Index Diachronica: involving /x/

263 results from /x/   165 results to /x/   41 results with context involving /x/   

plain xʲʷ xʲː xʷʲ xʷʼ

from /x/

263 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1.1.1 North Omotic to Benchx1 → k
x2 → k / #_
x2 s3 → ∅ ʃ / V_V
sx → ʃ
{ʔ,hx} → ∅
6.1.1.2 North Omotic to Dizinx1 → k
x2 → k / _#
x2 → ∅ / V_V
sx → tʃ
6.1.1.3 North Omotic to Kafax1 → k
x2 → k / #_
x2 → ∅ / V_V
6.1.1.4 North Omotic to Maalex1 → k
x2 → h / #_
x2 → ɡ / V_V
sx → ʃ
6.1.1.5 North Omotic to Shekkachox1 → k
x2 → ∅ / V_V
6.1.1.6 North Omotic to Wolayttax1 → k
x2 → ∅ / V_V
x2 s3 → k ʃ / V_$#
6.1.1.7 North Omotic to Yemsax1 → k
x2 → k / #_
x2 → ∅ / V_V
sx → ʃ
6.1.1.8 North Omotic to Zayse-Zergullax1 → k
x2 → h / #_
x2 → ∅ / V_V
x2 → ɡ / n_
x3 → ɡ / V_#
6.1.2.1 South Omotic to Aari{x1,x2} → ɡ
6.2.1.1.1 Proto-Agaw to Awngi{x,ɢ}(ʷ) → ∅ / at word boundaries
{x,ɢ}(ʷ) → ɣ(ʷ)
6.2.1.1.2 Proto-Agaw to Blin{x,ɢ}(ʷ) → ∅ / at word boundaries
6.2.1.1.3 Proto-Agaw to Kemantney{x,ɢ}(ʷ) → ∅ / at word boundaries
x → ∅
xʷ ɢʷ → w ɣʷ
6.2.1.1.4 Proto-Agaw to Xamtanga{x,ɢ} → ∅
{xʷ,ɢʷ} → ∅ / at word boundaries
{xʷ,ɢʷ} → w / else
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berberxw → ɣw → ħ
xV → k / _h
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabick x → c ç / _{j,E}
nx → xː
6.2.2.1.10 Classical Arabic to Hassāniyya Arabicx → χ (conjectured based upon the following but not outright stated in the article)
6.2.2.1.15 Classical Arabic to Sa‘idi Arabicq x ɣ → ɡ χ ʁ
6.2.2.1.17 Classical Arabic to Tunisian Arabicdʒ x ɣ → ʒ χ ʁ
6.2.2.1.18 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrewx ɣ kˤ → ħ ʕ q
6.2.2.1.19 Biblical Hebrew to Modern Israeli Hebrewx ʕ → χ ʔ
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenaki{x,h}S → Sː
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenaki{x,h}S → Sː
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfootx → sː / {i,#e,ja,ke}_
x → sː / e(ː)_s
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawareθ ʃ x → x s h / _{p,k}
x → χʷ / o(ː)_{V,#}
7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-Illinois{θ,ʃ,tʃ,ç,x,ʔ} → h / _C
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaqx → ∅ / _{p,k}
8 Altaic8.5.1.2 Proto-Kypchak to Kyrgyzx → q
10 Austronesian10.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Batak{ts,ʈ} {ɟʝ͡,ɖ} {lʲ,ɲ} {ʔ,x,s,h} ʀ → t d n ∅ r (velar fricative is conjectured; changes → d “unsure”)
10.4.1 Proto-Micronesian to Marshallese{ç,s} x → tᵚ ∅
11 Northeast Caucasian11.1.3 Proto-Avar-Andic to Avars sː ɬː x xː → {s,ʃ} x ɬ {x,h} x
11.3 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Khinalugsː ɬ(ː) xː → h xʲ x
11.5.1 Proto-Lezgic to Agulɬ(ː) xː → xʲ x
11.5.2 Proto-Lezgic to Archisː xː → {sː,h} x
11.5.3 Proto-Lezgic to Lezghiʃː ɬ ɬː x xː → ɣʲ j ʃ ɣ x
11.5.4 Proto-Lezgic to Rutulsː ɬ(ː) xː → {ħ,xʲ} {sː,h} x
11.5.5 Proto-Lezgic to Tabassaranɬ {ʃː,ɬː} xː → xʲ ʃ x
