Index Diachronica: involving /p/

429 results from /p/   291 results to /p/   75 results with context involving /p/   

k͜p plain pʲʼ pʲː pʷʲ pʷʲʼ pʷʼ pˤʼ pˤː ʼp

from /p/

429 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1.1.2 North Omotic to Dizinpʼ → b
6.1.1.3 North Omotic to Kafap → f / V_
6.1.1.4 North Omotic to Maalep → f / V_
6.1.1.5 North Omotic to Shekkachopʼ → p / V_
pʼ → b
6.1.1.6 North Omotic to Wolayttap → f
6.1.1.7 North Omotic to Yemsap → f
pʼ → b
6.1.1.8 North Omotic to Zayse-Zergullapʼ → ʔp
6.1.2.1 South Omotic to Aaripʼ → {b,p}ʼ
6.1.2.2 South Omotic to Dimep → f
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berberpʼ → p
p → b / #dlV_
6.2.2.1.5 Proto-Semitic to Classical Arabicp → f
6.2.2.1.18 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrewp b t d k ɡ → b v θ ð x ɣ / non-intial singletons
7 Algonquian7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-Atsinap k → k ∅
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfootθp tʃp ʃp → {x,sː} ʔp sːp
tem {k,p}en → mː nː
7.5 Proto-Algonquian to Cheyennep t k → {hp,∅} ht {hk,∅}
p → {t,∅} / near consonants
7.6 Proto-Algonquian to Northern East Cree(t)ʃp → sp
7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East Cree(t)ʃp → sp
7.8 Proto-Algonquian to Plains Cree(t)ʃp → sp
7.9 Proto-Algonquian to Swampy Cree(t)ʃp → sp
7.10 Proto-Algonquian to Woods Cree(t)ʃp → sp
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawarekw pw mw → kʷ pʷ mʷ
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonicpʰ tʰ kʰ → p t k
8.1.1 Early Middle Japanese to Modern Japanesep → ɸ
8.2 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Koreanpʰ tʰ kʰ → p t {k,h}
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolicpʰ → {h,j} / #_
pʰ → {b,h} / medially
pʰ → b / #_U[+high pitch]
p → h (sporadic)
p → b
8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusicp → b / medially
pʰ → p
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkic{pʰ,ŋ} → {∅,j} / #_
pʰ → p
p → ɸ → h / #_
9 Austroasiatic9.1.1 Proto-Vietic to Muong Khen{pj,bj} {tj,dj} {cj,ɟj} → b d j
(h)ə{p,b} → t / _l
9.1.2 Proto-Vietic to Middle Vietnamese(h)ə{p,b} (h)ə{t,d} (h)ə{c,ɟ} (h)ə{k,ɡ} → β dʲ ɟ ɡ
{pj,bj} {tj,dj} {cj,ɟj} → {β,w} dʲ ɟ
((h)ə)p d → b t / _l
9.1.2.1 Middle Vietnamese to Hanoi Vietnamesepʰ → f
9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnamesepʰ → f
10 Austronesian10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorrop c q → f s ʔ
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Madurese{p,t,k} b d ɡ → ʔ p t k / _#
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauanp → w
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North Sarawakpː tː cː kː → p t c k
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lónghp → k / u_#
{p,t} n → c̚ ɲ / {i,ɛ}_#
{p,t} {m,n} → k ŋ / ɯ_#
p → f / #_
p k → f ɣ / V_V ! ”ə_V
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabau— m p → n t / {u,i}_
— {p,t,k} s → ʔ h / _#
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwp pʷ {c,*j} k q → β βʷ s ɣ ∅
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerigp pʷ k q → β w ɣ ∅
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to Mwotlapp pʷ bʷ k ɡ → β w kpʷ ɣ k
kpʷ → k / _C (sporadic)
10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to Caaàcpː pwː tː ʈː qː kː → pʰ pwʰ cʰ tʰ h jʰ
{p,pw,k} → ∅ / V_V
10.3.5.2 Proto-New Caledonia to Jawépː pwː t̪ː tː kː cː → pʰ hʷ t̪ʰ tʰ h jʰ
10.3.5.3 Proto-New Caledonia to Nemi-Pije-Fwaipː pwː tː t̪ː kː cː → f hʷ t̪ʰ tʰ h jʰ
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-Nêlêmwapw p t ʈ k c → (v)w v r l ɣ j / V_V
pw → w
pwʰ pʰ tʰ kʰ → fw f rʰ x / in Nelemwa
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to Nyelâyup pw t̪ ʈ c → v (v)w r l j / V_V
pw → w (sporadic)
pː pwː tː qː cː → pʰ pwʰ tʰ h cʰ
10.3.5.6 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwaameipː pwː tː ʈ kː cː → f hʷ tʰ lʰ h s
10.3.5.7 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwapwâpː pwː t̪ː tː kː cː → pʰ xʷ t̪ʰ tʰ x s
p pw t {k,c} → {v,∅} w l ∅ / V_V
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Yunagapː pwː t̪ː tː ʈː cː kː → pʰ pwʰ t̪ʰ tʰ ʈʰ jʰ h
p pw t̪ ʈ k c → v w ð l ∅ j / V_V
10.3.6 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruzp → ∅ / _B
p → v
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bayp pʷ k → v vʷ ɣ
p ŋ → f ∅ / ”V_V
p v m → t θ n / _{a,e,i}
10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to Tolomakop(ʷ) k → v(ʷ) ɣ
10.3.9 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Utupuap q → v ∅ (in general, seems like there was something going on with conditioning in the case of *p?)
