Index Diachronica: involving /C/

259 results from /C/   170 results to /C/   921 results with context involving /C/   

plain Cʲː

from /C/

259 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-OmoticVNC → VːC[+voiced]
6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North OmoticCw → C
6.2.2 Proto-Erythrean to Proto-North Erythrean$VC$ → $CV$ “(This last rule turned all VC roots into CV)”
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-BerberCVʕ → ħʔ / ! C = ɡw
6.2.2.1.14 Classical Arabic to Moroccan ArabicC[+labial/+velar] → ʷ / adjacent to short u
C1ˤC2 → C1C2ˤ
Cˤ → C / {#,V}_V
6.2.2.1.19 Biblical Hebrew to Modern Israeli HebrewCː → C[-long]
7 Algonquian7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapaho({C,#}V)ʔ → ({C,#}Vː)∅ / _C
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventre({C,#}V[-long])ʔ → ({C,#}Vː[+falling tone])∅ / _C
7.5 Proto-Algonquian to Cheyenne{kC,Ck} → ʔ
C[- nasal] → ∅ / near nasals
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee DelawareCʷ → C / _ə{(C){p,kʷ},m,w}
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to MenomineeC → ∅ / C_#
7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-IllinoisC[-nas] → h / _k
C[-voiced] → C[+voiced] / N_
10 Austronesian10.1.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Bali-Sasak-SumbawanC[+ voice] → C[- voice] / _#
10.2.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-ChamicC1C2 → C2
C[+ voice] → C[- voice] / _#
10.2.3 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-MalayicC1C2 → C2
C[+ A POA]C[+ B POA] → C[+ B POA]C[+ B POA]
C[+ voice] → C[- voice] / _#
10.2.4.1 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to JavaneseC1C2 → C2
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to MadureseC[+ voice] → C[- voice] / _#
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North SarawakC → Cː / ə_V (?)
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiput(C)V → ∅ / #_C… “(irregular)”
10.2.6.2 Proto-North Sarawak to Proto-KenyahCV → ∅ / _NCVC “(in reduplications)”
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to HiwC → ∅ / _#
a(C)V[+ high] a(C)V[+ mid] aCa → ɔ(C) a(C) {ɔ,a}(C)ə
e(C){V[- low]} e(C)a → e(C) e(C)ə
i(C)V[+ high] i(C)V[+ mid] i(C)a → i(C) i(C)ə {e,i}(C)ə
o(C)V[+ high] o(C)V[+ mid] o(C)a → ɵ(C) o(C) ɔ(C)ə
u(C)V[+ high] u(C)e u(C)o u(C)a → {u,i}(C) u(C)ə e(C)ə {u,ɵ}(C)ə
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerig— iCV[- high] → aC
— eCV[+ mid] → ɛC
— eCV[+ low] → aC
— aCV[+ high] → {ɛ,œ}C
— aCa → {ɘ,a}C
— oCV[+ high] → øC
— oCo → œC (sporadic)
— oCV[- high] → ɔC
— uCV[- high] → oC
CV1C”V2 → CV2C”V2
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to MwotlapuCi → iC (sporadic)
aCV[+ high] → ɪ / when stressed unless primarily stressed
(C)V1C”V2 → (C)V2V2
10.3.5 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-New CaledoniaCC → Cː (fortis)
10.3.5.2 Proto-New Caledonia to JawéCː → Cʰ
10.3.5.3 Proto-New Caledonia to Nemi-Pije-FwaiCː → Cʰ
10.3.5.4 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-NorthernCː → Cʰ
C → ∅ / _$(possessive suffix)#
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-NêlêmwauCu → iCi
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to NyelâyuC → ∅ / _# “sometimes”
10.3.5.6 Proto-New Caledonia to PwaameiCː → Cʰ
10.3.5.7 Proto-New Caledonia to PwapwâCː → Cʰ
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-YunagaCː → Cʰ
10.3.5.8.1 Proto-Yunaga to Yunaga 1C → ∅ / _#
10.3.6 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Reefs/Santa CruzC → ∅ / _#
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark BayC → ∅ / _#
10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to TolomakoC → ∅ / _#
10.3.9 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-UtupuaC → ∅ / _# (except for *k?)
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to AnejomC → ∅ / _# ! C = t
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’ai(C)V[+ high] → i(C)
i(C)V[- high] → i(C)ɪ
e(C)V[- low] → e(C)
e(C)V[+ low] → ɛCɛ
a(C)i a(C)u → {a,ɛ}(C) {ɔ,a,ɛ}(C)
a(C){o,e} → a(C)
oCa → ɔCɔ
uCV[+ high] → iC “sometimes”
uCV[- high] → uCʊ
CV1C”V2 → CV2C”V2
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Ongan{c,*C,s,*S} → c (again, possibly a change from POn-PAn, if it existed)
10.7 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-RukaiS1 s d2 *C → s θ ð ts (not sure what *C stands for here)
10.8 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Tsouic{*C,d} j *R → c z r
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamil— eCə oCə → Ceː Coː / #_
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow IñupiaqC0VC0 → C0ː
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic IñupiaqCː → C / except when CV_V in U1U2
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie IñupiaqC0VC0 → Cː
15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’ikCː → C
C → Cː / _V(…V) except in #U
C[+voice] → C[-voice] / adjacent to {S,s,l̥}
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’ikCː → C
C → Cː / _V(…V) except in #U
C[+voice] → C[-voice] / adjacent to {S,s,l̥}
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’ikCː → C
C[+voice] → C[-voice] / next to {S,s,l̥}
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’ikCː → C
C → Cː / _V(…V), after #U
C[+voice] → C[-voice] / next to {S,s,l̥}
17 Indo-European17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— C1C2 → xC2 / if C2 was a plosive or s
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old IrishCʱ → C
C → Cʲ / _{F,j}
C → Cʷ / _{B,w}
— Cː → C[-long]
C(…C) → ∅ / _# ! /l r/ and clusters containing them; “[t]his remained a phonologically conditioned rule in OIr”
17.7.2 Common Germanic to West GermanicC → Cː / _j ! C = r
17.7.2.1.13 Middle English to YolaC → ∅ / C_%
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandic{l(ː),rl} C → ɬ C[- voice] / _{S[- voice],s}
{l(ː),rl} C → ɬ C[- voice] / S_ ! Sː_
Cː → C[- long]
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic GreekCː → C[-long]
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic GreekVCw → VːC
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-AryanC(C) → ∅ / C_#
VN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#
C → C[+voiced] / V_V
C1C2 → C2C2 / V_V
Cn → CC / V_V ! C = dʒ
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-AryanC(C) → ∅ / C_#
VN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#
C → C[+voiced] / V_V
C1C2 → C2C2 / V_V
Cn → CC / V_V ! C = dʒ
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-AryanC(C) → ∅ / C_#
VN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#
C → C[+voiced] / V_V
sC → Ch
C1C2 → C2C2 / V_V
Cn → CC / V_V ! C = dʒ
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-AryanC(C) → ∅ / C_#
VN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#
C → C[+voiced] / V_V
C1C2 → C2C2 / V_V
Cn → CC / V_V ! C = dʒ
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to PolishC → Cʲ / _E ! /j ɕ ʑ
Cʲ → C / _C[+dental] with developments of yers in ablaut environments
Cʲ → C in select words due to prestige influence of Czech in the Middle Ages
Cʲ → C in select words otherwise, possibly by analogy
vC → Cv / _V
Cv → vC / _C
C[+sibilant]P → C[+alveolopalatal] / _C[+coronal]
C[+sibilant]P → C[+dental]
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to LatinC1C2C3C4 → (C3)C4
C1C2C3 → C1C3
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to CatalanC → ∅ / C1_C2 ! C2 = L
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to FrenchC → ∅ / C1_C2 ! C2 = {r,l}
C0C0 → C0
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to ItalianC → Cː / V_jV
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to PortugueseC0C0 → C0 / ! C = r
C → ∅ / C1_C2 ! C2 = L
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— CVK → CVj (intermittent if C was a resonant)
Cː → C
17.12.1.1.7 Vulgar Latin to Rhaeto-RomanceC[+ voiced] → ∅ / V_V (only for obstruents?)
C[- voiced] → C[+ voiced] / V_V
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to RomanianCi → Cʲ / _# ! R…R_#
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-TocharianCh → C / _(V)Ch
Ci → Cʲə
Ce Ceː → Cʲə Cʲɛ
17.13.1 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian ACʲj → Cʲː
17.13.2 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian BC[+ coronal]w → Cː
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.1.2 Pre-Bakairi to Western BakairiC[+ fricative - voiced] → ∅ / ʔ_
21 Lakes Plain21.1 Proto-Lakes Plain to Proto-Far WestCV → ∅ / _# (possibly only when CV_#, possibly sporadic)
21.2.1 Proto-Tariku to Proto-Central TarikuiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.1.1 Proto-Central Tariku to EdopiC → ∅ / _#
21.2.1.2 Proto-Central Tariku to IauCV → ∅ / _#
21.2.2.1 Proto-East Tariku to BiritaiC → ∅ / _#
iC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.2 Proto-East Tariku to DoutaiC → ∅ / _#
iC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.3 Proto-East Tariku to Eritaib C → ∅ d / _#
iC uC → î û / _{C,#}
iC → iC~i / _{C,#} (not sure how this plays in with the change mentioned earlier about extra-high vowels; I must have misread something)
21.2.2.4 Proto-East Tariku to KaiC → ∅ / _#
iC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.5 Proto-East Tariku to Obokuitaib C → b̚ ɡ̚ / _#
iC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.6 Proto-East Tariku to Sikaritaib C → b~∅ {d,ɡ} / _#
iC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.7 Proto-East Tariku to WaritaiC → ∅ / _#
iC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.3 Proto-Tariku to Proto-West TarikuiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
24 Macro-Pama-Nyungan24.1.1 Proto-Paman to AritinŋitiÉ£C → ∅ / #_
i[-long]C → Cj / #_ ! _i
u[-long]C → Cw / #_
a[-long]C → Ca / #_ (! _a?)
