Index Diachronica: involving /k/

798 results from /k/   502 results to /k/   205 results with context involving /k/   

plain kʰʷ kʲʷː kʲʼ kʲː kʷʰ kʷʲʼ kʷʼ kʷː kːʼ ḱː k͜p ʼk ᵑk

from /k/

798 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1.1.7 North Omotic to Yemsakʼ → k / #
6.1.2.1 South Omotic to Aarikʼ → q
6.1.2.2 South Omotic to Dimekʼ → ɡʼ / #_
6.2.1.1.1 Proto-Agaw to Awngikʼ kʷʼ → {ɣ,q} ɣʷ
6.2.1.1.3 Proto-Agaw to Kemantneykʼ → χʷ / #_
kʷʼ → χʷ
6.2.1.1.4 Proto-Agaw to Xamtangak → {k(ʼ),q}
kʼ → {χʷ,qʷ} / #_
kʼ → q / else
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berberk → ɡ / _{w,j}
k(w) → tʃ / #_Vt
6.2.2.1.4 Proto-Boreafrasian to Proto-Semitickʼ(w) → k / #dlV_
6.2.2.1.5 Proto-Semitic to Classical Arabicθˤ kˤ → ðˤ q
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabick x → c ç / _{j,E}
6.2.2.1.11 Classical Arabic to Iraqi Arabick q → tʃ {ɡ,q} (ɡ is more common)
6.2.2.1.18 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrewx ɣ kˤ → ħ ʕ q
p b t d k ɡ → b v θ ð x ɣ / non-intial singletons
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakisk → kː / ! _a
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenakisk → kː / ! _a
7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-Atsinap k → k ∅
7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapahoʃ k m → s tʃ b / _{E,j}
ʃ k m → s tʃ b / E_#
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventreʃ θ m k → θ t b tʃ / _e(ː)
ʃ {θ,t} m k → s ts tʲ bʲ / _{i(ː),j,#}
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfoothkw → ʔk
nkw → ʔː
ns sk → {x,s} {x,sː}
tem {k,p}en → mː nː
ket → tː (→ sː?)
ke(h) → tː ?
{k(ʷ)es,keθ} → sː
7.5 Proto-Algonquian to Cheyennep t k → {hp,∅} ht {hk,∅}
{kC,Ck} → ʔ
7.6 Proto-Algonquian to Northern East Creek → tʃ / _i
7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East Creek → tʃ / _i
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawarekw pw mw → kʷ pʷ mʷ
k → ∅ / h_ (sometimes restored via analogy, e.g., in verbs)
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaqk → χ / _(w)a(ː) ! #_
k → χ / a(ː)_
eːk → oχ / _w
7.16 Proto-Algonquian to Piscatawayk → x
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonicpʰ tʰ kʰ → p t k
8.2 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Korean{tʰ,d} {k,ɡ} → r {h,∅} / {C,V}_{C,V}
pʰ tʰ kʰ → p t {k,h}
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolick → ɡ / ! #_
kʰ → ɡ / {C,V}_h
kʰ → k / else
8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusick → {k,ɡ} / #_
k → ɡ
kʰ → x / #_
kʰ → {x,k}
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkick → ɡ / _(V)r
kʰ → k
9 Austroasiatic9.1.1 Proto-Vietic to Muong Khen{kʰ,ɡʱ} → x (Presyllables don’t seem to have affected this much)
9.1.2 Proto-Vietic to Middle Vietnamesebʱ {tʰ,dʱ} {t*ʰ,d*ʱ} {kʰ,ɡʱ} → pʰ t tʰ kʰ (after *kʰ *ɡʱ, only first-register tones may occur)
(h)ə{p,b} (h)ə{t,d} (h)ə{c,ɟ} (h)ə{k,ɡ} → β dʲ ɟ ɡ
{əkʰ,əɡɦj} → ɟ (I think Thompson implied this was just a bit of a kludge)
9.1.2.1 Middle Vietnamese to Hanoi Vietnamesekʰ → x (only seems to have occurred with first-register tones)
9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnamesekʰ → x (only seems to have occurred with first-register tones)
10 Austronesian10.1.1.5 Proto-Polynesian to Luangiuak t → ʔ k
10.1.2.7.1 Proto-Kalamian to Agutaynenk → ∅ / _{V,#}
10.1.2.7.2 Proto-Kalamian to Karamiananen{t,k} q → ʔ k / _C
k → ∅ / _{V,#}
10.1.2.7.3 Proto-Kalamian to Kalamian Tagbanwa{t,k,q,s} → k / _C
k → ∅ / _{V,#}
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorrok → ∅ / _# (sporadic)
k → h / ! _#
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Madurese{p,t,k} b d ɡ → ʔ p t k / _#
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North Sarawakpː tː cː kː → p t c k
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiputk → ∅ / V_V “(in some forms)”
k ŋ → ʔ ∅ / Və̯_#
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lónghk → ʔ / _#
p k → f ɣ / V_V ! ”ə_V
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabau— {p,t,k} s → ʔ h / _#
10.3 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Oceanic{ŋk,ŋɡ} ɡ → ɡ k
10.3.1 Proto-Oceanic to Hawai’iank t → ʔ k
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwp pʷ {c,*j} k q → β βʷ s ɣ ∅
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerigp pʷ k q → β w ɣ ∅
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to Mwotlapp pʷ bʷ k ɡ → β w kpʷ ɣ k
kpʷ → k / _C (sporadic)
10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to Caaàcpː pwː tː ʈː qː kː → pʰ pwʰ cʰ tʰ h jʰ
q {k,t} {s,ʈ} → k c t
k → ∅ / _{o,a}
{p,pw,k} → ∅ / V_V
10.3.5.2 Proto-New Caledonia to Jawéq k {ʈ,s} → k c t̪
pː pwː t̪ː tː kː cː → pʰ hʷ t̪ʰ tʰ h jʰ
10.3.5.3 Proto-New Caledonia to Nemi-Pije-Fwaiq k {ʈ,s} → k c t̪
pː pwː tː t̪ː kː cː → f hʷ t̪ʰ tʰ h jʰ
10.3.5.4 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Northernq qː k kː s sː → k kː c cː t̪ t̪ː
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-Nêlêmwak → c / V_V
k → c / _#
k → ∅ / _{o,a}
kʰ → h / _a
pw p t ʈ k c → (v)w v r l ɣ j / V_V
pwʰ pʰ tʰ kʰ → fw f rʰ x / in Nelemwa
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to Nyelâyuk → c
k t s → j c t̪
10.3.5.6 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwaameiq k t s → k j c t
pː pwː tː ʈ kː cː → f hʷ tʰ lʰ h s
k c → ∅ {j,∅} / V_V
10.3.5.7 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwapwâq k {ʈ,s} → k c t̪
pː pwː t̪ː tː kː cː → pʰ xʷ t̪ʰ tʰ x s
p pw t {k,c} → {v,∅} w l ∅ / V_V
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Yunagaq k s → k c t̪
pː pwː t̪ː tː ʈː cː kː → pʰ pwʰ t̪ʰ tʰ ʈʰ jʰ h
k → ∅ / _{o,a}
p pw t̪ ʈ k c → v w ð l ∅ j / V_V
10.3.6.1 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Äiwoo{t,k} → ∅ / V_V
k → {k,∅} / #_
10.3.6.2 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Naguk → {k,∅} / #_
10.3.6.3 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Natügut k → l ∅ / V_V
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bayp pʷ k → v vʷ ɣ
10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to Tolomakop(ʷ) k → v(ʷ) ɣ
10.3.9.1 Proto-Utupua to Asuboak → {k,∅} / #_
k → {∅,s} / _#
10.3.9.2 Proto-Utupua to Nebaot k → r ∅ / #_ (though *t seems to have occasionally survived?)
10.3.9.3 Proto-Utupua to Tanibilik → {k,∅} / #_
t k → {t,r,kʷ,∅} ∅ / V_V
k → {∅,j} / _#
10.3.10 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Vanikorok → ∅ / V_V
10.3.10.1 Proto-Vanikoro to Bumak → ∅ / #_
10.3.11 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Southern Vanuatuk *R → ɣ r “(frequently)”
q (→ kw ?) → v (rare)
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejomk → ∅ / V_V (sporadic?)
10.3.11.2.1 Proto-Erromango to Syek → ɣ
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Urak → ∅ (perhaps doesn’t always happen but happens often)
10.3.11.3.2 Proto-Tanna to Lenakelkʷ → {w,u}
10.3.11.3.3 Proto-Tanna to North Tannakʷ → p / _#
kʷ → ∅ / _u
kʷ → ∅ / _a (rare)
kʷ → {w,u}
10.3.11.3.5 Proto-Tanna to Whitesandskʷ → ∅ / u_
kʷ → ∅ / _u
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’ap pʷ k q → β w ɣ ∅
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Ongan{qʷ,ku,qu} → kʷ (note that PAn might have had *qʷ *kʷ → q {k,w} instead; may be a change from POn-PAn, if it existed)
10.5.1 Proto-Ongan to Jarawak(ʷ) → h(ʷ)
10.6.3 Proto-Paiwan to Southern Paiwank r → ʔ ɣ
11 Northeast Caucasian11.1.1 Proto-Avar-Andic to Akhvakhkː ɢ → xʲ {qːʼ,ɣ}
11.3 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Khinalugkː kʼ ɡ → k {kʼ,ɡ} {kʼ,kː}
11.5.2 Proto-Lezgic to Archikː ɡ → x {kː,ɡ}
11.5.3 Proto-Lezgic to Lezghikː ɡ → ɣ kː
11.5.4 Proto-Lezgic to Rutulkː → x
11.5.5 Proto-Lezgic to Tabassarankː → q
11.5.6 Proto-Lezgic to Udikː → q
11.6 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Nakhkː qːʼ → xk(?) qʼ
11.7.2 Proto-Tsezic to Tsezkːʼ ɡ → k kʼ
12 Northwest Caucasian12.1 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Abazgikʷː → ɡʷ
kʷʲʼ → kʷʼ
12.2 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Circassiank kʼ ɡ → kʲ kʲʼ ɡʲ
12.2.1.1 Adyghe to Abadzekh Adyghepː tː tsː tsʷ ʃː tʃː tɕː kʲː kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → p t ts tʃʷ ʃ ɕ tɕ tʃ kʷ qː qʷ
kʲʼ → tʃʼ
12.2.1.2 Adyghe to Bzhedug Adyghekʲ(ː) kʲʼ ɡʲ → tʃ(ː) tʃʼ dʑ
12.2.1.3 Adyghe to Shapsug Adyghepː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː tsː tcː kʲː kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → p t ts tʃʷ ʃ tʃ tɕ kʲ kʷ χ~q χʷ~qʷ
12.2.1.4 Adyghe to Temirgoy Adyghekʲ(ː) kʲʼ kʷː ɡʲ → tʃ tʃʼ kʷ dʑ
12.2.2 Proto-Circassian to Kabardiankʲ → tʃ
pː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː {tʃː,tɕː} kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → b d dz v ɕ ʒ dʒ ɡʷ qʼ~qχ qʷʼ~qχʷ
tsʲʼ tʃʷʼ~ʃʷʼ tʃʼ tɕʼ tɬʼ kʲʼ → ɕʼ fʼ ɕʼ {ɕʼ,cçʼ} ɬʼ tʃʼ
12.3 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Ubykhk kʼ ɡ x ɣ → kʲ kʲʼ ɡʲ ɕ ɣ~ʁ
kʷː xʷ → ɡʷ x
kʲʷː xʲʷ ɣʲʷ(?) → ɡʲ kʲʼ xʲ ʁʲ
13 Chumashan13.2 Proto-Chumash to Cruzeñok → tʃ “(‘in certain cases’)”
13.4 Proto-Chumash to Obispeñoq k → {q,k} {k(ʃ),tʲ} (allophonic)
13.6 Proto-Chumash to Ventureñopʼ kʼ qʼ → p k q
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.1 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Proto-Dravidiank ʃk → k* kː / V_V (the asterisk-marked k is what McAlpin terms “weak k”, which tends to drop out in morphology)
14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamitek ŋk ŋkː → ∅ k kː / V_V
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamil{k,v} → ∅ / V_V
ʈk → kː
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow Iñupiaq{p,v} t {k,ɣ} → m n ŋ / _N
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic Iñupiaqm n ŋ t {{ɣ,ʁ} → {k,q}} → p t k n ŋ / _#
{p,v} t {k,ɣ} → m n ŋ / _N
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie Iñupiaq{p,v} t {k,ɣ} → m n ŋ / _N
15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales Iñupiaqp k q s → v ɣ ʁ z / V_V
{p,v} t {k,ɣ} → m n ŋ / _N
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.1 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Nafrip k → b ɡ / V_V
16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central Sentanip k → b ɡ / V_V
16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern Sentanip k → b ɡ / V_V
16.1.4 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Western Sentanip k → b ɡ / V_V
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanianḱ → s / _{u̯,u,i̯,i}
ḱ → k / _R
ḱ → {ts,tʃ} (“[a]rchaic relic”)
ḱ → θ
kʷ → s / _”E?
