Index Diachronica: involving /t/

1068 results from /t/   983 results to /t/   219 results with context involving /t/   

plain tʲʼ tʷʲ tʷʲʼ tʷʼ tʷː t̪ʰ t̪ː t͜s ʼt

from /t/

1068 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Omoticdz ʃ tʃ → ʒ s1 s2
dʒ → tʃ → ʃ
t → ∅ / _s#
6.1.1.1 North Omotic to Benchtʃ → ts
6.1.1.2 North Omotic to Dizintsʼ → ʒ / V_
ts → tʃ / _i
6.1.1.3 North Omotic to Kafatsʼ → tʃʼ
{ts,ʒ} → tʃ / V_
tsʼ → tʃʼ
6.1.1.4 North Omotic to Maalets tsː → s ts / V_
tsʼ → tʃʼ / #_
tsʼ → s / V_
6.1.1.5 North Omotic to Shekkachotsʼ → tʃʼ
{s3,ts,ʒ} → s / _$#
ts → ʃ / V_
6.1.1.7 North Omotic to Yemsatʃ ʒ → ʔj s
ts → s / #_
tʃʼ → tʃ
6.1.1.8 North Omotic to Zayse-Zergullatsʼ → sʼ
tsː → ts / V_
tsʼ → {tʃʼ,s}
6.1.2.1 South Omotic to Aaritʃ → ts
6.1.2.2 South Omotic to Dimetʃ → ts
ts → ʃ / _i
6.2 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Erythreantʃ dʒ → ts dz
6.2.1.1.2 Proto-Agaw to Blin{ts,tʃ} z dz → ʃ d dʒ
t → r / medially
6.2.1.1.3 Proto-Agaw to Kemantney{ts,tʃ} dz → ʃ dʒ
t → j / medially
6.2.1.1.4 Proto-Agaw to Xamtangats tʃ dz → sʼ tʃʼ z
6.2.2.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-Chadicts dz {t,ts}ʼ tʃʼ → s z sʼ ʃʼ
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berber{ʃ,ts,z} dz tʃ {tʼ,tʃʼ} dʒ → s z ts tsʼ dʒ
tlʼ → dl / #_Vħr
6.2.2.1.4 Proto-Boreafrasian to Proto-Semitictlʼ → ɬ / _C[+sibilant]
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabictˤ sˤ → s t
6.2.2.1.14 Classical Arabic to Moroccan Arabict → t͜s / plain t only, distinguishable from the sequence ts
6.2.2.1.18 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrewp b t d k ɡ → b v θ ð x ɣ / non-intial singletons
at → aː / _# (in feminine noun endings)
6.2.2.1.19 Biblical Hebrew to Modern Israeli Hebrewsˤ tˤ ħ q → s t χ k
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakiʃ tʃ → s ts
ʔs ʔts → sː tsː
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenakiʃ tʃ → s ts
ʔs ʔts → sː tsː
7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-Atsinatʃ → ʃ / _p
tʃ → θ
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventreʃ {θ,t} m k → s ts tʲ bʲ / _{i(ː),j,#}
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfoot{θ,tʃ,ʃ,r} → t / unless adjacent to another consonant
{ʃ,tʃ} → s / #_
ntʃ → ʔt
θp tʃp ʃp → {x,sː} ʔp sːp
t → ts / _{i,e(ː),a}
tem {k,p}en → mː nː
ket → tː (→ sː?)
tsi → ∅ / $_OO “(before a prefix; the first obstruent of the follow[ing] cluster then becomes ʔ)
7.5 Proto-Algonquian to Cheyennep t k → {hp,∅} ht {hk,∅}
{(t)l,θ} → t
ʃ tʃ → {ʃ,x} s
7.6 Proto-Algonquian to Northern East Cree(t)ʃp → sp
7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East Cree(t)ʃp → sp
tʃ → ts
7.8 Proto-Algonquian to Plains Cree(t)ʃp → sp
ʃ tʃ → s ts
7.9 Proto-Algonquian to Swampy Cree(t)ʃp → sp
tʃ → ts
7.10 Proto-Algonquian to Woods Cree(t)ʃp → sp
ʃ tʃ → s ts
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawaretʃ → t / in nouns
t s → tʃ ʃ / in diminutives
{tʃ,ç} → h / _k
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menomineeʃ tʃ → s ts
7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-Illinoistʃ → t / in nominal suffixes
t → tʃ / in diminutives
{θ,ʃ,tʃ,ç,x,ʔ} → h / _C
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaqtʃ → ʃ / ! C_
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawnee{h,s,tʃ,θ} → ʔ / _O
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonicpʰ tʰ kʰ → p t k
tʃʰ → t
tʃ dʒ → t d / #_
tʃ → s / maybe ! _#?
8.2 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Korean{tʰ,d} {k,ɡ} → r {h,∅} / {C,V}_{C,V}
pʰ tʰ kʰ → p t {k,h}
{tʃʰ,dʒ} → tʃ
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolictʰ → d / _#
t(ʰ) d → tʃ dʒ / _i
tʰ → t / else
tʃ → dʒ / #_i
tʃ → d / #
tʃʰ → tʃ
8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusict → dʒ / #_{æ,ø,y}
t → d / #_
tʰ tʃʰ → t tʃ
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkictʰ → d / #_(V){lʲ,r(ʲ)}
tʰ → t
{t,tʃ} → d / #_
8.5.1.1 Proto-Kypchak to Kazakhtʃ → ʃ
9 Austroasiatic9.1.1 Proto-Vietic to Muong Khentʰ → h (Only seems to have occurred with first-register tones)
{pj,bj} {tj,dj} {cj,ɟj} → b d j
tɹ → tʰ
9.1.2 Proto-Vietic to Middle Vietnamesebʱ {tʰ,dʱ} {t*ʰ,d*ʱ} {kʰ,ɡʱ} → pʰ t tʰ kʰ (after *kʰ *ɡʱ, only first-register tones may occur)
(h)ə{p,b} (h)ə{t,d} (h)ə{c,ɟ} (h)ə{k,ɡ} → β dʲ ɟ ɡ
{pj,bj} {tj,dj} {cj,ɟj} → {β,w} dʲ ɟ
tʃ → Ω (This is my own notation. I don’t have a clue what the intermediate form was; became something else in different dialects)
t → ∅ / _ɹ (only first-register tones can occur in this environment)
t*ʰ d ɡ → tʰ t k / _w
9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnamese{bl,tl} → ʈ (?)
c ɲ t n → t n k ŋ / a_ (short /a/ only)
10 Austronesian10.1 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Malayo-Polynesians ts lʲ → h t n
10.1.1.5 Proto-Polynesian to Luangiuak t → ʔ k
10.1.2.7.1 Proto-Kalamian to Agutaynent → s / _i
10.1.2.7.2 Proto-Kalamian to Karamiananen{t,k} q → ʔ k / _C
t → s / _i
10.1.2.7.3 Proto-Kalamian to Kalamian Tagbanwa{t,k,q,s} → k / _C
10.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Batak{ts,ʈ} {ɟʝ͡,ɖ} {lʲ,ɲ} {ʔ,x,s,h} ʀ → t d n ∅ r (velar fricative is conjectured; changes → d “unsure”)
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Madurese{p,t,k} b d ɡ → ʔ p t k / _#
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauant → ð / ! adjacent to S
t → {s,ð} / “unpredictably, to eliminate sV(C)t and tV(C)s sequences”
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North Sarawakpː tː cː kː → p t c k
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lóngh{p,t} n → c̚ ɲ / {i,ɛ}_#
{p,t} {m,n} → k ŋ / ɯ_#
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabau— {p,t,k} s → ʔ h / _#
10.3 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Oceanic{nts,ns,nz,nɡʲ} {ts,z,ɡʲ} → ɡʲ s
10.3.1 Proto-Oceanic to Hawai’iank t → ʔ k
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerigt → ʔ “often”
10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to Caaàcpː pwː tː ʈː qː kː → pʰ pwʰ cʰ tʰ h jʰ
q {k,t} {s,ʈ} → k c t
t c → l j / V_V
10.3.5.2 Proto-New Caledonia to Jawépː pwː t̪ː tː kː cː → pʰ hʷ t̪ʰ tʰ h jʰ
t̪ → l / V_V
t̪ t̪ʰ t tʰ → t tʰ c s
10.3.5.3 Proto-New Caledonia to Nemi-Pije-Fwaipː pwː tː t̪ː kː cː → f hʷ t̪ʰ tʰ h jʰ
t̪ → l / V_V
t tʰ → c h / _E
t̪ t̪ʰ → t tʰ
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-Nêlêmwat → k
t̪ → t
pw p t ʈ k c → (v)w v r l ɣ j / V_V
pwʰ pʰ tʰ kʰ → fw f rʰ x / in Nelemwa
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to Nyelâyuk t s → j c t̪
p pw t̪ ʈ c → v (v)w r l j / V_V
t̪ ʈ → r l / _#
{t̪,ʈ} → t
pː pwː tː qː cː → pʰ pwʰ tʰ h cʰ
10.3.5.6 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwaameiq k t s → k j c t
pː pwː tː ʈ kː cː → f hʷ tʰ lʰ h s
10.3.5.7 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwapwâpː pwː t̪ː tː kː cː → pʰ xʷ t̪ʰ tʰ x s
t̪(ʰ) t(ʰ) → cʰ tʰ
p pw t {k,c} → {v,∅} w l ∅ / V_V
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Yunagapː pwː t̪ː tː ʈː cː kː → pʰ pwʰ t̪ʰ tʰ ʈʰ jʰ h
t(ʰ) → k(ʰ)
p pw t̪ ʈ k c → v w ð l ∅ j / V_V
10.3.5.8.2 Proto-Yunaga to Yunaga 2{t̪,ʈ} → t
10.3.6.1 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Äiwoo{t,k} → ∅ / V_V
10.3.6.2 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Nagut → l / V_V
10.3.6.3 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Natügut → {t,l} / #_
t → l / _{u,i}
t k → l ∅ / V_V
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bayv t l r → p dr n w / _#
t → ts / _V[+ high]
10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to Tolomakom b → n̼ t̼ → n t / _{a,e,i}
10.3.9.1 Proto-Utupua to Asuboat r l → {j,s} {j,∅} j / _u
t → s / _i
10.3.9.2 Proto-Utupua to Nebaot k → r ∅ / #_ (though *t seems to have occasionally survived?)
t → {r,t} / _B
t → {r,t} / V_V
10.3.9.3 Proto-Utupua to Tanibilip t {r,l} → ∅ s j / _u
t → {t,r,kʷ} / #_ (I’m not kidding. That’s what’s listed as the reflexes.)
t k → {t,r,kʷ,∅} ∅ / V_V
10.3.10.1 Proto-Vanikoro to Bumap t → ∅ {s,k} / _u
10.3.10.2 Proto-Vanikoro to Tanemat → {∅,t} / #_
t → s / _u
10.3.10.3 Proto-Vanikoro to Vanot → l / #_, in nouns
t → s / _{u,i}
t → l / V_V
10.3.11 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Southern Vanuatut → c / _E
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejomt → s / _#
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Ura{s,t} → h / _{n,l,r}
t → r / ! at word boundaries
10.3.11.3.1 Proto-Tanna to Kwamerat → r
10.3.11.3.2 Proto-Tanna to Lenakelt → r
10.3.11.3.4 Proto-Tanna to Southwest Tannat → r
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’at → ʔ “often”
10.4.1 Proto-Micronesian to Marshallesep {t,ts} c → pʲ tʲ rʲ
10.6 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Paiwant1 d1 d3 Z → t d ɖ ɟ
10.7 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Rukai{t1,c} {d1,z} d3 → t d ɖ
11 Northeast Caucasian11.1.1 Proto-Avar-Andic to Akhvakh{ts,st} → tʃ
tɬː dɮ → tɬ(ː) tɬː
11.1.2 Proto-Avar-Andic to Andi{ts,st} dz → s {tsːʼ,z}
stː → sː
tɬ tɬ(ː) tɬ(ː)(ʼ) dʒ → ɬ tɬ(ː) tɬ(ː)(ʼ) tɬː
11.1.3 Proto-Avar-Andic to Avarts tsː tsʼ tsːʼ dz → sh ts tʃʼ ts(ː)ʼ tsʼ
st(ː) → ts
tʃ tʃː tʃːʼ dʒ → ts(?) tʃ tʃ(ː)ʼ tsʼ
tɬ tɬʼ tɬː tɬːʼ → ɬ tʼ tɬ tɬ(ː)ʼ
11.2 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Dargi{tsː,st} tsːʼ dz stː → ts z tsː s
tʃ tʃː dʒ → {tsʼ,tʃʼ} ʒ ts
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ → k {xʲː,kː} kʰ {ɡ,q}(?)
11.3 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Khinalug{tsː,st} {tsːʼ,dz} → ts tsʼ
{tʃ(ː),dʒ} → tʃʼ
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → k {k,xʲ} {kʼ,ɡ} {kʼ,kː} kʼ
11.4 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Lak{tsː,stː} dz st → sː {tsː,z} ts
tʃ tʃː dʒ → {ts,tʃ} {tsʼ,tʃʼ} tʃ(ː)ʼ
tɬ tɬː tɬ(ː)ʼ dɮ → xʲ xː kʼ {kː,l}
11.5.1 Proto-Lezgic to Agul{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ stː dz → {s,ts} {ts,tʃ} tː s z
tʃːʼ → tʃː
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ x kʼ kː {,j,xʲ}
11.5.2 Proto-Lezgic to Archi{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ stː dz → s {s,ʃ} tsʼ sː ts
tʃ(ː) dʒ → ʃ tʃ
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → ɬ ɬ(ː) kʼ tɬʼ tɬː
11.5.3 Proto-Lezgic to Lezghi{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ dz → {ʃ,tʃ} tʃ(ʼ) {tʃː,dʒ}
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ {ɣʲ,ɡ} qʼ k(ʼ) {kː,ɣʲ}
11.5.4 Proto-Lezgic to Rutul{ts,st} tsːʼ dz → {s,ts} {d,t} z
tʃ tʃː tʃːʼ → {ʃ,tʃ} ʃ tʃ
tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ qʼ q(ʼ) {w,xʲ,j}
11.5.5 Proto-Lezgic to Tabassaran{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ → {s,ts} {ts,tʃ} tsː
tʃ tʃː tʃːʼ → {ʃ,tʃ} {tʃ,dʒ} {tʃː,tʃʼ}(?)