10.3.9.1 Proto-Utupua to Asuboap → w / _B
pʷ mʷ → w m
10.3.9.2 Proto-Utupua to Nebaopʷ → vʷ
10.3.9.3 Proto-Utupua to Tanibilip t {r,l} → ∅ s j / _u
pʷ bw → p b
10.3.10 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Vanikorop → ∅ / _u
p q → {v,p} ∅
10.3.10.1 Proto-Vanikoro to Bumap t → ∅ {s,k} / _u
p → ∅ / _#
pʷ bw mʷ → p b m
10.3.10.2 Proto-Vanikoro to Tanemap → v / _#
pʷ w → b ∅
10.3.10.3 Proto-Vanikoro to Vanopʷ mʷ → p m
10.3.11 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Southern Vanuatup → b(ʷ) (sporadic)
p → vʷ / _u (a change thetha reconstructs in order to account for phenomena in later posts about this group of languages)
p → v
10.3.11.2 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Erromangomʷ pʷ bʷ vʷ → m p b v
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Urap → b / V_V
10.3.11.3.1 Proto-Tanna to Kwamera{p(ʷ),v}Vh → fV
10.3.11.3.2 Proto-Tanna to Lenakel{p(ʷ),v}Vh → fV
10.3.11.3.4 Proto-Tanna to Southwest Tanna{p(ʷ),v}Vh → fV
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’ap pʷ k q → β w ɣ ∅
10.4.1 Proto-Micronesian to Marshallesep {t,ts} c → pʲ tʲ rʲ
10.5.1 Proto-Ongan to Jarawap → b / #_ (change seems to be ongoing)
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to Ongep → b
11 Northeast Caucasian11.1.1 Proto-Avar-Andic to Akhvakhp → h
12 Northwest Caucasian12.1 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Abazgi{pʷ,pʲ} {p(ʲ)ː,bˤ} bʷ pʷʲ bʷʲ → p b f tsʲ dzʲ
12.2 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Circassianpʲ(ː) pʲʼ bʲ → t(ː) tʼ d
pʷ pʷʲ pʷʲʼ bʷ bʷʲ → p tʷ tʷʼ b d
pˤ(ː) pˤ bˤ → p(ː) pʼ b
12.2.1.1 Adyghe to Abadzekh Adyghepː tː tsː tsʷ ʃː tʃː tɕː kʲː kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → p t ts tʃʷ ʃ ɕ tɕ tʃ kʷ qː qʷ
12.2.1.3 Adyghe to Shapsug Adyghepː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː tsː tcː kʲː kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → p t ts tʃʷ ʃ tʃ tɕ kʲ kʷ χ~q χʷ~qʷ
p(ʷ)ʼ t(ʷ)ʼ tsʼ tsʷʼ~ʃʷʼ → pˤ tˤ tsˤ ʂʷ
12.2.1.4 Adyghe to Temirgoy Adyghepː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː tʃː tɕː → p t ts tsʷʲ ʃ tʃ tɕ
12.2.2 Proto-Circassian to Kabardianpː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː {tʃː,tɕː} kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → b d dz v ɕ ʒ dʒ ɡʷ qʼ~qχ qʷʼ~qχʷ
12.3 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Ubykhpʲ(ː) bʲ → t(ː) d
pʲʼ → tʷʼ
{pʷ,bʷ} → f
pʲː → tʷ~dʷ
pʷʲ bʷʲ → tʷ dʷ
pʷʲʼ pˤ pˤː pˤʼ bˤ → tʷʼ vˤ bˤ pˤʼ bˤ
13 Chumashan13.6 Proto-Chumash to Ventureñopʼ kʼ qʼ → p k q
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.1 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Proto-Dravidianp → v / V_V
14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamitemp → p(ː) / V_V
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Aleutp → h / #_
15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow Iñupiaq{p,v} t {k,ɣ} → m n ŋ / _N
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic Iñupiaq{p,v} t {k,ɣ} → m n ŋ / _N
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie Iñupiaq{p,v} t {k,ɣ} → m n ŋ / _N
15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales Iñupiaqp k q s → v ɣ ʁ z / V_V
{p,v} t {k,ɣ} → m n ŋ / _N
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.1 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Nafrip k → b ɡ / V_V
p t → f {s,h} / #_
16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central Sentanip k → b ɡ / V_V
p b t → f p {s,h} / #_
16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern Sentanip k → b ɡ / V_V
p t → f {s,h} / #_
16.1.4 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Western Sentanip k → b ɡ / V_V
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albaniansp → f / medial
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albaniansp → f / medial
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to Lydianp d D → f ð T
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
p ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
p ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenianp ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
p ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
p ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
p ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
p ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— p…kʷ → kʷ…kʷ
— p → b / _{r,l}
— p → w / B_N
— p → f
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishp → f / {V,#}_
p t k kʷ b d ɡ m n l r s → f θ x xʷ v ð ɣ M N L R h / V(#)_{R,V} (“We don’t know the exact values of lenited /m n l r/. We can guess that lenited m became a nasalized labial continuant of some sort, but beyond that, we don’t know.”)
p t k kʷ b d ɡ ∅ → b d ɡ ɡʷ mb nd ŋɡ n / n#_”V
— {p,t} → ∅ / #s_r
— {p,t} → ∅ / #s_ “(although it says that occasionally st > t / #_)”
— {l,h}l {l,h}r l{p,s,n} r{p,s} ln → lː rː lː rː (lː?) / [anything]_
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshp t k {b,m} d ɡ → b d ɡ v ð ɣ / _V
pː tː kː → f θ x
p t k → f θ x / {r,l}_
mp nt ŋk → m̥ n̥ ŋ̊
17.7 Proto-Indo-European to Common Germanicp t k → f θ x
17.7.2.1.11 Scots to Falkirk ScotspVn tVn kVn → ʔm̩ ʔn̩ ʔŋ̩ / _#
p b → ɸ β / {#,V}_ ! _C
17.7.2.1.15 North Frisian Lenitionp t k → b d ɡ → v r ɣ / Vː_{V,#}
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlautp t k → fː zː xː / V_V
p t k → f z x / _#
p t k → pf ts kx / #_
p t k → pf ts kx / {L,N}_
pː tː kː → pf ts kx
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norse{f,β,p} → ∅ / r_n
{f,β,p} → ∅ / l_{d,ɡ,n,ð,t}
p → f / _{t,k}
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandicp t k → f θ x / _{S,F[- voice]}
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornp(ː) t(ː) k(ː) → b(ː) d(ː) ɡ(ː) / {V,R}_{V,R}
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornp t k → b d ɡ / V_V (the second V at least can be a syllabic consonant)
pː tː kː → b d {ɡ,ɣ} / V_V
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekpʰ tʰ kʰ → f θ x
p t k → b d ɡ / N_
p k → f x / _t
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greekpʰ tʰ kʰ → f θ x
17.10 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iranianp → b / _h3
ptʃ → pʃ
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-Aryanp → ∅ / #_st
17.10.1.5 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Vedic Sanskrit{pʂ,cʂ,ɟʐʱ,ɡʐʱ} → kʂ
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishpʲ mʲ fʲ → p m f / _#
{xv,pv} → f
plv → pf
p → ∅ / #_p
{b,p} → ∅ / _n “in verbs in -nąć”
pv → f
17.11.2 Proto-Slavic to Old Russianmj pj bj → mlʲ plʲ blʲ
17.12 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Italicp → {p,kʷ}
bʰ dʰ gʰ → pʰ tʰ dʰ → ɸ θ x
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latinp…kʷ → kʷ…kʷ
{p,b} {t,d} → m n / _{m,n}
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalanp b t d k ɡ → β {β,w} ∅ {j,w} ɣ {j,∅,ɡ} / V_rV
p b → b w / V_lV (the latter is irregular)
p k → ∅ j / V_tV
p t → b d / V_V
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French{p,b} {t,d} → v ð / V_{V,r}
p → b / _l
— pj → tʃ
{p,b} → ∅ / _{t,d}
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguesepl → {ʃ,pr} / #_
pl bl p t → br {br,l} b d / V_V (bl → l is learned)
p t k → b d ɡ / V_r
p → ∅ / V_{t,s}V
pj {bj,vj} → jb jv / V_V
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençalp t k s → b d ɡ z / V_V (this b → v?)
