.1.11 Proto-Central Salish to Sooke Northern Straitsu3 u1 → a3 ə1
a1 → ə1
{u33} → ə3
{a33} → ə3
{a3~i3} → ə3
{a1~i1} → ə1
{i3~e3} → ə3
{i31} → ə1
{i11} → ə1
35.1.12 Proto-Central Salish to Pentlatchi1 → ə1
{a33} → ə3
{a1~i1} → {i11}
{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}
35.1.13 Proto-Central Salish to Sechelti1 → {i11j}
{a33} → ə3
{a1~i1} → {i11}
{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}
35.1.14 Proto-Central Salish to Sqamishu1 → {u11}
{u33} → ə3
{a33} → {a33}
{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}
35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to Twanau3 u1 → o3 ə1
{a33} → {ə3,a3}
{a1~i1} → {i11}
{i3~e3} → {i33}
36 Sino-Tibetan36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Moes er → or ər
36.3.2.2.5 Proto-rGyalrongic to Trungi → əi / _#
i → iə / _m
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Naoew e ej → ə i ei
i i{t,k} → {ə,iɛ} ə
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassuo → ə / _n
36.3.3.1 Old Tibetan to Amdo dialectsi → ə / _#
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Seneca— a e o → ə ɪ ʊ / C_{C,i[-long]}
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscarora{ẽ(ː),õ(ː)} → ə̃(ː)
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchowɨ̆ i̯o → u ə
u̯ɨ u̯o → {ɨ,ə} u
38.1.1.3.5 Central Tai to T’ien-Paoi iː u → ə ei oʊ̯
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Tai{ɨ̯u,i̯ɛ} → ɨə̯~ɨa̯ / _%
ɨ̯a → ɨa̯~ɨə̯
{u̯ɔ,u̯a} → ua~uə
ɨ̯ɔ → ɨa~ɨə
uɨ̯ ua̯ → ɨə uɔ̯ → ɨː ɔː
ɛi ei → ai əi
38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-Aiɨ̆ → ə
38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lü{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} {ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → o ə e
38.1.1.5.3 Southwest Tai to Shan{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} {ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → o ə e
38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siameseɨ → ə / _i
38.1.1.5.6 Southwest Tai to White Tai{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} {ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → o ə e
40 Totozoquean40.1 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Mixe-Zoqueanɨ ɔ → ə o
42 Uralic42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to LivonianV → ə / unstressed ! V = ɑ
ɑ → ə / VC(C)ɑC(C)_# when unstressed
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.2 Proto-Pai to Paipaii → ə / unstressed
45.1.3 Proto-Pai to Tipaii → ə / unstressed
46 Vowel Shifts46.2 California Vowel Shift (English)æ → {eə̯,ɪə̯} / _N
46.5 Old English-to-Scots Vowel Shiftsai → ɛi → əi / when stem-final
ai oi ui ei au ou iu ɛ(o)u → eː oe əi iː {ɑː,ɔː} ʌu ju j(ʌ)u
ɛː → ɛi (→ əi?) / in some northern varieties
iː eː ɛː aː oː uː {øː,yː} → əi i {i,e} e o u ø
46.7 Great Vowel Shift (English)iː uː → əj əw → ɑj ɑw
aː ɔː → ɛː oː → eː ow → ej (əw)
46.11 Middle Chinese to Cantonese Vowel Shift (“The Inner-Outer Flip”)∅ → ə / C[+ labiovelar]_i
∅ → ə / _u
a → {aː,ə} “(the environments for these respective changes are somewhat unclear)”
a → ə → ∅ / i_u
46.16 Development of Proto-Lolo-Burmese -i(C)# and -u(C)# to Lahu-u -up -ut -uk -um -un -uŋ → -u -ɔʔ -əʔ -uʔ -ɔ -ə -ɛ
46.19 Southern [United States] Shift (English)æ ɛ ɪ → æj(ə) ɛj(ə) ɪj(ə)
ɛj(ə) ɪj(ə) i eɪ → ej(ə) ij(ə) ɪi ɛi
uʊ oʊ → ʉʊ̈ əʊ̈ (a bit of a guesstimate based upon the prose description in the article and the mean-formant-value chart cited from Labov, Ash & Bobert (2006))

with context involving /ə/

14 matches

7 Algonquian7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee DelawareCʷ → C / _ə{(C){p,kʷ},m,w}
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonicb → w / ! _{a,ə,Vj}
9 Austroasiatic9.1.2.1 Middle Vietnamese to Hanoi Vietnameseɨ → i / _(ə)w
10 Austronesian10.2.3 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-MalayicH → {∅,h} / _əNS / #_
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to MadureseV → Vː / ə(C…?)_
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North SarawakC → Cː / ə_V (?)
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiputk ŋ → ʔ ∅ / Və̯_#
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lónghp k → f ɣ / V_V ! ”ə_V
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales Iñupiaqɣ → u / {i,ə}_V
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.1 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Nafrie → ə / _C{a,ə,u} (seems to have become a in a few instances)
16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central Sentanie → ə / _C{a,ə,u} (seems to have become a in a few instances)
16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern Sentanie → ə / _C{a,ə,u} (seems to have become a in a few instances)
16.1.4 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Western Sentanie → ə / _C{a,ə,u} (seems to have become a in a few instances)
17 Indo-European17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard GermanVː → V[- long] / _%Cə{r,l,n}# (some exceptions)