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ {ɣʲ,ɡ} k kː ɣʲ
11.5.6 Proto-Lezgic to Udits tsː tsʼ tsːʼ dz → {∅,s} tʃ {∅,tsʼ} {tsʼ,tʃʼ} z
t → ∅ / s_
tʃ tʃː tʃʼ tʃːʼ dʒ → {∅,ʃ} tʃ ∅ tʃʼ {dʒ,tʃ}
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → {∅,x} q {∅,qʼ} qʼ {ɣ,l}
11.6 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Nakhst stː → st(ʼ) st
tsː tʃː → ts tʃ / #_
tsːʼ → tsː
{tsː,tʃː,dz,dʒ} → tː / _#
tɬ(ː) tɬʼ tɬːʼ → x qʼ ʕ
11.7 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Proto-Tsezic{ts,st} {tsːʼ,dz} → s ts
tʃ {tʃː,dʒ} → ʃ tʃ (the change of *tʃːʼ is conjectured for Bezhta, as the change is only listed in Tsez, but given the development of *tsːʼ I don’t find it unreasonable to put it here)
tɬ tɬːʼ → ɬ tɬ
11.7.2 Proto-Tsezic to Tseztsː tɬː → z l / V_V
tsː tɬː → s ɬ
12 Northwest Caucasian12.1 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Abazgitʷː tʷʲ(ʼ) → d(w) tʷ(ʼ)
tsʲː → dzʲ (marked as dubious in the source)
tsʷː tsʷʲ → tsʷ (tʃ)
zʷʲ tsʷʲʼ dzʷʲ → dzʲ~zʲ tʃʼ dʒ~ʒ
tʃ(ʼ) dʒ → tsʲ(ʼ) dzʲ
tɕː → dzʲ(~tɕ)
tʃʷ(ʼ) tʃʷː dʒʷ → tʃ(ʼ) zʷ dzʷ~zʷ
tɕʷ(ʼ) tɕʷː → tʃ(ʼ) dʒ~ʒ
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ dɮ → x ts {x,tsʼ} l
tɬʲ tɬʲʼ dɮʲ → xʲ ɕ ɣʲ
tɬʷ(ː) tɬʼ dɮʷ → tsʷ tsʼ(ʷ) l
tɬʷʲ tɬʷʲː tɬʷʲʼ dɮʷʲ → tʃʷ ʒʷ tʃʷʼ dʒʷ
12.1.1 Proto-Abazgi to Ashkharywa Abazatʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) v dz
tʷ(ʼ) dʷ → {tʷ(ʼ),p(ʼ)} {dʷ,b}
12.1.2 Proto-Abazgi to Tapanta Abaza{tʃʷ(ʼ),tɕ} {dʒʷ,dʑ} → ts(ʼ) dz
tɕʷ(ʼ) dʑʷ → {tɕ(ʷ)(ʼ),tʃʷ(ʼ)} {dʑ(ʷ),dʒʷ}
{tʷ(ʼ),dʷ} → {tɕ(ʷ)(ʼ),tʃ(ʷ)(ʼ)} {dʒ(ʷ),dʑ(ʷ)}
12.1.3 Proto-Abazgi to Ahchypsy Abkhaztʃʷ tʃʷʼ dʒʷ tɕ(ʼ) dʑ → f pʼ ts(ʼ) v dz
12.1.4 Proto-Abazgi to Bzyp Abkhaztʃʷ tʃʷʼ dʒʷ → pʼ f v
12.1.5 Proto-Abazgi to Abzhywa Propertʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑ
12.1.6 Proto-Abazgi to Tsabal Abzhywatʃʷ tʃʷʼ tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f pʼ ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑ
12.1.7 Proto-Abazgi to Khaltsys Sadztʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑʷ
12.1.8 Proto-Abazgi to Tswydzhy Sadztʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑʷ
12.2 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Circassiantʷ(ː) tʷʼ dʷ → t(ː) tʼ d
tʷʲ tʷʲʼ → ts tsʼ
ts tsː dz → {s,c} tsː dz~z
tsʲ tsʲː tsʲʼ dzʲ → (s) tsː tsʼ dz~z
tsʷ lʲ {qʲʷ,qˤʷ} → sʷ d qʷ / #_ (data not given for non-initial forms)
tsʲʷ tsʲʷ dzʲʷ → tsʲ tsʲʼ dzʲ
tʃ tʃʼ dʒ dʑ → s tsʲʼ(?) dz~z dʑ~ʑ
tʃʷ(ː) tʃʷʼ dʒʷ → tɕ(ː) tɕʼ dʑ~ʑ
tcʷ(ː) tɕʷʼ → tʃ(ː) tʃʼ
ɬ(ː) tɬ(ː) tɬʼ dɮ → ɕ(ː) tɕ(ː) tɕʼ tħ
tɬʲ tɬʲʼ dɮʲ → tɕ tɬʼ ɣ
tɬʷ(ː) tɬʷʼ dɮʷ → tʃ(ː) tʃʼ ħ
tɬʲʷ tɬʲʷ tɬʲʷ dɮʲʷ → x tɕː tɕʼ ɮ
12.2.1 Proto-Circassian to Adyghetsʲ → tɕ
tsʷ → tsʲʷ
tʃ tɕ → ʃ ʂ
tsʲʼ → ɕʼ~ʃʼ
12.2.1.1 Adyghe to Abadzekh Adyghetsʲ(ː) → tɕ
tsʷ → tʃʷ
pː tː tsː tsʷ ʃː tʃː tɕː kʲː kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → p t ts tʃʷ ʃ ɕ tɕ tʃ kʷ qː qʷ
tʃʼ tɬʼ → ʔaj~ʔ ɬʼ
tʃʷʼ~ʃʷʼ → ɕʷʼ~ʃʷʼ
12.2.1.2 Adyghe to Bzhedug Adyghetsʲ tsʲː → tɕ tɕː
tsʷː → tsʲʷː
tsʷʼ~ʃʷʼ → ɕʷʼ~ʃʷʼ
tɬʼ → ɬʼ
12.2.1.3 Adyghe to Shapsug Adyghetsʲ(ː) tsʷ tʃ tɕ → tɕ tʃʷ ʃ ʂ
pː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː tsː tcː kʲː kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → p t ts tʃʷ ʃ tʃ tɕ kʲ kʷ χ~q χʷ~qʷ
p(ʷ)ʼ t(ʷ)ʼ tsʼ tsʷʼ~ʃʷʼ → pˤ tˤ tsˤ ʂʷ
tɬʼ → ɬˤ
12.2.1.4 Adyghe to Temirgoy Adyghetsʲ(ː) tsʷ → tɕ tsʲʷ
pː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː tʃː tɕː → p t ts tsʷʲ ʃ tʃ tɕ
tsʲʼ tsʷʼ~ʃʷʼ → ɕʼ~ʃʼ ɕʷʼ~ʃʷʼ
tɬʼ → ɬʼ
12.2.2 Proto-Circassian to Kabardiantsʲ(ː) tsʷ {tʃ,tɕ} → ɕ f ʃ
pː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː {tʃː,tɕː} kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → b d dz v ɕ ʒ dʒ ɡʷ qʼ~qχ qʷʼ~qχʷ
tsʲʼ tʃʷʼ~ʃʷʼ tʃʼ tɕʼ tɬʼ kʲʼ → ɕʼ fʼ ɕʼ {ɕʼ,cçʼ} ɬʼ tʃʼ
12.3 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Ubykht(ʷ)ː tʷʲʼ → t(ʷ) tʷʼ
ts(ʲ)ː tsʷː dzʲ → ts tsʷ dz
sʷʲ zʷʲ tsʷʲʼ dzʷʲ → tʃʷ ʒʷ tʃʲʼ dʒʲ
tʃ(ʼ) dʒ → ts(ʼ) dz
ɕː tɕː → ɕ tɕ
ʃʷ(ː) ʒʷ tʃʷ(ʼ) dʒ → ʃ ʒ tʃ(ʼ) dʒ
tɕʷ(ː) tɕʷʼ → tɕ tɕʼ
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ dɮ → ɕ (sʲ) tsʲʼ ɮ
tɬʲ tɬʲʼ dɮʲ → ɕ tɬʼ ɕ ʁ(~zʲ)
tɬʼ → tsʲʼ
tɬʷ(ː) tɬʷʼ dɮʷ → tsʷ ts(ʷ)ʼ w
tɬʷʲ tɬʷʲː tɬʷʲʼ dɮʷʲ → f dʑ tsʼ dʒ
13 Chumashan13.3 Proto-Chumash to Inseñotʼ qʼ → t q
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.1 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Proto-Dravidiant → ∅ / #_VrC
t → {t,ʈ} / V_V
rt → ʈ / V_V
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamiltː nt → cː ɲc / {i,j}_
n tː → n̪ t̪ː
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Aleut{t,ð} → n / _#
15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow Iñupiaqt → s / i_
{p,v} t {k,ɣ} → m n ŋ / _N
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic Iñupiaqt → s / i_
dʒ → tʃ → s / “in certain positions” (except for Thule Greenlandic, where dʒ → tʃ and stayed there, apparently)
m n ŋ t {{ɣ,ʁ} → {k,q}} → p t k n ŋ / _#
{p,v} t {k,ɣ} → m n ŋ / _N
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie Iñupiaq{p,v} t {k,ɣ} → m n ŋ / _N
15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales Iñupiaq{p,v} t {k,ɣ} → m n ŋ / _N
15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’ikt → s / _{k,q}
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’ikt → s / _{k,q}
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’iks → ts → tʃ / in some dialects?
t → s / _{k,q}
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’ikt → s / _{k,q}
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.1 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Nafrip t → f {s,h} / #_
16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central Sentanip b t → f p {s,h} / #_
16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern Sentanip t → f {s,h} / #_
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanianst → ʃt / medial
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanianst → ʃt / medial
17.2 Proto-Indo-European to Common Anatoliant → z / j “(allophonic)”
17.2.1 Common Anatolian to Hittitet → ts / _i ! s_
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
t → tʰ / {aw,ow}_
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
t → tʰ / {aw,ow}_
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armeniant → tʰ / {aw,ow}_ ! #_
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
t → tʰ / {aw,ow}_
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
t → tʰ / {aw,ow}_
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
t → tʰ / {aw,ow}_
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
t → tʰ / {aw,ow}_
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestanrt → š (Alex Fink says that the realization of /š/ “is unclear”)
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishtː → sː
p t k kʷ b d ɡ m n l r s → f θ x xʷ v ð ɣ M N L R h / V(#)_{R,V} (“We don’t know the exact values of lenited /m n l r/. We can guess that lenited m became a nasalized labial continuant of some sort, but beyond that, we don’t know.”)
p t k kʷ b d ɡ ∅ → b d ɡ ɡʷ mb nd ŋɡ n / n#_”V
— {p,t} → ∅ / #s_r
— {p,t} → ∅ / #s_ “(although it says that occasionally st > t / #_)”
— st zd → sː dː / [anything]_
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshst → sː (with some exceptions)
p t k {b,m} d ɡ → b d ɡ v ð ɣ / _V
pː tː kː → f θ x
p t k → f θ x / {r,l}_
xt → iθ
mp nt ŋk → m̥ n̥ ŋ̊
17.6 Proto-Indo-European to Dacian{kʷ,kw} {ɡʷ,ɡw} → tʃ dʒ (→ s~z z ?) / _E
17.7 Proto-Indo-European to Common Germanicp t k → f θ x
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle English{o(ː)ht,ɑːht} → ow
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle English{ɑːht,o(ː)ht} → ow
17.7.2.1.4 Midlands Middle English to Early Modern Englishtj sj dj zj → tʃ ʃ dʒ ʒ / ! _uː (perhaps only before stressed uː?)
17.7.2.1.5 Early Modern English to American English{t,d} → ɾ / V_V[-stress]
t → ∅ / f_n̩
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englisht d → ɾ / V_V[-stress]
tj dj → tʃ dʒ
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle English{ɑːht,o(ː)ht} → ow
j tʃ → ɡ k
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scotst → ∅ / {p,k}_# (“except in some inflected forms” for *kt)
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotst → ∅ / p_
t → d / r_
t → ʈ / _r
t → ʔ / V_V
t → ʔ / _#
17.7.2.1.11 Scots to Falkirk ScotspVn tVn kVn → ʔm̩ ʔn̩ ʔŋ̩ / _#
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle English{ɑːht,o(ː)ht} → ow
17.7.2.1.13 Middle English to Yolat d → θ ð (conditioning unclear)
17.7.2.1.15 North Frisian Lenitionp t k → b d ɡ → v r ɣ / Vː_{V,#}
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germant → {ts,k} / _w
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlautp t k → fː zː xː / V_V
p t k → f z x / _#
p t k → pf ts kx / #_
p t k → pf ts kx / {L,N}_
pː tː kː → pf ts kx
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norset → ∅ / {ɡ,ɣ}_s
t → ∅ / p_{ɡ,ɣ,n}
t → ∅ / r_k
t → ∅ / s_{k,l,n,s}
{t,θ,d,ð} → ∅ / n_l
{t,θ,d,ð} → ∅ / l_n
(Vː)θt → (V)tː
ht → tː
{t(ː),ɡː}k → kː
ts → sː / V_V
t → θ / _{p,k}
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandict → ð / V_# “in some verbal endings”
p t k → f θ x / _{S,F[- voice]}
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornp(ː) t(ː) k(ː) → b(ː) d(ː) ɡ(ː) / {V,R}_{V,R}
{t,d}j → tʃ
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornp t k → b d ɡ / V_V (the second V at least can be a syllabic consonant)
tr → rd
pː tː kː → b d {ɡ,ɣ} / V_V
tː → {tʲ,dʲ}
tj → tʃ / _#
tj → ʃ
17.7.4 Common Germanic to Vandalictj → tsj
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian Greekt → ts / _i
ts → s
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekt → ts / _i
ts → s
tʃ → t / #_
tʃ → tː / medial
pʰ tʰ kʰ → f θ x
p t k → b d ɡ / N_
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greekt → ts / _i
ts → s
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greekt → ts / _i
ts → s
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan Greekt → ts / _i
ts → s
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric Greekt → ts / _i
ts → s
tʃ → t / #_
tʃ → tː / medial
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian Greekt → ts / _i
ts → s
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekt → ts / _i
ts → s
tʃ → s / #_
tʃ → sː / medial
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greekt → ts / _i
ts → s
pʰ tʰ kʰ → f θ x
17.8.10 Proto-Indo-European to Mycenaean Greekt → ts / _i
ts → s
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittitet → ts / _{i,e}
17.10 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iranianptʃ → pʃ
ttʃ ddʒʱ → t.ʃ d.ʒʱ
t → ∅ / _ʃt
tʃʃ → ʃː
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-Aryant d(ʱ) n → ʈ ɖ(ʱ) ɳ / C̣_ ! _r
s t d(ʱ) n → ʂ ʈ ɖ(ʱ) ɳ / _C̣
ls lt ld(ʱ) ln → ʂ ʈ ɖ(ʱ) ɳ / “disputed”
tʃ dʒ(ʱ) → tɕ dʑ(ʱ) → ɕ ɟ(ʱ)
tst dzdʱ → tː dʱː
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-Aryantv dv → p b
17.10.1.5 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Vedic Sanskritt.ʂ t.ɕ → kʂ cʰː
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishtsi ʐi → tɕ ʐ / V_
tʲ dʲ sʲ zʲ nʲ rʲ l lʲ → tɕ dʒ ɕ ʑ ȵ r ɫ l (this last probably not before /i/)
ʃi ʒi tʃi dʒi ɕi ʑi → ʂɨ ʐɨ ʈʂɨ ɖʐɨ tsɨ ʒɨ
ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ ɕ ʑ → ʂ ʐ ʈʂ ɖʐ ts ʒ
t → r / tV_
tɕts ʑr̝ → jts jr̝
ɕtɕ → js / _{t͜s,s}
t → ∅ / s_{ɫ,w}
st ʂʈʂ → z ʐ / _b
t → ∅ / ʈʂ_v in “czworo”
trk → kr / in the name of the river “Skrwa”
zdʲ stʲ → {ʑ,ɕ} {s,ɕ} / _n
stʲ → ɕ / _l
stʲkl → ɕtɕkl → {ɕ,s}kɫ → ʂkɫ
dz ts → d͜z t͜s
tʲ dʲ → t d / _{l,n,ɲ,r,ʐ}
17.11.2 Proto-Slavic to Old Russian{t,d} → ∅ / V_lV
tj dj → tʃ, ʒ
kt ɡd → _E
17.12 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Italicbʰ dʰ gʰ → pʰ tʰ dʰ → ɸ θ x
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latint → k / _l
t → ∅ / C_#
t → d / V_
{t,d} → s / _s
{p,b} {t,d} → m n / _{m,n}
{t,d}t → tst → sː
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalan{m,n,t} → ∅ / _#
p b t d k ɡ → β {β,w} ∅ {j,w} ɣ {j,∅,ɡ} / V_rV
ɡn tj → ɲ ∅ / V_V
stj → ʃ
tj → s / C_
p t → b d / V_V
j ɡj ts z n → tʃ i w s ∅ / _#
t → ∅ / V_sV
k → ts → s / #_{i,e}
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to Frenchj tj → dʒ ts / #_
t → s / s_j
t → s / _{n,m}
{p,b} {t,d} → v ð / V_{V,r}
(t)s → (d)z / V_V
t → ∅ / {ʃ,s}
t → ∅ / V_#
{t,s} → ∅ / _#
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to ItaliantVk → dʒ / unstressed
kt → tː
{t,d,k,m,n,s} → ∅ / _#
taːte → ”ta / _#
t k → d ɡ / V_r
{skj,stj,sːj → ʃ
tj ks w → ts sː ɡw
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguese{olt,okt} → ujt → ut
k → ts → s / #_{i,e}
kl → kʎ → tʃ → ʃ / #_
pl bl p t → br {br,l} b d / V_V (bl → l is learned)
p t k → b d ɡ / V_r
ks ɡn tj → ʃ ɲ {z,s} / V_V (tj → s is learned)
tj → s / C_V
dj → dz → ts → s / r_V
ndj → nts → ns → ɲ / V_V
kj → ts → s / V_V
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençaltʃ → ts (sometimes)
p t k s → b d ɡ z / V_V (this b → v?)
Original z (/ts/?) → dj → j
tʃ → ts → s / #_
tʃs → {ts,tʃ} (varies)
ts → s / _# (Provence, Limousin, some Languedoc and Gascon)
tʃ → i / _C
tʃ → i / C_
tʃ → jdz → jz / V_V (in the south and northwest)
tʃ → dz → z / V_V (otherwise)
{t,d}l {k,ɡ}l → lː ʎ
p k tʃ b ɡ β j → b ɡ i {b,u,u→y→i} ∅ {u,u→y→i} i / _r
{t,d} → ð → i / _r
βw tw → wː dw → ɡʷ ɡʷ → ɡ ɡ
ktj klj → is ʎ
{tʃ(ː),kʷ}j → ts
l{tj,tʃj} ldʒ → lts ldz → uts udz → us uz
{ntʃj,ndj} → nts → ns
ptj → ts → s
pj → ptʃ → tʃ (except in western and some southern dialects)
rtʃj → rts (→ rs ?)
rtj → rts → rs
rtVɡ → {rdʒ,rts(→ rs)}
rtj → rts → rs
{sːj,stʃj,stj} → ʃ → is (except in the west or extreme east, where the outcome was some flavor of (i)(t)ʃ)
tVɡ trj → dʒ ir
tːj → ts → s
tj → tʃ → dj → djʒ (?) → dz (in the north and west) or idz (in the south and east)—medial (i)dz became (i)z; i-less forms “prevail in the literary language” and seem to have become common if the dz follows the stress
ndt ndtʃ ntʃ nkt nf → n{d,t} {nts,ndz(→ nz),ndʒ} n(t)s {ɲ,(i)nt,ntʃ} {nf,fː(→ f)}
nt nd → {∅,n} ∅ / _# (in some Languedoc and Gascon areas)
rtʃ rdtʃ → r(t)s {rdz(→ rz),rts,rdʒ}
t → ∅ / rd_
t → ∅ / r_m (sometimes)
stʃ → s (in some northern and northeastern dialects)
stʃ → (i)(t)ʃ (for western and extreme eastern regions)
stʃ → is (otherwise)
{p,t} → ∅ / s_m (sporadic?)