11.5.6 Proto-Lezgic to Udi{ɬ(ː),xː} → x
11.6 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Nakhʃː ɬː xː → ʃ ɬ x
11.7 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Proto-Tsezics xː → z x
11.7.2 Proto-Tsezic to Tsezsː ʃ ʃː ɬ ɬː x → s ʒ ʃ l ɬ ɣ
12 Northwest Caucasian12.1 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Abazgixʷʲ ɣʷʲ → sʷ zʷ (*ɣʷʲ is marked as dubious)
12.2 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Circassianxʲ ɣʲ → ɕ ʑ
xʷ → x(ʷ)
ɡʲʷ xʲʷ ɣʲʷ(?) → ɡʷ xʷ ʁʷ
12.2.1 Proto-Circassian to Adyghexʷ χʲ → f~ɸ? ħ
12.3 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Ubykhk kʼ ɡ x ɣ → kʲ kʲʼ ɡʲ ɕ ɣ~ʁ
xʲ ɣʲ → sʲ zʲ
kʷː xʷ → ɡʷ x
kʲʷː xʲʷ ɣʲʷ(?) → ɡʲ kʲʼ xʲ ʁʲ
17 Indo-European17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestanhx → ∅
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshxt → iθ
17.7 Proto-Indo-European to Common Germanicf θ s x → β ð z ɣ “(Except initially or following IE stress)”
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle English{eɑh,eɑç,eɑx,eɑʝ,eɑɣ} → ɑw
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle English{eɑh,eɑç,eɑx,eɑʝ,eɑɣ} → ɑw
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle English{eɑh,eɑç,eɑx,eɑʝ,eɑɣ} → ɑw
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scots{ɸ,x} → ∅ / _# (seems to be sporadic)
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsxw → ʍ
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle English{eɑh,eɑç,eɑx,eɑʝ,eɑɣ} → ɑw
17.7.2.2 West Germanic to Old Low Franconianxs → sː
17.7.2.2.2 Middle Dutch to Modern Dutch— x ɣ → {x,χ} {ɣ,x,χ} / in northern dialects
— x ɣ → ç ʝ / in southern dialects (the articles use velar phonemes here but describes them as “front velar”; based on the description and on representations in other articles, the palatal phonemes are used here)
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germanx → k / _s
17.7.3 Common Germanic to Proto-Norsez x → ʀ h
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
ɡ x → j ç / _{ɛ,i}
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
17.8.10 Proto-Indo-European to Mycenaean Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavick ɡ x → tʃ ʒ ʃ / _{e(ː)(i),i(ː)}
k ɡ x → ts dz s / _{æː,i}
k ɡ x → ts dz s / “After some syllables with front vowels”
kj ɡj xj → tʃ ʒ ʃ
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishsk x → ɕtɕ ɕ / _E
x → ɕ / E_
{xv,pv} → f
x → ∅ / _r “in the word ‘robak’”
17.12.1 Proto-Italic to Proto-Latino-Falsicanx → h
xʷ → f
xʷ → {w,ɡʷ}
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanish{k,ɡ} → x → j / _{t,s,n,l}
x → h
17.12.2 Proto-Italic to Proto-Sibellian{ɡ́ʰ,x} {ɸ,θ,ɡʷʰ} → h f
20 Khoisan20.1.1 Proto-Khoe to ǁ̬Ana!x → x
20.1.2 Proto-Khoe to ǁAni!x → !x~x
20.1.3 Proto-Khoe to Buga!x → x
20.1.4 Proto-Khoe to Kxoe!x !̃n → x ŋɡj~!̃
20.1.5 Proto-Khoe to Nama{ǀˀ,ǀxʼ} → ǀ
ǂ {ǂ̃n,ǂˀ,ǂxʼ} → ǂɡ ǂ
{ǁˀ,ǁxʼ} → ǁ