24.1.2 Proto-Paman to AwŋtimiC aC uC → Cj Ca Cw / #_ ! before an identical vowel
C → ∅ / #_
24.1.3 Proto-Paman to LinŋitiÉ£C → ∅ / #_
24.1.4 Proto-Paman to MbiywomC → ∅ / #_
i[-long]C → Cj / #_ ! _i
u[-long]C → Cw / #_
a[-long]C → Ca / #_ (! _a?)
24.1.5 Proto-Paman to MpalicanC → ∅ / #_
24.1.7 Proto-Paman to YinwumC → ∅ / #_
27 Mayan27.3 Proto-Mayan to HuastecankV[+round]C[+glide] → kʷ
27.4 Proto-Mayan to IxileanCVʔVC → CVʔC
27.5 Proto-Mayan to Kaqchikel-Tz’utujilCVʔVC → CVʔC
27.6 Proto-Mayan to Core K’iche’CVʔVC → CVʔC
27.7 Proto-Mayan to MameanCVʔVC → CVʔC
28 Muskogean28.1 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Eastern MuskogeanVC[+ weak] → ∅ / _V#
28.1.2 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to CreekCː → C[- long]
28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western MuskogeanC1[+ weak] C2[+ weak] → ʔ h / V_V#
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.7 Proto-Athabaskan to Deg Hit’anC’ → C / _$
29.1.1.1.9 Proto-Athabaskan to DogribC → h / _$
29.1.1.1.12 Proto-Athabaskan to HolikachukC’ → C / _$
29.1.1.1.14 Proto-Athabaskan to Lower KoyukonC’ → C / _$
29.1.1.1.15 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper KoyukonC’ → C / _$
29.1.1.1.19 Proto-Athabaskan to Proto-Southern AthabaskanVnC → V[+ nas]C / _#, unless C = ʔ
29.1.1.1.21 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Kiowa ApacheVnʔ VnC → V[+ nas] V[+ nas]C / _#
29.1.1.1.22 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to JicarillaVnʔ VnC → V[+ nas] V[+ nas]C / _#
29.1.1.1.23 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to LipanVnʔ VnC → V[+ nas] V[+ nas] / _#
29.1.1.1.29 Proto-Athabaskan to Bearlake Slavey-HareC → {h,ʔ} / _#
29.1.1.1.31 Proto-Athabaskan to Mountain Slavey-HareC → {h,ʔ} / _#
29.1.1.1.32 Proto-Athabaskan to Slavey Slavey-HareC → {h,ʔ} / _#
29.1.1.1.33 Proto-Athabaskan to Tahltan-Kaska-TagishC’ → C / _$
29.1.1.1.40 Proto-Athabaskan to TsetsautC → ∅ / _$ in many cases
30 Niger-Congo30.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Bantuʄ C → c R / #_
30.1.1.1 Proto-Bantu to SebirwaNC → C[-voiced] / #_ (in nouns)
NC → N[+same POA]C / #_ (in verbs)
30.2 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Potou-AkanicC → J[+nas] / #(C)V[+nas]_
C → J / #(C)V_
ɪ(Cɪ) → e(Ci) / t_; “vowel nasalizations are retained either way on each”
30.2.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic to Proto-AkanicV[+high +ATR](C(V[+high -ATR])) → #(C)V[-high +ATR](CV[+high +ATR]) / #J[+dorsal -voiced]_
30.2.1.1 Proto-Akanic to AkanC[+dorsal] → Cʷ / _V[+round]
33 Penutian33.1.1 Proto-Utian to Proto-Costanoan (Ohlone)i$Ci → e$Ce / _C ! _ɾ
ɨ$Cɨ → e$Ce / _C ! _ɾ
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1 Proto-Sino-Tibetan to Middle Chinese(C-)r- → l-
(C-)l- → {d,ji}-
Cl- → T(ʑ)-
36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old MandarinCʲ → C {Ạ,F̣}_
Cʲ → C̣
Cʲ → C / {f,v}_
C → Cʲ / {K,C[+pharyngeal]}_{a,a(ch)}
C → Cʲ / ?ʲ{p,t}_
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan LaC[+ sibilant] → s / _w
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos KiaC[+ sibilant] → s / _w
36.3.2.1.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to HanniuC[+ sibilant]w → s
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham ToC[+ sibilant]w ç Pç Nç çl → s ʂ ʃ mʃ ʃl
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog RtseC[+ sibilant] → s / _w
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo MoC[+ sibilant] → s / _#
36.3.2.2.5 Proto-rGyalrongic to TrungC[+ sibilant]w → s
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku NaoC[+ sibilant]w → sj
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu TaC[+ sibilant]w ç → swdz sdz
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayuga”V(C)(C)CaCV → V(C)”(C)CaCV / _#
C → ∅ / {s,k}_#
Ch → ∅ / _s#
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huronn hn sC → t th Ch / s_
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondaga”V(ː)(C)(C)Vː → V[-long](C)”(C)CV[-long] / _#
”V(C)(C)CaCV → V(C)”(C)CaCV / _#
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-OneidaCʔV0 → CV0ʔV0
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneida”Vː[-falling tone]CV → Vː”CV
— Vː[+falling tone]C(C)V(H) → V̊ː[+falling tone]C̊(C̊)V̊(H̊) / _#
— CVː[+falling tone] → C̊V̊ː[+falling tone] / _#
— CVʔ → C̊V̊ʔ̊ / _#
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to SenecaC → ∅ / s_#
C[-glottal] → ∅ / _s#
37.2.3 Proto-Siouan to MandanCʔV0 → CV0ʔV0
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-AiCʷə → Cɔ
41 Trans-New Guinea41.5.1.3 Proto-Gorokan to South ForeC → ∅ / VN_V
41.5.1.9 Proto-Gorokan to SianeC → ∅ / _#
42 Uralic42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livoniant ts s(C) n l r → tʲ tsʲ sʲ(C) nʲ lʲ rʲ / _i
C → Cː / ʔ_V
VCːɑ → VːCɑ
Cː → C[- long] / ! in verbal forms when V_ə
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to BasqueC → ∅ / r_
Cr → Cɾ → CVɾ (perhaps not a sound change per se, just a historical tendency)
VɪC → VCʲ
C[- voice] → C[+ voice] / {l,N}_ (not Roncalese or Souletin)
C[+ sibilant] → C[+ affricate] / _#

to /C/

170 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-OmoticVNC → VːC[+voiced]
6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North OmoticCw → C
6.2.2 Proto-Erythrean to Proto-North Erythrean$VC$ → $CV$ “(This last rule turned all VC roots into CV)”
6.2.2.1.14 Classical Arabic to Moroccan ArabicC1ˤC2 → C1C2ˤ
Cˤ → C / {#,V}_V
6.2.2.1.19 Biblical Hebrew to Modern Israeli HebrewCː → C[-long]
7 Algonquian7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapaho({C,#}V)ʔ → ({C,#}Vː)∅ / _C
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventre({C,#}V[-long])ʔ → ({C,#}Vː[+falling tone])∅ / _C
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee DelawareCʷ → C / _ə{(C){p,kʷ},m,w}
7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-IllinoisC[-voiced] → C[+voiced] / N_
10 Austronesian10.1.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Bali-Sasak-SumbawanC[+ voice] → C[- voice] / _#
10.2.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-ChamicC1C2 → C2
C[+ voice] → C[- voice] / _#
10.2.3 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-MalayicC1C2 → C2
C[+ A POA]C[+ B POA] → C[+ B POA]C[+ B POA]
C[+ voice] → C[- voice] / _#
10.2.4.1 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to JavaneseC1C2 → C2
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to MadureseC[+ voice] → C[- voice] / _#
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North SarawakC → Cː / ə_V (?)