stɡ → s{ɡ,dʒ}
βtʃ → u{ts,dz} → u{s,z}
βt βd → pt bd (in the west)
βt βd → ut ud (else)
ktʃ → (i)tʃ (in western and extreme eastern dialects)
ktʃ → its → is (else)
tʃ k → {i,s} {∅,k} / _m
kt ɡd → it id (in the north, northeast, and southwest)
{tʃ,k}t ɡd → tʃ dʒ (else)
dtʃ → ts (in Auvergne and some western areas)
dtʃ → dʒ (for some southeastern and southwestern speakers)
dtʃ → dz → z (else)
ɡn{d,t} → ŋn{d,t} → ɲ{d,t} → {(i)nd,ɲd,ndʒ} or t(ʃ)
pt → {ut,it} “in a few words”
td → tː → t
t → ∅ / _# ! “in the preterit of verbs”, though it tended to drop “in strong preterits”
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanian{s,t} → ∅ / _#
t d s → ts dz ʃ / _i
{sc,st} → ʃt / _F
{sj,stj,sːj} → ʃ
{t,d} → ∅ / n_#
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardiniant → k / s_l (sporadic)
t → d / V_rV
n{i,j} t{i,j} → ndʒ ts / _V
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanish{tj,kj} {tːj,kːj,ptj,ktj,skj} → ts tːs
k ɡ → tʃ dʒ → ts dz / _{j,i,e,ɛ}
{t,k} → ∅ / _#
pt {ɾs,ps} → tː sː
jt js → tʃ ʃ
p t k s ts → b d ɡ z dz / V_V
pː tː kː sː tːs ʝː → p t k s ts ʝ
— t → ∅ / _m
— tst dzd → ts dz
— mpVt skVp spVt stVk → nt sp st sk
t → ∅ / _#
ts dz → s̪ z̪
tɾ → {tɾ̥,tʃ,tʂ}
17.12.2 Proto-Italic to Proto-Sibelliant → f
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tocharianp {ts,k(ʷ)} m n l r y → pj sʲ ʂ mj ɲ lj rj wj / _{E(:),y}
{t,dʱ} → tʲ / _E(ː)
{t,dʱ} → ts / _y
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makurápt → r / _”V
t → l / _V
t → ∅ / else
ts (n)dz → t nd
18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekenst → r / _”V
ts (n)dz → {s,ts} s
18.3.3 Proto-Tuparí to Tuparít → r / _V
{(n)dz,ts} → s / _i
{(n)dz,ts} → t / else
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayorót → r / _”V
p t → ∅ l / _V
ts (n)dz → t nd
18.4.1 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Akwárat → tʃ / _{i,ı̃}
ts → {h,∅}
18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Cocamat → tʃ / _{i,ı̃}
ʔ ts ŋ → ∅ {ts,tʃ} n
18.4.3 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guajajarat → ts / _{i,ı̃}
ts → {h,∅}
18.4.4 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guaranít → tʃ / _{i,ı̃}
ts → {tʃ,∅}
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guarayot → tʃ / _{i,ı̃}
ʔ ts → {ʔ,∅} {ts,tʃ}
18.4.6 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Kamayurát → tʃ / _{i,ı̃}
ts → {h,j,∅}
18.4.7 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Parintintínts → {h,∅}
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Sirionót → {ts,tʃ} / _{i,ı̃}
ʔ ts → ∅ {s,ʃ}
18.4.9 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Classical Tupit → tʃ / _{i,ı̃}
ts → {s,ʃ}
18.4.9.1.2 Proto-Monde to Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zorótʃ → ʃ
18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Urubut → ʃ / _{i,ı̃}
ts → {s,h}
19 Kartvelian19.1 Proto-Kartvelian to Georgianʈʂ {ʈʂʼ,tɬʼ} → ts tsʼ
19.2 Proto-Kartvellian to Svantʃ ʈʂ tɬʼ tʃʼ ʈʂʼ → {tʃk,ʃɡ} tʃ h {ʃkʼ,tʃʼkʼ} tʃʼ
19.3 Proto-Kartvelian to Zantʃ ʈʂ {tɬʼ,ʈʂʼ} tʃʼʼ → tʃk tʃ tʃʼ {tsʼkʼ,tʃʼkʼ}
20 Khoisan20.1.1 Proto-Khoe to ǁ̬Anats → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s}
20.1.2 Proto-Khoe to ǁAnits → {ts,s}
20.1.3 Proto-Khoe to Bugats → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s}
20.1.4 Proto-Khoe to Kxoets dz → {ç,tç} dʒ
20.1.5 Proto-Khoe to Namats dz kxʼ → {ts,s} d ∅
20.1.6 Proto-Khoe to Narots dz → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s} dz~ts
20.1.7 Proto-Khoe to !Orats → {ts,s}
20.1.8 Proto-Khoe to Tetits dz kxʼ → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s} z kʼ
20.1.9 Proto-Khoe to Tsʔixats dz kxʼ → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s} z kʼ
20.1.10 Proto-Khoe to ǀ̬Uits → {ts~tsɦ,s}
20.2.1 Proto-Kx’a to ǂHoant d s → {c,tʃ} ɟ ʃ
20.2.2 Proto-Kx’a to Northwestern !Xunts(ʼ) s → tʃ(ʼ) ʃ
20.2.3 Proto-Kx’a to Southeastern !Xunts(ʼ) s → tʃ(ʼ) ʃ
21 Lakes Plain21.1.1 Proto-Far West to Awerati → s / #_V
t d → t~ɾ~n n / #_
21.1.2 Proto-Far West to Saponiti → s / #_V
21.1.3 Proto-Far West to Rasawati → s / #_V
21.2.1 Proto-Tariku to Proto-Central Tarikuti → s~ti / _V
21.2.2 Proto-Tariku to Proto-East Tarikuti → s~ti / _V
21.2.3.1 Proto-West Tariku to Deirateti di → s dz / _V
21.2.3.2 Proto-West Tariku to Faiati → s / _V
21.2.3.3 Proto-West Tariku to Fayuti di → s dz / _V
21.2.3.4 Proto-West Tariku to Kirikiriti → s / _V
21.2.3.5 Proto-West Tariku to Sehudateti di → s dz / _V
21.2.3.6 Proto-West Tariku to Tauseti di → s j / _V
21.2.3.7 Proto-West Tariku to Weirateti di → s dz / _V
22 Macro-Arawakan22.1 Proto-Arawá to Arawátsʰ → s
22.2 Proto-Arawá to Banawá-Jamamadi{tʰ,ɗ} → t
{ts(ʰ),tʃ} dz → s ɟ
22.4 Proto-Arawá to Jarawarap(ʰ) {tʰ,d} → ɸ t
{ts(ʰ),tʃ} → s
22.5 Proto-Arawá to Kulína-Denítʃ → ʃ (?)
22.6 Proto-Arawá to Sorowahá{tʰ,ɗ → t
ts(ʰ) → s
22.7 Proto-Arawá to Paumarípʰ t → ɸ ʔ / medial
ts(ʰ) → s
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.1 Proto-Chibchan to Arhuacots h → s ∅
23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to Chibchats → {s,z}
23.1.1.1.6 Proto-Chibchan to Tunebots tʃ → tʃ s
23.1.2 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Lencan{s,ts} → tsʼ
23.1.3 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Misumalpants → s
25 Macro-Panoan25.1.1 Proto-Tacanan to Cavineña{ɕ,tɕ} → h
25.1.2 Proto-Tacanan to Chamat k → k kʷ
tʃ → s / _i
tɕ → ʃ
25.1.3 Proto-Tacanan to Reyesanots → tʃ / #_
tʃ ɕ → ts ʃ
25.1.4 Proto-Tacanan to Tacanatɕ → dʑ
tʃ → ts / _E
26 Mande26.1 Proto-Mande to Bobotʼ {kʼ,ɡ} → t k
26.2 Proto-Mande to Busatʼ kʼ → t k
26.3 Proto-Mande to Dantʼ kʼ → t k
26.4 Proto-Mande to Gurotʼ kʼ → t k
26.5 Proto-Mande to Kono-Vaitʼ kʼ → t k
26.6 Proto-Mande to Southwest Mande{tʼ,d} {kʼ,ɡ} → l k
26.7 Proto-Mande to Mandekantʼ kʼ → t k
26.8 Proto-Mande to Manotʼ kʼ → t k
26.9 Proto-Mande to Mwatʼ kʼ → t k
26.10 Proto-Mande to Santʼ kʼ → t k
26.11 Proto-Mande to Semblatʼ {kʼ,ɡ,w} → {t,d} k
26.12 Proto-Mande to Soninkatʼ {kʼ,ɡ} → {t,d} k
26.13 Proto-Mande to Susutʼ → t
27 Mayan27.1 Proto-Mayan to Ch’olantʲ(ʼ) → t(ʼ)
27.2 Proto-Mayan to Chujeantʲ(ʼ) → t(ʼ)
27.4 Proto-Mayan to Ixileant → tʃ
tʃ → ʈʂ
27.5 Proto-Mayan to Kaqchikel-Tz’utujiltʲ(ʼ) → tʃ(ʼ)
27.6 Proto-Mayan to Core K’iche’tʲ(ʼ) → tʃ(ʼ)
27.7 Proto-Mayan to Mameant → tʃ
tʃ → ʈʂ
tʲ(ʼ) → t(ʼ)
tʲ(ʼ) → ts(ʼ)
r t tʃ ʃ → t tʃ ʈʂ ʂ
27.10 Proto-Mayan to Yucatecant → tʃ / _#
tʲ(ʼ) → tʃ(ʼ)
28 Muskogean28.1.1 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Alabamats x → s h / _C
28.1.4 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Korasatits → s / _C
nt → tː
28.1.5 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Mikasuritʃ → s / _C ! _k
28.1.6 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Seminoletl → tː
28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western Muskogeants tʃ → s ts
tl st → lː tː
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.5 Proto-Athabaskan to Chipewyant → k (not for all speakers)
29.1.1.1.9 Proto-Athabaskan to Dogribts tsʰ tsʼ s z → kʷ kʷʰ kʷʼ ʍ w
29.1.1.1.19 Proto-Athabaskan to Proto-Southern Athabaskant n x → d n h / in prefixes relating to word derivation
29.1.1.1.20 Proto-Southern Athabaskan to Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskant → k
29.1.1.1.29 Proto-Athabaskan to Bearlake Slavey-Harets tsʰ tsʼ s z → kʷ kʷʰ kʷʼ ʍ w
29.1.1.1.30 Proto-Athabaskan to Hare Slavey-Haretɬʰ tʃ(ʷ)ʰ kʰ → ɬ s ʃ
ts tsʰ tsʼ {s,z} → {kʷ,p} f wˀ w
29.1.1.1.31 Proto-Athabaskan to Mountain Slavey-Harets tsʰ tsʼ s z → p pʰ pʼ f v
29.2 Proto-Na-Dene to Tlingitts → ts : tɬ
tsʼ → {sʼ,tsʼ} : {ɬ,tɬʼ}
tʃ → {tʃ,ts} : tɬ
tʃʼ → {sʼ,tʃʼ} : tɬʼ
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1.1 Proto-Bantu to Sebirwat d l → {ʈ,tʲ} {ɖ,dʲ} {ɭ,lʲ,ʎ} (The paper is a bit unclear as to which is meant, as the transcription and the textual aspects of the paper seem to disagree here)
p t d c ɟ k ɡ → ɸ ɹ {d,l} tʰ ∅ h {∅,ɡ}
30.1.1.2 Proto-Bantu to Tswana{p,t,tʃ,k} {mp,nt,ɲtʃ,nk} {(m)b,(n)d,(ɲ)dʒ,(n)ɡ} {m,n} → s tsʰ ts ɲ / _iV
{tʃ,k} {ntʃ,nk,r} {ɲdʒ,nɡ} mp mb p b {d,l} m n → s tsʰ ts tʃʰ(w) tʃ(w) ʃ(w) dʒ(w) dʒ ŋw ɲ / _{ɪ,e}V
{p,t,tʃ,k} {mp,nt,ɲtʃ,nk} {(m)b,(n)d,(ɲ)dʒ,(n)ɡ} {m,n,ɲ} → sw tsʰw tsw ɲw / _iV
{tʃ,k} {ɲtʃ,nk} {ndʒ,nɡ} → s tsʰ ts / _{i,ɪ,e}
mp nt ɲtʃ nk mp nd ɲdʒ nɡ → pʰ tʰ tɬʰ qʰ p t tɬ k
p t tʃ k {dʒ,ɡ} ɲ → h r tɬʰ χ ∅ n
30.1.1.3.1 Proto-Sam to Amuntç tç → (n̪)t̪ʰ t̪
30.1.1.3.2 Proto-Sam to Bajunintç tç → (n̪)t̪ʰ t̪
30.1.1.3.3 Proto-Sam to Mwiinintç tç → (n̪)t̪ʰ t̪
30.1.1.3.4 Proto-Sam to Siu-Patentç tç → (n̪)t̪ʰ t̪
30.1.2 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-Manenguba’p ’t ’d/d2 c {’ɟ} ’k ɡ → f l ɟ s ∅ {w,∅} {k,w} / in C1 position
p t ’t {’d,d2} c k ’k → b d l {l,∅} ɟ ɡ ∅ / in C2 position
30.2.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic to Proto-Akanict → c / #_V[-nas]
30.3.1.1.2 Proto-Ajá to Hwet d → tʃ dʒ / _{u,i}
30.3.1.1.3 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Fon{ts,tʰ} {dz,dʱ} → s z
{t,k}j {d,ɡ}j → tʃ dʒ
30.3.1.1.4 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Gents dz → s z
{t,k}j {d,ɡ}j → tʃ dʒ
tʰ dʱ → t d
30.3.1.1.5 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Phla-Pherá{ts,tʰ} {dz,dʱ} → s z
30.3.1.1.6 Proto-Phla-Pherá to Aladat d → ʃ ʒ / _j
30.3.1.1.8 Proto-Vhe to Adángbets dz → s z
30.3.1.1.9 Proto-Vhe to Avénot d → tʃ dʒ / _{u,i}
t d → ts dz / _j
30.3.1.1.10 Proto-Vhe to Awalant d → tʃ dʒ / _{u,i}
s {k,ts} {ɡ,dz} → ʃ tʃ dʒ / _i
30.3.1.1.11 Proto-Vhe to Kpándo{t,k} {d,ɡ} → ts dz / _i
t d → tʃ dʒ / _j
30.3.1.1.12 Proto-Vhe to Pecı́{k,ts} {ɡ,dz} → tʃ dʒ / _i
30.3.1.1.14 Proto-Vhe to Wacı́{k,ts} {ɡ,dz} → tʃ dʒ / _i
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinot → ɾ / _{u,ẽ} when unstressed
t → ɾ / _”a
t → tʃ / _”{e,iʔ}
t → ʃ / i_i
t → s / ! “in cluster with š” (presumably [ʃ])
tʲ → s / _u
tʲ → tʃ / else
{c,tʃ} → ʃ
32.1.2 Proto-Chatino to Tataltepec Chatinot → tʲ / _õ (…again…lolwut)
t → tʃ / #_iç
tʲ → tʃ / _i[-long -stress]
tʲ → t / _a
tʃ → c
et el en → itʲ elʲ enʲ
32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinotʲ → tj
ts → tʃ / #_{a,õ}ʔ
ts → tʃ / V[+high]_
ts → ʃ / #_ẽ
tʃ → ts / a_
32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to TlapanecYt Ynt Ys → tʃ dʒ ʃ
{ns,nt} nkʷ nj nw → (n)d (m)b r m
33 Penutian33.1.1 Proto-Utian to Proto-Costanoan (Ohlone)tʃ → ʂ / _#
33.1.1.1 Proto-Costanoan to Chochenyotʲ ʂ → j ʃ
33.1.1.4 Proto-Costanoan to Rumsentʲ → tʃ
33.2.1 Proto-Wintuan to Nomlakitʃʰ kʰ qʰ {x,χ} → tʃ k(ʰ) {kʰ,qʰ,χ} kʰ
33.2.2 Proto-Wintuan to Patwintʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ → t tʰ tʼ
33.2.3 Proto-Wintuan to South Patwintʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ → t tʰ tʼ
33.2.4 Proto-Wintuan to Wintutʃʰ → tʃ
33.3.1.1 General Yokuts to Buena Vista Yokutst tʰ tʼ → ts tsʰ tsʼ / #_ “(in some words, conditioning factors unclear)”
tʰ → s / #_u
33.3.2 Buena Vista Yokuts to Proto-Nim-Yokutsts tsʰ tsʼ → tʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ
33.3.2.1 Proto-Nim-Yokuts to Proto-Tule-Kaweaht tʰ tʼ → tʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ / #_ “(in some words, conditioning factors unclear)”
33.3.2.2.1 Northern Yokuts to Gashowup t ʈ k → b d ɖ ɡ
33.3.2.2.4 Valley Yokuts to Chukchansitʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ → ts tsʰ tsʼ
33.3.2.2.6 Valley Yokuts to Yawelmanitʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ → ts tsʰ tsʼ (except in “lexicalized diminutives”, where these go to ʈʂ ʈʂʰ ʈʂʼ)
33.3.3 Proto-Yokuts to Palewyamit tʰ tʼ → ts tsʰ tsʼ / #_ “(in some words; conditioning factors unclear)”
ts tsʰ tsʼ → tʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ / _i
34 Quechumaran34.1 Proto-Quechumaran to Ayachucopʼ tʼ tʃʼ kʼ qʼ → p t tʃ k q
ts(h) tʃh → tʃ s
34.2 Proto-Quechumaran to Boliviaph th kh qh → pʰ tʰ kʰ qʰ
ts {tsh,tʃh} → tʃ tʃʰ
tʃ → ʃ / _q
tʃʼ → tʃ
34.3 Proto-Quechumaran to Cuzcots tsh → tʃ tʃʰ
tʃ → s / _q
tʃh → s / _E
{tʃh,tʃʼ} → tʃ
34.4 Proto-Quechumaran to Huaráspʼ tʼ tʃʼ kʼ qʼ → p t ts k q
tʰ → t
ts(h) tʃ → tʃ ts
tʃ → ts / _q
34.5 Proto-Quechumaran to Putamayopʼ tʼ kʼ qʼ → p t k q
t(ʰ) → d / n_
tʰ → t
tʃʼ → tʃ
34.6 Proto-Quechumaran to Quitot(ʰ) → d / n_
tʼ → tʰ / #_i
tʼ → t
ts → dz / ! #_
tʃ → ʃ / _q
tʃh → ʃ
tʃʼ → tʃ
34.7 Proto-Quechumaran to Riobambapʼ tʼ kʼ qʼ → p t k q
t(ʰ) → d / n_
tʼ → tʰ / #_i
k ts → ɡ dz / n_
tʃh → ʃ
tʃʼ → tʃ
34.8 Proto-Quechumaran to Santiagopʼ tʼ tʃʼ kʼ qʼ → p t tʃ k q
ts(h) → tʃ
tʃ → ʃ / _q
34.9 Proto-Quechumaran to Tenapʼ tʼ kʼ qʼ → p t k q
t(ʰ) → d / n_
tʰ → t
tʃ → ʃ / _C
tʃh → ʃ
tʃʼ → tʃ
35 Salishan35.1.1 Proto-Central Salish to Comoxts(ʼ) → θ(ʼ)
35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack Halkomelemts(ʼ) tʃ(ʼ) → θ(ʼ) ts(ʼ)
35.1.3 Proto-Central Salish to Cowichan Halkomelemts(ʼ) tʃ(ʼ) → θ(ʼ) ts(ʼ)
35.1.4 Proto-Central Salish to Musqueam Halkomelemts(ʼ) tʃ(ʼ) → θ(ʼ) ts(ʼ)
35.1.5 Proto-Central Salish to Klallamtʃ → ts
tʃʼ → tsʼ / medially
35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straitsts → s
tʃ → s
tʃ’ → ts’ / medially
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern Straitsts ts’ → {θ,s} θ’
tʃ → s
tʃ’ → θ’ / medially
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern Straitsts → s
tʃ’ → ts’ / medially
35.1.11 Proto-Central Salish to Sooke Northern Straitsts → s
tʃ → s
tʃ’ → ts’ / medially
35.1.12 Proto-Central Salish to Pentlatchts ts’ → s ts’
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old Mandarin{o,a} {a(ta),a(ch)} → e a / _ŋ
{a(ta),a(ch)} → o / else
{p,t} → ∅ / V_
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Lat d Nt Nd st sd çT tr (ç)dr KT → tʰ t Ntʰ md zd st çtj trh (ç)tr kt
(r)ts (r)dz → (r)tsʰ (r)ts
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiat st tr d sd (ç)dr Nt çT KT → t. s.d tr. t s.t (ç.)tr m.t. n.dr ɡ.t
Kts → ɡ.tsʰ.