ts dz kxʼ → {ts,s} d ∅
20.1.8 Proto-Khoe to Teti! !ˀ !̬ !̃(n) !x → k ∅ ɡ ŋ x
ǁˀ ǁxʼ → {ǁˀ,∅} ǁˀ
ts dz kxʼ → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s} z kʼ
20.1.9 Proto-Khoe to Tsʔixaǀ̃(n) ǀxʼ → j ǀˀ
! !ˀ !̬ !̃(n) !x → k ∅ ɡ ŋɡ x
ǂ̃n ǂxʼ → ɲ ǂˀ
ǁxʼ → ǁˀ
ts dz kxʼ → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s} z kʼ
20.1.10 Proto-Khoe to ǀ̬Ui!̃ !x → !̃(n) !x~x
25 Macro-Panoan25.1.1 Proto-Tacanan to Cavineñax → k
25.1.3 Proto-Tacanan to Reyesanoɕ x → ð h
25.1.4 Proto-Tacanan to Tacanax → h / #_
x → {h,∅}
28 Muskogean28.1 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Eastern Muskogeanxʷ → f
28.1.1 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Alabamats x → s h / _C
28.1.2 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to CreekV0xV0 → V0ː
x → w / a_o
x → h
28.1.3 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Hitchitix → j / V0_V0
x → h
28.1.4 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Korasatix → h
28.1.5 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Mikasurix → j / V0_V0
ʃ x → ts h
28.1.6 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Seminoleʃ x → ts h
28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western Muskogeanx → h
xʷ → h / %_{o,i}(C)#
28.2.1 Proto-Western Muskogean to Chickasawxʷɬ → ɬː
28.2.2 Proto-Western Muskogean to Choctawxʷ → h / V_V
29 Na-Dene29.1 Proto-Na-Dene to Proto-Athabaskan-Eyakkʲ kʲʼ ɡʲ xʲ → ts tsʼ dz s
29.1.1 Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak to Proto-Athabaskanx xʷ → {xʲ,j} {ʂ,ʐ}
29.1.1.1.1 Proto-Athabaskan to Ahtna{ʃ(ʷ),x} → s
29.1.1.1.8 Proto-Athabaskan to Dena’ina{ʃ(ʷ),x {z,ʒ(ʷ),ɣ} → s j
29.1.1.1.13 Proto-Athabaskan to Hupa{qʷ,xʷ} qʷʼ ɢʷ ɣʷ → x(ʷ) q(ʷ)ʼ ɢ(ʷ) w
xʲ → w
29.1.1.1.19 Proto-Athabaskan to Proto-Southern Athabaskant n x → d n h / in prefixes relating to word derivation
29.1.1.1.21 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Kiowa Apache{xʲ,j}ʔ {x,ɣ}ʔ → ∅ h(ʔ) / _#
x ɣ → h ∅ / _#
xʲ j → ʃ ʒ
29.1.1.1.22 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Jicarillaxʲ xʔ j ɣʔ → h ʔ ∅ ʔ / E_#
xʲ xʔ j ɡʔ → ih iʔ i iʔ / _#
xʲʔ jʔ → h ʔ / _#
xʲ → s
29.1.1.1.23 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Lipanxʲ j → ʃ ∅ / _#
{xʲ,j}ʔ → ∅ / _#
{x,ɣ} → ∅ / _(ʔ)#
xʲ → s
29.1.1.1.25 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Chiricahuaxʲ j → ʃ ∅ / _#
{xʲ,j}ʔ → ∅ / _#
{x,ɣ} → ∅ / _(ʔ)#
29.1.1.1.26 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Mescaleroxʲ j → ʃ ∅ / _#
{xʲ,j}ʔ → ∅ / _#
{x,ɣ} → ∅ / _(ʔ)#
29.1.1.1.27 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Navajoxʲ(ʔ) j(ʔ) → h ʔ / _#
x ɣ → h ʔ / _#
{x,ɣ}ʔ → {ʔ,ɡ} (Hoijer notes a reflex “-g-”)
xʲ → s
29.1.1.1.28 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to San Carlosx(ʲ) {j,ɣ} → h ∅ / _#
xʲʔ jʔ → h ʔ / _#
{x,ɣ}ʔ → ɡ
29.1.2 Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak to Eyakkʲ kʲʼ ɡʲ xʲ → ts tsʼ dz {s,ʃ}