kʷ → c / _B?
kʷ → k / else?
sḱ → h / medial
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanianḱ → s / _{u̯,u,i̯,i}
ḱ → k / _R
ḱ → {ts,tʃ} (“[a]rchaic relic”)
ḱ → θ
kʷ → s / _”E?
kʷ → c / _B?
kʷ → k / else?
sḱ → h / medial
17.2.2 Common Anatolian to Luwianḱː → z
kʷ → w
{ḱ,k} → j / _e(ː)
{ḱ,k} → ∅ / _i(ː)
k → ∅ / V_V
k → ∅ / _N
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lyciankʷ → t / _E
kʷ → k / _E, in Milyan
ḱ → s
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armeniankʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
p ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armeniankʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
p ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armeniankʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
p ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armeniankʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
p ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armeniankʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
p ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armeniankʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
p ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armeniankʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
p ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestanḱ ɡ́ → s z
k(ʷ) ɡ(ʷ)(ʱ) → tʃ dʒ / _E
k kʷ ɡ(ʷ)(ʱ) → x k ɡ / else
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— p…kʷ → kʷ…kʷ
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishp t k kʷ b d ɡ m n l r s → f θ x xʷ v ð ɣ M N L R h / V(#)_{R,V} (“We don’t know the exact values of lenited /m n l r/. We can guess that lenited m became a nasalized labial continuant of some sort, but beyond that, we don’t know.”)
k → x / V_t
p t k kʷ b d ɡ ∅ → b d ɡ ɡʷ mb nd ŋɡ n / n#_”V
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshkʷ → p
p t k {b,m} d ɡ → b d ɡ v ð ɣ / _V
pː tː kː → f θ x
p t k → f θ x / {r,l}_
mp nt ŋk → m̥ n̥ ŋ̊
17.6 Proto-Indo-European to Dacianḱ ɡ́ → ts dz
{kʷ,kw} {ɡʷ,ɡw} → tʃ dʒ (→ s~z z ?) / _E
{kʷ,kw} {ɡʷ,ɡw} → k ɡ / else
17.7 Proto-Indo-European to Common Germanicp t k → f θ x
17.7.2.1 West Germanic to Anglo-Frisiank ɡ → tʃ j(?)
17.7.2.1.1 Anglo-Frisian to Old Englishk ɣ ɡ → tʃ ʝ dʒ / “in certain complex circumstances”
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsk → ∅ / n_t (sporadic)
{w,k} → ∅ / _{n,r}
17.7.2.1.11 Scots to Falkirk ScotspVn tVn kVn → ʔm̩ ʔn̩ ʔŋ̩ / _#
k → ç / V_# ! _C “(sometimes)”; “(except when phonemic)”
17.7.2.1.14 Anglo-Frisian to Old Frisiank ɡ → tʃ j / _E
17.7.2.1.15 North Frisian Lenitionp t k → b d ɡ → v r ɣ / Vː_{V,#}
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlautp t k → fː zː xː / V_V
p t k → f z x / _#
p t k → pf ts kx / #_
p t k → pf ts kx / {L,N}_
pː tː kː → pf ts kx
sk → ʃ / #_
17.7.2.5 West Germanic to Old Low Germank → ts / _E (ɡ → dz here?)
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norsek → ∅ / l_s
k → ∅ / r_{m,s,t}
k → ∅ / s_l,t
{t(ː),ɡː}k → kː
k → x / _{p,t}
N(ː) k k(ː) N(ː)ɡ ɡ(ː) ɣ → ɲc(ː) c(ː) ɲɟ(ː) ɟ(ː) ʝ / _{i,j}
N(ː) k k(ː) N(ː)ɡ ɡ(ː) ɣ → ɲc(ː) c(ː) ɲɟ(ː) ɟ(ː) ɟ / _{i,j}
k → h / #_{v,n}
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandick → ç / _#
p t k → f θ x / _{S,F[- voice]}
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornp(ː) t(ː) k(ː) → b(ː) d(ː) ɡ(ː) / {V,R}_{V,R}
k → s / _n
k ɡ → c ɟ / _{E,j}
sk → {sk,ʃ,ks}
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornp t k → b d ɡ / V_V (the second V at least can be a syllabic consonant)
k ɡ → c ɟ / _E
pː tː kː → b d {ɡ,ɣ} / V_V
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
pʰ tʰ kʰ → f θ x
p t k → b d ɡ / N_
p k → f x / _t
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
pʰ tʰ kʰ → f θ x
17.8.10 Proto-Indo-European to Mycenaean Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittiteḱ ɡ́ ɡ́ʱ → k ɡ ɡʱ
kʷ ɡʷ ɡʷʱ → ku ɡu ku
17.10 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iraniank ɡ ɡʱ → c ɟ ɟʱ / _e,i,j
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-Aryank → ∅ / #_t
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-Aryankʂ → hk
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-Aryankʂ → tʃː
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-Aryankʂ → tʃː
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-SlavicKʷ ḱ ɡ́ → K s z
k ɡ x → tʃ ʒ ʃ / _{e(ː)(i),i(ː)}
k ɡ x → ts dz s / _{æː,i}
k ɡ x → ts dz s / “After some syllables with front vowels”
kj ɡj xj → tʃ ʒ ʃ
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishsk x → ɕtɕ ɕ / _E
k ɡ → kʲ ɡʲ / _ɛ where the vowel is from a yer or a borrowing
kɨ ɡɨ → kʲi ɡʲi
trk → kr / in the name of the river “Skrwa”
stʲkl → ɕtɕkl → {ɕ,s}kɫ → ʂkɫ
17.11.2 Proto-Slavic to Old Russiankt ɡd → _E
17.12 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Italicḱ ǵ → k ɡ
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latinḱ ɡ́ → k ɡ
kʷ → ∅ / C_C
kʷ → k / _{o,i,C}
p…kʷ → kʷ…kʷ
{k,ɡ} → ŋ / _n
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalanp b t d k ɡ → β {β,w} ∅ {j,w} ɣ {j,∅,ɡ} / V_rV
{kl,ɡl} → ʎ / V_V (the latter is irregular)
sk → ʃ / V_{i,e}
p k → ∅ j / V_tV
k → ∅ / Vn_tV
ks → ʃ / V_V
k → j / _s#
lj rj kj ɡj → ʎ jr ts ʒ / V_V
k ɡ → ∅ {∅,ʒ} / V_{i,e} (ɡ → ʒ is learned)
k j → ɡ ʒ / V_V
k → ts → s / #_{i,e}
kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ / #_{i,e}
kʷ → k / C_V
kʷ → ɡ / V_{i,e}
kʷ → k / #_a%”V
kʷ → ɡw / V_a
kʷ → kw / #_”a
k → w / V_rV
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to Frenchk ɡ → tj dj / _E
nk → ɲ / _t
k ɡ → t d / {n,r}_r
{kl,ɡl,lj} → ʎ
k → js / V_sV
k → j / _s#
{k,ɡ} → ∅ / V_B
{k,ɡ} → ∅ / B_a
{k,ɡ} → j / _{a,C}
kʷ → {v,u} / V_E
kʷ → j{v,u} / V_a
— (k)kj → ts
k ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _a
kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ
k → ∅ / V[+nas]_#
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to ItaliantVk → dʒ / unstressed
k ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _E
kVl → kːj / unstressed
kt → tː
{t,d,k,m,n,s} → ∅ / _#
t k → d ɡ / V_r
{skj,stj,sːj → ʃ
tj ks w → ts sː ɡw
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguese{olt,okt} → ujt → ut
k → ts → s / #_{i,e}
k → ɡ / #_{a,r} (rare)
{fl,skl} → ʃ
kl → kʎ → tʃ → ʃ / #_
{kl,ɡl} → ʎ
kʷ → kw / #_”a
kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ / #_{i,e,o}
kʷ → ɡ / V_{i,e}
kʷ → k / VC_{a,i,e}
kʷ → ɡw / V_a
p t k → b d ɡ / V_r
k → j / V_tV
k → ∅ / Vn_tV
ks ɡn tj → ʃ ɲ {z,s} / V_V (tj → s is learned)
kj → ts → s / V_V
k → j / _s#
sk k → jʃ z / V_{i,e}
k → ɡ / V1_V2 ! V2 = ɔ
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençalk ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _E
kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ / _B
p t k s → b d ɡ z / V_V (this b → v?)
k → ∅ / _s{C,#} (the latter in polysyllables only)
(s)k ɡ → (s)tʃ dʒ / #_a (in the north and northeast)
kʷ ɡʷ → kw ɡw (in western dialects)
kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ (else)
kː → tʃ / _a (in the east and northeast)
{t,d}l {k,ɡ}l → lː ʎ
p k tʃ b ɡ β j → b ɡ i {b,u,u→y→i} ∅ {u,u→y→i} i / _r
{d,k}w → ɡʷ → ɡ
(kʷ → ɡʷ → ɡ ?)