ts (r)dz dʒ PTS KTS sTS çTS → {tsʰ,s} (r)ts tsʰ ɡ.ts s.{ts,pj} {s.ts,br}
ut uk → ud oɡ
a ap at ar am aj → e eb e(d) er om e.i
et ej → o e.i
ip it → ib o
36.3.2.1.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Hanniup k ts → p. k. tʃ.
an {at.is} → o ie
t → ∅ / i_
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Tots {dz,KTS} NTS rdz dzl dʒ → s ts {dz,mtʃ.} rts tsl tʃ.
at → {at,ɛ,ed}
et → o
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtse(N)t (N)d st sd KT çT tr dr çtr → (N)tʰ mt zd st kt çt(j) trh tr çtr
ts (r)dz dzl dʒ NTS PTS Kts KTS sTS çTS → tsʰ (r)ts Ndz tsl ts ptç ktç kts sts {s,ç}ts
36.3.2.2.3 Proto-rGyalrongic to Patits dʒ NTS → {s,tʃ.} tʃ. m
im it ik is ij → em u e es e
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo MoNt tr d KT çT → mt. tʂ t kt ʃt
lts rts NTS PTS STS → lɖʐ rts. {mdzr,mtʃ} nt. sts
ts dʒ → tʃ. tʃ
36.3.2.2.5 Proto-rGyalrongic to Trungit → u
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Naots dz NTS KTS sTS → tʃ ts {ts,m} ɡts sp
ut u{k,n} ur → ud uo uɛ
a(t) → ɛ / _#
i i{t,k} → {ə,iɛ} ə
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu TaP t → pdz tʃ / r_
Np Nb Nt Nɡ Nç → sts mp mtʰ mk ntsʰdz
{d,KT} st → tʃ zdʒ
ts dz rdz dʒ → {ʈʂ,ʒ} tsj rtsʰ ʈʂ
t → ŋ / a_
it ik → o ek
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassuts dzl NTS → {tʃ.,j} tsl m
t → ∅ / a_
it ik → o i
36.3.3.1 Old Tibetan to Amdo dialectst → l / _# (further development in bLa-brang)
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoiant → ts / _{i,ı̃}
tʰ → ts / _i
tʰ → n / else
37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeetsn → hst
t → ∅ / _{k,n}
t → ∅ / n_
ts → s / h_
t ts k kʷ → d dz ɡ ɡʷ / _V
37.1.2 Proto-Iroquoian to Proto-Northern Iroquoiant → ∅ / n_V
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayugats → hs / V_ ! _{h,i,j,r}
ts → s / ! _{h,i,j,r}
t → h / _t
ths → tsh
37.1.2.1.1 Cayuga to Upper Cayugats → s / _(h)r
t k kʷ → d ɡ ɡʷ / _{V,R}
37.1.2.1.2 Cayuga to Lower Cayugats → t / _(h)r
t → k / _j
tʔ tsʔ kʔ kʷʔ → tʼ tsʼ kʼ kʷʼ
t k kʷ → d ɡ ɡʷ / _{V,R} ! _V[-voiced]
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huronts → ʃ / _r
ts → s / ! _{i,j}
t → k / _(h)w
t → ∅ / _k(ʷ)
t → k / _r
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandott → k / _j
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagats → hs / V_V ! _i
ts → s / ! _{h,i,j}
hts → tsh / C_V
ts → tʃ / _{(h)i,(h)j}
t tʃ k(ʷ) → d dʒ ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneidats → hs / V_{t,k(ʷ)}
ts → s / ! _{h,i,j}
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Mohawk— t → k / _j
— t → tʃ / _(h)j
— ts → tʃ / _{(h)i,(h)j}
— t tʃ k(ʷ) → d dʒ ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneidaths → tsh
ts → tʃ / _{(h)i,(h)j}
t tʃ k(ʷ) → d dʒ ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecats → s / ! _{i,j}
t → h / _{n,t}
t → ∅ / k_#
{ths,tts} → tsh
— t k(ʷ) → d ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscarorats → tʃ / _{h,i,j}
ths → tʃ
t → ˀt
ts → θ
ˀt → tʔ / _ˀt
ˀt → ∅ / _t
ˀt → ʔ / _r
ˀt → ʔn / V_{V,w,j}
ˀt → n / {#,C}_{V,w,j}
ˀt → t
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.2 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Siouan{t,h} → ∅ / s_
37.2.1 Proto-Siouan to Catawbatʲ → ʃ / in ”U
tʲ → ʒ / else
t → ∅ / _k, when medial
37.2.2 Proto-Siouan to Dakotatʲ → ʃ / in ”U
tʲ → ʒ / else
tʲr → {st,ʃt}
t → ∅ / _k, when medial
37.2.2.1 Dakota to Santee Dakota{pr,mt} → md
37.2.2.2 Dakota to Teton Dakota{pr,mt} kr → bl ɡl
37.2.3 Proto-Siouan to Mandant → ∅ / _s
tʲ → s / _ʔV
tʲr → sV0rV0
t → ∅ / _k, when medial
37.2.4 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Čiwere-Winnebagot → tʃ / _”E
t → dʒ / _E[-stress]
tʲ → ʃ / in ”U
tʲ s → ʒ z / in U[-stress]
37.2.4.1 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Čiweret → tʃ / _ʔ
tʲr → ʃV0rV0
tk → ɡ / when medial
37.2.4.2 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Winnebagot → {tʃ,dʒ}
tʲ → x / _ʔ
mt → r
tk → {tʃk,tʃɡ} / #_
t → ∅ / _k, when medial
37.2.5 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Crow-Hidatsas ç {tʲ,x} → ts x ʃ
wt → wV0tV0
t → ∅ / _k, when medial
37.2.5.1 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Crowt → ʃ / _E
t → s / _V
t → ʃ / _ʔ
37.2.6 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Dhegihat tʲ s → d ʒ z / in U[-stress]
tʲ → ʃ / in ”U
tk → ɡ / when medial
37.2.6.1 Proto-Dhegiha to Kansat → ts / _ʔ
tʲr kr → ʃt l
mt → d
37.2.6.2 Proto-Dhegiha to Omaha-Poncapr sr tʲr kr → bθ sn ʃn ɡθ
mt → n
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to Osaget → ts / _E
t → ts / _ʔ
pr sr tʲr kr → bð sts ʃd ɡð
sn mt → hn d
37.2.6.4 Proto-Dhegiha to Quapawtʲ → ʃ
37.2.7 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Ohio-Valleytʲ Lʲ → tʃ j
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.1 Proto-Tai to Ahomtʰ → ∅ / _r
38.1.1.2 Proto-Tai to Saekt → {p,t} / _r
38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Taitr → tʰ(r)_
38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchow{r,s,z} tʃʰ dʒ → ɬ ʃ tʃ
38.1.1.3.2 Central Tai to Nungtʃ tʃʰ dʒ → ʃ tsʰ {ʃ,tʃ}
38.1.1.3.3 Central Tai to Taytʃ dʒ → {x,t} tʃ
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Tai{pʰ,b} ɓ {tʰ,d} ɗ {kʰ,ɡ} {kʷʰ,ɡ} → p b t d k kʷ
t{l,r} → r̥
{tʃ(ʰ),dʒ} → ʃ
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Taitʰl tʰr → tʰ r̥
38.1.1.5.3 Southwest Tai to Shants → sʲ
39 Tanoan39.1 Proto-Tanoan to Jimezts dz → s z
{tʰ,tsʰ} → ʃ
tsʼ → tʼ
39.2 Proto-Tanoan to Kiowats tsʰ tsʼ dz → t tʰ tʼ d
39.3 Proto-Tanoan to Taosts tsʰ tsʼ dz → tʃ s tʃʼ j
39.4 Proto-Tanoan to Tewapʰ tʰ tsʰ → f θ s
40 Totozoquean40.1 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Mixe-Zoqueannʲ tʲ tʃ kʲ → n t s ts k
x {ɬ,tɬ} → h j
40.2 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Totonacannʲ tʲ kʲ k → l tʃ k q
41 Trans-New Guinea41.1 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Apalɨt k ŋ → {l,t} {h,k} n / #_
{p,t} → ∅ / _#
41.2 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Asmatt → s / #_i
p t nj → {t,r} {r,s,t} s / _#
41.3 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Binanderet → j / #_i
t → {r,s} / V_i
41.6 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kalamt → {t,∅} / _#
41.8 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kiwait k ᵐb → {s,t} {ɡ,∅} {b,p} / #_
t ᵐb ⁿd {k,ᵑɡ} nj → {r,t} p {d,t} ɡ r / V_V
41.9 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Selepett ᵐb nj s → r {b,p} ⁿd {s,d} / V_V
t → t / _# (?)
42 Uralic42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnictʃ tsʲ → ʃ sʲ / #_
ðʲ sʲ tsʲ(ː) lʲ → ð s ts(ː) l
tʃ → ts / _k, in South Estonian
tk → k / in Pre-Livonian (?)
tʃ tʃː → t tʃ
t → ts / _i ! following a coronal obstruent or “before a derivational suffix”
tj → ts / ! following a coronal obstruent or “before a derivational suffix”
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishpː tː tsː kː → pˑ tˑ tsˑ kˑ
p t ts s k → b d s z ɡ
{kt,pt} {kts,pts} → tː tːs
(t(ː))sn kx(tx) rn ln → sː xː rː lː
{p,t,k}({p,t,k})n {p,t,k}({p,t,k})m → nː mː
{p,t,k} → ∅ / _st
{ks,nts} nt → s t / _#
ts tsˑ tsː → s θˑ θː
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnishpˑ tˑ θˑ kˑ → p t θ k
t → ∅ / s_r
t → z → U / _r{A,O}
t → z → @ / _r{i,e}
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livoniant ts s(C) n l r → tʲ tsʲ sʲ(C) nʲ lʲ rʲ / _i
ts(ʲ) → s(ʲ) / ! n_
p t(ʲ) s(ʲ) k → b d(ʲ) z(ʲ) ɡ / ! #_ or adjacent to C[-voice]
sʲ tsʲ zʲ dzʲ → ʃʲ tʃʲ ʒʲ dʒʲ
43 Uto-Aztecan43.1 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Comanchep t ts s → v r ∅ h
43.3 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Luiseñot → l / medially
ts → tʃ
43.4 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Nahuatlt → tɬ / _{a,u}
s ts → ʃ tʃ / _i
43.5.1.1 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Kawaiisuts → z / V_V
hts → z / V_i
43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhamt → tʃ / _V[+high]
ts → s / _i
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basques̻ ts̻ → ʃ tʃ / {E,j}_ (mostly Biscayan)
t → c / {E,j}_ (“some areas”)
t → tʃ / {E,j}_ (partially spread amongst Biscayan and Guipuscoan)
s̻ ts̺ → s̺ ts̻ (Biscayan, partially in Guipuscoan, Donostia, San Sebastián, though these latter two may be varieties of Guipuscoan)
its̺ → tʃ / _# (Biscayan)
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.1 Proto-Pai to Chapaitʃ → ʃ / _{w,i}
tʃ → ∅ / _xʷ
tʃ → s
t → tʃ / ! n_
45.1.3 Proto-Pai to Tipait → ∅ / n_
tʃ → ∅ / _xʷ
46 Vowel Shifts46.16 Development of Proto-Lolo-Burmese -i(C)# and -u(C)# to Lahu-i -i{p,k} -it -i{m,ŋ} -in → -i -ɨʔ -iʔ -ɛ -ɨ
-u -up -ut -uk -um -un -uŋ → -u -ɔʔ -əʔ -uʔ -ɔ -ə -ɛ
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.1 List 1: Simple Consonant Changests → t (unconditional; some Samoyedic langs)
t → k (general Polynesian)
tš → t (general Baltic-Finnic; may not be unconditional but was certainly the most common outcome)
47.2 List 2: Conditional or complex consonant changes{t,k} → ∅ / V_V (Marathi) probably with voiced stops as intermediates, since they also became silent
t → k / _s̩ (Ōgami) (NB: The article doesn’t have an underscore indicating whether this occurs before or after the /s̩/, but the linked page indicates where this change occurred) (http://amritas.com/101023.htm#10192359)

to /t/

983 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Omoticdʒ → tʃ → ʃ
6.1.1.1 North Omotic to Benchtʃ → ts
dʼ → tʼ
6.1.1.2 North Omotic to Dizinʒ → {tʃ,ts}
ts → tʃ / _i
sx → tʃ
dʼ → tʼ
6.1.1.3 North Omotic to Kafatsʼ → tʃʼ
{ts,ʒ} → tʃ / V_
tsʼ → tʃʼ
dʼ → tʼ
6.1.1.4 North Omotic to Maalez → ts / Vj_
ts tsː → s ts / V_
tsʼ → tʃʼ / #_
6.1.1.5 North Omotic to Shekkachotsʼ → tʃʼ
s2 → {s,tʃː} / V_
dʼ → tʼ
6.1.1.6 North Omotic to Wolayttadʼ → tʼ / #_
6.1.1.7 North Omotic to Yemsatʃʼ → tʃ
dʼ → t
6.1.1.8 North Omotic to Zayse-Zergullaz → ts / Vj_
tsː → ts / V_
s2 → tʃ / V_
tsʼ → {tʃʼ,s}
6.1.2.1 South Omotic to Aaritʃ → ts
s1 s2 s3 → ʃ z tʃ
6.1.2.2 South Omotic to Dimetʃ → ts
s2 s3 → tʃː tʃ / V_
6.2 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Erythreantʃ dʒ → ts dz
6.2.1.1.4 Proto-Agaw to Xamtangats tʃ dz → sʼ tʃʼ z
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berber{ʃ,ts,z} dz tʃ {tʼ,tʃʼ} dʒ → s z ts tsʼ dʒ
k(w) → tʃ / #_Vt
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabicf θ → p t / F_
tˤ sˤ → s t
6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Egyptian Arabicθ ð → t d / “usually in numbers or cases where a short vowel has been deleted and it’s in contact with another stop, e.g. CA/MSA kaˈθiːr → EA ktiːr
6.2.2.1.8 Classical Arabic to Coastal Hadhrami Arabicθ ð ðˤ → t d dˤ
6.2.2.1.9 Classical Arabic to Wādı̄ Hadhrami Arabicθ ð ðˤ → t d dˤ
6.2.2.1.11 Classical Arabic to Iraqi Arabick q → tʃ {ɡ,q} (ɡ is more common)
6.2.2.1.13 Classical Arabic to Western Libyan Arabicθ ð(ˤ) → t d(ˤ)
6.2.2.1.14 Classical Arabic to Moroccan Arabict → t͜s / plain t only, distinguishable from the sequence ts
6.2.2.1.19 Biblical Hebrew to Modern Israeli Hebreww θ ð ɣ → v t d ɡ (sometimes)
sˤ tˤ ħ q → s t χ k
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakiʃ tʃ → s ts
ʔs ʔts → sː tsː
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenakiʃ tʃ → s ts
ʔs ʔts → sː tsː
7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapahoʃ k m → s tʃ b / _{E,j}
ʃ k m → s tʃ b / E_#
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventreʃ θ m → θ t w / _o(ː)
ʃ θ m k → θ t b tʃ / _e(ː)
ʃ {θ,t} m k → s ts tʲ bʲ / _{i(ː),j,#}
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfoot{θ,tʃ,ʃ,r} → t / unless adjacent to another consonant
nθ hs → sːt sː
ntʃ → ʔt
t → ts / _{i,e(ː),a}
ket → tː (→ sː?)
ke(h) → tː ?
