Súiⱥcúili general morphology


Nouns, verbs, and adjectives take various endings to show agreement, mood, gender, definiteness, and number. These words are shown in the lexicon with one of the endings; that ending is replaced or removed when the noun is declined (e.g., the noun foren "flower" in the indefinite singular is fore, not *forene). Other suffixes are added before these endings. The specific endings and their meanings are shown in the sections on nouns, adjectives, and verbs.

In most cases, there's a form that lacks a suffix (definite nouns and adjectives, third person indicative verbs). Some sound changes happen when the suffix is removed:

Stem changes

Case and (to some extent) mood are indicated by changing vowels in the stem. For case, this is the only morphological way to indicate case (there's also sometimes word order); for mood, the stem change is redundant with the suffix. There are several patterns these words can follow; which pattern is chosen is indicated by a diacritic placed above the letter. The patterns are shown below:

First formSecond formThird formNotes
SubjectObjectPrepositionalMeaning for nouns
IndicativeSubjunctiveMeaning for verbs
āōāOnly used by pronouns; ā is silent
ouøLess common
uoøLess common
iėiThis is all i's except those in endings and the name of the letter i.

The diacritics may or may not appear over the letters in the third form; the practice of leaving them out is mostly used in typesetting, so they don't need to get extra letters for e and ø. If this practice is followed, third form o may or may not have its diacritic.

The first form is the form that one would see in a dictionary.