pʰ → f
mn → mpn → nː (dialectal)
{p,b} → ∅ / R_s# (unless blocked by analogy)
p j → b i / _l
p k tʃ b ɡ β j → b ɡ i {b,u,u→y→i} ∅ {u,u→y→i} i / _r
pw → upw → up → ub
p → b / _rj
ptj → ts → s
pj → ptʃ → tʃ (except in western and some southern dialects)
{p,t} → ∅ / s_m (sporadic?)
p → ∅ / s_t
p → ∅ / _f
pk → ptʃ / _a
pt → {ut,it} “in a few words”
p → ∅ / _t “except in parts of Languedoc and Gascony”
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanianp → ∅ / _s
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardinian{p,k}s → sː
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanish{tj,kj} {tːj,kːj,ptj,ktj,skj} → ts tːs
pt {ɾs,ps} → tː sː
ɾj pj → jɾ jp / V_
p t k s ts → b d ɡ z dz / V_V
pː tː kː sː tːs ʝː → p t k s ts ʝ
kl pl → ʎ {ʎ,tʃ}
— mpVt skVp spVt stVk → nt sp st sk
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tocharianp {ts,k(ʷ)} m n l r y → pj sʲ ʂ mj ɲ lj rj wj / _{E(:),y}
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayoróp → β / V_
p t → ∅ l / _V
18.4.1 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Akwárap → k / _w
18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Cocamap → k / _w
18.4.4 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guaraním p → ŋ k / _w
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guarayom p → ŋ k / _w
18.4.6 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Kamayuráp → h / _{o,u,w}
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Sirionóp → {h,∅} / _{u,o}
p → {k,∅} / _w
p → h / else
18.4.9.1.1 Proto-Monde to Gaviãop → v / _#
18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Urubup k → k ∅ / _w
21 Lakes Plain21.1.2 Proto-Far West to Saponip d → p~f n / #_
p b d k → p~f w ɾ ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.1.3 Proto-Far West to Rasawap b d k → ɸ β ɾ x~k / V_V
21.2 Proto-Lakes Plain to Proto-Tarikup d → ɸ ɾ / V_V
21.2.1 Proto-Tariku to Proto-Central Tarikup k → ɸ ∅~k
21.2.2.1 Proto-East Tariku to Biritaip → h~ɸ
21.2.2.2 Proto-East Tariku to Doutaip → p~ɸ
21.2.2.3 Proto-East Tariku to Eritaip → p~h
21.2.2.4 Proto-East Tariku to Kaip → ɸ
21.2.2.5 Proto-East Tariku to Obokuitaip → ɸ~h
21.2.2.6 Proto-East Tariku to Sikaritaip → p~h
21.2.2.7 Proto-East Tariku to Waritaip d → p~ɸs d~t
21.2.3 Proto-Tariku to Proto-West Tarikup → ɸ
21.2.3.1 Proto-West Tariku to Deiratep → ɸ~h
21.2.3.2 Proto-West Tariku to Faiap → ɸ~h
21.2.3.3 Proto-West Tariku to Fayup → ɸ~h
21.2.3.4 Proto-West Tariku to Kirikirip → ɸ~h
21.2.3.5 Proto-West Tariku to Sehudatep → ɸ~h
21.2.3.6 Proto-West Tariku to Tausep → ɸ~h
21.2.3.7 Proto-West Tariku to Weiratep → ɸ~h
22 Macro-Arawakan22.1 Proto-Arawá to Arawáp → f
pʰ → p / #_
pʰ → ɸ / else
22.2 Proto-Arawá to Banawá-Jamamadip(ʰ) → ɸ
22.3 Proto-Arawá to Hypothetical Arawán Substratep → ʔ
pʰ → h / medially
22.4 Proto-Arawá to Jarawarap(ʰ) {tʰ,d} → ɸ t
22.6 Proto-Arawá to Sorowahá{p(ʰ),ɓ} → h
22.7 Proto-Arawá to Paumarípʰ → p / #_
pʰ t → ɸ ʔ / medial
26 Mande26.1 Proto-Mande to Bobop → f
kp ɡb → k ɡw
26.2 Proto-Mande to Busakp kpʼ → {kp,k} ɡb
26.3 Proto-Mande to Dankpʼ → ɡb
26.4 Proto-Mande to Gurop f → f v
kp {kpʼ,ɡb} → p b
26.5 Proto-Mande to Kono-Vaip → f
{ɡ,w,kp} kpʼ ɡb → k kp b
26.6 Proto-Mande to Southwest Mandekp kpʼ ɡb → {k,B} kp B (it’s unclear what this 〈B〉 is)
26.7 Proto-Mande to Mandekanp → f
{k,ɡ,kp} {kpʼ,ɡb} → s b
26.8 Proto-Mande to Manokpʼ → ɡb
26.9 Proto-Mande to Mwakpʼ → ɡb
26.10 Proto-Mande to Sankp kpʼ → k b
26.11 Proto-Mande to Semblap → f
26.12 Proto-Mande to Soninkap → f
kp ɡb → k b
26.13 Proto-Mande to Susup → f
kp ɡb → k b
28 Muskogean28.2.2 Proto-Western Muskogean to Choctawp → k / _C
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1.1 Proto-Bantu to Sebirwap t d c ɟ k ɡ → ɸ ɹ {d,l} tʰ ∅ h {∅,ɡ}
30.1.1.2 Proto-Bantu to Tswana{p,t,tʃ,k} {mp,nt,ɲtʃ,nk} {(m)b,(n)d,(ɲ)dʒ,(n)ɡ} {m,n} → s tsʰ ts ɲ / _iV
{tʃ,k} {ntʃ,nk,r} {ɲdʒ,nɡ} mp mb p b {d,l} m n → s tsʰ ts tʃʰ(w) tʃ(w) ʃ(w) dʒ(w) dʒ ŋw ɲ / _{ɪ,e}V
{p,t,tʃ,k} {mp,nt,ɲtʃ,nk} {(m)b,(n)d,(ɲ)dʒ,(n)ɡ} {m,n,ɲ} → sw tsʰw tsw ɲw / _iV
mp mb p b m → tʃʰ(w) tʃ(w) ʃ(w) dʒ(w) ŋw / _{ʊ,o}V
mp nt ɲtʃ nk mp nd ɲdʒ nɡ → pʰ tʰ tɬʰ qʰ p t tɬ k
p t tʃ k {dʒ,ɡ} ɲ → h r tɬʰ χ ∅ n
30.1.2 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-Manenguba’p ’t ’d/d2 c {’ɟ} ’k ɡ → f l ɟ s ∅ {w,∅} {k,w} / in C1 position
p t ’t {’d,d2} c k ’k → b d l {l,∅} ɟ ɡ ∅ / in C2 position
30.2.1.1 Proto-Akanic to Akan{p,ʋ̃} c k͜p → f s p / #_
33 Penutian33.3.2.2.1 Northern Yokuts to Gashowup t ʈ k → b d ɖ ɡ
34 Quechumaran34.1 Proto-Quechumaran to Ayachucopʼ tʼ tʃʼ kʼ qʼ → p t tʃ k q
34.2 Proto-Quechumaran to Boliviaph th kh qh → pʰ tʰ kʰ qʰ
34.3 Proto-Quechumaran to Cuzcoph → p / #_VA
ph → p / #_aC[+sibilant]
pʼ → p/ #_C[+sibilant]
ph → p / a_ (?)
