Noun phrase examples in Lwaitel


Pronouns and demonstatives

I go.
[ˈku ˈnaoŋ.ku]
I/me naum-ku.go-1.

Because Lwaitel is pro-drop, you can also just say Naumku.

I, chri, go.
chri 
chilí naunku.
[ˈku ˈtʃɹɪ ˈnaoŋ.ku]
I/me chilíchri naum-ku.go-1.

A personal pronoun can be used with a noun phrase. Also, since my name is not a Lwaitel word, it's written in its original alphabet with the Lwaitel approximation above it.

This (thing that we've been talking about) goes.
An naun.
[ˈan ˈnaon]
anprox naum-en.go-prox.

An can be used as a pronoun. Again, you could also just say naun.

The cat goes.
An myau naun.
[ˈan ˈmjæo ˈnaon]
anprox myaucat naum-en.go-prox.

An can also be followed by a noun phrase.

One could also say Myau naumi, if the cat isn't something one plans on talking about much in this conversation (but not *Myau naun or *An myau naumi, because the determiner has to agree with the verb).

Nwalyep goes.
 
An Nwályep naun.
[ˈan ˈnwɑ.ʎə̆p ˈnaon]
anprox nwályepPN naum-en.go-prox.

An is used with proper nouns as well as common nouns.


The cats go.
 
An íhe myau naun.
[ˈan ˈi.çɪ̆ ˈmjæo ˈnaon]
anprox íhepl myaucat naum-en.go-prox.

If it's clear from context that one is talking about multiple cats, íhe can be omitted.

The five cats go.
5 
An he lú myau naun.
[ˈan hl̩ʷ.ˈlu ˈmjæo ˈnaon]
anprox he=card=5 myaucat naum-en.go-prox.

If there's a number, then it's possible to tell that it's plural already, so one would not add íhe.

There are five cats.
 5
An myau swan he lú.
[ˈan ˈmjæo ˈswɑn hl̩ʷ.ˈlu]
anprox myaucat swa-enbe-prox he=.card=5.

Literally "the cats are five". Numbers can be used as predicate adjectives.


A cat goes.
An myau naumshe.
[ˈan ˈmjæo ˈnaom.ʃᵿ̜̆]
anprox myaucat naum-she.go-indf.

Indefiniteness is usually marked on the verb. The determiner is used even on indefinite nouns.

The cat went to a place.
   
An myau naun shi swáshe haupe.
[ˈan ˈmjæo ˈnaon ʃɨ.ˈʃwɑ.ʃɪ̆ ˈhao.pʊ̜̆]
anprox myaucat naum-engo-prox shi=swásheto=exist

If indefiniteness can't be marked on the verb, the determiner swasye is used.

Cats (in general) go.
An nga myau naun.
[ˈan ˈŋɜ ˈmjæo ˈnaon]
anprox ngaany myaucat naum-en.go-prox.
I get some food.
 
Kíkushe múmwe.
[ˈki.kʉ.ʃᵿ̜̆ ˈmu.mwʊ̜̆]
-ku-sheget-1-indf mú
I didn't get any food.
 1 
Kíku úni múmwe.
[ˈki.kʉ ˈu.ɲɨ ˈmu.mwʊ̜̆]
-kuget-1 únineg mú

Úni mumwe is the noun phrase here; if úni was modifying the verb, it would be kíku úni nga mumwe.

No one got this food.
1  
Úni íken an múmwe.
[ˈu.ɲɨ ˈ̩ ˈan ˈmu.mwʊ̜̆]
únineg ik-enget.inv-prox anprox mú
No one got any food.
1  
Úni íki nga múmwe.
[ˈu.ɲɨ ˈ ˈŋɜ ˈmu.mwʊ̜̆]
únineg ik-iget.inv-obv ngaany mú

*Úni iki úni mumwe would be double negation, so nga is required here.


My eyes are brown.
  
An sákiku swan húkyes.
[ˈan ˈʉ ˈswɑn ˈhu.kjᵿ̜̆s]
anprox sáki-kueye-1 swa-enbe-prox húkyes.brown.

Saki takes inalienable possession, and is required to be possessed; one couldn't just say *An saki swa-n húkyes. Because ku is being used as a pronoun, a noun phrase is not required.

This cat's eyes are brown.
  
An sákipel al myau swan húkyes.
[ˈan ˈ̩ ˈal ˈmjæo ˈswɑn ˈhu.kjᵿ̜̆s]
anprox sáki-eleye-med almed myaucat swa-enbe-prox húkyes.brown.
  
An sákipi myau swan húkyes.
[ˈan ˈ ˈmjæo ˈswɑn ˈhu.kjᵿ̜̆s]
anprox sáki-ieye-obv myaucat swa-enbe-prox húkyes.brown.
The cat with brown eyes goes.
  
An myau lwe sáki húkyes naun.
[ˈan ˈmjæo lʷʊ̜̆s.ˈ ˈhu.kjᵿ̜̆s ˈnaon]
anprox myaucat lwe=sákiwith=eye húkyesbrown naum-en.go-prox.

Or ...lwe húkyes saki.... Not *An myau lwe húkyes sakipen naun; when used with lwe, the noun doesn't take possessive marking.

The cat has brown eyes.
  
An myau swan lwe húkyes sáki.
[ˈan ˈmjæo ˈswɑn lʷʊ̜̆.ˈhu.kjᵿ̜̆s ˈ]
anprox myaucat swa-enbe-prox lwe=húkyeswith=brown sáki.eye.

Non-restrictive modifiers

The cat, which is black, goes.
  
An myau hwel swátel naun.
[ˈan ˈmjæo hwl̩ ˈswɑ.tl̩ ˈnaon]
anprox myaucat hwelnfoc swátelblack naum-en.go-prox.