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwa(C)V[+ high] a(C)V[+ mid] aCa → ɔ(C) a(C) {ɔ,a}(C)ə
e(C){V[- low]} e(C)a → e(C) e(C)ə
i(C)V[+ high] i(C)V[+ mid] i(C)a → i(C) i(C)ə {e,i}(C)ə
o(C)V[+ high] o(C)V[+ mid] o(C)a → ɵ(C) o(C) ɔ(C)ə
u(C)V[+ high] u(C)e u(C)o u(C)a → {u,i}(C) u(C)ə e(C)ə {u,ɵ}(C)ə
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerig— iCV[- high] → aC
— eCV[+ mid] → ɛC
— eCV[+ low] → aC
— aCV[+ high] → {ɛ,œ}C
— aCa → {ɘ,a}C
— oCV[+ high] → øC
— oCo → œC (sporadic)
— oCV[- high] → ɔC
— uCV[- high] → oC
CV1C”V2 → CV2C”V2
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to MwotlapuCi → iC (sporadic)
(C)V1C”V2 → (C)V2V2
10.3.5 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-New CaledoniaCC → Cː (fortis)
10.3.5.2 Proto-New Caledonia to JawéCː → Cʰ
10.3.5.3 Proto-New Caledonia to Nemi-Pije-FwaiCː → Cʰ
10.3.5.4 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-NorthernCː → Cʰ
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-NêlêmwauCu → iCi
10.3.5.6 Proto-New Caledonia to PwaameiCː → Cʰ
10.3.5.7 Proto-New Caledonia to PwapwâCː → Cʰ
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-YunagaCː → Cʰ
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’ai(C)V[+ high] → i(C)
i(C)V[- high] → i(C)ɪ
e(C)V[- low] → e(C)
e(C)V[+ low] → ɛCɛ
a(C)i a(C)u → {a,ɛ}(C) {ɔ,a,ɛ}(C)
a(C){o,e} → a(C)
oCa → ɔCɔ
uCV[+ high] → iC “sometimes”
uCV[- high] → uCʊ
CV1C”V2 → CV2C”V2
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamil— eCə oCə → Ceː Coː / #_
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow IñupiaqC0VC0 → C0ː
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic IñupiaqCː → C / except when CV_V in U1U2
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie IñupiaqC0VC0 → Cː
15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’ikCː → C
C → Cː / _V(…V) except in #U
C[+voice] → C[-voice] / adjacent to {S,s,l̥}
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’ikCː → C
C → Cː / _V(…V) except in #U
C[+voice] → C[-voice] / adjacent to {S,s,l̥}
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’ikCː → C
C[+voice] → C[-voice] / next to {S,s,l̥}
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’ikCː → C
C → Cː / _V(…V), after #U
C[+voice] → C[-voice] / next to {S,s,l̥}
17 Indo-European17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— C1C2 → xC2 / if C2 was a plosive or s
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old IrishCʱ → C
C → Cʲ / _{F,j}
C → Cʷ / _{B,w}
— Cː → C[-long]
17.7.2 Common Germanic to West GermanicC → Cː / _j ! C = r
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandic{l(ː),rl} C → ɬ C[- voice] / _{S[- voice],s}
{l(ː),rl} C → ɬ C[- voice] / S_ ! Sː_
Cː → C[- long]
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic GreekCː → C[-long]
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic GreekVCw → VːC
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-AryanC → C[+voiced] / V_V
C1C2 → C2C2 / V_V
Cn → CC / V_V ! C = dʒ
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-AryanC → C[+voiced] / V_V
C1C2 → C2C2 / V_V
Cn → CC / V_V ! C = dʒ
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-AryanC → C[+voiced] / V_V
sC → Ch
C1C2 → C2C2 / V_V
Cn → CC / V_V ! C = dʒ
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-AryanC → C[+voiced] / V_V
C1C2 → C2C2 / V_V
Cn → CC / V_V ! C = dʒ
17.10.1.5 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Vedic Sanskritsː ʂː ɕː → t.s t.ʂ t.C
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to PolishC → Cʲ / _E ! /j ɕ ʑ
Cʲ → C / _C[+dental] with developments of yers in ablaut environments
Cʲ → C in select words due to prestige influence of Czech in the Middle Ages
Cʲ → C in select words otherwise, possibly by analogy
vC → Cv / _V
Cv → vC / _C
C[+sibilant]P → C[+alveolopalatal] / _C[+coronal]
C[+sibilant]P → C[+dental]
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to LatinC1C2C3C4 → (C3)C4
C1C2C3 → C1C3
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to FrenchC0C0 → C0
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to ItalianC → Cː / V_jV
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to PortugueseC0C0 → C0 / ! C = r
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— CVK → CVj (intermittent if C was a resonant)
Cː → C
17.12.1.1.7 Vulgar Latin to Rhaeto-RomanceC[- voiced] → C[+ voiced] / V_V
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to RomanianCi → Cʲ / _# ! R…R_#
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-TocharianCh → C / _(V)Ch
Ci → Cʲə
Ce Ceː → Cʲə Cʲɛ
17.13.1 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian ACʲj → Cʲː
17.13.2 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian BC[+ coronal]w → Cː
21 Lakes Plain21.2.2.3 Proto-East Tariku to EritaiiC → iC~i / _{C,#} (not sure how this plays in with the change mentioned earlier about extra-high vowels; I must have misread something)
24 Macro-Pama-Nyungan24.1.1 Proto-Paman to AritinŋitiÉ£i[-long]C → Cj / #_ ! _i
u[-long]C → Cw / #_
a[-long]C → Ca / #_ (! _a?)
24.1.2 Proto-Paman to AwŋtimiC aC uC → Cj Ca Cw / #_ ! before an identical vowel
24.1.4 Proto-Paman to Mbiywomi[-long]C → Cj / #_ ! _i
u[-long]C → Cw / #_
a[-long]C → Ca / #_ (! _a?)
27 Mayan27.4 Proto-Mayan to IxileanCVʔVC → CVʔC
27.5 Proto-Mayan to Kaqchikel-Tz’utujilCVʔVC → CVʔC
27.6 Proto-Mayan to Core K’iche’CVʔVC → CVʔC
27.7 Proto-Mayan to MameanCVʔVC → CVʔC
28 Muskogean28.1.2 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to CreekCː → C[- long]
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.7 Proto-Athabaskan to Deg Hit’anC’ → C / _$
29.1.1.1.12 Proto-Athabaskan to HolikachukC’ → C / _$
29.1.1.1.14 Proto-Athabaskan to Lower KoyukonC’ → C / _$
29.1.1.1.15 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper KoyukonC’ → C / _$
29.1.1.1.19 Proto-Athabaskan to Proto-Southern AthabaskanVnC → V[+ nas]C / _#, unless C = ʔ
29.1.1.1.21 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Kiowa ApacheVnʔ VnC → V[+ nas] V[+ nas]C / _#
29.1.1.1.22 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to JicarillaVnʔ VnC → V[+ nas] V[+ nas]C / _#
29.1.1.1.33 Proto-Athabaskan to Tahltan-Kaska-TagishC’ → C / _$
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1.1 Proto-Bantu to SebirwaNC → C[-voiced] / #_ (in nouns)
NC → N[+same POA]C / #_ (in verbs)
30.2 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Potou-Akanicɪ(Cɪ) → e(Ci) / t_; “vowel nasalizations are retained either way on each”
(N)V1[+mid +nas](l̃) → CV[-nas]n
30.2.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic to Proto-AkanicV[+high +ATR](C(V[+high -ATR])) → #(C)V[-high +ATR](CV[+high +ATR]) / #J[+dorsal -voiced]_
30.2.1.1 Proto-Akanic to AkanC[+dorsal] → Cʷ / _V[+round]
32 Oto-Manguean32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to Tlapanech → CVʔV / _# (or possibly in just any final syllable?)
33 Penutian33.1.1 Proto-Utian to Proto-Costanoan (Ohlone)i$Ci → e$Ce / _C ! _ɾ
ɨ$Cɨ → e$Ce / _C ! _ɾ
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old MandarinCʲ → C {Ạ,F̣}_
Cʲ → C̣
Cʲ → C / {f,v}_
C → Cʲ / {K,C[+pharyngeal]}_{a,a(ch)}
C → Cʲ / ?ʲ{p,t}_
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayuga”V(C)(C)CaCV → V(C)”(C)CaCV / _#
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huronn hn sC → t th Ch / s_
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondaga”V(ː)(C)(C)Vː → V[-long](C)”(C)CV[-long] / _#
”V(C)(C)CaCV → V(C)”(C)CaCV / _#
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-OneidaCʔV0 → CV0ʔV0
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneida”Vː[-falling tone]CV → Vː”CV
— Vː[+falling tone]C(C)V(H) → V̊ː[+falling tone]C̊(C̊)V̊(H̊) / _#
— CVː[+falling tone] → C̊V̊ː[+falling tone] / _#
— CVʔ → C̊V̊ʔ̊ / _#
37.2.3 Proto-Siouan to MandanCʔV0 → CV0ʔV0
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-AiCʷə → Cɔ
42 Uralic42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livoniant ts s(C) n l r → tʲ tsʲ sʲ(C) nʲ lʲ rʲ / _i
C → Cː / ʔ_V
VCːɑ → VːCɑ
Cː → C[- long] / ! in verbal forms when V_ə
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to BasqueCr → Cɾ → CVɾ (perhaps not a sound change per se, just a historical tendency)
VɪC → VCʲ
C[- voice] → C[+ voice] / {l,N}_ (not Roncalese or Souletin)
C[+ sibilant] → C[+ affricate] / _#

with context involving /C/

921 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Omotica → o / #Cw_{(d)l,s3}
w → ∅ / #C_V, except _i(ː)
6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North Omotice → i / #N_C
e → i / #l_{P,C[+voiced]}
e o → i u / #C_P
e o → i u / #(ʔ)_C
e o → i u / #(ʔ)_C$
e(ː) → i(ː) / #C[+sibilant]_{d,n,r}
Vː → V / #K[-voice]_C
Vː → V / #C_C$ + $(V)C$ suffix
N → ∅ / V_{C[+sibilant],p}
6.1.1.1 North Omotic to Benchl → d / #_VC
6.1.1.3 North Omotic to Kafal → d / #_VC
6.1.1.5 North Omotic to Shekkachol → d / #_VC
6.1.1.7 North Omotic to Yemsal → n / #_VC
6.2.2 Proto-Erythrean to Proto-North ErythreanV{j,w} → Vː / C_C
in → ŋ / #_C
6.2.2.1.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-Boreafrasianŋ → ∅ / #_CV
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berberl → ∅ / #{d,tʼ}_VC
ɬ → s / #_VC
f → p / #_V{Z,C[-voice],r}
q → i / #_V{Z,C[+dental]}
{h,ħ,q} → ʕ / C[+voice]_V
q → ʔ / _C[+dental]
r → ʔ / C_{t,w,j}# ! C = {ɡ,m,n,r,w,ʃ,x}
l → j / #_iC ?
l → r / #nV_C
6.2.2.1.3 Ancient Egyptian to Copticn → l / mV_C
n → l / CV_m
r → l / #(C)_c(C)# ?