{l,r}w {n,ŋk,ŋɡ}w → lɡʷ ŋɡʷ → lɡ ŋɡ
ktj klj → is ʎ
{tʃ(ː),kʷ}j → ts
ndt ndtʃ ntʃ nkt nf → n{d,t} {nts,ndz(→ nz),ndʒ} n(t)s {ɲ,(i)nt,ntʃ} {nf,fː(→ f)}
k → ∅ / s_b (sporadic?)
bk → pts / _a
ktʃ → (i)tʃ (in western and extreme eastern dialects)
ktʃ → its → is (else)
tʃ k → {i,s} {∅,k} / _m
kt ɡd → it id (in the north, northeast, and southwest)
{tʃ,k}t ɡd → tʃ dʒ (else)
ksk → stʃ / _a (in the north and northeast)
k → ∅ / _sk (else)
ks → ʃ → s / _m
ksː → is
pk → ptʃ / _a
17.12.1.1.7 Vulgar Latin to Rhaeto-Romancek ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _a (note the similarity with some varieties of Old Provençal)
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romaniank → ∅ / _s#
kʷ ɡʷ → p b / V_a
k ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _E
kj ɡj → tʃ {j,∅} (ɡj → ∅ is rare)
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardiniankw ɡw → pː bː / #_ (“[o]nly Logudorese”)
k → ts / _i
{p,k}s → sː
k → ∅ / _t ?
sk → sː
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanish{tj,kj} {tːj,kːj,ptj,ktj,skj} → ts tːs
k ɡ → tʃ dʒ → ts dz / _{j,i,e,ɛ}
{t,k} → ∅ / _#
{k,ɡ} → x → j / _{t,s,n,l}
p t k s ts → b d ɡ z dz / V_V
pː tː kː sː tːs ʝː → p t k s ts ʝ
kl pl → ʎ {ʎ,tʃ}
— mpVt skVp spVt stVk → nt sp st sk
kθ → θː
17.12.2 Proto-Italic to Proto-Sibellianḱ ɡ́ kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ p b
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tocharianp {ts,k(ʷ)} m n l r y → pj sʲ ʂ mj ɲ lj rj wj / _{E(:),y}
17.13.1 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian Ak → p / _{s,ʂ}
{kʷ,kw} → k
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.2.1 Proto-Ofaié-Jê to Proto-Jêŋʷ {kʷ,hʷ} → m p
18.2.2 Proto-Ofaié-Jê to Ofaié-Xavantek(ʷ) → ʔ / _#
kʷ → k
18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makurápk → ∅ / _#
kʷ → ∅
18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekensk → ɡ / in U[+stress]
18.3.3 Proto-Tuparí to Tuparíkʷ ɡ → ∅ k
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayorók → ɡ / in U[+stress]
18.4.1 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Akwárak b r → {ŋ,∅} {w,m} {n,r,t} / _#
18.4.4 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guaraník → ∅
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guarayo{b,k} r → ∅ {r,∅} / _#
18.4.7 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Parintintínk → {ŋ,∅} / _#
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Sirionók → ∅ / _#
18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Urubup k → k ∅ / _w
k → {k,∅} / _#
k → {k,ʃ} / else
19 Kartvelian19.2 Proto-Kartvellian to Svank kʼ → {k,tʃ} {kʼ,tʃʼ}
20 Khoisan20.1.4 Proto-Khoe to Kxoekʰ → kx
20.1.5 Proto-Khoe to Namak → ɡ
ts dz kxʼ → {ts,s} d ∅
20.1.6 Proto-Khoe to Narokʰ → {kx,k}
20.1.8 Proto-Khoe to Tetits dz kxʼ → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s} z kʼ
20.1.9 Proto-Khoe to Tsʔixats dz kxʼ → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s} z kʼ
21 Lakes Plain21.1 Proto-Lakes Plain to Proto-Far Westku →∅ / #_
21.1.1 Proto-Far West to Awerak → ɣ / V_V
21.1.2 Proto-Far West to Saponip b d k → p~f w ɾ ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.1.3 Proto-Far West to Rasawap b d k → ɸ β ɾ x~k / V_V
21.2.1 Proto-Tariku to Proto-Central Tarikuku → b
p k → ɸ ∅~k
21.2.1.1 Proto-Central Tariku to Edopib k → m~b ∅ / #_
21.2.1.2 Proto-Central Tariku to Iaub k → m~b ∅ / #_
21.2.2.1 Proto-East Tariku to Biritaiku → b
k → ∅ / _V̂
21.2.2.6 Proto-East Tariku to Sikaritaiik → ɡ / {s,k,p}_ ?
21.2.2.7 Proto-East Tariku to Waritaik → ∅ / _V̂
ik → ɡ / {s,p}_ ?
21.2.3 Proto-Tariku to Proto-West Tarikuk → k~∅
21.2.3.1 Proto-West Tariku to Deirateb d k → b~β ɾ~l~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.2 Proto-West Tariku to Faiab d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.3 Proto-West Tariku to Fayub d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.4 Proto-West Tariku to Kirikirib d k → b~β ɾ~l~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.5 Proto-West Tariku to Sehudateb d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.6 Proto-West Tariku to Tauseb d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.7 Proto-West Tariku to Weirateb d k → b~β ɾ~l~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
22 Macro-Arawakan22.2 Proto-Arawá to Banawá-Jamamadikʰ ɡ → k w
22.4 Proto-Arawá to Jarawarakʰ ɡ → k w
22.6 Proto-Arawá to Sorowahákʰ → k
25 Macro-Panoan25.1.1 Proto-Tacanan to Cavineñak → kʷ
25.1.2 Proto-Tacanan to Chamat k → k kʷ
25.1.3 Proto-Tacanan to Reyesanok → kʷ
25.1.4 Proto-Tacanan to Tacanak → kʷ / _a
k → kʷ / #_i
26 Mande26.1 Proto-Mande to Bobotʼ {kʼ,ɡ} → t k
kp ɡb → k ɡw
26.2 Proto-Mande to Busatʼ kʼ → t k
kp kpʼ → {kp,k} ɡb
26.3 Proto-Mande to Dantʼ kʼ → t k
kpʼ → ɡb
26.4 Proto-Mande to Gurotʼ kʼ → t k
kp {kpʼ,ɡb} → p b
26.5 Proto-Mande to Kono-Vai{ɡ,w,kp} kpʼ ɡb → k kp b
tʼ kʼ → t k
26.6 Proto-Mande to Southwest Mande{tʼ,d} {kʼ,ɡ} → l k
kp kpʼ ɡb → {k,B} kp B (it’s unclear what this 〈B〉 is)
26.7 Proto-Mande to Mandekan{k,ɡ,kp} {kpʼ,ɡb} → s b
tʼ kʼ → t k
26.8 Proto-Mande to Manotʼ kʼ → t k
kpʼ → ɡb
26.9 Proto-Mande to Mwatʼ kʼ → t k
kpʼ → ɡb
26.10 Proto-Mande to Santʼ kʼ → t k
kp kpʼ → k b
26.11 Proto-Mande to Semblatʼ {kʼ,ɡ,w} → {t,d} k
26.12 Proto-Mande to Soninkatʼ {kʼ,ɡ} → {t,d} k
kp ɡb → k b
26.13 Proto-Mande to Susukp ɡb → k b
27 Mayan27.3 Proto-Mayan to HuastecankV[+round]C[+glide] → kʷ
28 Muskogean28 Muskogeank → ∅ / V_C ! penult
28.1.1 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to AlabamakV → ∅ / V_#
k → ∅
28.1.2 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to CreekV1kV2 → V2ː / #((C)V(C))(C)_#
V1k → ∅ / _#
kʷ → k / #_
kʷ → b
kl → kː
28.1.4 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to KorasatiVkV → ”V / _#
k → ∅
29 Na-Dene29.1 Proto-Na-Dene to Proto-Athabaskan-Eyakkʲ kʲʼ ɡʲ xʲ → ts tsʼ dz s
29.1.1 Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak to Proto-Athabaskank kʼ kʷ kʷʼ ɡ ɡʷ → kʲ kʲʼ tʂ tʂʼ ɡʲ ɖʐ
29.1.1.1.21 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Kiowa Apachek → tʃ / _E
29.1.1.1.30 Proto-Athabaskan to Hare Slavey-Haretɬʰ tʃ(ʷ)ʰ kʰ → ɬ s ʃ
29.1.2 Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak to Eyakkʲ kʲʼ ɡʲ xʲ → ts tsʼ dz {s,ʃ}
29.2 Proto-Na-Dene to Tlingitkʲ kʲʼ → {k,ʃ} kʼ
k(ʷ)ʼ → {x,k}(ʷ)ʼ
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1.1 Proto-Bantu to Sebirwap t d c ɟ k ɡ → ɸ ɹ {d,l} tʰ ∅ h {∅,ɡ}
30.1.1.2 Proto-Bantu to Tswana{p,t,tʃ,k} {mp,nt,ɲtʃ,nk} {(m)b,(n)d,(ɲ)dʒ,(n)ɡ} {m,n} → s tsʰ ts ɲ / _iV
{tʃ,k} {ntʃ,nk,r} {ɲdʒ,nɡ} mp mb p b {d,l} m n → s tsʰ ts tʃʰ(w) tʃ(w) ʃ(w) dʒ(w) dʒ ŋw ɲ / _{ɪ,e}V
{p,t,tʃ,k} {mp,nt,ɲtʃ,nk} {(m)b,(n)d,(ɲ)dʒ,(n)ɡ} {m,n,ɲ} → sw tsʰw tsw ɲw / _iV
{tʃ,k} {ɲtʃ,nk} {ndʒ,nɡ} → s tsʰ ts / _{i,ɪ,e}
nk k → kʰ h / _u
mp nt ɲtʃ nk mp nd ɲdʒ nɡ → pʰ tʰ tɬʰ qʰ p t tɬ k
p t tʃ k {dʒ,ɡ} ɲ → h r tɬʰ χ ∅ n
30.1.2 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-Manenguba’p ’t ’d/d2 c {’ɟ} ’k ɡ → f l ɟ s ∅ {w,∅} {k,w} / in C1 position
p t ’t {’d,d2} c k ’k → b d l {l,∅} ɟ ɡ ∅ / in C2 position
30.2.1.1 Proto-Akanic to Akan{p,ʋ̃} c k͜p → f s p / #_
30.3.1.1.3 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Fon{t,k}j {d,ɡ}j → tʃ dʒ
30.3.1.1.4 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Gen{t,k}j {d,ɡ}j → tʃ dʒ
30.3.1.1.6 Proto-Phla-Pherá to Aladak ɡ → ʃ ʒ / _i
30.3.1.1.8 Proto-Vhe to Adángbek ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _i
30.3.1.1.9 Proto-Vhe to Avénok ɡ s → ts dz ʃ / _i
30.3.1.1.10 Proto-Vhe to Awalans {k,ts} {ɡ,dz} → ʃ tʃ dʒ / _i
30.3.1.1.11 Proto-Vhe to Kpándo{t,k} {d,ɡ} → ts dz / _i
30.3.1.1.12 Proto-Vhe to Pecı́{k,ts} {ɡ,dz} → tʃ dʒ / _i
30.3.1.1.13 Proto-Vhe to Tɔ̣wunk ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _i
30.3.1.1.14 Proto-Vhe to Wacı́{k,ts} {ɡ,dz} → tʃ dʒ / _i
31 Nyulnyulan31.1 Proto-Nyulnyulan to Bardii(ː)b ik → iw ij / _a
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinok → ɡ / a_a
kʷ → ɾ / #_ek
kʷ → b / else
32.1.2 Proto-Chatino to Tataltepec Chatinokʲ → tʲ
32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinok → tʃ / _Ek(ʷ)
kʲ → k / _{a,ã}
kʲ → kj / else
kʷ → w / _eːj
kʷ → w / _ek
kʷ → ʍ / ku_ (medial)
kʷ → kw / else
32.1.4 Proto-Chatino to Zenzontepec Chatinokʲ → tʃ
32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to Tlapaneckʷ → p
{ns,nt} nkʷ nj nw → (n)d (m)b r m
nk → {ɡ,ŋ} (the latter “under obscure conditions”)
33 Penutian33.1.1 Proto-Utian to Proto-Costanoan (Ohlone)k → ʂ / _i
k → ʂ / i_
k → s̪ / _{ɨ,u}
k → s̪ / {ɨ,u}_
33.1.1.1 Proto-Costanoan to Chochenyokʷ → k / #_
kʷ → w / else
33.1.1.2 Proto-Utian to Proto-Miwokkʷ ʃ → w ʂ
33.1.1.3 Proto-Costanoan to Mutsunkʷ → k / #_
kʷ → {k,w} / else
33.1.1.4 Proto-Costanoan to Rumsenkʷ → k / #_
kʷ → {k,w} / else
33.2.1 Proto-Wintuan to Nomlakitʃʰ kʰ qʰ {x,χ} → tʃ k(ʰ) {kʰ,qʰ,χ} kʰ
33.2.2 Proto-Wintuan to Patwink(ʰ) kʼ q(ʰ) qʼ → tʃ(h) tʃʼ kʰ kʼ
33.2.3 Proto-Wintuan to South Patwink(ʰ) kʼ q(ʰ) qʼ → tʃ(ʰ) tʃʼ k(ʰ) kʼ
33.2.4 Proto-Wintuan to Wintukʰ qʰ → k χ
33.3.2.2.1 Northern Yokuts to Gashowup t ʈ k → b d ɖ ɡ
34 Quechumaran34.1 Proto-Quechumaran to Ayachucopʼ tʼ tʃʼ kʼ qʼ → p t tʃ k q
34.2 Proto-Quechumaran to Boliviaph th kh qh → pʰ tʰ kʰ qʰ
{k,q} → h / _{C,#}
34.3 Proto-Quechumaran to Cuzcokh → k / r_
kh → k / #_a
kh → k / #_ “in a word with two back vowels”
kh qh → kʰ qʰ
34.4 Proto-Quechumaran to Huaráspʼ tʼ tʃʼ kʼ qʼ → p t ts k q
34.5 Proto-Quechumaran to Putamayopʼ tʼ kʼ qʼ → p t k q
k → ɡ / n_
k → ɡ / _{L,j}
34.6 Proto-Quechumaran to Quitopʼ kʼ qʼ → p k q
k → ɡ / _#
k → ɡ / n_
k → ɡ / _{L,j}
kʼ → h / j_
34.7 Proto-Quechumaran to Riobambapʼ tʼ kʼ qʼ → p t k q
k → h / _#
k → ɡ / _{L,j}
kh → kʰ / #_{i,u}
kh → k
k ts → ɡ dz / n_
34.8 Proto-Quechumaran to Santiagopʼ tʼ tʃʼ kʼ qʼ → p t tʃ k q
{k,q} → h / _{C,#}
k → c / j_ (?)