x → ∅ / ʃ_
$ → xʷ → {x,s}
29.2 Proto-Na-Dene to Tlingitxʲ → x
x(ʷ) → x
x → ∅ / {s,ʃ}_
33 Penutian33.2.1 Proto-Wintuan to Nomlakitʃʰ kʰ qʰ {x,χ} → tʃ k(ʰ) {kʰ,qʰ,χ} kʰ
33.2.2 Proto-Wintuan to Patwinx χ → s h
33.2.3 Proto-Wintuan to South Patwinx → s
35 Salishan35.1.3 Proto-Central Salish to Cowichan Halkomelemxʲ → ʃ
35.1.5 Proto-Central Salish to Klallamxʲ → {s,ʃ} (the latter mainly from borrowings?)
35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to Lushootseedxʲ → ʃ
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to Nooksackxʲ → ʃ
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern Straitsxʲ → s
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern Straitsxʲ → {s,ʃ} (the latter mainly from borrowings?)
35.1.11 Proto-Central Salish to Sooke Northern Straitsxʲ → {s,ʃ} (the latter mainly from borrowings?)
35.1.12 Proto-Central Salish to Pentlatchxʲ → ʃ
35.1.13 Proto-Central Salish to Secheltxʲ → ʃ
35.1.14 Proto-Central Salish to Sqamishxʲ → ʃ
35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to Twanaxʲ → ʃ
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old Mandarinxɦ → ∅ / _j(w){?,ia,a(ta)}
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoianx → ∅ / _k
x → h / _C ! C_C
x → k
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandotxʷ → w
x → ∅ / _{i,j}
x → e / #_r
x → j / _V
x → ∅
37.2 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Siouanx → ç / _{i,u}
37.2.1 Proto-Siouan to Catawbaç x → x ʃ
37.2.2 Proto-Siouan to Dakotaç x → x {ʃ,ʒ}
x → ʔ / ”Vk_
37.2.4 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Čiwere-Winnebagoç x → x {ʃ,ʒ}
37.2.4.1 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Čiwerex → ∅ / _k
x → ∅ / k_”V
37.2.4.2 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Winnebagopr {sr,xr} sn km → pV0rV0 ʃV0rV0 sV0nV0 kV0wV0
xk → ɡ
37.2.5 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Crow-Hidatsas ç {tʲ,x} → ts x ʃ
37.2.5.1 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Crowx → ∅ / k_”V
37.2.5.2 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Hidatsask kx → tsk hk / _”V
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to Osage{ç,x} → z (sporadic)
xk → (ʃ)k / _”V
xk → ɡ / ”V_
x → ʔ / k_”V
37.2.6.4 Proto-Dhegiha to Quapawx → ʒ (*)
37.2.7.1 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Biloxikx → xk / ”V_
37.2.7.2 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Ofos {ç,x} → f s
x → s / _k
kx → sk / ”V_
kx → s
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.1 Proto-Tai to Ahomx → ∅ / _r
xʷ Kʷ → {kʰ,x} K(ʷ)
38.1.1.2 Proto-Tai to Saek{ɡ,x} → kʰ
38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Taiɡ x → k kʰ
xr → kʰ{l,r}
xʷ ɣʷ → kʷʰ {v,w}
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Taixr x {x,ɣ}ʷ → r̥ h {w,v,h}
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Taixr → h
