Nouns, verbs, and adjectives take various endings to show agreement, mood, gender, definiteness, and number. These words are shown in the lexicon with one of the endings; that ending is replaced or removed when the noun is declined (e.g., the noun foren "flower" in the indefinite singular is fore, not *forene). Other suffixes are added before these endings. The specific endings and their meanings are shown in the sections on nouns, adjectives, and verbs.
In most cases, there's a form that lacks a suffix (definite nouns and adjectives, third person indicative verbs). Some sound changes happen when the suffix is removed:
Case and (to some extent) mood are indicated by changing vowels in the stem. For case, this is the only morphological way to indicate case (there's also sometimes word order); for mood, the stem change is redundant with the suffix. There are several patterns these words can follow; which pattern is chosen is indicated by a diacritic placed above the letter. The patterns are shown below:
|First form||Second form||Third form||Notes|
|Subject||Object||Prepositional||Meaning for nouns|
|Indicative||Subjunctive||Meaning for verbs|
|ā||ō||ā||Only used by pronouns; ā is silent|
|i||ė||i||This is all i's except those in endings and the name of the letter i.|
The diacritics may or may not appear over the letters in the third form; the practice of leaving them out is mostly used in typesetting, so they don't need to get extra letters for e and ø. If this practice is followed, third form o may or may not have its diacritic.
The first form is the form that one would see in a dictionary.