6.2.2.1.4 Proto-Boreafrasian to Proto-Semitictlʼ → ɬ / _C[+sibilant]
ɣ → ɡ / #_VCH
w → ∅ / _C
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabicj → ∅ / Ck_$
i → a / Cˤ_{q,ɣ,ʕ}
i → a / {q,ɣ,ʕ}_Cˤ
a → i / _C(C), when stressed
a → a / _C[+ dorsal]
a → e / _(C)(C)i(ː)
aːʔ → e / E(C)(C)_#
aː → a / {Cˤ,w}_#
6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Egyptian ArabicVː → V / C_C{ː,C}V
V → Vː / C_CV in U[-stress]
{i,u} → ∅ / VC_CV when unstressed (short only)
∅ → e / CVCC_CVCV (applies across word boundaries)
6.2.2.1.8 Classical Arabic to Coastal Hadhrami ArabicV[-long] → ∅ / #C_C, in some words
6.2.2.1.9 Classical Arabic to Wādı̄ Hadhrami ArabicV[-long] → ∅ / #C_C (sporadic?)
6.2.2.1.10 Classical Arabic to Hassāniyya ArabicV[-long] → ∅ / C_{C,#} (except for the feminine marker)
— j w → i u / #_CV
— j w → iː uː / #_CC
6.2.2.1.12 Classical Arabic to Eastern Libyan Arabic∅ → ə / C_CV(ː,V)CC
6.2.2.1.13 Classical Arabic to Western Libyan Arabic∅ → ə / CCV(ː,V)C_C
6.2.2.1.14 Classical Arabic to Moroccan Arabic{u,ə} → ∅ / ! C_C(C)#
6.2.2.1.18 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrew— i u → e o / _C{$,#} (in verbs)
— u → ɔ / _C{$,#}
— u → ∅ / ! _Cː
6.2.2.1.19 Biblical Hebrew to Modern Israeli Hebrewə → ɛ / #R_C or when breaking up what would otherwise be a three-consonant cluster; in the case of two schwas, only the first one is dropped
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakia → e / #C_OO
w → ∅ / C_ ! C = K
j → ∅ / _C
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis AbenakiV[- high - long] → ∅ / #C_OO
w → ∅ / C_ ! C = K
j → ∅ / C_
7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-AtsinaW → ∅ / C_i(ː)
θ → ʃ / C_
θ h {s,m,n,r} → ʃ ∅ ʔ / _C
W → j / C_
s → h / {V,C}_
r → h / C_
Vː → V[-long] / _CC
7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapaho({C,#}V)ʔ → ({C,#}Vː)∅ / _C
i(ː) → u(ː) / o(ː)(C[-dental])(C[-dental])_
∅ → ʔ / CV[-long]_#
o(ː) → e(ː) / Cj_ (sporadic)
j → ∅ / C_
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventre({C,#}V[-long])ʔ → ({C,#}Vː[+falling tone])∅ / _C
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfoot∅ → x / _s ! _C{C,#}
j → s / ! C_
h → ∅ / ! _C
w → ∅ / C_
{jiː,ja,ahi} {owaː,awa,awe} awi {iːwa,eːwa,aji,aje,ani} → i oː o(ji) iː / C_C
∅ → i / #_jC
∅ → i / C_jV#
{iː,ij,j} → j / C_B
w → ∅ / {a,o}_iC
on → u / _iC
7.6 Proto-Algonquian to Northern East Creeja → aː / C_
wi → o / C_
7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East Creeja → aː / C_
wi → o / C_
7.8 Proto-Algonquian to Plains Creeja → aː / C_
wi → o / C_
7.9 Proto-Algonquian to Swampy Creeja → aː / C_
wi → o / C_
7.10 Proto-Algonquian to Woods Creeja → aː / C_
wi → o / C_
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawarew → ∅ / m_C
Cʷ → C / _ə{(C){p,kʷ},m,w}
j → ∅ / C_
ʔ → h / _C ! C = l, or when reduplicated
Vː → V[-long] / _hC
ə[+weak] → ∅ / #_C
ə[+weak] → ∅ / _C[+voiced] (sporadic)
ə → i / _hC
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menomineewe je → o i / _C
e → i / #(C)_ ! _H
{w,j} → ∅ / C_#
C → ∅ / C_#
wi(ː) → o(ː) / C_w
Vː → V[-long] / CC(G)_C{V,#} “[i.e., when following a cluster but not followed by a cluster. Only applies ‘after the first long vowel of a nonglottal word, and everywhere in a glottal word’]”
V → Vː / _CC in even syllables
Vː → V[-long] / _C{V,#} in even syllables; “does not apply in the second syllable of a non-glottal word”
{wiː,jiː,weː,jeː,wæː,jæː} {wi,ji,we,je,wæ,jæ} → iː i / C_
wa ja → uə̯ iə̯ / C_
7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-IllinoismV[-long] → ∅ / #_{ʰC,s,ʃ} (allophonic, “optional”)
{θ,ʃ,tʃ,ç,x,ʔ} → h / _C
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaqtʃ → ʃ / ! C_
{ʔ,h,N} → ∅ / _C
7.15 Proto-Algonquian to Ojibwe{j,w}V[-long] → ∅ / C_# in disyllables with Vː or in tri(-plus-)syllables
jeː → iː / C_
ja → iː / C_C
j → ∅ / C_
7.16 Proto-Algonquian to Piscatawayʔ → h / _C
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawneee → i / #(C)_ “(but remains e in a few cases?)”
j → ∅ / C_i(ː)
je → i / C_
V[-long] → ∅ / C_ʔC
Vː → V[-long] / _{ʔC,ʃp,ʃk,hV}
ʔ → ∅ / C{v,l,s}_C
ʔ → ∅ / _CC
∅ → ʔ / C{v,d}_{ʃp,ʃk,hV}
∅ → i / #C_jVː “(for some speakers)”
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonica → ə / _Ce
a → i / _Ci
a → u / _Cu
V → a / _Ca
u → a / P_Ce
{a,e,o,æ} i u y ø → ə i ua {u,ə} {ə,u} / _Ce
{a,æ,e,ø,i,y} o → i u / _Ci
e i {o,u} æ ø y → {ə,a} {i,ə} ə a {ə,u} {u,ə} / _Co
V → u / _Cu
8.2 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Korean{tʰ,d} {k,ɡ} → r {h,∅} / {C,V}_{C,V}
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolica → {a,i} / _Ce
a → {a,e} / _Ci
a → {a,i,e} / _Co
a → {a,o,u} / _Cu
e o u æ ø y → {a,e} {o,u} {a,o,u a {a,o,u} {o,u,i} / _Ca
a e i o u æ ø y → {a,i} {e,ja} {e,i} {ø,y,o} {o,u,y} {i,a,e} {e,ø} {ø,y,o,u} / _Ce
i → e / P_Ci
a e u æ ø y → {a,e} {e,i} {y,ø} {i,e} {i,e,ø} {ø,y,o,u} / _Ci
e → {y,ø} / P_Co
e → {y,ø} / C_Po
e → o / P_Cu
e → o / C_Pu
a e o i æ ø y → {a,i,e} {a,e} u {o,u} e {ø,y,o,u} {o,u} / _Co
a e {o,u} æ ø y → {a,o,u} {e,a} {o,u} {a,o,u} {e,i,u} {i,o,u,y,ø} / _Cu
ɡ → h / ! {C,V}_h
kʰ → ɡ / {C,V}_h
8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusico → {o,u} / _CV
æ → i / {s,ʃ,x}_Ca
{u,ø,y} æ → {o,u} ia / _Ca
y → u / P_C{e,i}
æ ø → i {o,u} / _Ce
æ → i / {s,ʃ,x}_Ci
æ ø y → ia {o,u} i / _Ci
{u,æ} ø → {o,u} i / _Co
ø → i / {s,ʃ,x}_Cu
{u,æ,y} ø → {o,u} ia / _Cu
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkica ø → {a,ʌ} a / P_Ca
a e i u æ ø y → a {a,ʌ,e} {ɯ,i} {u,o} {ia,ja,ɛ} {ia,ja} ɯ / _Ca
e → ja / #_C{e,i}
ø → ʌ / P_Ce
a {e,i} o u æ ø y → {ɛ,a} ɛ {ø,o} {y,u} {ia,ja,ɛ} {ia,ja} {y,ø} / _Ci
æ → a / P_Co
æ → ʌ / P_Cu
a e i æ ø y → {o,ja,aj} {ʌ,ɜ} ɯ {ia,ja} {o,u} {u,o} / _Co
e i æ ø y → {ɛ,a,ʌ} {ɯ,i} {e,a} {u,o} ɯ / _Cu
9 Austroasiatic9.1.2.1 Middle Vietnamese to Hanoi Vietnameseɛ → a / _C[+palatal]
9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnameseɛ → a / _C[+palatal]
10 Austronesian10.1.2.7 Proto-Philippine to Proto-Kalamiane → u / _Cu
e → i / _Ci
e → u / uC_
e → a / _C[- voice]#
10.1.2.7.1 Proto-Kalamian to AgutaynenO[- voice] → ʔ / _C
10.1.2.7.2 Proto-Kalamian to Karamiananen{t,k} q → ʔ k / _C
s → ʔ / _C
10.1.2.7.3 Proto-Kalamian to Kalamian Tagbanwa{t,k,q,s} → k / _C
10.2.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Chamica → aː / _C# (sometimes)
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorroə → ∅ / VC_CV
V → ∅ / VC_CV (sporadic)
i u → e o / _C{C,#}
l → d / _{C,#}
O → O[-voiced] / _{C,#}
10.2.3.1 Proto-Malayic to (Standard) MalayV → ə / _(C…)UU#
ə → a / _(C…)#
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to MadureseV → Vː / ə(C…?)_
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauan∅ → ə / C_C “(for certain consonant combinations, which the paper doesn’t specify)”
j → ∅ / C_i
ʀ → r / _C[+dental]
ɟ → k / _C#
ŋ → ∅ / C_#
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to KiputV[+stress] → Vː / _C# ! V = ə and/or C = h “(applies to diphthongal nuclei as well a[s] monophthongs)”
i u → ɛ ɔ / _C# ! _P (sporadic)
a → i / O[+voiced]…_(C)# “(blocked if there was an intervening nasal, and sometimes if there was an intervening voiceless stop or liquid)”
ə → {ə,a} / _C# “(free variants)”
(C)V → ∅ / #_C… “(irregular)”
10.2.6.2 Proto-North Sarawak to Proto-Kenyahʀ →h / V_V(C)#
s → t / _VsVC
CV → ∅ / _NCVC “(in reduplications)”
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lónghu → ɯ / _(C)# ! _ʔ#
i u → e o / _CV[+close-mid](C)# “(iə is treated as close mid for this change)”
i u → ɛ ɔ / _CV[+open-mid](C)#
i u → e o / _Cɯ#
i u → əj əw / _V(C)#
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabaua → o / _(C…)#
— ə → a / _(C…)# (eventually spread to everywhere)
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiw”V[+ high(er)] → ∅ / _CV
”V → ə / _CV
a → e / _CV[+ mid] (sporadic)
a → e / _Ci (sporadic)
u → ʉ / ! Cw_
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to LemerigV → ∅ / #_C”V