ph → pʰ
34.4 Proto-Quechumaran to Huaráspʼ tʼ tʃʼ kʼ qʼ → p t ts k q
34.5 Proto-Quechumaran to Putamayopʼ tʼ kʼ qʼ → p t k q
p → b / m_
34.6 Proto-Quechumaran to Quitopʼ kʼ qʼ → p k q
p → b / m_
34.7 Proto-Quechumaran to Riobambapʼ tʼ kʼ qʼ → p t k q
p → b / m_
34.8 Proto-Quechumaran to Santiagopʼ tʼ tʃʼ kʼ qʼ → p t tʃ k q
34.9 Proto-Quechumaran to Tenapʼ tʼ kʼ qʼ → p t k q
p → b / m_
35 Salishan35.1.5 Proto-Central Salish to Klallamp(ʼ) m → ts(ʼ) ŋ / ! _u
35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straitsp(’) m → tʃ(’) ŋ / ! _u
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern Straitsp(’) m → tʃ(’) ŋ / ! _u
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern Straitsp(’) m → tʃ(’) ŋ / ! _u
35.1.11 Proto-Central Salish to Sooke Northern Straitsp(’) m → tʃ(’) ŋ / ! _u
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old Mandarin{p,t} → ∅ / V_
36.3.1.1 Proto-Naish to Laze{Np,mb} → b / _V (the paper implies similar developments occurred at other POAs)
{r,s}p(ʰ) {r,s}{Np,(m)b} → f v / _V (the paper implies similar developments occurred at other POAs)
36.3.1.2 Proto-Naish to Mosuo (Na){Np,mb} → b / _V
{r,s}pʰ {r,s}{(N)p,(m)b} → pʰ p b / _V (the paper implies similar developments occurred with stops at other POAs)
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to Naxi{r,s}pʰ {r,s}(N)p {r,s}b {r,s}mb → pʰ p b mb / _V (the paper implies similar developments occurred with stops at other POAs)
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Lap b çp çb sP rP Np Nb pr {br,pj} bj → pʰ p ʝb çp sp rpʰ mpʰ mb br pʰj pj
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiap çp (ç)b rP Np Nb pr {br,pj} → p. ç.w (ç)p rp. kj m.p n.br p.j
a ap at ar am aj → e eb e(d) er om e.i
ip it → ib o
36.3.2.1.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Hanniup k ts → p. k. tʃ.
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Top b pr br çp → p.j p br pj ʃb
op → u
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtse(N)p Nb sP çp çb pr br {p,b}j → (m)pʰ (m)p sp ʝb çp br pʰj pʰj
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Mo{p,b} Np pr {s,r}P çb Nb → p mp mbr sp ʃp p.s
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Naoap → ɛk
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu TaNp Nb Nt Nɡ Nç → sts mp mtʰ mk ntsʰdz
p → b / _r
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassupr b → br p
an ap → ai ie
36.3.3.1 Old Tibetan to Amdo dialectspʰ b → h w
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoianp → ∅ / C_ ! s_
p → kʷ / else
pʰ → ʍ (this is a bit of a guess; the paper proper has 〈hw〉 here)
37.2.1 Proto-Siouan to Catawbap → {p,b,m,w} / _C
p → b / V_V (*)
37.2.2 Proto-Siouan to Dakotap → {p,b,m,w}
37.2.2.1 Dakota to Santee Dakota{pr,mt} → md
37.2.2.2 Dakota to Teton Dakota{pr,mt} kr → bl ɡl
37.2.4 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Čiwere-Winnebagop → {p,b,m,w}
37.2.4.1 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Čiwerep → {p,b,m,w} / _C
p → w / V_V
pr → bl
37.2.4.2 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Winnebagop → {p,b,m,w} / _C
p → b / V_V
pr {sr,xr} sn km → pV0rV0 ʃV0rV0 sV0nV0 kV0wV0
37.2.6 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Dhegihap → {p,b,m,w} / _C
37.2.6.1 Proto-Dhegiha to Kansap → {p,b,m,w} / _C
37.2.6.2 Proto-Dhegiha to Omaha-Poncap → b / V_V
pr sr tʲr kr → bθ sn ʃn ɡθ
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to Osagep → {p,b,m,w} / _C
pr sr tʲr kr → bð sts ʃd ɡð
37.2.6.4 Proto-Dhegiha to Quapawp → {p,b,m,w} / _C
37.2.7 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Ohio-Valleyp → {p,b,m,w} / _C
37.2.7.1 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Biloxip → {p,b,m,w} / _C
p → w / V_V, apparently as a result of some dissimilation, as this appears to be an allophone of /p/ here, IIUC
37.2.7.2 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Ofop → {p,b,m,w} / _C
37.2.7.3 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Tutelop → {p,b,m,w} / _C
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.1 Proto-Tai to Ahompl b{l,r} → v pj
38.1.1.2 Proto-Tai to Saekpr b{l,r} vr → v bj d
38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchowpr → pʰ / _{ɯ,e,i}
pr → pʰj
38.1.1.3.2 Central Tai to Nungpr → pʰ / _{ɯ,e,i}
pr → pʰj
38.1.1.3.3 Central Tai to Taypr → tʰ
38.1.1.3.4 Central Tai to Thopr → tʰ
38.1.1.3.5 Central Tai to T’ien-Paopr → tʰ
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Tai{pʰ,b} ɓ {tʰ,d} ɗ {kʰ,ɡ} {kʷʰ,ɡ} → p b t d k kʷ
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Taip → p(ʰ)
pr → t
39 Tanoan39.1 Proto-Tanoan to Jimezp b → ɸ ɱ
39.4 Proto-Tanoan to Tewapʰ tʰ tsʰ → f θ s
41 Trans-New Guinea41.1 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Apalɨp k ⁿd → β {h,k} nj / V_V
{p,t} → ∅ / _#
41.2 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Asmatp → f / #_ (?)