x → kʰ
38.1.1.5.1 Southwest Tai to Laoxʷ ɣʷ → kʷ ɡʷ
38.1.1.5.3 Southwest Tai to Shanxʷ → kʷ
38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siamesexʷ ɣʷ → kʷ ɡʷ
38.1.1.5.5 Southwest Tai to Black Taixʷ ɣʷ → kʷ ɡʷ
40 Totozoquean40.1 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Mixe-Zoqueanx {ɬ,tɬ} → h j
42 Uralic42.1 Proto-Uralic to Pre-Finnicx → @ / _C
42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnicixi uxu → øː oː
xi → @ / else
x → w / {U,O}_C
x → j / {I,E}_C
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishxk → kː (even across word boundaries)
(t(ː))sn kx(tx) rn ln → sː xː rː lː
{z,x(ː)} → h
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnish{k,x} → ˟ / _#
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.2 Proto-Pai to Paipaixʷ → w / tʃ_
kʷ xʷ → k x / _#
45.1.3 Proto-Pai to Tipaikʷ xʷ → q χ / _# (the paper calls these “back velars”)

to /x/

165 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.2.1.1.2 Proto-Agaw to Blinɢ(ʷ) → x(ʷ) / else
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabicnx → xː
ʔ h → ∅ x
ɣ ħ → ʕ x
6.2.2.1.18 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrewp b t d k ɡ → b v θ ð x ɣ / non-intial singletons
7 Algonquian7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapahoʃ m → x w / _B
ʃ m → x w / B_#
ʃ m → x b / o(ː)_e(ː)
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfoot∅ → x / _s ! _C{C,#}
h → x / _{p,k}
{n,s} → x / _t
ns sk → {x,s} {x,sː}
θp tʃp ʃp → {x,sː} ʔp sːp
ʃ → x / _k
7.5 Proto-Algonquian to Cheyenneʃ tʃ → {ʃ,x} s
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawareθ ʃ x → x s h / _{p,k}
7.16 Proto-Algonquian to Piscatawayk → x
8 Altaic8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusickʰ → x / #_
kʰ → {x,k}
8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchakd ɣ → t x / _#
9 Austroasiatic9.1.1 Proto-Vietic to Muong Khen{kʰ,ɡʱ} → x (Presyllables don’t seem to have affected this much)
9.1.2.1 Middle Vietnamese to Hanoi Vietnamesekʰ → x (only seems to have occurred with first-register tones)
9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnamesekʰ → x (only seems to have occurred with first-register tones)
10 Austronesian10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-Nêlêmwapwʰ pʰ tʰ kʰ → fw f rʰ x / in Nelemwa
10.3.5.7 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwapwâpː pwː t̪ː tː kː cː → pʰ xʷ t̪ʰ tʰ x s
11 Northeast Caucasian11.1.1 Proto-Avar-Andic to Akhvakhkː ɢ → xʲ {qːʼ,ɣ}
11.1.2 Proto-Avar-Andic to Andiq ɢ → x {qːʼ,ɣ}
11.1.3 Proto-Avar-Andic to Avarq qːʼ ɢ → x {q(ː)ʼ,ɡh} qʼ (not sure if that last 〈gh〉 should be ɣ)
s sː ɬː x xː → {s,ʃ} x ɬ {x,h} x
11.2 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Dargitɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ → k {xʲː,kː} kʰ {ɡ,q}(?)