7.5 Proto-Algonquian to Cheyennep t k → {hp,∅} ht {hk,∅}
{(t)l,θ} → t
w j → {v,o} {t,e}
p → {t,∅} / near consonants
7.6 Proto-Algonquian to Northern East Creek → tʃ / _i
θ → t
7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East Creek → tʃ / _i
tʃ → ts
θ → t
7.8 Proto-Algonquian to Plains Creeʃ tʃ → s ts
θ → t
7.9 Proto-Algonquian to Swampy Creetʃ → ts
θ → t
7.10 Proto-Algonquian to Woods Creeʃ tʃ → s ts
θ → t
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawaretʃ → t / in nouns
t s → tʃ ʃ / in diminutives
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menomineeʃ tʃ → s ts
7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-Illinoistʃ → t / in nominal suffixes
t → tʃ / in diminutives
{θ,l} → t / n_
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonicpʰ tʰ kʰ → p t k
tʃʰ → t
tʃ dʒ → t d / #_
r → t / _{i,u}
rʲ → {r,t}
8.2 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Koreanpʰ tʰ kʰ → p t {k,h}
d → t
{tʃʰ,dʒ} → tʃ
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolict(ʰ) d → tʃ dʒ / _i
tʰ → t / else
tʃʰ → tʃ
ʃ → tʃ / #_a
8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusictʰ tʃʰ → t tʃ
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkictʰ → t
ʃ → tʃ / #_a
d ɡ → t k (may have been part of a more sweeping merger; Firespeaker calls it “lenis-fortis”)
8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchakd ɣ → t x / _#
d → t / #_ (“kind of”, something about evidence from borrowings)
s → tʃ / _Vtʃ
8.5.2 Proto-Turkic to Sakhad s {ʃ,z} → t ∅ s / V_V
9 Austroasiatic9.1.1 Proto-Vietic to Muong Khen(h)ə{p,b} → t / _l
tɹ → tʰ
9.1.2 Proto-Vietic to Middle Vietnamesebʱ {tʰ,dʱ} {t*ʰ,d*ʱ} {kʰ,ɡʱ} → pʰ t tʰ kʰ (after *kʰ *ɡʱ, only first-register tones may occur)
((h)ə)p d → b t / _l
t*ʰ d ɡ → tʰ t k / _w
s → t(ʰ?)
c ɲ → t n / ! E_ (apparently the precursor to Vietnamese short *a was treated as a short vowel here)
9.1.2.1 Middle Vietnamese to Hanoi VietnameseΩ cʰ → s tɕ
9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnamesec ɲ t n → t n k ŋ / a_ (short /a/ only)
c ɲ → t n / {i,e}_
10 Austronesian10.1 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Malayo-Polynesians ts lʲ → h t n
10.1.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawanj → {d,t} / #_
10.1.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Philippine*T → t
10.1.2.4 Proto-Philippine to Ibanag{s,c} → t
10.1.2.7.1 Proto-Kalamian to Agutaynens → t / _V ! _E
s → t / _#
10.1.2.7.2 Proto-Kalamian to Karamiananens → t / _V ! _E
s → t / _#
10.1.2.10 Proto-Philippine to Waray*T → t
10.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Batak{ts,ʈ} {ɟʝ͡,ɖ} {lʲ,ɲ} {ʔ,x,s,h} ʀ → t d n ∅ r (velar fricative is conjectured; changes → d “unsure”)
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorrob dz → p ts
10.2.3 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Malayicj → t / _#
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Madurese{p,t,k} b d ɡ → ʔ p t k / _#
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauans → t
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North Sarawakpː tː cː kː → p t c k
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiput{s,c} → t / _V{s,c}V
b d → p t / _#
10.2.6.2 Proto-North Sarawak to Proto-Kenyahs → t / _VsVC
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lónghbʱ dʱ dzʱ ɡʱ → p t c k
b d dz ɡ → p t c k / N_
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabau— m p → n t / {u,i}_
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwb d ɡ → p t k
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerigb bʷ d ɡ → p kpʷ t k
10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to Caaàcpː pwː tː ʈː qː kː → pʰ pwʰ cʰ tʰ h jʰ
q {k,t} {s,ʈ} → k c t
10.3.5.2 Proto-New Caledonia to Jawéq k {ʈ,s} → k c t̪
pː pwː t̪ː tː kː cː → pʰ hʷ t̪ʰ tʰ h jʰ
t̪ t̪ʰ t tʰ → t tʰ c s
10.3.5.3 Proto-New Caledonia to Nemi-Pije-Fwaiq k {ʈ,s} → k c t̪
pː pwː tː t̪ː kː cː → f hʷ t̪ʰ tʰ h jʰ
t̪ t̪ʰ → t tʰ
10.3.5.4 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Northernq qː k kː s sː → k kː c cː t̪ t̪ː
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-Nêlêmwat̪ → t
ʈ → t
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to Nyelâyuk t s → j c t̪
{t̪,ʈ} → t
pː pwː tː qː cː → pʰ pwʰ tʰ h cʰ
10.3.5.6 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwaameiq k t s → k j c t
pː pwː tː ʈ kː cː → f hʷ tʰ lʰ h s
10.3.5.7 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwapwâq k {ʈ,s} → k c t̪
pː pwː t̪ː tː kː cː → pʰ xʷ t̪ʰ tʰ x s
t̪(ʰ) t(ʰ) → cʰ tʰ
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Yunagaq k s → k c t̪
pː pwː t̪ː tː ʈː cː kː → pʰ pwʰ t̪ʰ tʰ ʈʰ jʰ h
10.3.5.8.2 Proto-Yunaga to Yunaga 2{t̪,ʈ} → t
10.3.6.3 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Natügut → {t,l} / #_
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bayt → ts / _V[+ high]
p v m → t θ n / _{a,e,i}
10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to Tolomakom b → n̼ t̼ → n t / _{a,e,i}
{z,dr} → ts
10.3.9.2 Proto-Utupua to Nebaot → {r,t} / _B
t → {r,t} / V_V
10.3.9.3 Proto-Utupua to Tanibilit → {t,r,kʷ} / #_ (I’m not kidding. That’s what’s listed as the reflexes.)
t k → {t,r,kʷ,∅} ∅ / V_V
10.3.10.2 Proto-Vanikoro to Tanemat → {∅,t} / #_
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejomd {c,*j} → tʃ s
l → tʃ / _{o,E}
10.3.11.2.1 Proto-Erromango to Syeb d ɡ → p t k / {#,C}_
b d ɡ → mp nt ŋk
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Urab d ɡ → p t k / _#
10.3.11.3.1 Proto-Tanna to Kwamerab(ʷ) d → p(ʷ) t
10.3.11.3.2 Proto-Tanna to Lenakelb(ʷ) d → p(ʷ) t
z → t
10.3.11.3.3 Proto-Tanna to North Tannad → t (often)
10.3.11.3.4 Proto-Tanna to Southwest Tannab(ʷ) d → p(ʷ) t
10.3.11.3.5 Proto-Tanna to Whitesandsb(ʷ) d → p(ʷ) t
10.4.1 Proto-Micronesian to Marshallesep {t,ts} c → pʲ tʲ rʲ
{ç,s} x → tᵚ ∅
10.6 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Paiwant1 d1 d3 Z → t d ɖ ɟ
S1 s c → s t ts
10.6.1 Proto-Paiwan to Northern Paiwanc ɟ q ɭ → t d ʔ l
10.7 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Rukai{t1,c} {d1,z} d3 → t d ɖ
S1 s d2 *C → s θ ð ts (not sure what *C stands for here)
11 Northeast Caucasian11.1.1 Proto-Avar-Andic to Akhvakhdz dʒ → {tsːʼ,z} {tsːʼ,dʒ}
{ts,st} → tʃ
tɬː dɮ → tɬ(ː) tɬː
11.1.2 Proto-Avar-Andic to Andi{ts,st} dz → s {tsːʼ,z}
dʒ → {tʃːʼ,dʒ}
tɬ tɬ(ː) tɬ(ː)(ʼ) dʒ → ɬ tɬ(ː) tɬ(ː)(ʼ) tɬː
11.1.3 Proto-Avar-Andic to Avarts tsː tsʼ tsːʼ dz → sh ts tʃʼ ts(ː)ʼ tsʼ
st(ː) → ts
tʃ tʃː tʃːʼ dʒ → ts(?) tʃ tʃ(ː)ʼ tsʼ
tɬ tɬʼ tɬː tɬːʼ → ɬ tʼ tɬ tɬ(ː)ʼ
11.2 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Dargi{tsː,st} tsːʼ dz stː → ts z tsː s
tʃ tʃː dʒ → {tsʼ,tʃʼ} ʒ ts
11.3 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Khinalug{tsː,st} {tsːʼ,dz} → ts tsʼ
{tʃ(ː),dʒ} → tʃʼ
11.4 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Lakb d → {pː,b} {tː,d} (but *b is “[p]rone to change to *m”)
{tsː,stː} dz st → sː {tsː,z} ts
tʃ tʃː dʒ → {ts,tʃ} {tsʼ,tʃʼ} tʃ(ː)ʼ
11.5.1 Proto-Lezgic to Agul{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ stː dz → {s,ts} {ts,tʃ} tː s z
tʃːʼ → tʃː
11.5.2 Proto-Lezgic to Archid → {d,tː}
{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ stː dz → s {s,ʃ} tsʼ sː ts
tʃ(ː) dʒ → ʃ tʃ
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → ɬ ɬ(ː) kʼ tɬʼ tɬː
11.5.3 Proto-Lezgic to Lezghib d → {pː,b} {tː,d}
{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ dz → {ʃ,tʃ} tʃ(ʼ) {tʃː,dʒ}
11.5.4 Proto-Lezgic to Rutul{ts,st} tsːʼ dz → {s,ts} {d,t} z
tʃ tʃː tʃːʼ → {ʃ,tʃ} ʃ tʃ
11.5.5 Proto-Lezgic to Tabassaran{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ → {s,ts} {ts,tʃ} tsː
tʃ tʃː tʃːʼ → {ʃ,tʃ} {tʃ,dʒ} {tʃː,tʃʼ}(?)
11.5.6 Proto-Lezgic to Udits tsː tsʼ tsːʼ dz → {∅,s} tʃ {∅,tsʼ} {tsʼ,tʃʼ} z
tʃ tʃː tʃʼ tʃːʼ dʒ → {∅,ʃ} tʃ ∅ tʃʼ {dʒ,tʃ}
11.6 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Nakhst stː → st(ʼ) st
tsː tʃː → ts tʃ / #_
tsːʼ → tsː
{tsː,tʃː,dz,dʒ} → tː / _#
11.7 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Proto-Tsezic{ts,st} {tsːʼ,dz} → s ts
tʃ {tʃː,dʒ} → ʃ tʃ (the change of *tʃːʼ is conjectured for Bezhta, as the change is only listed in Tsez, but given the development of *tsːʼ I don’t find it unreasonable to put it here)
tɬ tɬːʼ → ɬ tɬ
12 Northwest Caucasian12.1 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Abazgi{pʷ,pʲ} {p(ʲ)ː,bˤ} bʷ pʷʲ bʷʲ → p b f tsʲ dzʲ
tʷː tʷʲ(ʼ) → d(w) tʷ(ʼ)
tsʷː tsʷʲ → tsʷ (tʃ)
zʷʲ tsʷʲʼ dzʷʲ → dzʲ~zʲ tʃʼ dʒ~ʒ
tʃ(ʼ) dʒ → tsʲ(ʼ) dzʲ
tɕː → dzʲ(~tɕ)
tʃʷ(ʼ) tʃʷː dʒʷ → tʃ(ʼ) zʷ dzʷ~zʷ
tɕʷ(ʼ) tɕʷː → tʃ(ʼ) dʒ~ʒ
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ dɮ → x ts {x,tsʼ} l
tɬʷ(ː) tɬʼ dɮʷ → tsʷ tsʼ(ʷ) l
tɬʷʲ tɬʷʲː tɬʷʲʼ dɮʷʲ → tʃʷ ʒʷ tʃʷʼ dʒʷ
12.1.1 Proto-Abazgi to Ashkharywa Abazatʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) v dz
tʷ(ʼ) dʷ → {tʷ(ʼ),p(ʼ)} {dʷ,b}
12.1.2 Proto-Abazgi to Tapanta Abaza{tʃʷ(ʼ),tɕ} {dʒʷ,dʑ} → ts(ʼ) dz
tɕʷ(ʼ) dʑʷ → {tɕ(ʷ)(ʼ),tʃʷ(ʼ)} {dʑ(ʷ),dʒʷ}
{tʷ(ʼ),dʷ} → {tɕ(ʷ)(ʼ),tʃ(ʷ)(ʼ)} {dʒ(ʷ),dʑ(ʷ)}
12.1.3 Proto-Abazgi to Ahchypsy Abkhaztʃʷ tʃʷʼ dʒʷ tɕ(ʼ) dʑ → f pʼ ts(ʼ) v dz
12.1.5 Proto-Abazgi to Abzhywa Propertʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑ
12.1.6 Proto-Abazgi to Tsabal Abzhywatʃʷ tʃʷʼ tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f pʼ ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑ
12.1.7 Proto-Abazgi to Khaltsys Sadztʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑʷ
12.1.8 Proto-Abazgi to Tswydzhy Sadztʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑʷ
12.2 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Circassianpʲ(ː) pʲʼ bʲ → t(ː) tʼ d
pʷ pʷʲ pʷʲʼ bʷ bʷʲ → p tʷ tʷʼ b d
r l → tː tħ / #_
tʷ(ː) tʷʼ dʷ → t(ː) tʼ d
tʷʲ tʷʲʼ → ts tsʼ
ts tsː dz → {s,c} tsː dz~z
tsʲ tsʲː tsʲʼ dzʲ → (s) tsː tsʼ dz~z
tsʲʷ tsʲʷ dzʲʷ → tsʲ tsʲʼ dzʲ
tʃ tʃʼ dʒ dʑ → s tsʲʼ(?) dz~z dʑ~ʑ
tʃʷ(ː) tʃʷʼ dʒʷ → tɕ(ː) tɕʼ dʑ~ʑ
tcʷ(ː) tɕʷʼ → tʃ(ː) tʃʼ
ɬ(ː) tɬ(ː) tɬʼ dɮ → ɕ(ː) tɕ(ː) tɕʼ tħ
tɬʲ tɬʲʼ dɮʲ → tɕ tɬʼ ɣ
tɬʷ(ː) tɬʷʼ dɮʷ → tʃ(ː) tʃʼ ħ
tɬʲʷ tɬʲʷ tɬʲʷ dɮʲʷ → x tɕː tɕʼ ɮ
12.2.1 Proto-Circassian to Adyghetsʲ → tɕ
tsʷ → tsʲʷ
12.2.1.1 Adyghe to Abadzekh Adyghetsʲ(ː) → tɕ
tsʷ → tʃʷ
pː tː tsː tsʷ ʃː tʃː tɕː kʲː kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → p t ts tʃʷ ʃ ɕ tɕ tʃ kʷ qː qʷ
kʲʼ → tʃʼ
sʼ ʃʼ~ɕʼ → tsʼ ʃʼ
12.2.1.2 Adyghe to Bzhedug Adyghetsʲ tsʲː → tɕ tɕː
kʲ(ː) kʲʼ ɡʲ → tʃ(ː) tʃʼ dʑ
tsʷː → tsʲʷː
sʼ ʃʼ~ɕʼ → tsʼ ʃʼ
12.2.1.3 Adyghe to Shapsug Adyghetsʲ(ː) tsʷ tʃ tɕ → tɕ tʃʷ ʃ ʂ
pː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː tsː tcː kʲː kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → p t ts tʃʷ ʃ tʃ tɕ kʲ kʷ χ~q χʷ~qʷ
p(ʷ)ʼ t(ʷ)ʼ tsʼ tsʷʼ~ʃʷʼ → pˤ tˤ tsˤ ʂʷ
12.2.1.4 Adyghe to Temirgoy Adyghetsʲ(ː) tsʷ → tɕ tsʲʷ
kʲ(ː) kʲʼ kʷː ɡʲ → tʃ tʃʼ kʷ dʑ
pː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː tʃː tɕː → p t ts tsʷʲ ʃ tʃ tɕ
sʼ ʃʼ~ɕʼ → tsʼ ʃʼ
12.2.2 Proto-Circassian to Kabardiankʲ → tʃ
tsʲʼ tʃʷʼ~ʃʷʼ tʃʼ tɕʼ tɬʼ kʲʼ → ɕʼ fʼ ɕʼ {ɕʼ,cçʼ} ɬʼ tʃʼ
sʼ(?) ʃʼ~ɕʼ → tsʼ ɕʼ
12.3 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Ubykhpʲ(ː) bʲ → t(ː) d
pʲʼ → tʷʼ
pʲː → tʷ~dʷ
pʷʲ bʷʲ → tʷ dʷ
pʷʲʼ pˤ pˤː pˤʼ bˤ → tʷʼ vˤ bˤ pˤʼ bˤ
t(ʷ)ː tʷʲʼ → t(ʷ) tʷʼ
ts(ʲ)ː tsʷː dzʲ → ts tsʷ dz
sʷʲ zʷʲ tsʷʲʼ dzʷʲ → tʃʷ ʒʷ tʃʲʼ dʒʲ
tʃ(ʼ) dʒ → ts(ʼ) dz
ɕː tɕː → ɕ tɕ
ʃʷ(ː) ʒʷ tʃʷ(ʼ) dʒ → ʃ ʒ tʃ(ʼ) dʒ
tɕʷ(ː) tɕʷʼ → tɕ tɕʼ
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ dɮ → ɕ (sʲ) tsʲʼ ɮ
tɬʲ tɬʲʼ dɮʲ → ɕ tɬʼ ɕ ʁ(~zʲ)
tɬʼ → tsʲʼ
tɬʷ(ː) tɬʷʼ dɮʷ → tsʷ ts(ʷ)ʼ w
tɬʷʲ tɬʷʲː tɬʷʲʼ dɮʷʲ → f dʑ tsʼ dʒ
13 Chumashan13.2 Proto-Chumash to Cruzeñok → tʃ “(‘in certain cases’)”
13.3 Proto-Chumash to Inseñotʼ qʼ → t q
13.4 Proto-Chumash to Obispeñoq k → {q,k} {k(ʃ),tʲ} (allophonic)
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.1 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Proto-Dravidiant → {t,ʈ} / V_V
s → t / #_VLV
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamiln tː → n̪ t̪ː
cː → tʃː “(most dialects)”
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Aleutð → t / else
∅ → t / #_s
n → t / #_ (except, maybe, “in exclamations”)
15.2 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Eskimoð z → t s
15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow Iñupiaqm n ŋ → v t ɣ / _C[-nasal]
l̥ → t / _C
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic Iñupiaqdʒ → tʃ → s / “in certain positions” (except for Thule Greenlandic, where dʒ → tʃ and stayed there, apparently)
m n ŋ t {{ɣ,ʁ} → {k,q}} → p t k n ŋ / _#
m n ŋ → v t ɣ / _C[-nasal]
dʒ → tʃ / i_{u,i}
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie Iñupiaqm n ŋ → v t ɣ / _C[-nasal]
l̥ → t / _C
15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales Iñupiaqm n ŋ → v t ɣ / _C[+nasal]
l̥ → t / C_
15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’iks → ts / in certain situations?