V → ∅ / CVC_C”V
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to Mwotlapo e i → ɔ ɛ ɪ / C_V[- high]
V[- high] → ∅ / {ɔ,ɛ,ɪ}C_
u a → ʊ ɛ / _CV[+ high]
V → ∅ / (C)V_VC”V
b β d → m p n / _{C,#}
kpʷ → k / _C (sporadic)
10.3.5 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-New CaledoniaV → ∅ / _C”V
10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to CaaàcV → ∅ / #(C)V(C)(C)_#
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to NyelâyuV → ∅ / #(C)V(C)(C)_#
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bay”a → i / _CV[- high]
”a → e / _CV[+ high]
V → e / C_# ! C = j
10.3.11 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Southern Vanuatua → e / _(C)i
a → ə / _Ca
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejomai → i / _C
10.3.11.2 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Erromangoa → i / _CV[+ high]
10.3.11.2.1 Proto-Erromango to Syeb d ɡ → p t k / {#,C}_
s → ∅ / _C (occasionally blocked)
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Urab d ɡ → m n ŋ / _C
10.3.11.3 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Tannaa → o / _{P,Cu}
a → e / _Ci
a → ə / _Ca
10.3.11.3.1 Proto-Tanna to Kwamerau → {e,i} / _Cu
10.3.11.3.4 Proto-Tanna to Southwest Tannau → {e,i} / _Cu
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’aV → ∅ / #_C”V
V → ∅ / CVC_C”V
b d → m n / _{C,#}
10.4.1 Proto-Micronesian to MarshalleseK → Kʷ / _{C[+round],V[+round]}
V[+high] → ɘ / _C[-high]
V[+mid] → ɘ / _C[+high] when stressed
V → ∅ / ”VC_
f → ∅ / #_{C[-low],V[-low]}
f → ɰ / #_aCo
∅ → ɰ / #_aC[-low]
∅ → j / #_{aC[+low],V[-back],C[-back]}
∅ → w / #_{C[+round],V[+round]}
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to Onge∅ → e / C_#
11 Northeast Caucasian11.3 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Khinalugr → n / _C
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.1 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Proto-Dravidiant → ∅ / #_VrC
s → ∅ / C_V
s → ∅ / V_C
14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamitee → {e,i} / #C_C
r̀ → r / V_{V,C}
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamili u → e o / _Ca
l ɭ → lːʉ ɭːʉ / _#(C)V[-long]
i(ː) e(ː) → u(ː) o(ː) / {m,v,p}_C̣
o e → u i / _C{u,i} “(highly sporadic)”
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow Iñupiaqm n ŋ → v t ɣ / _C[-nasal]
l̥ → t / _C
v ɣ ʁ → p k q / _C (unless C = one of /l dʒ m n ŋ)
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic Iñupiaqm n ŋ → v t ɣ / _C[-nasal]
l̥ → ʁ / _C
v ɣ ʁ → p k q / _C (except where C = /l dʒ m n ŋ/)
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie Iñupiaqm n ŋ → v t ɣ / _C[-nasal]
l̥ → t / _C
15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales Iñupiaqm n ŋ → v t ɣ / _C[+nasal]
l̥ → t / C_
v ɣ ʁ → p k q / _C (except if C = /l dʒ m n ŋ/)
15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’iki → ∅ / #C[+dental]_C[+dental]V
i a u → ii aa uu / C_ in U[+open -initial -final] such that U[+open]_
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’iki → ∅ / #C[+dental]_C[+dental]V
a → ∅ / C[+velar]_C[+velar]
i a u → ii aa uu / C_ in U[+open -initial -final] such that U[+open]_
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’iki → ∅ / #C[+dental]_C[+dental]V
a → ∅ / C[+velar]_C[+velar]
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’iki → ∅ / #C[+dental]_C[+dental]V
a → ∅ / C[+velar]_C[+velar]
i a u → ii aa uu / C_ in U[+open -initial -final] such that U[+open]_
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.1 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Nafrie → i / _(C)i
e → ə / _C{a,ə,u} (seems to have become a in a few instances)
ə → o / _(C)o
ə → e / _{C[+palatal],E}
a → æ / _(C)e
a → æ / i(C)_
16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central Sentanie → i / _(C)i
e → ə / _C{a,ə,u} (seems to have become a in a few instances)
ə → o / _(C)o
ə → e / _{C[+palatal],E}
a → æ / _(C)e
a → æ / i(C)_
16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern Sentanie → i / _(C)i
e → ə / _C{a,ə,u} (seems to have become a in a few instances)
ə → o / _(C)o
ə → e / _{C[+palatal],E}
a → æ / _(C)e
a → æ / i(C)_
16.1.4 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Western Sentanie → i / _(C)i
e → ə / _C{a,ə,u} (seems to have become a in a few instances)
ə → o / _(C)o
ə → e / _{C[+palatal],E}
a → æ / _(C)e
a → æ / i(C)_
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanianɡ́(ʱ) → d / %_C[+sibilant]
Vn → V[+nasal] / _C?
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanianɡ́(ʱ) → d / %_C[+sibilant]
n → ∅ / V_C?
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lycianw → b / C_
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to Lydianj → ∅ / C_
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenianl → ɫ / {C,lV}_
V → (?) / _(C)#
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenianl → ɫ / {C,lV}_
V → (?) / _(C)#
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenianl → ɫ / {C,lV}_
V → (?) / _(C)#
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenianl → ɫ / {C,lV}_
V → (?) / _(C)#
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenianl → ɫ / {C,lV}_
V → (?) / _(C)#
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenianl → ɫ / {C,lV}_
V → (?) / _(C)#
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenianl → ɫ / {C,lV}_
V → (?) / _(C)#
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— H → a / C_C ! #_
— ∅ → a / CR_HC
— H → ∅ / V_C when pretonic
— H → a / #R_C
— h → ∅ / C_
— ∅ → a / C_RC
— Vː → V[-long] / _RC
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishr̩ l̩ → {ra,ar} {la,al} / _{s,CC,V,#} (the results are unpredictable)
ɡʷ → b / C_V
oː → uː / _(C…)#
— e → i / _(C…)#
— o → a / _{(C…),u}#
— i u → e o / _C(…C){a(ː),e(ː),o(ː)}
— e o → i u / _C(…C){H,j}
w → ∅ / {#,C}C_
V → ∅ / C_# when unstressed ! C = j
eː → ia / _{#,Cʲ} when stressed; “ai and oi remain, but are written as <ae ai oe oi> seemingly randomly”
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle WelshV → ə / _(C)#, also in proclitics
i u → e o / _Ca
a o → ei {ɨ,ei} / _(C…)j(C…)#
a → {ɨ,ei} / _(C…)j(C…)#
V → ɨ / _(C…)j(C…)#
{a,o} → e / _(C…)i(ː)
{a,e,o} → ei / _(C…)j
ɣ → i / _C
ɣ → i / C_V
ɔ → ə / #_sC
17.7 Proto-Indo-European to Common Germanic{i,j} {u,w} → j w / V[+short]C_
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothic— V[- long] → ∅ / U_C# ! V = u
j → i / C_# “after the loss of a final vowel or syllable”
nː → n / _C ! _j
ɣ → ɡ / C_V
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
ɣ → w / C_V
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
ɣ → w / C_V
17.7.2.1.4 Midlands Middle English to Early Modern Englisha ɑ {ɛ,ɪ,ɤ} → ɑː ɔː ɜː / _ɹ{C,#}
17.7.2.1.5 Early Modern English to American Englishw → ∅ / C_ɹ for some C (toward(s), quart(er), sword)
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
ɣ → w / C_V
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scots— a → {ɛ,e} / _rC
— æ → ɛ / _C[+alveolar]
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to ScotsN → ∅ / _C ! _%C
ð → ∅ / {l,r,V}_C
17.7.2.1.11 Scots to Falkirk ScotsV → Ṽː / _nC “(works across word boundaries)”
n → ∅ / V_C (in words of more than one syllable)
k → ç / V_# ! _C “(sometimes)”; “(except when phonemic)”
ɡ → ʝ / V_# ! _C “(most times)”
p b → ɸ β / {#,V}_ ! _C
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
ɣ → w / C_V
17.7.2.1.13 Middle English to YolaC → ∅ / C_%
17.7.2.2 West Germanic to Old Low Franconianh → ∅ / #_C
jan → en / CC_#
j → ∅ / CC_
ai u → ei ʏ / _(C…){i(ː),j} (short only; in the case of [ʏ] at least this was not yet phonemic)
a → ɛ / _(C…){i(ː),j} (conjectured based on date from the “Germanic umlaut” article)
17.7.2.2.1 Old Low Franconian to Middle Dutch{ol,al} {ar,er} or → ɔu aːr oːr / _C[+dental]
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germanaː → oː / _{N,C[+ dental],P,h} (sporadic?)