ʃ ʃː ɬ ɬː → {s,ʃ} ʃ xʲ {xʲ,ʃ}
11.3 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Khinalugtɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → k {k,xʲ} {kʼ,ɡ} {kʼ,kː} kʼ
sː ɬ(ː) xː → h xʲ x
11.4 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Laktɬ tɬː tɬ(ː)ʼ dɮ → xʲ xː kʼ {kː,l}
ʃ ɬ ɬː → s {xʲ,ʃ} xː
11.5 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Proto-Lezgicq ɢ → {x,q} ɣ
11.5.1 Proto-Lezgic to Agultɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ x kʼ kː {,j,xʲ}
ɬ(ː) xː → xʲ x
11.5.2 Proto-Lezgic to Archikː ɡ → x {kː,ɡ}
q qːʼ → x q(ː)ʼ
sː xː → {sː,h} x
11.5.3 Proto-Lezgic to Lezghitɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ {ɣʲ,ɡ} qʼ k(ʼ) {kː,ɣʲ}
ʃː ɬ ɬː x xː → ɣʲ j ʃ ɣ x
11.5.4 Proto-Lezgic to Rutultɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ qʼ q(ʼ) {w,xʲ,j}
kː → x
sː ɬ(ː) xː → {ħ,xʲ} {sː,h} x
11.5.5 Proto-Lezgic to Tabassarantɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ {ɣʲ,ɡ} k kː ɣʲ
ɬ {ʃː,ɬː} xː → xʲ ʃ x
11.5.6 Proto-Lezgic to Uditɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → {∅,x} q {∅,qʼ} qʼ {ɣ,l}
{ɬ(ː),xː} → x
11.6 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Nakhtɬ(ː) tɬʼ tɬːʼ → x qʼ ʕ
kː qːʼ → xk(?) qʼ
ʃː ɬː xː → ʃ ɬ x
11.7 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Proto-Tsezics xː → z x
11.7.2 Proto-Tsezic to Tsezq qːʼ → x(?) q
12 Northwest Caucasian12.1 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Abazgitɬ tɬː tɬʼ dɮ → x ts {x,tsʼ} l
ɬː → x
tɬʲ tɬʲʼ dɮʲ → xʲ ɕ ɣʲ
12.2 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Circassianf → xʷ
ɬʷ ɬʷː → x(ʷ) ɕː
tɬʲʷ tɬʲʷ tɬʲʷ dɮʲʷ → x tɕː tɕʼ ɮ
ɬʲʷ(~ɬʷː) ɮʲʷ → x(ʷ) ɣʲ
xʷ → x(ʷ)
ɡʲʷ xʲʷ ɣʲʷ(?) → ɡʷ xʷ ʁʷ
12.3 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Ubykhkʷː xʷ → ɡʷ x
kʲʷː xʲʷ ɣʲʷ(?) → ɡʲ kʲʼ xʲ ʁʲ
qʲː(ʼ) ɢʲ χʲ → qʲ(ʼ) ʁʲ xʲ
qʲʷ qʲʷː qʲʷʼ ɢʲʷ χʲʷ ʁʲʷ → xʲ qʲ qʲʼ ʁʲ χʲ ʁʲ
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’ikɣ ʁ → x χ / _#
17 Indo-European17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lycianh2 → x / else (possibly a uvular stop)
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestank kʷ ɡ(ʷ)(ʱ) → x k ɡ / else
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— C1C2 → xC2 / if C2 was a plosive or s
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishf → x / _O
p t k kʷ b d ɡ m n l r s → f θ x xʷ v ð ɣ M N L R h / V(#)_{R,V} (“We don’t know the exact values of lenited /m n l r/. We can guess that lenited m became a nasalized labial continuant of some sort, but beyond that, we don’t know.”)
k → x / V_t
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshpː tː kː → f θ x
p t k → f θ x / {r,l}_
17.7 Proto-Indo-European to Common Germanicp t k → f θ x
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothicβ ð ɣ → ɸ θ x / V_(s)#
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scotsʍ → xw (some speakers seem to have resisted this)
17.7.2.2.1 Old Low Franconian to Middle Dutchf → {x,ç} / _t (the former seems to have occurred in northern dialects, the latter in southern ones)
17.7.2.2.2 Middle Dutch to Modern Dutch— x ɣ → {x,χ} {ɣ,x,χ} / in northern dialects
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlautp t k → fː zː xː / V_V
p t k → f z x / _#
p t k → pf ts kx / #_
p t k → pf ts kx / {L,N}_
pː tː kː → pf ts kx
17.7.2.5 West Germanic to Old Low Germanvː ɣː hː → bː ɡː xː (perhaps not strictly a sound change, but worth noting)
ɡ → x / _#
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norsek → x / _{p,t}
ŋ → x / _{m,n}
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandicp t k → f θ x / _{S,F[- voice]}
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornh → x / _i
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekpʰ tʰ kʰ → f θ x
p k → f x / _t
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greekpʰ tʰ kʰ → f θ x
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittiteh2 → x (or some sort of dorsal or laryngeal fricative?)