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’iks → ts / in certain situations?
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’iks → ts → tʃ / in some dialects?
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’iks → ts / in certain situations?
v → ft / _s
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.4 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Western Sentanis → t / #_
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanianḱ → {ts,tʃ} (“[a]rchaic relic”)
st → ʃt / medial
c ɟ → tʃ dʒ (for most speakers)
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanianḱ → {ts,tʃ} (“[a]rchaic relic”)
st → ʃt / medial
c ɟ → tʃ dʒ (much less widespread than in Gheg)
17.2.1 Common Anatolian to Hittitet → ts / _i ! s_
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lyciankʷ → t / _E
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to Lydiand → tʃ / _{i,u}
d → t / {#,N}_
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
t → tʰ / {aw,ow}_
kʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
ɡ́ → ts (?)
b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʷʱ → p t j k / #_
{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
t → tʰ / {aw,ow}_
kʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
ɡ́ → ts (?)
b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armeniant → tʰ / {aw,ow}_ ! #_
kʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
ɡ́ → ts (?)
b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
t → tʰ / {aw,ow}_
kʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
ɡ́ → ts (?)
b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡ(ʷ)ʱ → p t j k / #_
{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
t → tʰ / {aw,ow}_
kʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
ɡ́ → ts (?)
b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
t → tʰ / {aw,ow}_
kʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
ɡ́ → ts (?)
b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡ(ʷ)ʱ → p t j k / #_
{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
t → tʰ / {aw,ow}_
kʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
ɡ́ → ts (?)
b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestank(ʷ) ɡ(ʷ)(ʱ) → tʃ dʒ / _E
17.6 Proto-Indo-European to Dacianḱ ɡ́ → ts dz
{kʷ,kw} {ɡʷ,ɡw} → tʃ dʒ (→ s~z z ?) / _E
17.7 Proto-Indo-European to Common Germanicb d ɡ → p t k
17.7.2.1 West Germanic to Anglo-Frisiank ɡ → tʃ j(?)
17.7.2.1.1 Anglo-Frisian to Old Englishk ɣ ɡ → tʃ ʝ dʒ / “in certain complex circumstances”
17.7.2.1.4 Midlands Middle English to Early Modern Englishtj sj dj zj → tʃ ʃ dʒ ʒ / ! _uː (perhaps only before stressed uː?)
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishtj dj → tʃ dʒ
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsdʒ → tʃ / _#
17.7.2.1.14 Anglo-Frisian to Old Frisiank ɡ → tʃ j / _E
17.7.2.2.1 Old Low Franconian to Middle Dutchθ ð → t d
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germant → {ts,k} / _w
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlautp t k → pf ts kx / #_
p t k → pf ts kx / {L,N}_
pː tː kː → pf ts kx
b d ɡ → p t k
17.7.2.5 West Germanic to Old Low Germanb d → p t / _C[-voice]
k → ts / _E (ɡ → dz here?)
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norseb {w,v} d ð ɡ → p f t θ k / _#
(Vː)θt → (V)tː
θ → t / {p,t,k}_
θː ðː → tː dː
ht → tː
s → ts / {l,n}ː_
∅ → t / s_r
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandicb d {ɡ,ɣ} → p t k / _S
{n̥n,nn̥ → tn̥ / V_
nː → tn̥ / V_#
nː → tn / V_
{r̥n,r̥n̥,rn̥ → tn̥
rn → tn̥ / _#
r → t / _n
{r,r̥,l}ɬ → tɬ
{ɬl,ɬː → tɬ
r̥l → tɬ
{lː,rl} → tɬ / _#
{lː,rl} → tl
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Norn{t,d}j → tʃ
b d ɡ → p t k / #_
θ → t
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornb d → p t / N_
tː → {tʲ,dʲ}
tj → tʃ / _#
θ → {t,d}
17.7.4 Common Germanic to Vandalictj → tsj
θ ð → t d (not a complete change; apparently due to Latin)
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
t → ts / _i
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
t → ts / _i
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
tʃ → t / #_
tʃ → tː / medial
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
t → ts / _i
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
t → ts / _i
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
t → ts / _i
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
t → ts / _i
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
tʃ → t / #_
tʃ → tː / medial
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
t → ts / _i
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
t → ts / _i
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
t → ts / _i
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
17.8.10 Proto-Indo-European to Mycenaean Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
t → ts / _i
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittitebʱ dʱ ɡʱ → p t k
t → ts / _{i,e}
17.10 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iranianttʃ ddʒʱ → t.ʃ d.ʒʱ
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-Aryantʃ dʒ(ʱ) → tɕ dʑ(ʱ) → ɕ ɟ(ʱ)
tst dzdʱ → tː dʱː
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-Aryankʂ → tʃː
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-Aryankʂ → tʃː
17.10.1.5 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Vedic Sanskritsː ʂː ɕː → t.s t.ʂ t.C
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavick ɡ x → tʃ ʒ ʃ / _{e(ː)(i),i(ː)}
k ɡ x → ts dz s / _{æː,i}
k ɡ x → ts dz s / “After some syllables with front vowels”
kj ɡj xj → tʃ ʒ ʃ
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishsk x → ɕtɕ ɕ / _E
tsi ʐi → tɕ ʐ / V_
tʲ dʲ sʲ zʲ nʲ rʲ l lʲ → tɕ dʒ ɕ ʑ ȵ r ɫ l (this last probably not before /i/)
ʃi ʒi tʃi dʒi ɕi ʑi → ʂɨ ʐɨ ʈʂɨ ɖʐɨ tsɨ ʒɨ
ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ ɕ ʑ → ʂ ʐ ʈʂ ɖʐ ts ʒ
tɕts ʑr̝ → jts jr̝
ʈʂs → ts
ʈʂ → t / _r̝
∅ → t / s_r “in ‘stręczyć’”
stʲkl → ɕtɕkl → {ɕ,s}kɫ → ʂkɫ
dz ts → d͜z t͜s
ʈʂ → t / _r
tʲ dʲ → t d / _{l,n,ɲ,r,ʐ}
17.11.2 Proto-Slavic to Old Russiantj dj → tʃ, ʒ
17.12 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Italicbʰ dʰ gʰ → pʰ tʰ dʰ → ɸ θ x
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latin{t,d}t → tst → sː
∅ → t / sː_r
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalanlj rj kj ɡj → ʎ jr ts ʒ / V_V
j ɡj ts z n → tʃ i w s ∅ / _#
d → t / _#
k → ts → s / #_{i,e}
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to Frenchk ɡ → tj dj / _E
j tj → dʒ ts / #_
∅ → t / s_r
k ɡ → t d / {n,r}_r
— (k)kj → ts
— pj → tʃ
k ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _a
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to Italiank ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _E
kt → tː
taːte → ”ta / _#
tj ks w → ts sː ɡw
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguese{olt,okt} → ujt → ut
k → ts → s / #_{i,e}
kl → kʎ → tʃ → ʃ / #_
dj → dz → ts → s / r_V
ndj → nts → ns → ɲ / V_V
kj → ts → s / V_V
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençalk ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _E
tʃ → ts (sometimes)
(s)k ɡ → (s)tʃ dʒ / #_a (in the north and northeast)
tʃ → ts → s / #_
b {d,dz,dʒ} z ʒ ɡ → p {t,ts,tʃ} s ʃ k / _(s)#
tʃs → {ts,tʃ} (varies)
ð → t / _s#
kː → tʃ / _a (in the east and northeast)
ms ns → mps nts (sporadic?)
∅ → t / s_r
{tʃ(ː),kʷ}j → ts
l{tj,tʃj} ldʒ → lts ldz → uts udz → us uz
{ntʃj,ndj} → nts → ns
ptj → ts → s
pj → ptʃ → tʃ (except in western and some southern dialects)
rtʃj → rts (→ rs ?)
rtj → rts → rs
rtVɡ → {rdʒ,rts(→ rs)}
rtj → rts → rs
tːj → ts → s
tj → tʃ → dj → djʒ (?) → dz (in the north and west) or idz (in the south and east)—medial (i)dz became (i)z; i-less forms “prevail in the literary language” and seem to have become common if the dz follows the stress
ndt ndtʃ ntʃ nkt nf → n{d,t} {nts,ndz(→ nz),ndʒ} n(t)s {ɲ,(i)nt,ntʃ} {nf,fː(→ f)}
d → t / n_#
rtʃ rdtʃ → r(t)s {rdz(→ rz),rts,rdʒ}
stʃ → (i)(t)ʃ (for western and extreme eastern regions)
bk → pts / _a
βtʃ → u{ts,dz} → u{s,z}
βt βd → pt bd (in the west)
βt βd → ut ud (else)
ktʃ → (i)tʃ (in western and extreme eastern dialects)
ktʃ → its → is (else)
kt ɡd → it id (in the north, northeast, and southwest)
{tʃ,k}t ɡd → tʃ dʒ (else)
dtʃ → ts (in Auvergne and some western areas)
ɡn{d,t} → ŋn{d,t} → ɲ{d,t} → {(i)nd,ɲd,ndʒ} or t(ʃ)
ksk → stʃ / _a (in the north and northeast)
pk → ptʃ / _a
pt → {ut,it} “in a few words”
td → tː → t
17.12.1.1.7 Vulgar Latin to Rhaeto-Romancek ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _a (note the similarity with some varieties of Old Provençal)
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romaniank ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _E
t d s → ts dz ʃ / _i
{sc,st} → ʃt / _F
kj ɡj → tʃ {j,∅} (ɡj → ∅ is rare)
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardiniank → ts / _i
l{i,j} → lː → {ts,dz,ldz,dʒ,lː} (“varies”)
n{i,j} t{i,j} → ndʒ ts / _V
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanish{tj,kj} {tːj,kːj,ptj,ktj,skj} → ts tːs
k ɡ → tʃ dʒ → ts dz / _{j,i,e,ɛ}
pt {ɾs,ps} → tː sː
jt js → tʃ ʃ
pː tː kː sː tːs ʝː → p t k s ts ʝ
kl pl → ʎ {ʎ,tʃ}
— tst dzd → ts dz
— mpVt skVp spVt stVk → nt sp st sk
tɾ → {tɾ̥,tʃ,tʂ}
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tochariandz → ts
{t,dʱ} → tʲ / _E(ː)
{t,dʱ} → ts / _y
17.13.2 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian B∅ → t / {N,L}_S
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makurápts (n)dz → t nd
j ŋʷ m n → ɲ m {m,p} {∅,t} / _V[+nas]
ⁿd ŋ → t {ɡ,k} / _V[-nas]
18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekensts (n)dz → {s,ts} s
{ᵐb,ⁿd,ð} → t / _V[+nas]
18.3.3 Proto-Tuparí to Tuparí{(n)dz,ts} → t / else
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayoróts (n)dz → t nd
18.4.1 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Akwárat → tʃ / _{i,ı̃}
k b r → {ŋ,∅} {w,m} {n,r,t} / _#
18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Cocamat → tʃ / _{i,ı̃}
ʔ ts ŋ → ∅ {ts,tʃ} n
18.4.3 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guajajarat → ts / _{i,ı̃}
18.4.4 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guaranít → tʃ / _{i,ı̃}
ts → {tʃ,∅}
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guarayot → tʃ / _{i,ı̃}
ʔ ts → {ʔ,∅} {ts,tʃ}
18.4.6 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Kamayurát → tʃ / _{i,ı̃}
b r → p t / _#
18.4.7 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Parintintínb r → {b,∅} {r,t} / _#
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Sirionót → {ts,tʃ} / _{i,ı̃}
j → {ɲ,tʃ} / else
18.4.9 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Classical Tupit → tʃ / _{i,ı̃}
18.4.9.1.5 Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoró to Zoróʃ → tʃ (sporadic, areal feature from Gavião influence)
19 Kartvelian19.1 Proto-Kartvelian to Georgianʈʂ {ʈʂʼ,tɬʼ} → ts tsʼ
19.2 Proto-Kartvellian to Svank kʼ → {k,tʃ} {kʼ,tʃʼ}
tʃ ʈʂ tɬʼ tʃʼ ʈʂʼ → {tʃk,ʃɡ} tʃ h {ʃkʼ,tʃʼkʼ} tʃʼ
19.3 Proto-Kartvelian to Zantʃ ʈʂ {tɬʼ,ʈʂʼ} tʃʼʼ → tʃk tʃ tʃʼ {tsʼkʼ,tʃʼkʼ}
20 Khoisan20.1.1 Proto-Khoe to ǁ̬Anats → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s}
20.1.2 Proto-Khoe to ǁAnits → {ts,s}