e(ː) i → ø(ː) y / _C[+ affricate]
Vː → V[- long] / _CC (some exceptions; the change was more common around _xt and _rC)
Vː → V[- long] / _%Cə{r,l,n}# (some exceptions)
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlauta u o → e y ø / _(C…){i(ː),j}
17.7.2.5 West Germanic to Old Low Germanv → f / _C ! _d
b d → p t / _C[-voice]
17.7.3 Common Germanic to Proto-Norsewi → u / Ci_C
j → i / C_
(w)u(ː) i(ː) → (w)o(ː) e(ː) / _(C)(C)a ! CC = NC or one C = {ʀ,j}
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norsee → i / #(C)(C)(C)_(C)(C)(C){i,j}
a → ∅ / C(C)_{ʀ,s,t,θ}#
u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ y yː / _(C)(C)(C)j
ʀ → r / C_n
w → ∅ / C_o
a → ∅ / CC_U#
a(ː) ae → o(ː) ɒø / #(C)(C)(C)_(C)(C)(C)u
u {o,ɒ} a → y ø æ / _(C)(C)(C)i
{B,E} → ∅ / CC_{ʀ,s,t,θ}# ! B = ɒ
u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / _(C)(C)(C)i
{B,E} → ∅ / CC_U# ! B = ɒ
{u,we,wi} {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / _(C)(C)(C)i
e → jɒ / _(C)(C)(C)u ! {{h,k,ŋ}n,w,v,l,r}_
e → ja / _(C)(C)(C)u ! {{h,k,ŋ}n,w,v,l,r}_
au {ai,ey,ei} æ{y,i} øy Vː → o e æ ø V / #(C)(C)(C)_CC
u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / _(C)(C)(C)j
u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / #(C)(C)_ʀ
nː lː rː sː → n l r s / C_
lː nː → l n / C_#
V{θ,ð} → Vː / #(C)(C)(C)_{l,r}
ai → aː / _h{C,V}
h → ∅ / C_t
eː{Bː,i(ː)} → joː / _C[+ alveolar]#
eː j → e ∅ / Cw_
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandic∅ → u / C_r#
V → Vː / _(C)#, in monosyllables
V → Vː / ! _CCV, in polysyllables
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornu a e eː → ʌ ɑ ɪ ɛ / _Cː
u → ʌ / _C{ː,CC}
uː → øː / _CC
o a → ø ɛ / _(C)(C)i
o → ø / _Cr
oː → øː / _(C)(C)#
ɒ → ɔ / _C(ː)C
ɒ → {ɛ,e} / _CːV (V can be a syllabic consonant)
ɒ → ɪ / _rC
a → ɔ / _{l,nd}C
œ → ɛː / _CC
ei → eː / _C(ː,V)# (V can be a syllabic consonant)
i → ɪ / _CC
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornn l → ɲ ʎ / _C
{u,o}(ː) a aː {ɒ,œ,y} e i(ː) → {o,ɔ}(i) æ(i) {ɔ,ɒ}(i) {o,ɔ}(i) {æ,e} / _{Ḱ,Cʲ}
u → {o,ɒ} / _CC
ɒ → ɛ / _Cː
æ → e / ! _{Ḱ,Cʲ}
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
eː → iː / _C
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.10 Proto-Indo-European to Mycenaean Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.10 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iraniano → aː / _CV, “does not affect o2 < eh3
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-AryanVH → Vː / _{C,#}
R̊H → {u,i}ːR / _C
t d(ʱ) n → ʈ ɖ(ʱ) ɳ / C̣_ ! _r
s t d(ʱ) n → ʂ ʈ ɖ(ʱ) ɳ / _C̣
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-AryanC(C) → ∅ / C_#
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-AryanC(C) → ∅ / C_#
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-AryanC(C) → ∅ / C_#
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-AryanC(C) → ∅ / C_#
17.10.1.5 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Vedic Sanskrit{s,ʂ} → h / _#C[- voice]
{s,ʂ} → r / _#C[+ voice]
cʰː → cʰ / C_
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavic{m̩,n̩} → {ẽ,õ} / _C$
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishɛ ɛ̃ ɛː → ɔ ɔ̃ a / _C[-palatalized +dental] (also sporadically before plain non-dentals)
ьl → ɫu / C[+dental]_
ьl → ɛɫ / P_C[+dental -palatalized]
ь → aː / r_C[+dental -palatalized]
a ɛ i ɔ u ɨ ã → aː ɛː iː ɔː uː ɨː ãː / _{C/U}[+voiced][lost yer] (i.e., a voiced consonant or a cluster with one)
{i,ɨ} → ɛ / _C[+rhotic]
r̝ → ʂ / C[-voiced]_
r̝ → ʂ / _C[+voiced]
Cʲ → C / _C[+dental] with developments of yers in ablaut environments
OR → RO / V_C
RO → OR / C_V
Cv → vC / _C
v r̝ → f r̥ / C[-voiced]_
v r̝ → f r̥ / _{C[-voiced],#}
{z,s,ʂ} → ∅ / _sC
C[+sibilant]P → C[+alveolopalatal] / _C[+coronal]
w → ∅ / C_#
w → ∅ / C_C (sporadic)
Pʲ → P / _C
ɕ ʑ → s z / _C (sometimes)
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to LatinV → i / %(C)(C)_% when unstressed
V → o / %(C)(C)V_% when unstressed
V → e / %(C)(C)_%r when unstressed (with some exceptions)
V → {i,u} / %(C)(C)_%P when unstressed
a o → e u / %(C)(C)_C(C)% when unstressed
a → e → i / %(C)(C)_ŋ when unstressed
a → e → u / %(C)(C)_ɫ when unstressed
e → u / %(C)(C)_ɫ when unstressed
ai → ei → iː / %(C)(C)_ when unstressed
ei oi ou → iː eː uː / %(C)(C)_ when unstressed
a → e / _C(C)#
o → u / _C(C)# ! {u,w}_
{ai,ei,oi} → ei → iː / _(C)(C)#
j → i / C_
t → ∅ / C_#
d → ∅ / C_
kʷ → ∅ / C_C
kʷ → k / _{o,i,C}
s → z / _C[+voiced]
V → Vː / _zC[+voiced]
z → ∅ / _C[+voiced]
Vː → V / _C(C)# “(irregular: often before -m, -t, -nt, but never before ?s)”
17.12.1.1.1 Classical Latin vs. Vulgar Latin{e,i} → j / C_V when unstressed
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to CatalanV → ∅ / ”V%C_L(C)V(C)# (irregular)
V → ∅ / ”V%L_C(C)V(C)# (irregular)
V → ∅ / ”V%s_t(C)V(C)# (irregular)
∅ → e / #_sC
l → ∅ / {o,u}_CV
l → w / V_CV (“although l was usually restored later”)
tj → s / C_
∅ → {e,o} / CL_#
V → ∅ / ”V%_(C)(C)V(C)# (“irregular; e is kept before n”)
{i,e(ː),ae} → ∅ / _(C)#
kʷ → k / C_V
ɡʷ → ɡ / C_{i,e}
ɡʷ → ɡw / C_a
C → ∅ / C1_C2 ! C2 = L
ɔ → o / _N$C
ɛ → e / ! _{rː,l,rC[-labial],nr} or _ ? w#
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— u → ∅ / CC_V
— V → ”V / _C*”{i,e}V
è → iɛ / _C#
C → ∅ / C1_C2 ! C2 = {r,l}
{k,ɡ} → j / _{a,C}
∅ → e / #_sC
ɛ ɔ → iɛ uɛ / _{Cj,jC}
ɛ → ɛa / _l{C,#}
l → u / _{C,#}
e → ə / #(C…)_(%…)” in U[+open]
e → ɛ / #(C…)_(%…)” in U[+closed] or _V (?)
ɛ → i / _C(C…)i#
V → ə / _{CC,tʃ,dʒ} ! _{nt,nɡ,mp,rt,rd}
s → ∅ / _C
v → ∅ / _C
v → ∅ / C_
ɲ → in / _{C,#}
{n,m} → ∅ / C_#
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to Italianl → j / #C_
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to PortugueseV → ∅ / _L(C)(C)V(C)# (irregular)
ɫ → w / V_Ca
V → a / _{n,r}(C)V(C)# (irregular)
V → V[+nas] / _N$C when stressed
N → ∅ / V[+nas]_$C ! C = S
e → i / _(C)(C)V(C)#
s → ʃ / V_C[-voiced]V
s → ʒ / V_C[+voiced]V
kʷ → k / VC_{a,i,e}
ɡʷ → ɡw / C_a
tj → s / C_V
C → ∅ / C1_C2 ! C2 = L
{e,i} → ∅ / {L,N}_(C)(C)V(C)#
o → ∅ / _(C)(C)V(C)#
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— e → i / _(C…)i{C(C…)V,#}
— au → a / _(C…)u
— e → i / _(C…)i(C…)#
— V → ∅ / R_(C…)
ɡ → ∅ / V_(VC…)”V
∅ → i / #_sC
β → w / V_C
w → ∅ / C_B (when from earlier B?)