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-Aryanʂ → x / k_
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavics → x / {i,u,r,k}_
17.12 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Italicǵʰ gʷʰ → ɡʰ xʷ
bʰ dʰ gʰ → pʰ tʰ dʰ → ɸ θ x
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanish{k,ɡ} → x → j / _{t,s,n,l}
ʃ → {x,χ}
19 Kartvelian19.1 Proto-Kartvelian to Georgianq → x
19.3 Proto-Kartvelian to Zanq qʼ → x {kʼ,qʼ,ʔ}
20 Khoisan20.1.1 Proto-Khoe to ǁ̬Ana!x → x
20.1.2 Proto-Khoe to ǁAni!x → !x~x
20.1.3 Proto-Khoe to Buga!x → x
20.1.4 Proto-Khoe to Kxoe!x !̃n → x ŋɡj~!̃
kʰ → kx
20.1.6 Proto-Khoe to Narokʰ → {kx,k}
20.1.8 Proto-Khoe to Teti! !ˀ !̬ !̃(n) !x → k ∅ ɡ ŋ x
20.1.9 Proto-Khoe to Tsʔixa! !ˀ !̬ !̃(n) !x → k ∅ ɡ ŋɡ x
20.1.10 Proto-Khoe to ǀ̬Ui!̃ !x → !̃(n) !x~x
21 Lakes Plain21.1.3 Proto-Far West to Rasawap b d k → ɸ β ɾ x~k / V_V
21.2.3.1 Proto-West Tariku to Deirateb d k → b~β ɾ~l~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.2 Proto-West Tariku to Faiab d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.3 Proto-West Tariku to Fayub d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.4 Proto-West Tariku to Kirikirib d k → b~β ɾ~l~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.5 Proto-West Tariku to Sehudateb d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.6 Proto-West Tariku to Tauseb d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.2.3.7 Proto-West Tariku to Weirateb d k → b~β ɾ~l~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.5 Proto-Chibchan to Motilóns → {s,x,tʃ~ʃ}
s → x / i_
26 Mande26.13 Proto-Mande to Susuw → x
27 Mayan27.4 Proto-Mayan to Ixileanŋ → x
27.5 Proto-Mayan to Kaqchikel-Tz’utujilŋ → x
27.6 Proto-Mayan to Core K’iche’ŋ → x
27.7 Proto-Mayan to Mameanŋ → x
28 Muskogean28.1.2 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Creekh → x / _%
29 Na-Dene29.1.1 Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak to Proto-Athabaskanx xʷ → {xʲ,j} {ʂ,ʐ}
29.1.1.1.13 Proto-Athabaskan to Hupaq ʀ → x w
{qʷ,xʷ} qʷʼ ɢʷ ɣʷ → x(ʷ) q(ʷ)ʼ ɢ(ʷ) w
29.1.2 Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak to Eyak$ → xʷ → {x,s}
29.2 Proto-Na-Dene to Tlingitxʲ → x
k(ʷ)ʼ → {x,k}(ʷ)ʼ
x(ʷ) → x
33 Penutian33.1.1.4 Proto-Costanoan to Rumsenh → {h,x,ʔ}
36 Sino-Tibetan36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàɣ → x
36.3.3.1 Old Tibetan to Amdo dialectsʃ → x / #_ (some dialects, never when following preinitials)
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huronk → x / {#,R,ʔ,V}_{V,ʔ,R,#}
kʷ → xʷ / V_V
37.2.1 Proto-Siouan to Catawbaç x → x ʃ
37.2.2 Proto-Siouan to Dakotaç x → x {ʃ,ʒ}
37.2.3 Proto-Siouan to Mandanç → x
37.2.4 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Čiwere-Winnebagoç x → x {ʃ,ʒ}
37.2.4.2 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Winnebagotʲ → x / _ʔ
37.2.5 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Crow-Hidatsas ç {tʲ,x} → ts x ʃ
37.2.7.1 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Biloxikx → xk / ”V_
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.1 Proto-Tai to Ahomxʷ Kʷ → {kʰ,x} K(ʷ)
38.1.1.3.3 Central Tai to Tay{s,z} → {x,tʰ}
tʃ dʒ → {x,t} tʃ
38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lü{kʰ,ɣ} ɡ → x k
kʷʰ ɣʷ → xʷ x(ʷ)
38.1.1.5.6 Southwest Tai to White Tai{kʰ,ɣ} ɡ ɡ{l,r} → x k tʃ
kʷʰ ɣʷ → xʷ x(ʷ)
39 Tanoan39.3 Proto-Tanoan to Taoskʰ kʰʷ ɡ ɡʷ → x xʷ k w
39.4 Proto-Tanoan to Tewakʰ kʷʰ ɡʷ → x xʷ w
42 Uralic42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnicʃ → ʂ → x