34.9 Proto-Quechumaran to Tenapʼ tʼ kʼ qʼ → p t k q
k → ɡ / n_
k → ɡ / _{L,j}
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old Mandarink → j / {e,a,o}_
k → w / V_
36.1.1.1 Old Mandarin to Modern Pekingesek(ʰ) h → ɕ͡(ʰ) ɕ / _j
36.3.1.1 Proto-Naish to Laze{r,s}k {r,s}Nk → f w / _V
S{b,ɡ} Sk → v h / _V
36.3.1.2 Proto-Naish to Mosuo (Na){r,s}k {r,s}Nk → k ʁ / _V
S{b,ɡ} Sk → ∅ h
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to Naxi{r,s}(N)k → k / _V
Sb Sk Sɡ → b ? ɡ / _V
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Lak sk kr ɡ Pɡ sɡ Nɡ (s)ɡr çK rK Kç → kʰ zɡw dr Nɡ pk sk mk (s)kr çk rɡj ɡçkr
(ʔ)kj (s)ɡj Nkj → (k)tç (s)kj Ndʒ
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiask rK → j sɡ
kj Nkj ʔkj ɡj sɡj → kj. nj ɡ.tsʰ kj skj.
kr (s)ɡr → n.br (s)kr
ut uk → ud oɡ
ok → iɡ
{k,j} → ∅ / i_
36.3.2.1.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Hanniup k ts → p. k. tʃ.
k → ∅ / {u,a}_
36.3.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Japhugɔk → ɤɣ / _#
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Tok (N)ɡ → k. (m)k
Nkj ɡj sɡj → mj ts stʃj
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtse(P)ɡ sɡ çK Nɡ k sk rk (s)ɡj (ʔ)kj → (p)k sk çk mk kʰ zɡ Nɡ (s)kj (ʔ)kʰj
Nkj (s)ɡr Kç kr skr ɡr → mɡj (s)kr ɡçkr kʰr zɡr Nɡr
36.3.2.2.3 Proto-rGyalrongic to Patiim it ik is ij → em u e es e
uk → o
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Mokr rk {rK,Pɡ} ɡ Pɡ sɡ → k.r rk. pk k sk
ʔkj → ktʃ.
36.3.2.2.5 Proto-rGyalrongic to Trungkr → dz
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Naok {sɡ,çK} Nɡ rK → k. sk mɡ nk
kj → tʃ.
ut u{k,n} ur → ud uo uɛ
i i{t,k} → {ə,iɛ} ə
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu Tak rk kr kj Nkj ɡr → kʰdz nɡ kʰr tʃh dʒ nkʰr
uk uŋ → {u,o} e
it ik → o ek
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassuk kr kj ɡ → k. k.r ts. ɡ
uk → o
it ik → o i
36.3.3.1 Old Tibetan to Amdo dialectsk(ʰ){r,j} ɡ{r,j} → tɕ(ʰ) dʑ
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoiank → ∅ / t_
kʰ → r
37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeek kʷ → ts k / _i
ks → ts / _V
t ts k kʷ → d dz ɡ ɡʷ / _V
37.1.2.1.1 Cayuga to Upper Cayugat k kʷ → d ɡ ɡʷ / _{V,R}
37.1.2.1.2 Cayuga to Lower Cayugatʔ tsʔ kʔ kʷʔ → tʼ tsʼ kʼ kʷʼ
t k kʷ → d ɡ ɡʷ / _{V,R} ! _V[-voiced]
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huronk → i / #_n
k → ∅ / _n
k → h / _{t,ts,s,ʃ}
k → x / {#,R,ʔ,V}_{V,ʔ,R,#}
kʷ → xʷ / V_V
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandotk → ∅ / _#
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagak → h / _k
t tʃ k(ʷ) → d dʒ ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Mohawk— k → t / _j
— t tʃ k(ʷ) → d dʒ ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneidat tʃ k(ʷ) → d dʒ ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecak → ∅ / _hts
— t k(ʷ) → d ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscarorat k(ʷ) → d ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.2.2 Proto-Siouan to Dakotakm → kV0mV0
hk →tʃ
k → ∅ / _x”V
37.2.2.1 Dakota to Santee Dakotakr → hd / #_
kr → ɡj / medial
37.2.2.2 Dakota to Teton Dakota{pr,mt} kr → bl ɡl
37.2.3 Proto-Siouan to Mandankm → kV0pV0
sk → ʃ / _”V
37.2.4 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Čiwere-Winnebagok → ɡ / V[+nas]_ ! _#
k → ɡ / _ʔ
kr → kV0rV0
37.2.4.1 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Čiwerek → ɡ / ”V_
kr → ɡl
k → h / _m
k → ∅ / #t_
tk → ɡ / when medial
37.2.4.2 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Winnebagopr {sr,xr} sn km → pV0rV0 ʃV0rV0 sV0nV0 kV0wV0
tk → {tʃk,tʃɡ} / #_
xk → ɡ
37.2.5.1 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Crowk → ts / _i
sk → tsk / _”V
37.2.5.2 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Hidatsakr → kV0rV0 / #_
km → hp
sk → tsuk / _”u
sk kx → tsk hk / _”V
sk → hts / ”V_
37.2.6 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Dhegihak → ɡ / ”V_
k → ∅ #t_ (in morphemes)
tk → ɡ / when medial
37.2.6.1 Proto-Dhegiha to Kansatʲr kr → ʃt l
37.2.6.2 Proto-Dhegiha to Omaha-Poncak → ∅ / _ʔ
pr sr tʲr kr → bθ sn ʃn ɡθ
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to Osagepr sr tʲr kr → bð sts ʃd ɡð
xk → (ʃ)k / _”V
xk → ɡ / ”V_
37.2.7.1 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Biloxik → ∅ / #t_
k → ∅ / ”Vs_
k → ∅ / _x”V
kx → xk / ”V_
37.2.7.2 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Ofosr kr → ft kV0lV0
k → ∅ / #t_
sk → f / ”V_
kx → sk / ”V_
kx → s
37.2.7.3 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Tutelok → ᵑk / _ʔ
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.1 Proto-Tai to Ahomk → kʰ / _r
38.1.1.2 Proto-Tai to Saekk → t / _l
38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Taikl kr → {kj,tʃ} kʰj
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Tai{kʰ,ɡ}{l,r} → tʃ
k{l,r} → {kj,tʃ}
{pʰ,b} ɓ {tʰ,d} ɗ {kʰ,ɡ} {kʷʰ,ɡ} → p b t d k kʷ
38.1.1.4.1 North Tai to Dioik → tʃ / _E
kl → ð
38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-Aik → tʃ / _E
38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lü{kʰ,ɣ} ɡ → x k
kʷʰ ɣʷ → xʷ x(ʷ)
38.1.1.5.6 Southwest Tai to White Tai{kʰ,ɣ} ɡ ɡ{l,r} → x k tʃ
kʷʰ ɣʷ → xʷ x(ʷ)
39 Tanoan39.1 Proto-Tanoan to Jimezk(ʷ)ʰ kʷ(ʼ) ɡ ɡʷ → h ɡ k kʷ
39.2 Proto-Tanoan to Kiowakʷ kʷʰ kʷʼ ɡʷ → k kʰ kʼ ɡ
39.3 Proto-Tanoan to Taoskʰ kʰʷ ɡ ɡʷ → x xʷ k w
39.4 Proto-Tanoan to Tewakʰ kʷʰ ɡʷ → x xʷ w
40 Totozoquean40.1 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Mixe-Zoqueannʲ tʲ tʃ kʲ → n t s ts k
40.2 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Totonacannʲ tʲ kʲ k → l tʃ k q
41 Trans-New Guinea41.1 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Apalɨt k ŋ → {l,t} {h,k} n / #_
p k ⁿd → β {h,k} nj / V_V
41.2 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Asmatk s → ∅ {t,s} / #_
41.7 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kâtek ᵐb ⁿd → {k,h} b {s,t} / #_
p k → t ʔ / _#
41.8 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kiwait k ᵐb → {s,t} {ɡ,∅} {b,p} / #_