k → ∅ / _s{C,#} (the latter in polysyllables only)
i → e / #_sC
β → {∅,f} / C_(s)# (the latter is rare)
tʃ → i / _C
tʃ → i / C_
ð → i / C_
ð → i / _C ! _s#
j → i / _C
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanianu → ∅ / CC_V
V → ”V / _(C…)”{i,e}V
s → i / #(C…)V_#
e → a / i_(C…){a,e}#
a → e / C[+palatal]_#
e → ə / ”U…P_(C…)V# ! V = i
a → a / #(C…)V…C[+palatal]_…”U
a o → ə u / #(C…)V…_…”U
e → i / #(C…)V…_n…”U
e → ə / #(C…)V…{t,d,n}_…”U
e → ə / P”_(C…)B
o → u / #C…_…”U
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardiniane → i / C_V
h → ∅ / {#,C}_
r → l / _C (sporadic)
l → r / C_ (sporadic)
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to SpanishV → ∅ / C_{r,l} when unstressed and not at a word boundary
V → ∅ / {r,l}_C when unstressed and not at a word boundary
V → ∅ / C_s when unstressed and not at a word boundary (sporadic)
V → ∅ / s_C when unstressed and not at a word boundary (sporadic)
— e → i / _Cj ! C = p
— ɛ ɔ u → e o u / _(C)j
i u → e o / _(C)#
Vɾ → ɾV / C_#
b → u / _C
l → u / _C (sometimes)
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-TocharianCh → C / _(V)Ch
Kʷ → K / _{C,o,a} ! C = syllabic
n̩ → ə → ∅ / C_#
R H → uR ɨ / C_{C,#} when syllabic
R Hn̩ → ɛR ɨn / #_C
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.1.1 Pre-Bakairi to Eastern BakairiVNV → ṼṼ / ! _(C)#
ʔ → ∅ / _C[+ fricative - voiced]
18.2.1 Proto-Ofaié-Jê to Proto-JêVS → r / C_V
ə → ∅ / C_CV (not sure if this happened all the time or not)
18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makuráph → ∅ / V_C
18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekensh → ∅ / V_C
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayoróh → ∅ / V_C
18.4.1 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Akwárao → a / ! o(C…)_(C…)#
a → o / ! Cw_
ã → a / Cw_
18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Cocamao → u(a) / ! o(C…)_(C…)#
iʔ uʔ → j w / C_V
18.4.3 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guajajarao → u / ! o(C…)_(C…)#
18.4.6 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Kamayuráã → a / Cw_
18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Urubuu → o / ! o(C…)_(C…)#
20 Khoisan20.2.1 Proto-Kx’a to ǂHoano → ∅ / a(C)_
20.2.2 Proto-Kx’a to Northwestern !Xuno → a / _Ca
a → ∅ / _(C)o
20.2.3 Proto-Kx’a to Southeastern !Xuno → a / _Ca
a → ∅ / _(C)o
21 Lakes Plain21.1 Proto-Lakes Plain to Proto-Far West∅ → echo vowel / C_CV
21.2.1 Proto-Tariku to Proto-Central Tariku∅ → echo vowel / C_CV
iC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.1 Proto-East Tariku to BiritaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.2 Proto-East Tariku to DoutaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
ɾ → ∅ / ! _C
21.2.2.3 Proto-East Tariku to EritaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
iC → iC~i / _{C,#} (not sure how this plays in with the change mentioned earlier about extra-high vowels; I must have misread something)
21.2.2.4 Proto-East Tariku to KaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.5 Proto-East Tariku to ObokuitaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.6 Proto-East Tariku to SikaritaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.7 Proto-East Tariku to WaritaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
ɾ → ∅ / ! C_
21.2.3 Proto-Tariku to Proto-West TarikuiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.1 Proto-Chibchan to Arhuacoi → ∅ / C”V(C)_
i → ∅ / _(C)”V
23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to Chibchaa → i / _Ci
u → o / _Ca
i → u / _(C)u
i → a / _(C)a
i → e / _(C)e
a {e,i} → i ∅ / C”V(C)_
i → ∅ / _(C)”V
23.1.1.1.3 Proto-Chibchan to Kogij → i / C(V)_
23.1.1.1.4 Proto-Chibchan to Marocaceroi → ə / oC_
i → ∅ / C”V(C)_
i → ∅ / _(C)”V
23.1.1.1.5 Proto-Chibchan to Motilóna → i / iC_
{u,i} → ∅ / C”V(C)_
i → ∅ / _(C)”V
e → u / uC_
e → ∅ / u_C
23.1.1.1.6 Proto-Chibchan to Tunebos → h / _(V)C
i → a / _Ca
{a,i} → ∅ / C”V(C)_
i → ∅ / _(C)”V
e → ∅ / u_C
24 Macro-Pama-Nyungan24.1.2 Proto-Paman to Awŋtim(N)S → F / #(C)V_
∅ → j / #(C)iː(C)_V ! _i
∅ → w / #(C)uː(C)_V ! _u
∅ → a / #(C)aː(C)_V ! _a
24.1.3 Proto-Paman to LinŋitiÉ£(N)S → F / #(C)V_
24.1.6 Proto-Paman to Uraði(N)S → F / #(C)V_
24.1.7 Proto-Paman to Yinwuma → i / #C[+palatal]V[-long]C_
i → e / #(C)aC[-palatal]_
∅ → j / #iː(C)_a
∅ → w / #uː(C)_a
27 Mayan27.5 Proto-Mayan to Kaqchikel-Tz’utujilɓ w → ʔ j / VCV_#
28 Muskogean28 Muskogeank → ∅ / V_C ! penult
V → V̂ː / _Cko, ko lost?
28.1.1 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Alabamats x → s h / _C
28.1.2 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to CreekV1kV2 → V2ː / #((C)V(C))(C)_#
28.1.4 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Korasatits → s / _C
28.1.5 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Mikasuritʃ → s / _C ! _k
28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western Muskogeanxʷ → h / %_{o,i}(C)#
i → ∅ / #(C)V(C)(C)V(C)(C)_# (sporadic in the case of other vowels)
28.2.2 Proto-Western Muskogean to Choctawp → k / _C
30 Niger-Congo30.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Bantui ı̃ V[-round] → uɪ uɪ̃ V[+round] / Cʷ_
ɪ̃ → ɛ̃ / #(C)V_C
ɰ ɰ̃ → j j̃ / #C_
ɪ ɪ̃ → i ı̃ / #(C)V[-high]C_
ʋ̃ → m / #(C)V_
O[+nas -voiced] → O[-nas] / #(C)VC_
30.1.2 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-Manenguba{u,o} {ɛ,e,i} → w j / C_a in noun roots
{u,o} {ɛ,e,i} → w j / C_(a) in verb roots
{u,o} {ɛ,e,i} → w j / C_$V in noun class prefixes
30.2 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Potou-AkanicC → J[+nas] / #(C)V[+nas]_
ɰɰ̃ →l l̃ / #(C)V_
C → J / #(C)V_
30.2.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic to Proto-Akanicɛ → ia / #(C)_
30.2.1.1 Proto-Akanic to AkanV → V[-round] / #C[+dorsal]_C[-labial]
n → ŋ / #(C)V_
V → ∅ / #(C)VC[-coronal]_
ʋ l → w ɹ / #(C)V_
V[+high] → V[+nas] / #(C)_N
i → ∅ / #C_a
30.3.1.1.8 Proto-Vhe to AdángbeV[+ nas] → V[- nas] / C_ ! C = N
31 Nyulnyulan31.1 Proto-Nyulnyulan to BardiV0 → ∅ / V(C)(C)V0(C)(C)_# (with some exceptions)
32 Oto-Manguean32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to Tlapanech → ʃ / _C[-voice] (? “both h and š occur before nasals, so it is possible that š has a separate source in Proto Otomanguean”)
33 Penutian33.1.1 Proto-Utian to Proto-Costanoan (Ohlone)i$Ci → e$Ce / _C ! _ɾ
ɨ$Cɨ → e$Ce / _C ! _ɾ
e → i / _(C…)u
o → a / ! o(C…)_ or _(C…){o,i}
ɨ → e / CC_#
ɨ → {e,i} / CC_
33.1.1.1 Proto-Costanoan to Chochenyoo → u / _(C…)i
33.1.1.3 Proto-Costanoan to Mutsuno → u / _(C…)i
33.1.1.4 Proto-Costanoan to Rumseni → e / _C(C)oC
o → u / _(C…)i
33.3.1 Proto-Yokuts to General Yokutso → u / _Ci
33.3.2.2.2 Northern Yokuts to Kings Valley Yokutsi → u / uC_
33.3.3 Proto-Yokuts to Palewyami{u,a} → e / _CVC#, when stressed (short only)
i → e / _CVC#, when stressed (! _H, short only)
V → e / C”VC_
V → i / C”iC_
V → u / C”uC_
V → o / C”oC_
34 Quechumaran34.2 Proto-Quechumaran to Bolivia{k,q} → h / _{C,#}
34.3 Proto-Quechumaran to Cuzcoph → p / #_aC[+sibilant]
34.7 Proto-Quechumaran to Riobambas → ʃ / _C[+alveolar]
34.8 Proto-Quechumaran to Santiago{k,q} → h / _{C,#}
34.9 Proto-Quechumaran to Tenatʃ → ʃ / _C
35 Salishan35.1.1 Proto-Central Salish to Comoxs → ∅ / #_C
35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack HalkomelemV3h → V3ː / _C
35.1.3 Proto-Central Salish to Cowichan HalkomelemV3h → V3ː / _C
35.1.4 Proto-Central Salish to Musqueam HalkomelemV3h → V3ː / _C
35.1.5 Proto-Central Salish to Klallama3 → u3 / _{Cu,Cʷ[+uvular],w}
35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to LushootseedV3h → V3{ː,ʔ} / _C
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to Nooksackʔ → ∅ / V3R_{C,#}
ə1 → æ2 / a3C(C)_
ə1 → æ2 / _C(C)a3
35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straitsʔ → {∅,ʔ} / V3R_{C,#}
a3 → o3 / _{Cu,C[+ uvular]ʷ,w}
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern StraitsV3h → V3(ː) / _C
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern StraitsV3h → V3ː / _C
a3 → a3 / _{Cu,C[+ uvular]ʷ,w}
35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to Twanaʔ → ∅ / V3R_C
35.4 Shuswap to Spokane-Kalispel Shuswap Nasal-to-Vowel Shiftsn nˀ → i iʔ / C_s
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1 Proto-Sino-Tibetan to Middle Chineser → ∅ / C_-
36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old Mandarinw → o / Cʲ_?w
i → ∅ / C(w)_a
C → Cʲ / {K,C[+pharyngeal]}_{a,a(ch)}
o → a / C_w ! C = {K,C[+pharyngeal]}
ŋ → n / n_Cʲa(ta)
o → a / Cʲ_w
∅ → w / C_o# ! C = {K,C[+pharyngeal]}
w → ∅ / C̣Cʲ_?w (“optional”)
? → a / Cw_Cʲ
{o,e} → ? / _Cʲ
wʲ → w / _?Cʲ
∅ → w / C̣_aŋ
wʲ → w / C̣_oŋ
36.1.1.1 Old Mandarin to Modern Pekingesei → e / C_ʔ
j → ∅ / C̣_
î → e / _C# ! C = r
j → ∅ / C_weŋ
36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuài → [long-tail vowel thing] / C̣_ (“sometimes”, in “variant readings”); when following /ʂ ʐ/, sometimes yields [ʂi], other times [s truncated vowel-thing]
iʔ iw → eʔ ew / C̣_ (the latter with variant iɛu?)