p t nj → {t,r} {r,s,t} s / _#
41.4 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kaeti{p,ᵐb} ŋɡ → b ɡ / #_
41.7 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kâtep k → t ʔ / _#
p → f
41.10 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Telefol{p,ᵐb} → f / #_
42 Uralic42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishpː tː tsː kː → pˑ tˑ tsˑ kˑ
p t ts s k → b d s z ɡ
{kt,pt} {kts,pts} → tː tːs
{p,t,k}({p,t,k})n {p,t,k}({p,t,k})m → nː mː
{p,t,k} → ∅ / _st
{p,k} → h / _t
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnishpˑ tˑ θˑ kˑ → p t θ k
p → β → U / _R
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livonianp t(ʲ) s(ʲ) k → b d(ʲ) z(ʲ) ɡ / ! #_ or adjacent to C[-voice]
43 Uto-Aztecan43.1 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Comanchep t ts s → v r ∅ h
43.2 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Hopip → v / Vn_
43.3 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Luiseñop → v / {Vn,ɨ}_ (the latter “sometimes”)
p → v / “other conditions not known”
43.4 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Nahuatlp → ∅ / {#,Vs}_
43.5.1.1 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Kawaiisup → b / m_
43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhamp → w / {#,Vs}_
46 Vowel Shifts46.16 Development of Proto-Lolo-Burmese -i(C)# and -u(C)# to Lahu-i -i{p,k} -it -i{m,ŋ} -in → -i -ɨʔ -iʔ -ɛ -ɨ
-u -up -ut -uk -um -un -uŋ → -u -ɔʔ -əʔ -uʔ -ɔ -ə -ɛ
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.1 List 1: Simple Consonant Changespʲ → kʲ (some Romanian dialects, Tsakonian)
47.2 List 2: Conditional or complex consonant changesp → w / V_V (Marathi)

to /p/

291 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Omoticf → p
6.1.1.5 North Omotic to Shekkachopʼ → p / V_
6.1.1.8 North Omotic to Zayse-Zergullapʼ → ʔp
6.1.2.1 South Omotic to Aaripʼ → {b,p}ʼ
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berberf → p / #_V{Z,C[-voice],r}
pʼ → p
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabicf θ → p t / F_
7 Algonquian7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfootθp tʃp ʃp → {x,sː} ʔp sːp
7.5 Proto-Algonquian to Cheyennep t k → {hp,∅} ht {hk,∅}
7.6 Proto-Algonquian to Northern East Cree(t)ʃp → sp
7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East Cree(t)ʃp → sp
7.8 Proto-Algonquian to Plains Cree(t)ʃp → sp
7.9 Proto-Algonquian to Swampy Cree(t)ʃp → sp
7.10 Proto-Algonquian to Woods Cree(t)ʃp → sp
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawarekw pw mw → kʷ pʷ mʷ
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonicpʰ tʰ kʰ → p t k
b → p / #_
8.2 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Koreanpʰ tʰ kʰ → p t {k,h}
b → p / #_
8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusicpʰ → p
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkicpʰ → p
8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchakf → p / else
9 Austroasiatic9.1.2 Proto-Vietic to Middle Vietnamesebʱ {tʰ,dʱ} {t*ʰ,d*ʱ} {kʰ,ɡʱ} → pʰ t tʰ kʰ (after *kʰ *ɡʱ, only first-register tones may occur)
10 Austronesian10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorrob dz → p ts
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Madurese{p,t,k} b d ɡ → ʔ p t k / _#
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North Sarawakpː tː cː kː → p t c k
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiputb d → p t / _#
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lónghbʱ dʱ dzʱ ɡʱ → p t c k
b d dz ɡ → p t c k / N_
10.3 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Oceanicmb → p
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwb d ɡ → p t k
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerigb bʷ d ɡ → p kpʷ t k
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to Mwotlapp pʷ bʷ k ɡ → β w kpʷ ɣ k
b β d → m p n / _{C,#}
10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to Caaàcpː pwː tː ʈː qː kː → pʰ pwʰ cʰ tʰ h jʰ
10.3.5.2 Proto-New Caledonia to Jawépː pwː t̪ː tː kː cː → pʰ hʷ t̪ʰ tʰ h jʰ
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to Nyelâyupː pwː tː qː cː → pʰ pwʰ tʰ h cʰ
10.3.5.7 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwapwâpː pwː t̪ː tː kː cː → pʰ xʷ t̪ʰ tʰ x s
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Yunagapː pwː t̪ː tː ʈː cː kː → pʰ pwʰ t̪ʰ tʰ ʈʰ jʰ h
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bayb bʷ ɡ → p pʷ k
v t l r → p dr n w / _#
10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to Tolomakomʷ b(ʷ) vʷ → m p b
10.3.9.3 Proto-Utupua to Tanibilipʷ bw → p b
10.3.10 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Vanikorop q → {v,p} ∅
10.3.10.1 Proto-Vanikoro to Bumapʷ bw mʷ → p b m
10.3.10.3 Proto-Vanikoro to Vanopʷ mʷ → p m
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejomb(ʷ) ɡ → p(ʷ) k
10.3.11.2 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Erromangomʷ pʷ bʷ vʷ → m p b v
v → p / #_
10.3.11.2.1 Proto-Erromango to Syeb d ɡ → p t k / {#,C}_
b d ɡ → mp nt ŋk
f → p / #_
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Urab d ɡ → p t k / _#
10.3.11.3.1 Proto-Tanna to Kwamerab(ʷ) d → p(ʷ) t
10.3.11.3.2 Proto-Tanna to Lenakelb(ʷ) d → p(ʷ) t
10.3.11.3.3 Proto-Tanna to North Tannakʷ → p / _#
10.3.11.3.4 Proto-Tanna to Southwest Tannab(ʷ) d → p(ʷ) t
10.3.11.3.5 Proto-Tanna to Whitesandsb(ʷ) d → p(ʷ) t
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’abʷ ɡ → kpʷ k
10.4.1 Proto-Micronesian to Marshallesep {t,ts} c → pʲ tʲ rʲ
11 Northeast Caucasian11.4 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Lakb d → {pː,b} {tː,d} (but *b is “[p]rone to change to *m”)
11.5.3 Proto-Lezgic to Lezghib d → {pː,b} {tː,d}
12 Northwest Caucasian12.1 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Abazgi{pʷ,pʲ} {p(ʲ)ː,bˤ} bʷ pʷʲ bʷʲ → p b f tsʲ dzʲ
12.1.1 Proto-Abazgi to Ashkharywa Abazatʷ(ʼ) dʷ → {tʷ(ʼ),p(ʼ)} {dʷ,b}
12.1.3 Proto-Abazgi to Ahchypsy Abkhaztʃʷ tʃʷʼ dʒʷ tɕ(ʼ) dʑ → f pʼ ts(ʼ) v dz
12.1.4 Proto-Abazgi to Bzyp Abkhaztʃʷ tʃʷʼ dʒʷ → pʼ f v
12.1.6 Proto-Abazgi to Tsabal Abzhywatʃʷ tʃʷʼ tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f pʼ ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑ
12.2 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Circassianpʷ pʷʲ pʷʲʼ bʷ bʷʲ → p tʷ tʷʼ b d
pˤ(ː) pˤ bˤ → p(ː) pʼ b
12.2.1.1 Adyghe to Abadzekh Adyghepː tː tsː tsʷ ʃː tʃː tɕː kʲː kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → p t ts tʃʷ ʃ ɕ tɕ tʃ kʷ qː qʷ