t ᵐb ⁿd {k,ᵑɡ} nj → {r,t} p {d,t} ɡ r / V_V
42 Uralic42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnictk → k / in Pre-Livonian (?)
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishpː tː tsː kː → pˑ tˑ tsˑ kˑ
p t ts s k → b d s z ɡ
{kt,pt} {kts,pts} → tː tːs
xk → kː (even across word boundaries)
(t(ː))sn kx(tx) rn ln → sː xː rː lː
{p,t,k}({p,t,k})n {p,t,k}({p,t,k})m → nː mː
{p,t,k} → ∅ / _st
{ks,nts} nt → s t / _#
{p,k} → h / _t
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnishpˑ tˑ θˑ kˑ → p t θ k
{k,x} → ˟ / _#
k → z → @ / _j
k → ɣ i / {i,e}_R{i,e}
k → ɣ → U / {A,O,U}_R ! R = j
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livonianp t(ʲ) s(ʲ) k → b d(ʲ) z(ʲ) ɡ / ! #_ or adjacent to C[-voice]
43 Uto-Aztecan43.2 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Hopik → q / _V[+low]
43.3 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Luiseñok → q / #_V[+low]
k → q / an_
k → x / a_
43.5.1.1 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Kawaiisuhkʷ hʔ (h)S Sː → w ʔ S[+ voiced] S[- voiced - long] / V_V
k → ∅ / V_wV
43.5.1.2 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Mono(h)k → (h)q / _{o,a} ! ɨ_
kw → q / _a
(h)kʷ → hq(ʷ) / _{o,a}
43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhamkʷ → b
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.1 Proto-Pai to Chapaikʷ → k / _#
45.1.2 Proto-Pai to Paipaikʷ xʷ → k x / _#
45.1.3 Proto-Pai to Tipaikʷ xʷ → q χ / _# (the paper calls these “back velars”)
46 Vowel Shifts46.16 Development of Proto-Lolo-Burmese -i(C)# and -u(C)# to Lahu-i -i{p,k} -it -i{m,ŋ} -in → -i -ɨʔ -iʔ -ɛ -ɨ
-u -up -ut -uk -um -un -uŋ → -u -ɔʔ -əʔ -uʔ -ɔ -ə -ɛ
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.1 List 1: Simple Consonant Changeskʲ ɡʲ → k ɡ (Danish)
47.2 List 2: Conditional or complex consonant changes{t,k} → ∅ / V_V (Marathi) probably with voiced stops as intermediates, since they also became silent

to /k/

502 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1.1.1 North Omotic to Benchx1 → k
x2 → k / #_
6.1.1.2 North Omotic to Dizinx1 → k
x2 → k / _#
6.1.1.3 North Omotic to Kafax1 → k
x2 → k / #_
6.1.1.4 North Omotic to Maalex1 → k
6.1.1.5 North Omotic to Shekkachox1 → k
6.1.1.6 North Omotic to Wolayttax1 → k
x2 s3 → k ʃ / V_$#
6.1.1.7 North Omotic to Yemsax1 → k
x2 → k / #_
kʼ → k / #
6.1.1.8 North Omotic to Zayse-Zergullax1 → k
6.2.1 Proto-Erythrean to Proto-Cushiticɡ → k / #{d,w}V_
6.2.1.1.4 Proto-Agaw to Xamtangak → {k(ʼ),q}
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-BerberxV → k / _h
6.2.2.1.4 Proto-Boreafrasian to Proto-Semitickʼ(w) → k / #dlV_
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabicq → k
6.2.2.1.19 Biblical Hebrew to Modern Israeli Hebrewsˤ tˤ ħ q → s t χ k
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakisk → kː / ! _a
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenakisk → kː / ! _a
7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-Atsinap k → k ∅
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfoothkw → ʔk
7.5 Proto-Algonquian to Cheyennep t k → {hp,∅} ht {hk,∅}
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawarekw pw mw → kʷ pʷ mʷ
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonicpʰ tʰ kʰ → p t k
ɡ → k / else
8.2 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Koreanpʰ tʰ kʰ → p t {k,h}
ɡ → k / #_
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolickʰ → k / else
8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusick → {k,ɡ} / #_
kʰ → {x,k}
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkickʰ → k
d ɡ → t k (may have been part of a more sweeping merger; Firespeaker calls it “lenis-fortis”)
9 Austroasiatic9.1.2 Proto-Vietic to Middle Vietnamesebʱ {tʰ,dʱ} {t*ʰ,d*ʱ} {kʰ,ɡʱ} → pʰ t tʰ kʰ (after *kʰ *ɡʱ, only first-register tones may occur)
t*ʰ d ɡ → tʰ t k / _w
9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnamesec ɲ t n → t n k ŋ / a_ (short /a/ only)
10 Austronesian10.1.1.5 Proto-Polynesian to Luangiuak t → ʔ k
10.1.2.7.1 Proto-Kalamian to Agutaynenq → k
10.1.2.7.2 Proto-Kalamian to Karamiananen{t,k} q → ʔ k / _C
q → k
10.1.2.7.3 Proto-Kalamian to Kalamian Tagbanwa{t,k,q,s} → k / _C
q → k
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Madurese{p,t,k} b d ɡ → ʔ p t k / _#
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauanɟ → k / _C#
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North Sarawakpː tː cː kː → p t c k
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiputbʱ {dʱ,dzʱ} ɡʱ → f s k
v ɡ ɟ → f k c / V_V
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lónghbʱ dʱ dzʱ ɡʱ → p t c k
p → k / u_#
{p,t} {m,n} → k ŋ / ɯ_#
b d dz ɡ → p t c k / N_
10.3 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Oceanic{ŋk,ŋɡ} ɡ → ɡ k
10.3.1 Proto-Oceanic to Hawai’iank t → ʔ k
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwb d ɡ → p t k
βʷ bʷ mʷ → w kʷ ŋʷ
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerigb bʷ d ɡ → p kpʷ t k
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to Mwotlapp pʷ bʷ k ɡ → β w kpʷ ɣ k
kpʷ → k / _C (sporadic)
10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to Caaàcq {k,t} {s,ʈ} → k c t
10.3.5.2 Proto-New Caledonia to Jawéq k {ʈ,s} → k c t̪
10.3.5.3 Proto-New Caledonia to Nemi-Pije-Fwaiq k {ʈ,s} → k c t̪
10.3.5.4 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Northernq qː k kː s sː → k kː c cː t̪ t̪ː
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-Nêlêmwat → k
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to Nyelâyuɴq → ŋk
10.3.5.6 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwaameiq k t s → k j c t
10.3.5.7 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwapwâq k {ʈ,s} → k c t̪
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Yunagaq k s → k c t̪
t(ʰ) → k(ʰ)
10.3.6.1 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Äiwook → {k,∅} / #_
q → {k,∅}
10.3.6.2 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Naguk → {k,∅} / #_
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bayb bʷ ɡ → p pʷ k
10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to Tolomakod ɡ → r k
10.3.9.1 Proto-Utupua to Asuboak → {k,∅} / #_
10.3.9.3 Proto-Utupua to Tanibilit → {t,r,kʷ} / #_ (I’m not kidding. That’s what’s listed as the reflexes.)
k → {k,∅} / #_
t k → {t,r,kʷ,∅} ∅ / V_V
10.3.10.1 Proto-Vanikoro to Bumap t → ∅ {s,k} / _u
10.3.11 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Southern Vanuatuq (→ kw ?) → v (rare)
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejomb(ʷ) ɡ → p(ʷ) k
10.3.11.2.1 Proto-Erromango to Syeb d ɡ → p t k / {#,C}_
b d ɡ → mp nt ŋk
ɣ → k / _i
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Urab d ɡ → p t k / _#
10.3.11.3 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Tanna{vʷ,w} → kʷ
ɡ q → k ∅
10.3.11.3.2 Proto-Tanna to Lenakelɣ → k
10.3.11.3.3 Proto-Tanna to North Tannad → k / _ŋ
10.3.11.3.4 Proto-Tanna to Southwest Tannaɣ → k
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’abʷ ɡ → kpʷ k
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Onganq → k
{qʷ,ku,qu} → kʷ (note that PAn might have had *qʷ *kʷ → q {k,w} instead; may be a change from POn-PAn, if it existed)
11 Northeast Caucasian11.2 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Dargitɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ → k {xʲː,kː} kʰ {ɡ,q}(?)
11.3 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Khinalugtɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → k {k,xʲ} {kʼ,ɡ} {kʼ,kː} kʼ
kː kʼ ɡ → k {kʼ,ɡ} {kʼ,kː}
11.4 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Laktɬ tɬː tɬ(ː)ʼ dɮ → xʲ xː kʼ {kː,l}
ɡ → kː
11.5.1 Proto-Lezgic to Agultɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ x kʼ kː {,j,xʲ}
11.5.2 Proto-Lezgic to Architɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → ɬ ɬ(ː) kʼ tɬʼ tɬː
kː ɡ → x {kː,ɡ}
11.5.3 Proto-Lezgic to Lezghitɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ {ɣʲ,ɡ} qʼ k(ʼ) {kː,ɣʲ}
kː ɡ → ɣ kː
11.5.5 Proto-Lezgic to Tabassarantɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ {ɣʲ,ɡ} k kː ɣʲ
11.6 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Nakhkː qːʼ → xk(?) qʼ
11.7.2 Proto-Tsezic to Tsezkːʼ ɡ → k kʼ
12 Northwest Caucasian12.1 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Abazgikʷʲʼ → kʷʼ
12.2 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Circassiank kʼ ɡ → kʲ kʲʼ ɡʲ
12.2.1.1 Adyghe to Abadzekh Adyghepː tː tsː tsʷ ʃː tʃː tɕː kʲː kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → p t ts tʃʷ ʃ ɕ tɕ tʃ kʷ qː qʷ
12.2.1.3 Adyghe to Shapsug Adyghepː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː tsː tcː kʲː kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → p t ts tʃʷ ʃ tʃ tɕ kʲ kʷ χ~q χʷ~qʷ
12.2.1.4 Adyghe to Temirgoy Adyghekʲ(ː) kʲʼ kʷː ɡʲ → tʃ tʃʼ kʷ dʑ
12.3 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Ubykhk kʼ ɡ x ɣ → kʲ kʲʼ ɡʲ ɕ ɣ~ʁ
kʲʷː xʲʷ ɣʲʷ(?) → ɡʲ kʲʼ xʲ ʁʲ
13 Chumashan13.4 Proto-Chumash to Obispeñoq k → {q,k} {k(ʃ),tʲ} (allophonic)
13.6 Proto-Chumash to Ventureñopʼ kʼ qʼ → p k q
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.1 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Proto-Dravidiank ʃk → k* kː / V_V (the asterisk-marked k is what McAlpin terms “weak k”, which tends to drop out in morphology)
14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamitek ŋk ŋkː → ∅ k kː / V_V
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamilʈk → kː
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.2 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Eskimoɣ ʁ → k q / #_
15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow Iñupiaqɣ ʁ → k q / _#
v ɣ ʁ → p k q / _C (unless C = one of /l dʒ m n ŋ)
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic Iñupiaqm n ŋ t {{ɣ,ʁ} → {k,q}} → p t k n ŋ / _#
v ɣ ʁ → p k q / _C (except where C = /l dʒ m n ŋ/)
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie Iñupiaqɣ ʁ → k q / _#
15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales Iñupiaqɣ ʁ → k q / _#
v ɣ ʁ → p k q / _C (except if C = /l dʒ m n ŋ/)
15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’ikɣ ʁ → k q / _#
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’ikɣ ʁ → k q / _#
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’ikɣ ʁ → k q / _#
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanianḱ → k / _R
kʷ → k / else?
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanianḱ → k / _R
kʷ → k / else?