20.1.3 Proto-Khoe to Bugats → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s}
20.1.4 Proto-Khoe to Kxoets dz → {ç,tç} dʒ
20.1.5 Proto-Khoe to Namats dz kxʼ → {ts,s} d ∅
20.1.6 Proto-Khoe to Narots dz → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s} dz~ts
20.1.7 Proto-Khoe to !Orats → {ts,s}
20.1.8 Proto-Khoe to Tetits dz kxʼ → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s} z kʼ
20.1.9 Proto-Khoe to Tsʔixats dz kxʼ → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s} z kʼ
20.1.10 Proto-Khoe to ǀ̬Uits → {ts~tsɦ,s}
20.2.1 Proto-Kx’a to ǂHoant d s → {c,tʃ} ɟ ʃ
20.2.2 Proto-Kx’a to Northwestern !Xunts(ʼ) s → tʃ(ʼ) ʃ
20.2.3 Proto-Kx’a to Southeastern !Xunts(ʼ) s → tʃ(ʼ) ʃ
21 Lakes Plain21.1.1 Proto-Far West to Awerat d → t~ɾ~n n / #_
21.2.1 Proto-Tariku to Proto-Central Tarikuti → s~ti / _V
21.2.1.1 Proto-Central Tariku to Edopis → s~t
21.2.2 Proto-Tariku to Proto-East Tarikuti → s~ti / _V
21.2.2.7 Proto-East Tariku to Waritaip d → p~ɸs d~t
22 Macro-Arawakan22.1 Proto-Arawá to Arawáɗ → t / #_
22.2 Proto-Arawá to Banawá-Jamamadi{tʰ,ɗ} → t
22.4 Proto-Arawá to Jarawaraɗ → t
p(ʰ) {tʰ,d} → ɸ t
22.5 Proto-Arawá to Kulína-Deníɗ → t
22.6 Proto-Arawá to Sorowahá{tʰ,ɗ → t
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.3 Proto-Chibchan to Kogis → {ʃ,tʃ} / _i
s h → {s,tʃ} {h,∅}
23.1.1.1.4 Proto-Chibchan to Marocaceros → {ts,ʃ} / _i
s → {s,ts}
23.1.1.1.5 Proto-Chibchan to Motilóns → {s,x,tʃ~ʃ}
s → {ʃ,tʃ} / _i
23.1.1.1.6 Proto-Chibchan to Tunebots tʃ → tʃ s
23.1.2 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Lencan{s,ts} → tsʼ
25 Macro-Panoan25.1.3 Proto-Tacanan to Reyesanots → tʃ / #_
tʃ ɕ → ts ʃ
j → tʃ / V_V
25.1.4 Proto-Tacanan to Tacanatʃ → ts / _E
j → tʃ / V_V
26 Mande26.1 Proto-Mande to Bobotʼ {kʼ,ɡ} → t k
26.2 Proto-Mande to Busatʼ kʼ → t k
26.3 Proto-Mande to Dantʼ kʼ → t k
26.4 Proto-Mande to Gurotʼ kʼ → t k
26.5 Proto-Mande to Kono-Vaitʼ kʼ → t k
26.7 Proto-Mande to Mandekantʼ kʼ → t k
26.8 Proto-Mande to Manotʼ kʼ → t k
26.9 Proto-Mande to Mwatʼ kʼ → t k
26.10 Proto-Mande to Santʼ kʼ → t k
26.11 Proto-Mande to Semblatʼ {kʼ,ɡ,w} → {t,d} k
26.12 Proto-Mande to Soninkatʼ {kʼ,ɡ} → {t,d} k
26.13 Proto-Mande to Susutʼ → t
27 Mayan27.1 Proto-Mayan to Ch’olantʲ(ʼ) → t(ʼ)
27.2 Proto-Mayan to Chujeantʲ(ʼ) → t(ʼ)
27.4 Proto-Mayan to Ixileant → tʃ
r → {t,j}
27.5 Proto-Mayan to Kaqchikel-Tz’utujiltʲ(ʼ) → tʃ(ʼ)
27.6 Proto-Mayan to Core K’iche’tʲ(ʼ) → tʃ(ʼ)
27.7 Proto-Mayan to Mameant → tʃ
r → {t,j}
tʲ(ʼ) → t(ʼ)
tʲ(ʼ) → ts(ʼ)
r t tʃ ʃ → t tʃ ʈʂ ʂ
27.10 Proto-Mayan to Yucatecant → tʃ / _#
tʲ(ʼ) → tʃ(ʼ)
28 Muskogean28.1.1 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Alabamaʃ → ts
28.1.2 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Creekʃ → ts
28.1.3 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Hitchitiʃ → ts
28.1.4 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Korasatiʃ → ts
nt → tː
28.1.5 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Mikasuriʃ x → ts h
28.1.6 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Seminoleʃ x → ts h
tl → tː
28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western Muskogeants tʃ → s ts
tl st → lː tː
29 Na-Dene29.1 Proto-Na-Dene to Proto-Athabaskan-Eyakkʲ kʲʼ ɡʲ xʲ → ts tsʼ dz s
29.1.1 Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak to Proto-Athabaskank kʼ kʷ kʷʼ ɡ ɡʷ → kʲ kʲʼ tʂ tʂʼ ɡʲ ɖʐ
29.1.1.1.21 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Kiowa Apachek → tʃ / _E
29.1.2 Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak to Eyakkʲ kʲʼ ɡʲ xʲ → ts tsʼ dz {s,ʃ}
29.2 Proto-Na-Dene to Tlingitts → ts : tɬ
tsʼ → {sʼ,tsʼ} : {ɬ,tɬʼ}
tʃ → {tʃ,ts} : tɬ
tʃʼ → {sʼ,tʃʼ} : tɬʼ
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1.1 Proto-Bantu to Sebirwat d l → {ʈ,tʲ} {ɖ,dʲ} {ɭ,lʲ,ʎ} (The paper is a bit unclear as to which is meant, as the transcription and the textual aspects of the paper seem to disagree here)
p t d c ɟ k ɡ → ɸ ɹ {d,l} tʰ ∅ h {∅,ɡ}
30.1.1.2 Proto-Bantu to Tswana{p,t,tʃ,k} {mp,nt,ɲtʃ,nk} {(m)b,(n)d,(ɲ)dʒ,(n)ɡ} {m,n} → s tsʰ ts ɲ / _iV
{tʃ,k} {ntʃ,nk,r} {ɲdʒ,nɡ} mp mb p b {d,l} m n → s tsʰ ts tʃʰ(w) tʃ(w) ʃ(w) dʒ(w) dʒ ŋw ɲ / _{ɪ,e}V
{p,t,tʃ,k} {mp,nt,ɲtʃ,nk} {(m)b,(n)d,(ɲ)dʒ,(n)ɡ} {m,n,ɲ} → sw tsʰw tsw ɲw / _iV
mp mb p b m → tʃʰ(w) tʃ(w) ʃ(w) dʒ(w) ŋw / _{ʊ,o}V
{tʃ,k} {ɲtʃ,nk} {ndʒ,nɡ} → s tsʰ ts / _{i,ɪ,e}
mp nt ɲtʃ nk mp nd ɲdʒ nɡ → pʰ tʰ tɬʰ qʰ p t tɬ k
p t tʃ k {dʒ,ɡ} ɲ → h r tɬʰ χ ∅ n
30.1.1.3.1 Proto-Sam to Amuntç tç → (n̪)t̪ʰ t̪
30.1.1.3.2 Proto-Sam to Bajunintç tç → (n̪)t̪ʰ t̪
30.1.1.3.3 Proto-Sam to Mwiinintç tç → (n̪)t̪ʰ t̪
30.1.1.3.4 Proto-Sam to Siu-Patentç tç → (n̪)t̪ʰ t̪
30.2 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Potou-Akanicɟ ʄ j c ɠʷ → c ɟ ʄ t ɠ̥p
30.3.1.1.2 Proto-Ajá to Hwet d → tʃ dʒ / _{u,i}
30.3.1.1.3 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Fon{t,k}j {d,ɡ}j → tʃ dʒ
30.3.1.1.4 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Gen{t,k}j {d,ɡ}j → tʃ dʒ
tʰ dʱ → t d
30.3.1.1.8 Proto-Vhe to Adángbek ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _i
30.3.1.1.9 Proto-Vhe to Avénot d → tʃ dʒ / _{u,i}
k ɡ s → ts dz ʃ / _i
t d → ts dz / _j
30.3.1.1.10 Proto-Vhe to Awalant d → tʃ dʒ / _{u,i}
s {k,ts} {ɡ,dz} → ʃ tʃ dʒ / _i
30.3.1.1.11 Proto-Vhe to Kpándo{t,k} {d,ɡ} → ts dz / _i
t d → tʃ dʒ / _j
30.3.1.1.12 Proto-Vhe to Pecı́{k,ts} {ɡ,dz} → tʃ dʒ / _i
30.3.1.1.13 Proto-Vhe to Tɔ̣wunk ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _i
30.3.1.1.14 Proto-Vhe to Wacı́{k,ts} {ɡ,dz} → tʃ dʒ / _i
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinot → tʃ / _”{e,iʔ}
tʲ → tʃ / else
s → tʃ (in certain cases? Not a lot of data available on this one)
h → t / else (…again, lolwut)
32.1.2 Proto-Chatino to Tataltepec Chatinot → tʲ / _õ (…again…lolwut)
t → tʃ / #_iç
tʲ → tʃ / _i[-long -stress]
tʲ → t / _a
kʲ → tʲ
c → tʃ / i_
et el en → itʲ elʲ enʲ
32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinotʲ → tj
k → tʃ / _Ek(ʷ)
ts → tʃ / #_{a,õ}ʔ
ts → tʃ / V[+high]_
c → ts
tʃ → ts / a_
s → tʃ / #_a
ʃ → ts / _i, in monosyllables
32.1.4 Proto-Chatino to Zenzontepec Chatinokʲ → tʃ
32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to TlapanecYt Ynt Ys → tʃ dʒ ʃ
33 Penutian33.1.1.2 Proto-Utian to Proto-Miwokʈ → tʃ / _e
ʈ → tʃ / e_
33.1.1.2.1 Proto-Miwok to Proto-Western Miwokʈ → tʃ / {aː,oː}_
33.1.1.3 Proto-Costanoan to Mutsunʈ → {ʈ,ts,tʃ} / _{j,ɾ}
33.1.1.4 Proto-Costanoan to Rumsentʲ → tʃ
ʈ → {ʈ,tʃ} / {aː,oː}_
ʈ → {ʈ,tʃ} / {i,e,o}$_
ʈ → {ʈ,tʃ} / _{j,ɾ}
33.2.1 Proto-Wintuan to Nomlakitʃʰ kʰ qʰ {x,χ} → tʃ k(ʰ) {kʰ,qʰ,χ} kʰ
33.2.2 Proto-Wintuan to Patwintʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ → t tʰ tʼ
k(ʰ) kʼ q(ʰ) qʼ → tʃ(h) tʃʼ kʰ kʼ
33.2.3 Proto-Wintuan to South Patwintʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ → t tʰ tʼ
k(ʰ) kʼ q(ʰ) qʼ → tʃ(ʰ) tʃʼ k(ʰ) kʼ
33.2.4 Proto-Wintuan to Wintutʃʰ → tʃ
33.3.1.1 General Yokuts to Buena Vista Yokutst tʰ tʼ → ts tsʰ tsʼ / #_ “(in some words, conditioning factors unclear)”
33.3.2 Buena Vista Yokuts to Proto-Nim-Yokutsts tsʰ tsʼ → tʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ
33.3.2.1 Proto-Nim-Yokuts to Proto-Tule-Kaweaht tʰ tʼ → tʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ / #_ “(in some words, conditioning factors unclear)”
l → t
33.3.2.2.4 Valley Yokuts to Chukchansiʈ ʈʰ ʈʼ → tʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ
tʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ → ts tsʰ tsʼ
33.3.2.2.6 Valley Yokuts to Yawelmanitʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ → ts tsʰ tsʼ (except in “lexicalized diminutives”, where these go to ʈʂ ʈʂʰ ʈʂʼ)
33.3.3 Proto-Yokuts to Palewyamit tʰ tʼ → ts tsʰ tsʼ / #_ “(in some words; conditioning factors unclear)”
ts tsʰ tsʼ → tʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ / _i
34 Quechumaran34.1 Proto-Quechumaran to Ayachucopʼ tʼ tʃʼ kʼ qʼ → p t tʃ k q
ts(h) tʃh → tʃ s
ʈʂ → tʃ / _V
ʈʂʼ → tʃʼ
34.2 Proto-Quechumaran to Boliviaph th kh qh → pʰ tʰ kʰ qʰ
ts {tsh,tʃh} → tʃ tʃʰ
tʃʼ → tʃ
ʈʂ → tʃ / _V
ʈʂʼ → tʃʼ
34.3 Proto-Quechumaran to Cuzcots tsh → tʃ tʃʰ
{tʃh,tʃʼ} → tʃ
ʈʂ → tʃ / _V
ʈʂʼ → tʃ / n_
ʈʂʼ → tʃʼ
34.4 Proto-Quechumaran to Huaráspʼ tʼ tʃʼ kʼ qʼ → p t ts k q
tʰ → t
ts(h) tʃ → tʃ ts
tʃ → ts / _q
ʈʂ → tʃ / _V
34.5 Proto-Quechumaran to Putamayopʼ tʼ kʼ qʼ → p t k q
tʰ → t
tʃʼ → tʃ
ʈʂ → tʃ / _V
34.6 Proto-Quechumaran to Quitotʼ → tʰ / #_i
tʼ → t
tʃʼ → tʃ
ʈʂ → tʃ / _V
34.7 Proto-Quechumaran to Riobambapʼ tʼ kʼ qʼ → p t k q
tʼ → tʰ / #_i
tʃʼ → tʃ
ʈʂ → tʃ / _V
ʈʂʼ → ts
34.8 Proto-Quechumaran to Santiagopʼ tʼ tʃʼ kʼ qʼ → p t tʃ k q
ts(h) → tʃ
ʈʂ → tʃ / _V
34.9 Proto-Quechumaran to Tenapʼ tʼ kʼ qʼ → p t k q
tʰ → t
tʃʼ → tʃ
ʈʂ → tʃ / _V
ʈʂʼ → tʃ
35 Salishan35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack Halkomelemts(ʼ) tʃ(ʼ) → θ(ʼ) ts(ʼ)
35.1.3 Proto-Central Salish to Cowichan Halkomelemts(ʼ) tʃ(ʼ) → θ(ʼ) ts(ʼ)
35.1.4 Proto-Central Salish to Musqueam Halkomelemts(ʼ) tʃ(ʼ) → θ(ʼ) ts(ʼ)
35.1.5 Proto-Central Salish to Klallamp(ʼ) m → ts(ʼ) ŋ / ! _u
tʃ → ts
tʃʼ → tsʼ / medially
w j → kʷ tʃ / _V
35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straitsp(’) m → tʃ(’) ŋ / ! _u
tʃ’ → ts’ / medially
j → tʃ / _V
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern Straitsp(’) m → tʃ(’) ŋ / ! _u
j w → tʃ kʷ / _V
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern Straitsp(’) m → tʃ(’) ŋ / ! _u
tʃ’ → ts’ / medially
j w → tʃ kʷ / _V
35.1.11 Proto-Central Salish to Sooke Northern Straitsp(’) m → tʃ(’) ŋ / ! _u
tʃ’ → ts’ / medially
j w → tʃ kʷ / _V
35.1.12 Proto-Central Salish to Pentlatchts ts’ → s ts’
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1 Proto-Sino-Tibetan to Middle Chineses-l- → {tʰ,z}-
36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàb d dz ɡ → {p,pʼ} {t,tʼ} {ts,tsʼ} {k,kʼ}
z → {s,tsʼ} (the former “without exception” “in oblique tone words”)
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Lat d Nt Nd st sd çT tr (ç)dr KT → tʰ t Ntʰ md zd st çtj trh (ç)tr kt
(ʔ)kj (s)ɡj Nkj → (k)tç (s)kj Ndʒ
NTS PTS KTS sTS çTS → {Ndz,mts} kts(ʰ) ptsʰ sts {sts,rj}
(r)ts (r)dz → (r)tsʰ (r)ts
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiat st tr d sd (ç)dr Nt çT KT → t. s.d tr. t s.t (ç.)tr m.t. n.dr ɡ.t
kj Nkj ʔkj ɡj sɡj → kj. nj ɡ.tsʰ kj skj.
Kts → ɡ.tsʰ.
ts (r)dz dʒ PTS KTS sTS çTS → {tsʰ,s} (r)ts tsʰ ɡ.ts s.{ts,pj} {s.ts,br}
36.3.2.1.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Hanniup k ts → p. k. tʃ.
m → mt.
çl → rts
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Tod(r) → t
çT → ʃt
Nkj ɡj sɡj → mj ts stʃj
ts {dz,KTS} NTS rdz dzl dʒ → s ts {dz,mtʃ.} rts tsl tʃ.
at → {at,ɛ,ed}
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtse(N)t (N)d st sd KT çT tr dr çtr → (N)tʰ mt zd st kt çt(j) trh tr çtr
ts (r)dz dzl dʒ NTS PTS Kts KTS sTS çTS → tsʰ (r)ts Ndz tsl ts ptç ktç kts sts {s,ç}ts
36.3.2.2.3 Proto-rGyalrongic to Patits dʒ NTS → {s,tʃ.} tʃ. m
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo MoNt tr d KT çT → mt. tʂ t kt ʃt
ɡj → cç ? (might be → tsç?)
ʔkj → ktʃ.
lts rts NTS PTS STS → lɖʐ rts. {mdzr,mtʃ} nt. sts
ts dʒ → tʃ. tʃ
36.3.2.2.5 Proto-rGyalrongic to Trungdʒ → tsh
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Naod(r) çT → t ʃt
kj → tʃ.