12.2.1.3 Adyghe to Shapsug Adyghepː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː tsː tcː kʲː kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → p t ts tʃʷ ʃ tʃ tɕ kʲ kʷ χ~q χʷ~qʷ
p(ʷ)ʼ t(ʷ)ʼ tsʼ tsʷʼ~ʃʷʼ → pˤ tˤ tsˤ ʂʷ
12.2.1.4 Adyghe to Temirgoy Adyghepː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː tʃː tɕː → p t ts tsʷʲ ʃ tʃ tɕ
12.3 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Ubykhpʷʲʼ pˤ pˤː pˤʼ bˤ → tʷʼ vˤ bˤ pˤʼ bˤ
13 Chumashan13.6 Proto-Chumash to Ventureñopʼ kʼ qʼ → p k q
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamitemp → p(ː) / V_V
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow Iñupiaqv → p / _s
v ʁ → p q / S_
v ɣ ʁ → p k q / _C (unless C = one of /l dʒ m n ŋ)
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic Iñupiaqm n ŋ t {{ɣ,ʁ} → {k,q}} → p t k n ŋ / _#
v ʁ → p q / S_
v ɣ ʁ → p k q / _C (except where C = /l dʒ m n ŋ/)
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie Iñupiaqv → p / _s
v ʁ → p q / S_
15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales Iñupiaqv → p / _s
v ʁ → p q / S_
v ɣ ʁ → p k q / _C (except if C = /l dʒ m n ŋ/)
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central Sentanip b t → f p {s,h} / #_
17 Indo-European17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenianb d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʷʱ → p t j k / #_
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenianb d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenianb d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenianb d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡ(ʷ)ʱ → p t j k / #_
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenianb d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenianb d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡ(ʷ)ʱ → p t j k / #_
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenianb d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshkʷ → p
17.7 Proto-Indo-European to Common Germanicb d ɡ → p t k
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlautp t k → pf ts kx / #_
p t k → pf ts kx / {L,N}_
pː tː kː → pf ts kx
b d ɡ → p t k
17.7.2.5 West Germanic to Old Low Germanb d → p t / _C[-voice]
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norseb {w,v} d ð ɡ → p f t θ k / _#
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandicb d {ɡ,ɣ} → p t k / _S
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornb d ɡ → p t k / #_
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornb d → p t / N_
f → p / _t
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.10 Proto-Indo-European to Mycenaean Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittitebʱ dʱ ɡʱ → p t k
17.10 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iranianptʃ → pʃ
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-Aryantv dv → p b
17.10.1.5 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Vedic Sanskritbzʱ → ps
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishpʲ mʲ fʲ → p m f / _#
plv → pf
17.11.2 Proto-Slavic to Old Russianmj pj bj → mlʲ plʲ blʲ
17.12 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Italicp → {p,kʷ}
bʰ dʰ gʰ → pʰ tʰ dʰ → ɸ θ x
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latin∅ → p / m_{s,t,l}
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguesepl → {ʃ,pr} / #_
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençalb {d,dz,dʒ} z ʒ ɡ → p {t,ts,tʃ} s ʃ k / _(s)#
mn → mpn → nː (dialectal)
ms ns → mps nts (sporadic?)
pw → upw → up → ub
pj → ptʃ → tʃ (except in western and some southern dialects)
bk → pts / _a
βt βd → pt bd (in the west)
pk → ptʃ / _a
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romaniankʷ ɡʷ → p b / V_a
c → p / _{s,t}
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardiniankw ɡw → pː bː / #_ (“[o]nly Logudorese”)
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanishɾj pj → jɾ jp / V_
pː tː kː sː tːs ʝː → p t k s ts ʝ
— mpVt skVp spVt stVk → nt sp st sk
17.12.2 Proto-Italic to Proto-Sibellianḱ ɡ́ kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ p b
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tocharianp {ts,k(ʷ)} m n l r y → pj sʲ ʂ mj ɲ lj rj wj / _{E(:),y}
17.13.1 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian Ak → p / _{s,ʂ}
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.2.1 Proto-Ofaié-Jê to Proto-Jêŋʷ {kʷ,hʷ} → m p
18.2.2 Proto-Ofaié-Jê to Ofaié-Xavantem → {w,p}
18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makurápj ŋʷ m n → ɲ m {m,p} {∅,t} / _V[+nas]
18.3.3 Proto-Tuparí to Tuparíᵐb ŋʷ → p β / #_V[-nas]
18.4.6 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Kamayuráb r → p t / _#
21 Lakes Plain21.1.2 Proto-Far West to Saponip d → p~f n / #_
p b d k → p~f w ɾ ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.2.2 Proto-East Tariku to Doutaip → p~ɸ
21.2.2.3 Proto-East Tariku to Eritaip → p~h
21.2.2.6 Proto-East Tariku to Sikaritaip → p~h
21.2.2.7 Proto-East Tariku to Waritaip d → p~ɸs d~t
22 Macro-Arawakan22.1 Proto-Arawá to Arawápʰ → p / #_
22.5 Proto-Arawá to Kulína-Deníɓ → p / medially
22.7 Proto-Arawá to Paumarípʰ → p / #_
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to Chibchab → p / _Vkʷ
23.1.2 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Lencanb d → p l
23.1.3 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Misumalpanb d → {b,p} l
26 Mande26.2 Proto-Mande to Busakp kpʼ → {kp,k} ɡb
26.4 Proto-Mande to Gurokp {kpʼ,ɡb} → p b
26.5 Proto-Mande to Kono-Vai{ɡ,w,kp} kpʼ ɡb → k kp b
26.6 Proto-Mande to Southwest Mandef → p
kp kpʼ ɡb → {k,B} kp B (it’s unclear what this 〈B〉 is)
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.30 Proto-Athabaskan to Hare Slavey-Harets tsʰ tsʼ {s,z} → {kʷ,p} f wˀ w
29.1.1.1.31 Proto-Athabaskan to Mountain Slavey-Harets tsʰ tsʼ s z → p pʰ pʼ f v
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1.2 Proto-Bantu to Tswanamp nt ɲtʃ nk mp nd ɲdʒ nɡ → pʰ tʰ tɬʰ qʰ p t tɬ k
30.2 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Potou-Akanicɟ ʄ j c ɠʷ → c ɟ ʄ t ɠ̥p
30.2.1.1 Proto-Akanic to Akan{p,ʋ̃} c k͜p → f s p / #_
30.3.1.1.1 Proto-Gbe to Ajáχʷ hʷ → w p
30.3.1.1.4 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Genχʷ → p
32 Oto-Manguean32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to Tlapaneckʷ → p
34 Quechumaran34.1 Proto-Quechumaran to Ayachucopʼ tʼ tʃʼ kʼ qʼ → p t tʃ k q
ɸ(ʼ,ʰ) → p
34.2 Proto-Quechumaran to Boliviaph th kh qh → pʰ tʰ kʰ qʰ
ɸ(ʼ) ɸh → p(ʼ) pʰ
34.3 Proto-Quechumaran to Cuzcoph → p / #_VA
ph → p / #_aC[+sibilant]
pʼ → p/ #_C[+sibilant]
ph → p / a_ (?)