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lyciand → k / _w
kʷ → k / _E, in Milyan
h2 → k / E_E (probably a palatal stop)
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenianp ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʷʱ → p t j k / #_
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenianp ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenianp ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
bʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡ(ʷ)ʱ → b j k / #_
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenianp ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡ(ʷ)ʱ → p t j k / #_
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenianp ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenianp ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡ(ʷ)ʱ → p t j k / #_
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenianp ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestank kʷ ɡ(ʷ)(ʱ) → x k ɡ / else
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— p…kʷ → kʷ…kʷ
17.6 Proto-Indo-European to Dacian{kʷ,kw} {ɡʷ,ɡw} → k ɡ / else
17.7 Proto-Indo-European to Common Germanicb d ɡ → p t k
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle Englishj tʃ → ɡ k
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germant → {ts,k} / _w
x → k / _s
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlautp t k → pf ts kx / #_
p t k → pf ts kx / {L,N}_
pː tː kː → pf ts kx
b d ɡ → p t k
17.7.2.5 West Germanic to Old Low Germanɡ → k / ŋ_#
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norseb {w,v} d ð ɡ → p f t θ k / _#
β ð ɣ → f θ k / _{p,t,k,s}
{t(ː),ɡː}k → kː
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandicb d {ɡ,ɣ} → p t k / _S
h → k / #_{v,w}
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornb d ɡ → p t k / #_
ɡ → k / _# (sporadic)
sk → {sk,ʃ,ks}
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornh → {∅,h,k} / _r
h → {∅,h,k,s} / _n
hv → {h,k,s}w
ms → ŋ(k)s
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.10 Proto-Indo-European to Mycenaean Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittiteḱ ɡ́ ɡ́ʱ → k ɡ ɡʱ
bʱ dʱ ɡʱ → p t k
kʷ ɡʷ ɡʷʱ → ku ɡu ku
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-Aryankʂ → hk
17.10.1.5 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Vedic Sanskritt.ʂ t.ɕ → kʂ cʰː
{pʂ,cʂ,ɟʐʱ,ɡʐʱ} → kʂ
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishk ɡ → kʲ ɡʲ / _ɛ where the vowel is from a yer or a borrowing
kɨ ɡɨ → kʲi ɡʲi
trk → kr / in the name of the river “Skrwa”
stʲkl → ɕtɕkl → {ɕ,s}kɫ → ʂkɫ
17.12 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Italicp → {p,kʷ}
ḱ ǵ → k ɡ
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latint → k / _l
ḱ ɡ́ → k ɡ
kʷ → k / _{o,i,C}
p…kʷ → kʷ…kʷ
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalankʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ / #_{i,e}
kʷ → k / C_V
kʷ → k / #_a%”V
kʷ → kw / #_”a
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to Frenchkʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to ItaliankVl → kːj / unstressed
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguesekl → kʎ → tʃ → ʃ / #_
kʷ → kw / #_”a
kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ / #_{i,e,o}
kʷ → k / VC_{a,i,e}
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençalkʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ / _B
kʷ ɡʷ → kw ɡw (in western dialects)
kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ (else)
∅ → k / #s_l
b {d,dz,dʒ} z ʒ ɡ → p {t,ts,tʃ} s ʃ k / _(s)#
ɡ → k / B_ (your guess is probably better than mine)
ɡ → {k,j} / V_ (if /j/ resulted, it dropped after /i/; forms with k are “most persistent in the west” and more common overall)
tʃ k → {i,s} {∅,k} / _m
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardiniant → k / s_l (sporadic)
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanishpː tː kː sː tːs ʝː → p t k s ts ʝ
— mpVt skVp spVt stVk → nt sp st sk
17.12.2 Proto-Italic to Proto-Sibellianḱ ɡ́ kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ p b
17.13.1 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian A{kʷ,kw} → k
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.2.2 Proto-Ofaié-Jê to Ofaié-Xavantekʷ → k
18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makurápⁿd ŋ → t {ɡ,k} / _V[-nas]
18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekensɡ → k
ɡʷ → k / _o
ɡʷ ŋɡ → kʷ k / _V[-nas]
ɡʷ → kʷ / #_V[+nas]
ŋ ŋʷ → k m / _V[+nas]
ŋʷ → kʷ / #_V[-nas]
18.3.3 Proto-Tuparí to Tuparíkʷ ɡ → ∅ k
ɡʷ ŋɡ → β k / _V[-nas]
ŋ → k / #_V[+nas]
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayoróŋɡ → k / ! _V[-nas]
18.4.1 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Akwárap → k / _w
18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Cocamap → k / _w
18.4.4 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guaraním p → ŋ k / _w
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guarayom p → ŋ k / _w
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Sirionóp → {k,∅} / _w
w → {ɡ,k} / {#,V}_
18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Urubup k → k ∅ / _w
k → {k,∅} / _#
k → {k,ʃ} / else
19 Kartvelian19.2 Proto-Kartvellian to Svank kʼ → {k,tʃ} {kʼ,tʃʼ}
tʃ ʈʂ tɬʼ tʃʼ ʈʂʼ → {tʃk,ʃɡ} tʃ h {ʃkʼ,tʃʼkʼ} tʃʼ
19.3 Proto-Kartvelian to Zanq qʼ → x {kʼ,qʼ,ʔ}
ɬ ʃ ʂ → ∅ {sk,ʃk} ʃ
tʃ ʈʂ {tɬʼ,ʈʂʼ} tʃʼʼ → tʃk tʃ tʃʼ {tsʼkʼ,tʃʼkʼ}
20 Khoisan20.1.1 Proto-Khoe to ǁ̬Ana! → !~k
20.1.2 Proto-Khoe to ǁAni! !̬ !̃ → !~k !̬~ɡ !̃(n)~ŋɡ
20.1.3 Proto-Khoe to Buga! !ˀ !̬ !̃ → k ∅ ɡ ŋɡ
20.1.4 Proto-Khoe to Kxoe! !ˀ ! !̃ → k ∅ ɡ ŋɡ
kʰ → kx
20.1.6 Proto-Khoe to Narokʰ → {kx,k}
20.1.8 Proto-Khoe to Teti! !ˀ !̬ !̃(n) !x → k ∅ ɡ ŋ x
ts dz kxʼ → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s} z kʼ
20.1.9 Proto-Khoe to Tsʔixa! !ˀ !̬ !̃(n) !x → k ∅ ɡ ŋɡ x
ts dz kxʼ → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s} z kʼ
21 Lakes Plain21.1.3 Proto-Far West to Rasawap b d k → ɸ β ɾ x~k / V_V
21.2.1 Proto-Tariku to Proto-Central Tarikup k → ɸ ∅~k
21.2.3 Proto-Tariku to Proto-West Tarikuk → k~∅
21.2.3.1 Proto-West Tariku to Deirateb d k → b~β ɾ~l~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.2 Proto-West Tariku to Faiab d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.3 Proto-West Tariku to Fayub d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.4 Proto-West Tariku to Kirikirib d k → b~β ɾ~l~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.5 Proto-West Tariku to Sehudateb d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.6 Proto-West Tariku to Tauseb d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.7 Proto-West Tariku to Weirateb d k → b~β ɾ~l~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
22 Macro-Arawakan22.2 Proto-Arawá to Banawá-Jamamadikʰ ɡ → k w
22.4 Proto-Arawá to Jarawarakʰ ɡ → k w
22.6 Proto-Arawá to Sorowahákʰ → k
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.1 Proto-Chibchan to Arhuacos → kh / _(V)k
25 Macro-Panoan25.1.1 Proto-Tacanan to Cavineñak → kʷ
x → k
25.1.2 Proto-Tacanan to Chamat k → k kʷ
25.1.3 Proto-Tacanan to Reyesanok → kʷ
25.1.4 Proto-Tacanan to Tacanak → kʷ / _a
k → kʷ / #_i
26 Mande26.1 Proto-Mande to Bobotʼ {kʼ,ɡ} → t k
kp ɡb → k ɡw
26.2 Proto-Mande to Busatʼ kʼ → t k
kp kpʼ → {kp,k} ɡb
26.3 Proto-Mande to Dantʼ kʼ → t k
26.4 Proto-Mande to Gurotʼ kʼ → t k
26.5 Proto-Mande to Kono-Vai{ɡ,w,kp} kpʼ ɡb → k kp b
tʼ kʼ → t k
26.6 Proto-Mande to Southwest Mande{tʼ,d} {kʼ,ɡ} → l k
kp kpʼ ɡb → {k,B} kp B (it’s unclear what this 〈B〉 is)
26.7 Proto-Mande to Mandekantʼ kʼ → t k
w j → k dʒ
26.8 Proto-Mande to Manotʼ kʼ → t k
26.9 Proto-Mande to Mwatʼ kʼ → t k
26.10 Proto-Mande to Santʼ kʼ → t k
kp kpʼ → k b
26.11 Proto-Mande to Semblatʼ {kʼ,ɡ,w} → {t,d} k
26.12 Proto-Mande to Soninkatʼ {kʼ,ɡ} → {t,d} k
kp ɡb → k b
26.13 Proto-Mande to Susukp ɡb → k b
27 Mayan27.1 Proto-Mayan to Ch’olanq(ʼ) → k(ʼ)
27.3 Proto-Mayan to Huastecanq(ʼ) → k(ʼ)
kV[+round]C[+glide] → kʷ
27.8 Proto-Mayan to Q’anjob’alanq(ʼ) → k(ʼ)
27.9 Proto-Mayan to Tzeltalanq(ʼ) → k(ʼ)
27.10 Proto-Mayan to Yucatecanq(ʼ) → k(ʼ)
28 Muskogean28.1.2 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Creekkʷ → k / #_
kl → kː
28.2.2 Proto-Western Muskogean to Choctawp → k / _C
29 Na-Dene29.1.1 Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak to Proto-Athabaskank kʼ kʷ kʷʼ ɡ ɡʷ → kʲ kʲʼ tʂ tʂʼ ɡʲ ɖʐ
29.1.1.1.5 Proto-Athabaskan to Chipewyant → k (not for all speakers)
29.1.1.1.9 Proto-Athabaskan to Dogribts tsʰ tsʼ s z → kʷ kʷʰ kʷʼ ʍ w
29.1.1.1.20 Proto-Southern Athabaskan to Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskant → k
29.1.1.1.29 Proto-Athabaskan to Bearlake Slavey-Harets tsʰ tsʼ s z → kʷ kʷʰ kʷʼ ʍ w
29.1.1.1.30 Proto-Athabaskan to Hare Slavey-Harets tsʰ tsʼ {s,z} → {kʷ,p} f wˀ w
29.2 Proto-Na-Dene to Tlingitkʲ kʲʼ → {k,ʃ} kʼ
k(ʷ)ʼ → {x,k}(ʷ)ʼ
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1.2 Proto-Bantu to Tswanank k → kʰ h / _u
mp nt ɲtʃ nk mp nd ɲdʒ nɡ → pʰ tʰ tɬʰ qʰ p t tɬ k
30.1.2 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-Manenguba’p ’t ’d/d2 c {’ɟ} ’k ɡ → f l ɟ s ∅ {w,∅} {k,w} / in C1 position
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinokʲ → k / _{a,ã}
kʲ → kj / else
kʷ → kw / else
33 Penutian33.1.1.1 Proto-Costanoan to Chochenyokʷ → k / #_
33.1.1.3 Proto-Costanoan to Mutsunkʷ → k / #_
kʷ → {k,w} / else
33.1.1.4 Proto-Costanoan to Rumsenkʷ → k / #_
kʷ → {k,w} / else
33.2.1 Proto-Wintuan to Nomlakitʃʰ kʰ qʰ {x,χ} → tʃ k(ʰ) {kʰ,qʰ,χ} kʰ
33.2.2 Proto-Wintuan to Patwink(ʰ) kʼ q(ʰ) qʼ → tʃ(h) tʃʼ kʰ kʼ
33.2.3 Proto-Wintuan to South Patwink(ʰ) kʼ q(ʰ) qʼ → tʃ(ʰ) tʃʼ k(ʰ) kʼ
33.2.4 Proto-Wintuan to Wintukʰ qʰ → k χ
34 Quechumaran34.1 Proto-Quechumaran to Ayachucopʼ tʼ tʃʼ kʼ qʼ → p t tʃ k q
34.2 Proto-Quechumaran to Boliviaph th kh qh → pʰ tʰ kʰ qʰ
34.3 Proto-Quechumaran to Cuzcokh → k / r_
kh → k / #_a
kh → k / #_ “in a word with two back vowels”
kh qh → kʰ qʰ
34.4 Proto-Quechumaran to Huaráspʼ tʼ tʃʼ kʼ qʼ → p t ts k q
34.5 Proto-Quechumaran to Putamayopʼ tʼ kʼ qʼ → p t k q
34.6 Proto-Quechumaran to Quitopʼ kʼ qʼ → p k q
34.7 Proto-Quechumaran to Riobambaq → k
qh → kʰ / _i ! _i{ʃ,tʃ}
qh → k
pʼ tʼ kʼ qʼ → p t k q
kh → kʰ / #_{i,u}
kh → k
χ → kʰ #_
34.8 Proto-Quechumaran to Santiagopʼ tʼ tʃʼ kʼ qʼ → p t tʃ k q
34.9 Proto-Quechumaran to Tenaq(h) → k
pʼ tʼ kʼ qʼ → p t k q
χ → k / #_
35 Salishan35.1.5 Proto-Central Salish to Klallamw j → kʷ tʃ / _V
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern Straitsj w → tʃ kʷ / _V
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern Straitsj w → tʃ kʷ / _V
35.1.11 Proto-Central Salish to Sooke Northern Straitsj w → tʃ kʷ / _V
36 Sino-Tibetan36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàb d dz ɡ → {p,pʼ} {t,tʼ} {ts,tsʼ} {k,kʼ}
36.3.1.2 Proto-Naish to Mosuo (Na){r,s}k {r,s}Nk → k ʁ / _V
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to Naxi{r,s}(N)k → k / _V
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Lat d Nt Nd st sd çT tr (ç)dr KT → tʰ t Ntʰ md zd st çtj trh (ç)tr kt
k sk kr ɡ Pɡ sɡ Nɡ (s)ɡr çK rK Kç → kʰ zɡw dr Nɡ pk sk mk (s)kr çk rɡj ɡçkr
(ʔ)kj (s)ɡj Nkj → (k)tç (s)kj Ndʒ
çr Nç → dr mkʰj
K → k / _ç
NTS PTS KTS sTS çTS → {Ndz,mts} kts(ʰ) ptsʰ sts {sts,rj}
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiap çp (ç)b rP Np Nb pr {br,pj} → p. ç.w (ç)p rp. kj m.p n.br p.j
çK → ç.k
kj Nkj ʔkj ɡj sɡj → kj. nj ɡ.tsʰ kj skj.