z → ts / r_
ts dz NTS KTS sTS → tʃ ts {ts,m} ɡts sp
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu TaP t → pdz tʃ / r_
Np Nb Nt Nɡ Nç → sts mp mtʰ mk ntsʰdz
{d,KT} st → tʃ zdʒ
k rk kr kj Nkj ɡr → kʰdz nɡ kʰr tʃh dʒ nkʰr
NTS KTS lTS → mʈʂ {kts,ʈʂʰ} bɖʐ
ts dz rdz dʒ → {ʈʂ,ʒ} tsj rtsʰ ʈʂ
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassud KT → l kt
k kr kj ɡ → k. k.r ts. ɡ
ts dzl NTS → {tʃ.,j} tsl m
36.3.3.1 Old Tibetan to Amdo dialectsk(ʰ){r,j} ɡ{r,j} → tɕ(ʰ) dʑ
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoiant → ts / _{i,ı̃}
tʰ → ts / _i
r → ts / _i
ʃ θ → s t
37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeek kʷ → ts k / _i
tsn → hst
ks → ts / _V
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayugan → t / _k(ʷ)
ns → ts / _k(ʷ)
ths → tsh
37.1.2.1.2 Cayuga to Lower Cayugats → t / _(h)r
tʔ tsʔ kʔ kʷʔ → tʼ tsʼ kʼ kʷʼ
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huronn hn sC → t th Ch / s_
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandotn → t / _h
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagans → ts / _k(ʷ)
n → t / _k(ʷ)
hts → tsh / C_V
ts → tʃ / _{(h)i,(h)j}
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneidans → ts / _{t,k(ʷ)}
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Mohawk— k → t / _j
— t → tʃ / _(h)j
— ts → tʃ / _{(h)i,(h)j}
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneidaths → tsh
ts → tʃ / _{(h)i,(h)j}
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecan → t / _k(ʷ)
n → t / ʔ_#
{ths,tts} → tsh
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscarorats → tʃ / _{h,i,j}
ths → tʃ
t → ˀt
n → t / ! _{h,kʷ,V[+nas]}
ˀt → tʔ / _ˀt
ˀt → t
n → t / _kʷ
∅ → t / hs_r
37.2.2 Proto-Siouan to Dakotatʲr → {st,ʃt}
hk →tʃ
37.2.4 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Čiwere-Winnebagot → tʃ / _”E
37.2.4.1 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Čiweret → tʃ / _ʔ
37.2.4.2 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Winnebagot → {tʃ,dʒ}
tk → {tʃk,tʃɡ} / #_
37.2.5 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Crow-Hidatsas ç {tʲ,x} → ts x ʃ
wt → wV0tV0
37.2.5.1 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Crowk → ts / _i
sk → tsk / _”V
37.2.5.2 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Hidatsasn → tsV0rV0
sk → tsuk / _”u
sk kx → tsk hk / _”V
sk → hts / ”V_
37.2.6.1 Proto-Dhegiha to Kansat → ts / _ʔ
tʲr kr → ʃt l
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to Osaget → ts / _E
t → ts / _ʔ
pr sr tʲr kr → bð sts ʃd ɡð
37.2.6.4 Proto-Dhegiha to QuapawLʲ → t / #_ã (*)
37.2.7 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Ohio-Valleytʲ Lʲ → tʃ j
37.2.7.2 Proto-Ohio-Valley to OfoL j → t tʃ
sr kr → ft kV0lV0
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.1 Proto-Tai to Ahomd ɗ → t d
38.1.1.2 Proto-Tai to Saekd ɗ → t d
t → {p,t} / _r
d → t / _{l,r}
k → t / _l
38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Taitr → tʰ(r)_
kl kr → {kj,tʃ} kʰj
38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchow{r,s,z} tʃʰ dʒ → ɬ ʃ tʃ
38.1.1.3.2 Central Tai to Nungtʃ tʃʰ dʒ → ʃ tsʰ {ʃ,tʃ}
38.1.1.3.3 Central Tai to Taypr → tʰ
{s,z} → {x,tʰ}
tʃ dʒ → {x,t} tʃ
38.1.1.3.4 Central Tai to Thopr → tʰ
dʒ → tʃ
38.1.1.3.5 Central Tai to T’ien-Paopr → tʰ
{s,z} → t
dʒ → tʃ
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Tai{kʰ,ɡ}{l,r} → tʃ
k{l,r} → {kj,tʃ}
{pʰ,b} ɓ {tʰ,d} ɗ {kʰ,ɡ} {kʷʰ,ɡ} → p b t d k kʷ
38.1.1.4.1 North Tai to Dioik → tʃ / _E
38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-Aik → tʃ / _E
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Taipr → t
tʰl tʰr → tʰ r̥
38.1.1.5.5 Southwest Tai to Black Taiɡ ɡl → k tʃ
38.1.1.5.6 Southwest Tai to White Tai{kʰ,ɣ} ɡ ɡ{l,r} → x k tʃ
39 Tanoan39.1 Proto-Tanoan to Jimeztsʼ → tʼ
39.2 Proto-Tanoan to Kiowats tsʰ tsʼ dz → t tʰ tʼ d
39.3 Proto-Tanoan to Taosts tsʰ tsʼ dz → tʃ s tʃʼ j
40 Totozoquean40.1 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Mixe-Zoqueannʲ tʲ tʃ kʲ → n t s ts k
40.2 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Totonacannʲ tʲ kʲ k → l tʃ k q
j → t
41 Trans-New Guinea41.1 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Apalɨt k ŋ → {l,t} {h,k} n / #_
41.2 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Asmatk s → ∅ {t,s} / #_
p t nj → {t,r} {r,s,t} s / _#
41.5.1.1 Proto-Gorokan to Asaroʔ{l,d} ʔɡ → t k
41.5.1.2 Proto-Gorokan to North ForeNw Nm N{n,j} → ŋk mp nt
41.5.1.3 Proto-Gorokan to South ForeNw Nm N{n,j} → ŋk mp nt
41.5.1.5 Proto-Gorokan to Gimiʔv ʔm ʔɡ ʔr → t p k v
41.5.1.8 Proto-Gorokan to Moveʔv ʔm ʔɡ ʔr ʔh → p b k t {s,f}
41.5.1.9 Proto-Gorokan to Sianeʔŋɡ ʔd → ŋk t
41.5.1.10 Proto-Gorokan to Yagariaʔv ʔm ʔɡ ʔr ʔh → p b k t {s,f}
41.5.2.1 Proto-Kainantu to AuyanaN{w,d,r} nj → ŋk nt (not sure if *nj is supposed to be *ɲɟ)
41.5.2.2 Proto-Kainantu to Awaʔw ʔb ʔd ʔɡ → m p t k
41.5.2.3 Proto-Kainantu to GadsupYO[+ voice] YO[- voice] → Y t
DO[+ voice] DO[- voice] → nd nt
41.5.2.4 Proto-Kainantu to UsarufaN{w,r} Nj → ʔk ʔt
41.6 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kalamt → {t,∅} / _#
41.7 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kâtek ᵐb ⁿd → {k,h} b {s,t} / #_
p k → t ʔ / _#
41.8 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kiwait k ᵐb → {s,t} {ɡ,∅} {b,p} / #_
t ᵐb ⁿd {k,ᵑɡ} nj → {r,t} p {d,t} ɡ r / V_V
s → {s,t} / #_ (?)
41.9 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Selepetᵐb ⁿd s → b {s,t} {t,s} / #_
t → t / _# (?)
42 Uralic42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnicðʲ sʲ tsʲ(ː) lʲ → ð s ts(ː) l
ð → t
tʃ → ts / _k, in South Estonian
tʃ tʃː → t tʃ
t → ts / _i ! following a coronal obstruent or “before a derivational suffix”
tj → ts / ! following a coronal obstruent or “before a derivational suffix”
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishpː tː tsː kː → pˑ tˑ tsˑ kˑ
{kt,pt} {kts,pts} → tː tːs
{ks,nts} nt → s t / _#
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnishpˑ tˑ θˑ kˑ → p t θ k
θ(ː) ð → ts d (this latter does have some highly sporadic exceptions; additionally, in some dialects these may become {t(ː),h~t} and {r,∅}, respectively)
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livoniant ts s(C) n l r → tʲ tsʲ sʲ(C) nʲ lʲ rʲ / _i
sʲ tsʲ zʲ dzʲ → ʃʲ tʃʲ ʒʲ dʒʲ
43 Uto-Aztecan43.3 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Luiseñots → tʃ
43.4 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Nahuatlt → tɬ / _{a,u}
s ts → ʃ tʃ / _i
43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhamt → tʃ / _V[+high]
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basques̻ ts̻ → ʃ tʃ / {E,j}_ (mostly Biscayan)
t → tʃ / {E,j}_ (partially spread amongst Biscayan and Guipuscoan)
s̻ ts̺ → s̺ ts̻ (Biscayan, partially in Guipuscoan, Donostia, San Sebastián, though these latter two may be varieties of Guipuscoan)
its̺ → tʃ / _# (Biscayan)
s̺ → tʃ / #_ (Guipuscoan)
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.1 Proto-Pai to Chapait → tʃ / ! n_
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.1 List 1: Simple Consonant Changests → t (unconditional; some Samoyedic langs)
tš → t (general Baltic-Finnic; may not be unconditional but was certainly the most common outcome)

with context involving /t/

219 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North Omotice → i / #{s,ʃ,tsʼ}_{k(w),ʔ}
e o → i u / #{k(ʼ),x}_{t(ʼ),tsʼ}
e o → i u / #P_{tsʼ,tʃʼ}
6.2.2.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-Chadicŋ → ∅ / V_{ts,q}
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berberl → ∅ / #{d,tʼ}_VC
k(w) → tʃ / #_Vt
r → ʔ / C_{t,w,j}# ! C = {ɡ,m,n,r,w,ʃ,x}
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabica → ∅ / _t, in the feminine ending
7 Algonquian7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfoot{n,s} → x / _t
∅ → s / {i(ː),#e}_t
7.6 Proto-Algonquian to Northern East Creeq → h / _tʃ
{q,ʃ} → s / _t
7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East Creeq → h / _tʃ
{q,ʃ} → s / _t
7.8 Proto-Algonquian to Plains Creeq → h / _tʃ
{q,ʃ} → s / _t
7.9 Proto-Algonquian to Swampy Creeq → h / _tʃ
{q,ʃ} → s / _t
7.10 Proto-Algonquian to Woods Creeq → h / _tʃ
{q,ʃ} → s / _t
7.15 Proto-Algonquian to Ojibwew → ∅ / {t,r}_i
{θ,s,h,ʔ} → ∅ / _{p,t,tʃ,k}
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawneej → ∅ / {tʃ,ʃ}_eː
j → ∅ / {tʃ,ʃ,w}_aː
w → ∅ / t_i
8 Altaic8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchaks → tʃ / _Vtʃ
9 Austroasiatic9.1.1 Proto-Vietic to Muong Khenw → ∅ / tʰV_k (conjectured)
9.1.2.1 Middle Vietnamese to Hanoi Vietnamesew → ∅ / tV_wk (conjectured)
9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnamesew → ∅ / tV_wk (conjectured)
10 Austronesian10.1.1.3 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sumbawanu → i / _{s,t,r,n,l} (blocked in Pusu)
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lóngha → ɛ / {t,n}_#
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabau— a u → e uj / _{t,s}#
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamite{i,e,u} → ∅ / #_{t,n}a
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.2 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Eskimoə → ∅ / t_, “in certain positions”
17 Indo-European17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lycianj → ∅ / ts_
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishk → x / V_t
— n → ∅ / {i,o,u}_{p,t,k,s}
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshl → ɬ / _t
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
17.7.2.1.5 Early Modern English to American Englishj → ∅ / {θ,s,z,l,n,t,d}_ when in onset position
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishə → ɪ / _{k,ɡ,tʃ,dʒ,ʃ,ʒ,v}
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotse → ɛ / _nt
k → ∅ / n_t (sporadic)
s → ʂ / _{t,r}
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
17.7.2.2.1 Old Low Franconian to Middle Dutchf → {x,ç} / _t (the former seems to have occurred in northern dialects, the latter in southern ones)
17.7.2.2.2 Middle Dutch to Modern Dutchl → u / o_{t,d}#
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germans → ʃ / #_{l,m,n,w,p,t}
V → Vː / _r{t,d,s,ts} (except /ə/)
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlauts → ʃ / #_{p,t}
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norsea → ∅ / C(C)_{ʀ,s,t,θ}#
a → ∅ / _{ʀ,s,t,θ}#
{B,E} → ∅ / CC_{ʀ,s,t,θ}# ! B = ɒ
E → ∅ / _{ʀ,s,t,θ}
u → ∅ / _({ʀ,s,t,θ})#
{f,β,p} → ∅ / l_{d,ɡ,n,ð,t}
{ɡ,ɣ} → ∅ / l_{ð,t}
{ɡ,ɣ} → ∅ / r_{d,n,t}
k → ∅ / r_{m,s,t}
k → ∅ / s_l,t
l → ∅ / s_t
n → ∅ / f_{d,s,t}
n → ∅ / r_{s,t,w}
n → ∅ / t_s
r → ∅ / t_{k,s}
β ð ɣ → f θ k / _{p,t,k,s}
θ → t / {p,t,k}_
h → ∅ / C_t
F[- voice] → ∅ / {s,f,x,h,t}_{p,t,k}
p → f / _{t,k}
k → x / _{p,t}
r → ∅ / {p,t,k}_Vr
rː lː → r l / {p,t,k,f,s}_
f → v / _{p,t,k}
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Norns → ∅ / {t,k,r}_l
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornf → p / _t
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekp k → f x / _t
17.10 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iraniant → ∅ / _ʃt
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-Aryank → ∅ / #_t
p → ∅ / #_st
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-Aryanv → ∅ / {t,d}_
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-Aryanv → ∅ / {t,d}_
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-Aryanv → ∅ / {t,d}_
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishɛ ɛ̃ ɛː → ɔ ɔ̃ a / _C[-palatalized +dental] (also sporadically before plain non-dentals)
ьl → ɛɫ / P_C[+dental -palatalized]
ь → aː / r_C[+dental -palatalized]
a ɛ i ɔ u ɨ ã → aː ɛː iː ɔː uː ɨː ãː / _{C/U}[+voiced][lost yer] (i.e., a voiced consonant or a cluster with one)
t → r / tV_
ɕtɕ → js / _{t͜s,s}
ɕ → ∅ / tr̝_tɕ
d → ∅ / r_ts
v → ∅ / _stv
ɕ → ∅ / t_ɕtɕ
rʲ → r / _{s,t͜s,l,w,n,ɲ}
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latino → e / w_{r,s,t}
e → i / _{s,t}#
Vː → V[-long] / _{m,(n)t,l,r}#
w → u / t_
V → Vː / _{t,d}t
∅ → p / m_{s,t,l}
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to CatalanV → ∅ / ”V%s_t(C)V(C)# (irregular)
p k → ∅ j / V_tV
k → ∅ / Vn_tV
{b,v} → w / V_tV
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French∅ → s / t_j
nk → ɲ / _t
a → ə / #{tʃ,dʒ}_(%…)” in U[+open]
V → ə / _{CC,tʃ,dʒ} ! _{nt,nɡ,mp,rt,rd}
{p,b} → ∅ / _{t,d}
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguese{e,i} → ∅ / k_t when between #U and U[+stress]
p → ∅ / V_{t,s}V
k → j / V_tV
k → ∅ / Vn_tV
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— ɛ → jɛ / _{u,i,ʎ,rʲ,ʃ,ʒ,j,tʃ,dʒ} (except in some northern and western dialects, or if this u ← l or if this i ← ð)
— o → y / _{tʃ,dʒ,it,id} (did not occur in Dauphiné)
— e u → e o / _nt#
l → u / _{t,s} (Languedoc)
l → u / _{t,d,s} (else)
p → ∅ / s_t
b → ∅ / _s{t,k}
b → {∅,b} / _t
b → ∅ / _ts
p → ∅ / _t “except in parts of Languedoc and Gascony”
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romaniani → ∅ / {ts,dz,S}_V
{b,v} → ∅ / V_{V,t}
c → p / _{s,t}
c → ∅ / n_t
j → s / t_
e → ə / #(C…)V…{t,d,n}_…”U
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardiniank → ∅ / _t ?
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanish{k,ɡ} → x → j / _{t,s,n,l}
— Vdz → ∅ / {nts,ndz,rdz_
h → ∅ / _tʰ
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tocharians → sʲ / _tʲ
17.13.1 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian As → ʂ / _t
V → j / V_nʲtʲ ! V = E
30 Niger-Congo30.2 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Potou-Akanicɪ(Cɪ) → e(Ci) / t_; “vowel nasalizations are retained either way on each”
30.3.1.1.11 Proto-Vhe to Kpándoj → ∅ / {ts,dz}_
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinoi → e / tʃ_
e → i / {kʲ,nt}_ when stressed
ẽ → a / tʲ_
32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinoẽ → ı̃ / {t,h}_#
34 Quechumaran34.1 Proto-Quechumaran to Ayachucoh → ∅ / {p,t,k,q}_
34.5 Proto-Quechumaran to Putamayoh → ∅ / ts_
34.6 Proto-Quechumaran to Quitoh → ∅ / ts_
34.7 Proto-Quechumaran to Riobambaqh → kʰ / _i ! _i{ʃ,tʃ}
h → ∅ / ts_
34.8 Proto-Quechumaran to Santiagoh → ∅ / {p,t,k}_
34.9 Proto-Quechumaran to Tenah → ∅ / ts_
35 Salishan35.3 Shuswap to Eastern Shuswap Nasal-to-Vowel Shiftsen enˀ → i iʔ / {ts(’),s,j(ˀ)}_ in U[- stressed]
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old Mandarinxɦ → ∅ / _j(w){?,ia,a(ta)}
ŋ → n / n_Cʲa(ta)
C → Cʲ / ?ʲ{p,t}_
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiar → ∅ / _t
36.3.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Japhugɔ → ɤ / _{t,r}# (possibly also _s# dialectally)
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Moi → a / _t
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoiank → ∅ / t_
37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeew → ∅ / t(h)_
n → h / _st
j → ∅ / ts_
37.1.2 Proto-Iroquoian to Proto-Northern Iroquoiann → ∅ / _ti
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayugaj → ∅ / ts_
t → h / _t
∅ → h / {t,k}_n
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Hurons → ʃ / ! _{n,t,k(ʷ),w} “or when part of the affricate /ts/”
n → ∅ / t(h)_
k → h / _{t,ts,s,ʃ}
j → ∅ / ts_
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandoth → ∅ / {t,ts,s,k}_
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagah → ∅ / _{k,t,ts,s}#
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneidats → hs / V_{t,k(ʷ)}
ns → ts / _{t,k(ʷ)}
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Mohawk∅ → e / {tsh,s,n}_r
∅ → e / {t,k}_{r,n}
∅ → e / t_w
— j → ∅ / ts_
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneida∅ → i / {V,t}n_k(ʷ)V
h → ∅ / k_{s,ts}
h → ∅ / _{sk,st}
h → ∅ / {st,tst}_
h → ∅ / ts_r ! “in pre-pausal forms, see also below”
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecaj → ∅ / _ts
V → Vː / _{t,k(ʷ),s,n,r,j,w} “in even penultimate syllables”
h → ∅ / _{tk,nh,sC,C#}
k → ∅ / _hts
t → h / _{n,t}
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscaroraj → ∅ / tʃ_
”V → ”Vː / _{k(ʷ),(ˀ)t}{s,R,H} (“penultimate syllables only”)
ˀt → tʔ / _ˀt
ˀt → ∅ / _t
h → ∅ / k_{s,ts,tʃ}
37.1.2.6.2 Tuscarora to Eastern Tuscarorar → ∅ / st_
37.2.2 Proto-Siouan to Dakotaw → p / _t
37.2.4 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Čiwere-Winnebagow → ∅ / _t
37.2.4.1 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Čiwerek → ∅ / #t_
37.2.6 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Dhegihaw → ∅ / _t
37.2.7 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Ohio-Valley{w,m} → ∅ / _t
37.2.7.1 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Biloxik → ∅ / #t_
37.2.7.2 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Ofok → ∅ / #t_
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.2 Proto-Tai to Saekl → ∅ / tʰ_
38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Tail → ∅ / t_
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Tai{l,r} → ∅ / t,ɗ_
41 Trans-New Guinea41.5.2.2 Proto-Kainantu to AwaN → ∅ / _{p,t,#}
ʔ → ∅ / _{p,t}
42 Uralic42.1 Proto-Uralic to Pre-Finnicm → n / _{t,tsʲ,#}
42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnicŋ → n / _t (?)
n → ∅ / _tː
w → ∅ / o_st (*)
n → ∅ / _{s,ts}
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnish{p,t,k} → ∅ / _st
{p,k} → h / _t
43 Uto-Aztecan43.5.1.1 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Kawaiisuh → ∅ / V_tsV
43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhami → ∅ / ts_#
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basqueu ũ → y ỹ / _{s̻,ts̺,ts̻} (but not _s̺) (Souletin)
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.2 Proto-Pai to Paipaixʷ → w / tʃ_
n → ∅ / _t
46 Vowel Shifts46.11 Middle Chinese to Cantonese Vowel Shift (“The Inner-Outer Flip”)uə yə → ɔ œ / _{n,t}