uj → uɛi / {P,C[+guttural],∅}_
uj → ui / {C[+dental],C[+sibilant]}_
un → uɛn / ! {C[+dental],C[+sibilant]}_
y → ɥ (→ y~u dialectally?) / C̣_
yʔ → ioʔ (→ iʊʔ dialectally?) / {∅,C[+guttural]}_, in -k-types
yʔ → oʔ (→ ʊʔ?) / C̣_, in -k-types
yn → un / C̣_ (may have stayed yn or → ɥn in at least one area?)
je jeʔ yeʔ → ɛ ɛʔ uɛʔ / C̣_
jew → au / C̣(C?)_
yen → uɛn / C̣_
wɔʔ → uɔʔ / C[+guttural]_
aʔ → ɔʔ / C[+guttural]_
waʔ → aʔ / C[+labiodental]_
{jawʔ,wawʔ} → ɔʔ / C̣_
wan → an / C[+labiodental]_
aŋ jaŋ → uaŋ aŋ / C̣_
36.3.1.1 Proto-Naish to LazeiN → æ / {P,C}r_%
36.3.1.2 Proto-Naish to Mosuo (Na)iN → æ / {P,C}r_
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to NaxiiN → ɚ / {P,C}r_%
V% → mid tone / C_ru
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoianp → ∅ / C_ ! s_
x → h / _C ! C_C
ʔ → ∅ / C_
37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to CherokeeV → ∅ / C_hC
Vʔ → Vː[+low falling tone] / _C
∅ → Vː[+high rising tone] / C_# (“usually one of [/aː iː ʌ̃ː/ with this tone], the conditions are unclear”)
∅ → i / C_R
37.1.2 Proto-Iroquoian to Proto-Northern Iroquoiani → e / ! _hCC (“short only”)
∅ → i(ː) / #_(C)(C)CVC(C)(C)#
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to CayugaV → Vː / _C[-glottal] “in even-numbered syllables when accented or immediately before the accent”
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huron∅ → a / CC_ʔ
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondaga”V → ”Vː / _C(R)V
hs → sh / C_
hts → tsh / C_V
V → Vː / _”C[-glottal](R)V{ː,H} in “even numbered syllables only”
Vr → Vː / _C
rV → Vː / C_
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-OneidaVː → V / _(C)(C)(C)#
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to MohawkV0 → ∅ / ”VC(C)(C)V0ʔ_C(C)(C)#
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneidah → ∅ / _Ch
ʔ → h / _C “in post-tonic syllables”
— ∅ → e / C_{n,l}V(H)#
— ∅ → o / C_wV(H)#
— ∅ → i / C_jV(H)#
— jV → ∅ / Ci_(H)#
— ʔ → h / _C#
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecah → ∅ / _{tk,nh,sC,C#}
r → j / C[-glottal](h)_{o(ː),õ(ː)
— a e o → ə ɪ ʊ / C_{C,i[-long]}
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscaroraˀt → n / {#,C}_{V,w,j}
37.2 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Siouanh → ∅ / V_C
37.2.1 Proto-Siouan to Catawbap → {p,b,m,w} / _C
∅ → ʔ / C_# (only sometimes?) (*)
37.2.3 Proto-Siouan to Mandanmn → mV0nV0 / {C,V}_{C,V}
37.2.4.1 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Čiwerep → {p,b,m,w} / _C
37.2.4.2 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Winnebagop → {p,b,m,w} / _C
37.2.5.1 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Crowʔ → ∅ / _C
37.2.5.2 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Hidatsaʔ → ∅ / C_
r → ∅ / {C,V}k_{C,V}
mn → w / {C,V}_{C,V}
37.2.6 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Dhegihap → {p,b,m,w} / _C
37.2.6.1 Proto-Dhegiha to Kansap → {p,b,m,w} / _C
mn → bl / {C,V}_{C,V}
37.2.6.2 Proto-Dhegiha to Omaha-Poncamn → bθ / {C,V}_{C,V}
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to Osagep → {p,b,m,w} / _C
mn → bð / {C,V}_{C,V}
37.2.6.4 Proto-Dhegiha to Quapawp → {p,b,m,w} / _C
37.2.7 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Ohio-Valleyp → {p,b,m,w} / _C
m → ∅ / {C,V}_n{C,V}
37.2.7.1 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Biloxip → {p,b,m,w} / _C
ʔ → ∅ / C_
37.2.7.2 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Ofop → {p,b,m,w} / _C
ʔ → ∅ / C_
37.2.7.3 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Tutelop → {p,b,m,w} / _C
ʔ → ∅ / C_
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Taiiə → ı̆ / _C%
38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchowɨə → ɨ̆ / _C%
uo ɨ̯u → u(ː) u / _C%
e → i / _C%
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Taiiə → ı̆ / _C%
38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-Aiɨ̆ə → ɨ̆ / _C%
ɨə̯~ɨa̯ → ɨ / _C%
e → ɛ / _C%
ɨɔ → ɨ / _C%
ue̯ → u / _C%
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Taiiə → ı̆ / _C% (not in all languages)
41 Trans-New Guinea41.5.1.6 Proto-Gorokan to Hua{N,r} → ʔ / _{#,C}
41.5.1.8 Proto-Gorokan to MoveN → ʔ / _{#,C}
V[+ low tone] → ∅ / C_hV[+ high tone]
V[+ low tone] → ∅ / C_CV[+ high tone] if both vowels are the same
41.5.1.9 Proto-Gorokan to Siane{N,r} → ʔ / _C
41.5.2.1 Proto-Kainantu to AuyanaN → [+ same POA] / _C
41.5.2.3 Proto-Kainantu to GadsupN → [+ same POA] / _C
41.5.2.4 Proto-Kainantu to Usarufar → ʔ / _C
42 Uralic42.1 Proto-Uralic to Pre-Finniciw ow → y uː / _(C) (*)
x → @ / _C
a → æ / {a,e,ê,i,y}(X)(C)(C)_, when unstressed
i → e / _C, when unstressed
42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnicê ô → e o / _(X)Ci
ê → y / _(X)CA
ô → ɯ → i / _(X)CA
ɑ → e / ”{o,u}(X)C_j
ɑ → o / ”{a,e,i}(X)C_j
x → w / {U,O}_C
x → j / {I,E}_C
ŋ → j / _Cʲ (possibly _F instead?)
ŋ → w / _C ! _k
ŋ → w / C_
j → ∅ / C_i{C,#}
uw ij → ow ej / _C
nʲ → ni / #(C)i_V
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishj w → i U / V_{C,#}
i → ∅ / {VC,ks}_ at the ends of a suffix
e → ∅ / C[+coronal]_%
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnishj → i / C_, when initial in a suffix
V → Vː / h_hC
V → Vː / _hC (sporadic)
ʋ → ∅ / _UC
ɣ → j / C_e
æ → a / e(C…)_(C…)o
e → ø / #(C…)_y
i → y / #(C…)l_y
i → y / #(C…)_væ
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livoniane → ɤ / _C(C){a,o,u}
h → ∅ / {#,C}_
ɑ æ → æe / _(C…)i
ɑ → ə / VC(C)ɑC(C)_# when unstressed
Vh → Vːɦ / _C, except maybe ! _j and/or _ʋ
∅ → ʔ / (C)V_CV
ə → ∅ / VC_CV
ʋ → ∅ / C_
V → Vː / _RC(C)ɑ (includes diphthongs)
a → aː / VC_
e o → eː oː / _Cɑ
o → oː / _{RC#,i}
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to BasqueN → [+ same POA] / _C
ɾ → r / _C
∅ → e / #_{s̺,s̻}C
i → u / _(C…)u (Roncalese)
i → y / _(C…)y (Souletin)
e → o / _(C…)o (eastern dialects, Bermeo Biscayan)
e → o / o(C…)_ (eastern dialects)
a o e → ɛ u i / {i,u}(C…)_ (this [ɛ] is tentatively marked as such; Egurtzegi transcribes it as /e/ but says it’s not as close as /e/)
o → u / _n{C,#} (Souletin; some raising occurred elsewhere)
e → i / _{n,C[+ sibilant]} (sporadic)
e → a / {V,C}_r (“mainly in the western dialects”)
u i → o e / _r{C,#}
s̻ → s̺ / _{C,#} (sometimes)
46 Vowel Shifts46.5 Old English-to-Scots Vowel Shiftsa → {ɛ,e} / _rC
æ → ɛ / _C[+alveolar]
46.11 Middle Chinese to Cantonese Vowel Shift (“The Inner-Outer Flip”)W → ∅ / C_
46.19 Southern [United States] Shift (English)aɪ → aː / _C[+ voiced]