kr (s)ɡr → n.br (s)kr
36.3.2.1.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Hanniup k ts → p. k. tʃ.
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Tok (N)ɡ → k. (m)k
sɡr → skr
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtse(N)t (N)d st sd KT çT tr dr çtr → (N)tʰ mt zd st kt çt(j) trh tr çtr
(P)ɡ sɡ çK Nɡ k sk rk (s)ɡj (ʔ)kj → (p)k sk çk mk kʰ zɡ Nɡ (s)kj (ʔ)kʰj
Nkj (s)ɡr Kç kr skr ɡr → mɡj (s)kr ɡçkr kʰr zɡr Nɡr
N P K → m p k / _ç
ts (r)dz dzl dʒ NTS PTS Kts KTS sTS çTS → tsʰ (r)ts Ndz tsl ts ptç ktç kts sts {s,ç}ts
uŋ → ak
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo MoNt tr d KT çT → mt. tʂ t kt ʃt
kr rk {rK,Pɡ} ɡ Pɡ sɡ → k.r rk. pk k sk
ʔkj → ktʃ.
36.3.2.2.5 Proto-rGyalrongic to Trungz → k
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Naok {sɡ,çK} Nɡ rK → k. sk mɡ nk
ap → ɛk
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu TaNp Nb Nt Nɡ Nç → sts mp mtʰ mk ntsʰdz
çK → ʂk
k rk kr kj Nkj ɡr → kʰdz nɡ kʰr tʃh dʒ nkʰr
NTS KTS lTS → mʈʂ {kts,ʈʂʰ} bɖʐ
it ik → o ek
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassud KT → l kt
k kr kj ɡ → k. k.r ts. ɡ
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoianp → kʷ / else
x → k
37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeek kʷ → ts k / _i
37.1.2.1.2 Cayuga to Lower Cayugat → k / _j
tʔ tsʔ kʔ kʷʔ → tʼ tsʼ kʼ kʷʼ
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huront → k / _(h)w
∅ → k / s_(h)w
t → k / _r
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandott → k / _j
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Mohawk— t → k / _j
37.2.2 Proto-Siouan to Dakotakm → kV0mV0
37.2.3 Proto-Siouan to Mandankm → kV0pV0
37.2.4 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Čiwere-Winnebagokr → kV0rV0
37.2.4.2 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Winnebagopr {sr,xr} sn km → pV0rV0 ʃV0rV0 sV0nV0 kV0wV0
tk → {tʃk,tʃɡ} / #_
37.2.5.1 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Crowsk → tsk / _”V
37.2.5.2 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Hidatsakr → kV0rV0 / #_
sk → tsuk / _”u
sk kx → tsk hk / _”V
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to Osagexk → (ʃ)k / _”V
37.2.7.1 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Biloxikx → xk / ”V_
37.2.7.2 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Ofosr kr → ft kV0lV0
kx → sk / ”V_
37.2.7.3 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Tutelok → ᵑk / _ʔ
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.1 Proto-Tai to Ahomɣ → kʰ
ɡl → k(w)
k → kʰ / _r
xʷ Kʷ → {kʰ,x} K(ʷ)
38.1.1.2 Proto-Tai to Saek{ɡ,x} → kʰ
38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Taiɡ x → k kʰ
kl kr → {kj,tʃ} kʰj
xr → kʰ{l,r}
xʷ ɣʷ → kʷʰ {v,w}
38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchowɡl → kj
38.1.1.3.3 Central Tai to Tayɣ → kʰ
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Taik{l,r} → {kj,tʃ}
{pʰ,b} ɓ {tʰ,d} ɗ {kʰ,ɡ} {kʷʰ,ɡ} → p b t d k kʷ
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Taix → kʰ
ɡʷ → kʷʰ
38.1.1.5.1 Southwest Tai to Laoɡ{l,r} → kʰ
ɡ ɣ → kʰ ɡ
xʷ ɣʷ → kʷ ɡʷ
38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lüɡl ɡr → k kʰ
{kʰ,ɣ} ɡ → x k
38.1.1.5.3 Southwest Tai to Shanɡl ɡr → k kʰ
ɡ ɣ → k kʰ
xʷ → kʷ
38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siameseŋ ɡ ɣ → {h,ʃ} kʰ ɡ
xʷ ɣʷ → kʷ ɡʷ
38.1.1.5.5 Southwest Tai to Black Taiɡ ɡl → k tʃ
xʷ ɣʷ → kʷ ɡʷ
38.1.1.5.6 Southwest Tai to White Tai{kʰ,ɣ} ɡ ɡ{l,r} → x k tʃ
39 Tanoan39.1 Proto-Tanoan to Jimezk(ʷ)ʰ kʷ(ʼ) ɡ ɡʷ → h ɡ k kʷ
39.2 Proto-Tanoan to Kiowakʷ kʷʰ kʷʼ ɡʷ → k kʰ kʼ ɡ
39.3 Proto-Tanoan to Taoskʰ kʰʷ ɡ ɡʷ → x xʷ k w
40 Totozoquean40.2 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Totonacannʲ tʲ kʲ k → l tʃ k q
41 Trans-New Guinea41.1 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Apalɨt k ŋ → {l,t} {h,k} n / #_
p k ⁿd → β {h,k} nj / V_V
41.2 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Asmatᵐb ᵑɡ → p k / V_V
41.3 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Binandereᵐb ⁿd ᵑɡ nj → {p,ᵐb} {ⁿd,z} k z / V_V
41.4 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kaetiⁿd ᵑɡ → d k
41.5.1.1 Proto-Gorokan to Asaroʔ{l,d} ʔɡ → t k
41.5.1.2 Proto-Gorokan to North ForeN → ŋk / _V
Nw Nm N{n,j} → ŋk mp nt
41.5.1.3 Proto-Gorokan to South ForeNw Nm N{n,j} → ŋk mp nt
41.5.1.5 Proto-Gorokan to Gimiʔv ʔm ʔɡ ʔr → t p k v
41.5.1.8 Proto-Gorokan to Moveʔv ʔm ʔɡ ʔr ʔh → p b k t {s,f}
41.5.1.9 Proto-Gorokan to Sianeʔŋɡ ʔd → ŋk t
41.5.1.10 Proto-Gorokan to Yagariaʔv ʔm ʔɡ ʔr ʔh → p b k t {s,f}
41.5.2.1 Proto-Kainantu to AuyanaN{w,d,r} nj → ŋk nt (not sure if *nj is supposed to be *ɲɟ)
41.5.2.2 Proto-Kainantu to Awaʔw ʔb ʔd ʔɡ → m p t k
41.5.2.4 Proto-Kainantu to UsarufaN{w,r} Nj → ʔk ʔt
41.7 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kâtek ᵐb ⁿd → {k,h} b {s,t} / #_
41.10 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Telefolᵐb ⁿd ᵑɡ → b n k / V_V
42 Uralic42.1 Proto-Uralic to Pre-Finnicŋ → k / _#, in latives
42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnictk → k / in Pre-Livonian (?)