ph → pʰ
ɸ(ʼ) ɸh → p(ʼ) pʰ
34.4 Proto-Quechumaran to Huaráspʼ tʼ tʃʼ kʼ qʼ → p t ts k q
ɸ(ʼ,ʰ) → p
34.5 Proto-Quechumaran to Putamayopʼ tʼ kʼ qʼ → p t k q
ɸ(ʼ,ʰ) → p
34.6 Proto-Quechumaran to Quitopʼ kʼ qʼ → p k q
ɸ → p / r_
34.7 Proto-Quechumaran to Riobambapʼ tʼ kʼ qʼ → p t k q
ɸ → pʰ / _V
34.8 Proto-Quechumaran to Santiagopʼ tʼ tʃʼ kʼ qʼ → p t tʃ k q
ɸ(ʼ,ʰ) → p
34.9 Proto-Quechumaran to Tenapʼ tʼ kʼ qʼ → p t k q
ɸ(ʼ,ʰ) → p
36 Sino-Tibetan36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàb d dz ɡ → {p,pʼ} {t,tʼ} {ts,tsʼ} {k,kʼ}
36.3.1.2 Proto-Naish to Mosuo (Na){r,s}pʰ {r,s}{(N)p,(m)b} → pʰ p b / _V (the paper implies similar developments occurred with stops at other POAs)
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to Naxi{r,s}pʰ {r,s}(N)p {r,s}b {r,s}mb → pʰ p b mb / _V (the paper implies similar developments occurred with stops at other POAs)
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Lap b çp çb sP rP Np Nb pr {br,pj} bj → pʰ p ʝb çp sp rpʰ mpʰ mb br pʰj pj
P → p / l_
k sk kr ɡ Pɡ sɡ Nɡ (s)ɡr çK rK Kç → kʰ zɡw dr Nɡ pk sk mk (s)kr çk rɡj ɡçkr
NTS PTS KTS sTS çTS → {Ndz,mts} kts(ʰ) ptsʰ sts {sts,rj}
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiap çp (ç)b rP Np Nb pr {br,pj} → p. ç.w (ç)p rp. kj m.p n.br p.j
P → p / l_
Nç → n.pj.
ts (r)dz dʒ PTS KTS sTS çTS → {tsʰ,s} (r)ts tsʰ ɡ.ts s.{ts,pj} {s.ts,br}
36.3.2.1.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Hanniup k ts → p. k. tʃ.
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Top b pr br çp → p.j p br pj ʃb
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtse(N)p Nb sP çp çb pr br {p,b}j → (m)pʰ (m)p sp ʝb çp br pʰj pʰj
(P)ɡ sɡ çK Nɡ k sk rk (s)ɡj (ʔ)kj → (p)k sk çk mk kʰ zɡ Nɡ (s)kj (ʔ)kʰj
N P K → m p k / _ç
ts (r)dz dzl dʒ NTS PTS Kts KTS sTS çTS → tsʰ (r)ts Ndz tsl ts ptç ktç kts sts {s,ç}ts
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Mo{p,b} Np pr {s,r}P çb Nb → p mp mbr sp ʃp p.s
kr rk {rK,Pɡ} ɡ Pɡ sɡ → k.r rk. pk k sk
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku NaoP → p / r_
çb → ʂp
Nb → p.
(P)ç Nç çl → (b)ɕ np.j ʂl
ts dz NTS KTS sTS → tʃ ts {ts,m} ɡts sp
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu TaP → p / s_
P t → pdz tʃ / r_
Np Nb Nt Nɡ Nç → sts mp mtʰ mk ntsʰdz
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassupr b → br p
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.2.1 Proto-Siouan to Catawbap → {p,b,m,w} / _C
37.2.2 Proto-Siouan to Dakotap → {p,b,m,w}
w → p / _t
37.2.3 Proto-Siouan to Mandankm → kV0pV0
37.2.4 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Čiwere-Winnebagop → {p,b,m,w}
37.2.4.1 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Čiwerep → {p,b,m,w} / _C
37.2.4.2 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Winnebagop → {p,b,m,w} / _C
pr {sr,xr} sn km → pV0rV0 ʃV0rV0 sV0nV0 kV0wV0
37.2.5.2 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Hidatsakm → hp
37.2.6 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Dhegihap → {p,b,m,w} / _C
37.2.6.1 Proto-Dhegiha to Kansap → {p,b,m,w} / _C
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to Osagep → {p,b,m,w} / _C
37.2.6.4 Proto-Dhegiha to Quapawp → {p,b,m,w} / _C
37.2.7 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Ohio-Valleyp → {p,b,m,w} / _C
37.2.7.1 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Biloxip → {p,b,m,w} / _C
37.2.7.2 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Ofop → {p,b,m,w} / _C
37.2.7.3 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Tutelop → {p,b,m,w} / _C
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.1 Proto-Tai to Ahom{f,v} {m,b} → pʰ b
pl b{l,r} → v pj
38.1.1.2 Proto-Tai to Saekt → {p,t} / _r
38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Taif → pʰ
b{l,r} → pj
38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchowpr → pʰ / _{ɯ,e,i}
pr → pʰj
38.1.1.3.2 Central Tai to Nungpr → pʰ / _{ɯ,e,i}
pr → pʰj
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Tai{pʰ,b} ɓ {tʰ,d} ɗ {kʰ,ɡ} {kʷʰ,ɡ} → p b t d k kʷ
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Taip → p(ʰ)
38.1.1.5.1 Southwest Tai to Laobl br → p pʰ
38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lübl br → p pʰ
38.1.1.5.3 Southwest Tai to Shanbl br → p pʰ
38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siameseb → pʰ / _{l,r}
38.1.1.5.5 Southwest Tai to Black Taibl br → p pʰ
38.1.1.5.6 Southwest Tai to White Taibl br → p pʰ
41 Trans-New Guinea41.2 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Asmatᵐb ᵑɡ → p k / V_V
41.3 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Binandereᵐb ⁿd ᵑɡ nj → {p,ᵐb} {ⁿd,z} k z / V_V
41.5.1.2 Proto-Gorokan to North ForeNw Nm N{n,j} → ŋk mp nt
41.5.1.3 Proto-Gorokan to South ForeNw Nm N{n,j} → ŋk mp nt
41.5.1.5 Proto-Gorokan to Gimiʔv ʔm ʔɡ ʔr → t p k v
41.5.1.8 Proto-Gorokan to Moveʔv ʔm ʔɡ ʔr ʔh → p b k t {s,f}
41.5.1.10 Proto-Gorokan to Yagariaʔv ʔm ʔɡ ʔr ʔh → p b k t {s,f}
41.5.2.2 Proto-Kainantu to Awaʔw ʔb ʔd ʔɡ → m p t k
41.7 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kâteᵐb ⁿd → {ᵐb,p} s / V_V
41.8 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kiwait k ᵐb → {s,t} {ɡ,∅} {b,p} / #_
t ᵐb ⁿd {k,ᵑɡ} nj → {r,t} p {d,t} ɡ r / V_V
41.9 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Selepett ᵐb nj s → r {b,p} ⁿd {s,d} / V_V
42 Uralic42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishpː tː tsː kː → pˑ tˑ tsˑ kˑ