s → x / _l
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnish(t(ː))sn kx(tx) rn ln → sː xː rː lː
43 Uto-Aztecan43.3 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Luiseñok → x / a_
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basquej → ʝ → ʒ → ʃ → x (Guipuscoan, northwestern High Navarrese, eastern Biscayan)
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.2 Proto-Pai to Paipaikʷ xʷ → k x / _#
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.1 List 1: Simple Consonant Changesŋ → {x,h} (various Mayan languages)

with context involving /x/

41 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North Omotice o → i u / #{k(ʼ),x}_{t(ʼ),tsʼ}
6.2.1 Proto-Erythrean to Proto-Cushiticɣ → ɡ / #_Vx$
6.2.2.1.4 Proto-Boreafrasian to Proto-Semiticɣ(w) → ɡ / #_Vx
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabicu → o / _{ʕ,ɣ,x,r}
u → o / {ʕ,ɣ,x,r}_
7 Algonquian7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawareh → ∅ / _{s,x}
{a,ə} → ∅ / _{x,h} “in the odd-numbered of any sequence of one or more short-vowel open syllables”; such vowels are considered “weak”
ə → o / _x{p,kʷ,V[+round]}
ə → o / {p,m}_x
ə → a / _x “[i]n a nonrounding environment”
8 Altaic8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusicæ → i / {s,ʃ,x}_Ca
æ → i / {s,ʃ,x}_Ci
ø → i / {s,ʃ,x}_Cu
17 Indo-European17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishw → ∅ / {θ,x}_
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshs → ∅ / x_
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scots— øː → (j){u,ʌ} / _{k,x} (outcome varies depending upon dialect)
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsoː → ju / {n,x}_
æ → ɑ / _{x,l}
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old NorseF[- voice] → ∅ / {s,f,x,h,t}_{p,t,k}
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishv → ∅ / x_o
28 Muskogean28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western Muskogeana → o / xʷ_#
29 Na-Dene29.1 Proto-Na-Dene to Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak{s,ʃ} → ∅ / _x
29.1.2 Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak to Eyaks → ∅ / _x
35 Salishan35.1.3 Proto-Central Salish to Cowichan Halkomelems → ʃ / _xʷ
35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to Lushootseeds → {ʃ,s} / _xʷ
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to Nooksacks → {s,ʃ} / _xʷ
s → ʃ / #_{xʲ,w{i,a},qʷa}
35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straitss → ʃ / _xʷ
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern Straitss → {ʃ,s} / _xʷ
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern Straitss → {ʃ,s} / _xʷ
35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to Twanas → {ʃ,s} / _xʷ
36 Sino-Tibetan36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàjuŋ → iuŋ / _{∅,x,ʋ,ʔ}
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.2.2 Proto-Siouan to Dakotar → d / x_
k → ∅ / _x”V
37.2.4.1 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Čiwerer → l / x_
37.2.5.2 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Hidatsa∅ → V / x_k
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to Osager → ð / x_
37.2.7.1 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Biloxik → ∅ / _x”V
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.1 Proto-Pai to Chapaitʃ → ∅ / _xʷ
45.1.3 Proto-Pai to Tipaitʃ → ∅ / _xʷ
46 Vowel Shifts46.5 Old English-to-Scots Vowel Shiftsøː → (j){u,ʌ} / _{k,x} (outcome varies depending upon dialect)