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishpː tː tsː kː → pˑ tˑ tsˑ kˑ
xk → kː (even across word boundaries)
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnishpˑ tˑ θˑ kˑ → p t θ k
44 Vasconic44.1 Proto-Vasconic to Aquitanianɡ → k / #_ (sometimes?)
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.1 Proto-Pai to Chapaikʷ → k / _#
45.1.2 Proto-Pai to Paipaikʷ xʷ → k x / _#
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.1 List 1: Simple Consonant Changeskʲ ɡʲ → k ɡ (Danish)
ś → k (Possibly unconditional; some Samoyedic langs)
pʲ → kʲ (some Romanian dialects, Tsakonian)
t → k (general Polynesian)
47.2 List 2: Conditional or complex consonant changest → k / _s̩ (Ōgami) (NB: The article doesn’t have an underscore indicating whether this occurs before or after the /s̩/, but the linked page indicates where this change occurred) (http://amritas.com/101023.htm#10192359)

with context involving /k/

205 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North Omotice → i / #{s,ʃ,tsʼ}_{k(w),ʔ}
e o → i u / #{k(ʼ),x}_{t(ʼ),tsʼ}
6.2.2.1.3 Ancient Egyptian to Copticn → l / #_Vk
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabicj → ∅ / Ck_$
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakiw → ∅ / _# ! k(ː)_
θ → s / _k
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenakiw → ∅ / _# ! k(ː)_
θ → s / _k
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfooth → x / _{p,k}
ʃ → x / _k
x → sː / {i,#e,ja,ke}_
∅ → s / k_i(ː)
e → i / {#,k}_
{a,e,i} → o / _kʷ
w → j / {r,k}_i#
7.6 Proto-Algonquian to Northern East Creeθ → s / _k
l → h / _k
7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East Creeθ → s / _k
l → h / _k
7.8 Proto-Algonquian to Plains Creeθ → s / _k
l → h / _k
7.9 Proto-Algonquian to Swampy Creeθ → s / _k
l → h / _k
7.10 Proto-Algonquian to Woods Creeθ → s / _k
l → s / _k
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawarew → ∅ / ! {k,p,m}_
Cʷ → C / _ə{(C){p,kʷ},m,w}
θ ʃ x → x s h / _{p,k}
{tʃ,ç} → h / _k
ə → o / _h{p,kʷ,w,m}
ə → o / _x{p,kʷ,V[+round]}
ə → o / _ŋkʷ
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menomineee → i / _{k,m} “when in the second syllable of glottal words”
7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-IllinoisC[-nas] → h / _k
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaqx → ∅ / _{p,k}
7.15 Proto-Algonquian to Ojibwe{θ,s,h,ʔ} → ∅ / _{p,t,tʃ,k}
r → s / _k
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to ShawneeV[-long] → ∅ / _{ʃp,ʃk}
Vː → V[-long] / _{ʔC,ʃp,ʃk,hV}
∅ → ʔ / C{v,d}_{ʃp,ʃk,hV}
8 Altaic8.1.1 Early Middle Japanese to Modern Japanesew → ∅ / k_a
8.5.1.2 Proto-Kypchak to Kyrgyze → i / k_y (maybe they mean k_j?)
9 Austroasiatic9.1.1 Proto-Vietic to Muong Khenw → ∅ / tʰV_k (conjectured)
9.1.2.1 Middle Vietnamese to Hanoi Vietnamesew → ∅ / tV_wk (conjectured)
9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnamesew → ∅ / tV_wk (conjectured)
10 Austronesian10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiput{i,ɛ} {u,ɔ} → iə̯ uə̯ / _{k,ŋ}# “(and also sporadically before final *t and *n and some other consonants)
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lónghi → e / _k#
u → o / _k#
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabau— u i → uə iə / _{k,ŋ,h,l,r}#
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamiln → ŋ / _{k,ɡ}
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’ikt → s / _{k,q}
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’ikt → s / _{k,q}
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’ikt → s / _{k,q}
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’ikt → s / _{k,q}
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanians → ʃ / V{i̯,u̯,r,k}_V
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanians → ʃ / V{i̯,u̯,r,k}_V
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irish— n → ∅ / {i,o,u}_{p,t,k,s}
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishə → ɪ / _{k,ɡ,tʃ,dʒ,ʃ,ʒ,v}
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scotst → ∅ / {p,k}_# (“except in some inflected forms” for *kt)
— øː → wi / {k,ɡ}_ (in Mid Northern dialects)
— øː → (j){u,ʌ} / _{k,x} (outcome varies depending upon dialect)
17.7.2.5 West Germanic to Old Low Germann → ŋ / _{k,ɡ}
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norsee → ja / ! {{h,k,ŋ}n,w,v,l,r}_, _{u,o,i}
V → Vː / _l{P,w,k,#}
e → jɒ / _(C)(C)(C)u ! {{h,k,ŋ}n,w,v,l,r}_
e → ja / _(C)(C)(C)u ! {{h,k,ŋ}n,w,v,l,r}_
d → ∅ / {l,m}_{b,ɡ,k,l,m,n,s}
r → ∅ / k_{n,s}
r → ∅ / t_{k,s}
t → ∅ / r_k
t → ∅ / s_{k,l,n,s}
β ð ɣ → f θ k / _{p,t,k,s}
θ → t / {p,t,k}_
F[- voice] → ∅ / {s,f,x,h,t}_{p,t,k}
p → f / _{t,k}
t → θ / _{p,k}
r → ∅ / {p,t,k}_Vr
rː lː → r l / {p,t,k,f,s}_
f → v / _{p,t,k}
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandicn → ŋ / _{k,ɡ}
u o a ø y e i → uː oː aː øi yː ei iː / _{ɲc,ɲɟ,ŋk,ŋɡ}
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Norns → ∅ / {t,k,r}_l
l → ∅ / _{m,s,k}
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Norns → ∅ / k_l
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-Aryanʂ → x / k_
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavics → x / {i,u,r,k}_
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishn → s → ɕ / k_ɛ̃ where the vowel was from Proto-Slavic
n → s / k_Vn
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latino → u / _{mb,mk,ɫ}
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalano → u / _{ɲ,nk,ŋ} when stressed
e → i / _{nk,ŋ} when stressed (irregular)
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portugueseiː → ∅ / {k,s}_#
e → ∅ / {l,n,r,s,k}_#
{e,i} → ∅ / k_t when between #U and U[+stress]
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— ɔ → y / _{u,P,k,ɡ,i} (in northwestern dialects)
— ɔ → ɥe / _{u,P,k,ɡ,i} (in western dialects, Limousin, and Auvergne)
— ɔ → ɥo / _{u,P,k,ɡ,i} (in Languedoc)
— ɔ → {ɥe,ɥo,ɔ} / _{u,P,k,ɡ,i} (in southern dialects)
b → ∅ / _s{t,k}
β → u / _k
k → ∅ / _sk (else)
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanianw → ∅ / {k,ɡ}_
s → ʃ / _kl
l → j / {k,ɡ}_
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardinianl → ∅ / rk_ (sporadic)
w → ∅ / #k_V
o → u / _k (possibly restricted in occurrence)
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.4.1 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Akwárau → ∅ / k_w
18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Cocamaw → ∅ / k_w
w → u / k_
e → ɨ / {k,j}_
18.4.3 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guajajarau → ∅ / k_w
18.4.4 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guaraníu → ∅ / k_w
18.4.7 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Parintintínu → ∅ / k_w
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Sirionóu → ∅ / k_w
18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Urubuu → ∅ / k_w
21 Lakes Plain21.2.2.6 Proto-East Tariku to Sikaritaiik → ɡ / {s,k,p}_ ?
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.1 Proto-Chibchan to Arhuacos → kh / _(V)k
23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to Chibchab → p / _Vkʷ
25 Macro-Panoan25.1.4 Proto-Tacanan to Tacana∅ → j / k_e
28 Muskogean28 MuskogeanV → V̂ː / _Cko, ko lost?
28.1.2 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Creekm → ŋ / _k
28.1.3 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to HitchitiV → ∅ / Vk_#
28.1.5 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to MikasuriV → ∅ / Vk_#
tʃ → s / _C ! _k
28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western MuskogeanV → ∅ / V{k,ʔ,h}_#
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinokʷ → ɾ / #_ek
e → i / {kʲ,nt}_ when stressed
32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinok → tʃ / _Ek(ʷ)
kʷ → w / _ek
kʷ → ʍ / ku_ (medial)
ʃ → s / _{ik,e,ı̃,ẽ}
32.1.4 Proto-Chatino to Zenzontepec Chatinoe → i / kʲ_ when stressed
34 Quechumaran34.1 Proto-Quechumaran to Ayachucoh → ∅ / {p,t,k,q}_
34.8 Proto-Quechumaran to Santiagoh → ∅ / {p,t,k}_
36 Sino-Tibetan36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to Naxii → ɯ / {R,kr}_%
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Lau → a / _k
36.3.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Japhugŋ → m / #_kʰ
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Tor → s / _k
u → o / _k
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoianx → ∅ / _k
37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeet → ∅ / _{k,n}
37.1.2 Proto-Iroquoian to Proto-Northern Iroquoianiji(ː) → hi(ː) / {k,s}_ “(possibly after all non-glottal obstruents)”
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayugaʔ → ∅ / _nk(ʷ)
n → t / _k(ʷ)
ns → ts / _k(ʷ)
C → ∅ / {s,k}_#
∅ → h / {t,k}_n
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Hurons → ʃ / ! _{n,t,k(ʷ),w} “or when part of the affricate /ts/”
t → ∅ / _k(ʷ)
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandoth → ∅ / {t,ts,s,k}_
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagans → ts / _k(ʷ)
n → t / _k(ʷ)
h → ∅ / _{k,t,ts,s}#
k → h / _k
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneidats → hs / V_{t,k(ʷ)}
ns → ts / _{t,k(ʷ)}
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Mohawk∅ → e / n_k(ʷ)
∅ → e / {t,k}_{r,n}
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneida∅ → i / {V,t}n_k(ʷ)V
h → ∅ / k_{s,ts}
h → ∅ / _{sk,st}
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to SenecaV → Vː / _{t,k(ʷ),s,n,r,j,w} “in even penultimate syllables”
h → ∅ / _{tk,nh,sC,C#}
ʔ → ∅ / _nk(ʷ)
n → t / _k(ʷ)
t → ∅ / k_#
∅ → h / k_n
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscaroran → t / ! _{h,kʷ,V[+nas]}
”V → ”Vː / _{k(ʷ),(ˀ)t}{s,R,H} (“penultimate syllables only”)
h → ∅ / k_{s,ts,tʃ}
n → t / _kʷ
∅ → j / k_e(ː)
37.2.1 Proto-Siouan to Catawbat → ∅ / _k, when medial
37.2.2 Proto-Siouan to Dakotat → ∅ / _k, when medial
x → ʔ / ”Vk_
37.2.2.3 Dakota to Yankton Dakotar → d / k_
37.2.3 Proto-Siouan to Mandanr → ∅ / k_
t → ∅ / _k, when medial
37.2.4.1 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Čiwerex → ∅ / _k
x → ∅ / k_”V
37.2.4.2 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Winnebagot → ∅ / _k, when medial
37.2.5 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Crow-Hidatsat → ∅ / _k, when medial
37.2.5.1 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Crowx → ∅ / k_”V
37.2.5.2 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Hidatsar → ∅ / {C,V}k_{C,V}
∅ → V / x_k
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to Osageʃ → s / ”V_k
x → ʔ / k_”V
37.2.7.2 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Ofo∅ → V / k_m
x → s / _k
37.2.7.3 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Tutelo∅ → V / k_m
s → ʃ / ”V_k
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Tail → ∅ / {p,k(ʰ),ŋ}_
41 Trans-New Guinea41.5.2.2 Proto-Kainantu to AwaN → n / _{v,k,s}
42 Uralic42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnicŋ → w / _C ! _k
tʃ → ts / _k, in South Estonian
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishi → ∅ / {VC,ks}_ at the ends of a suffix
43 Uto-Aztecan43.1 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Comanche∅ → h / Vu_k
43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhaml → i / {p,m,k(ʷ),w}_# “in all dialects, and varies by dialect after other consonants”
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basqueu ũ → y ỹ / _r(p(ʰ),β,k(ʰ),ɣ,l,s̺,s̻,ʃ,h) (Souletin)
∅ → V / Vk_# (Zeberio Biscayan)
46 Vowel Shifts46.5 Old English-to-Scots Vowel Shiftsøː → wi / {k,ɡ}_ (in Mid Northern dialects)
øː → (j){u,ʌ} / _{k,x} (outcome varies depending upon dialect)
46.11 Middle Chinese to Cantonese Vowel Shift (“The Inner-Outer Flip”)a → ɔ / _{ŋ,k}
ə → ∅ / i_{ŋ,k}