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnishpˑ tˑ θˑ kˑ → p t θ k
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.1 Proto-Pai to Chapaib → p
45.1.3 Proto-Pai to Tipaib → p
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.1 List 1: Simple Consonant Changesw → p (Navajo, some Polynesian languages)
j → p (some Polynesian languages, such as Levei and Drehet) (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proto-Austronesian_language)
f → p (? claimed to have occurred independently in Proto-Semitic and Proto-Omotic, and to a limited extent in Egyptian (but this may be related to the Semitic change); note that the Wikipedia article is cited to a single source and that source is admittedly theoretical, and acknowledges on page 77 another reconstruction that doesn’t believe Proto-Afro-Asiatic had /f/ at all) (Page 77 of http://is.gd/WNyXdn, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proto-Afro-Asiatic_language)

with context involving /p/

75 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North Omotice → i / p_r
N → ∅ / V_{C[+sibilant],p}
7 Algonquian7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenakij → ∅ / _# ! p_
7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-Atsinatʃ → ʃ / _p
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfooth → x / _{p,k}
m → ʔ / _p
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawarew → ∅ / {p,m}_#
w → ∅ / ! {k,p,m}_
Cʷ → C / _ə{(C){p,kʷ},m,w}
θ ʃ x → x s h / _{p,k}
ə → o / _h{p,kʷ,w,m}
ə → o / _x{p,kʷ,V[+round]}
ə → o / {p,m}_x
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaqx → ∅ / _{p,k}
7.15 Proto-Algonquian to Ojibwe{θ,s,h,ʔ} → ∅ / _{p,t,tʃ,k}
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to ShawneeV[-long] → ∅ / _{ʃp,ʃk}
Vː → V[-long] / _{ʔC,ʃp,ʃk,hV}
∅ → ʔ / C{v,d}_{ʃp,ʃk,hV}
9 Austroasiatic9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnameseə → ∅ / {i,ɨ}_{p,m.w}
10 Austronesian10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabau— a → o / _p#
10.3.5.4 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-NorthernC → ∅ / _$(possessive suffix)#
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark BayV[+ high] → ∅ / _# ! {p,z,d(r)}_
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamili(ː) e(ː) → u(ː) o(ː) / {m,v,p}_C̣
17 Indo-European17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irish— n → ∅ / {i,o,u}_{p,t,k,s}
— {a,e}n → eː / _{p t k s}
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scotst → ∅ / {p,k}_# (“except in some inflected forms” for *kt)
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotst → ∅ / p_
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germans → ʃ / #_{l,m,n,w,p,t}
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlauts → ʃ / #_{p,t}
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norset → ∅ / p_{ɡ,ɣ,n}
β ð ɣ → f θ k / _{p,t,k,s}
θ → t / {p,t,k}_
F[- voice] → ∅ / {s,f,x,h,t}_{p,t,k}
t → θ / _{p,k}
k → x / _{p,t}
r → ∅ / {p,t,k}_Vr
rː lː → r l / {p,t,k,f,s}_
f → v / _{p,t,k}
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandicn̥ → m̥ / p_#
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishj → lʲ / {p,b,m,v}_ (sporadic)
ɛ ɛ̃ ɛː → ɔ ɔ̃ a / _C[-palatalized +dental] (also sporadically before plain non-dentals)
n → m / {b,p}{l,r,ʐ}V_
p → ∅ / #_p
ʈʂ → ʂ / _p
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to Frenchn → r / {ɡ,p}_
V → ə / _{CC,tʃ,dʒ} ! _{nt,nɡ,mp,rt,rd}
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makurápu → o / _{p,b}i
ɨ → ∅ / ! #_{p,β}e
18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekensɨ → i / #_{p,βe}
18.3.3 Proto-Tuparí to Tuparíu → o / _{p,b}i
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayoróu → ɨ / _{p,b}i
21 Lakes Plain21.2.2.6 Proto-East Tariku to Sikaritaiik → ɡ / {s,k,p}_ ?
21.2.2.7 Proto-East Tariku to Waritaiik → ɡ / {s,p}_ ?
34 Quechumaran34.1 Proto-Quechumaran to Ayachucoh → ∅ / {p,t,k,q}_
34.4 Proto-Quechumaran to Huarásh → ∅ / p_
34.8 Proto-Quechumaran to Santiagoh → ∅ / {p,t,k}_
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old MandarinC → Cʲ / ?ʲ{p,t}_
36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàjuŋ → iuŋ / _ɡ[+píng tone]
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to NaxiN → ∅ / _pV
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Mou → o / _p
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Nao∅ → n / _pr
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu Taa → e / _(p)
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to Osageʔ → ∅ / p_
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Tail → ∅ / p_{ɯ,e,i}
l → j / p_
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Tail → ∅ / p(ʰ),b_E
l → j / p(ʰ),b_V
38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-Aie → o / _{m,p}%
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Tail → ∅ / {p,k(ʰ),ŋ}_
38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siamesee → o / _{m,p}%
41 Trans-New Guinea41.5.2.2 Proto-Kainantu to AwaN → ∅ / _{p,t,#}
ʔ → ∅ / _{p,t}
43 Uto-Aztecan43.5.1.2 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Monom → h / _p
43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhaml → i / {p,m,k(ʷ),w}_# “in all dialects, and varies by dialect after other consonants”
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basqueu ũ → y ỹ / _r(p(ʰ),β,k(ʰ),ɣ,l,s̺,s̻,ʃ,h) (Souletin)