Tydotsuy noun phrase examples
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I have water. ohe jalTa oafepa Hu altha ofupo.
[ˈhu ˈɑl.tʰɑ ɔ.ˈfu.pɔ]
ohe jalTa oa ofepa Hu
/ˈhu ˈɑl.tʰɑ o ˈfu.po/ I
Because there's some specific mass of water that's mine, an article is used.
I have a cup of water.
ohe jalTa oaluhwI ofepa Hu altha oluhwyy fupo.
[ˈhu ˈɑl.tʰɑ ɔ.lu.ˈhyː ˈfu.pɔ]
ohe jalTa oa oluhwI ofepa Hu
/ˈhu ˈɑl.tʰɑ o lu.ˈhyː ˈfu.po/ I
I like water.
ohe jScdixflaf ofepa Hu þdipflaf fupo.
[ˈhu ˈðdip̚.pflɑf ˈfu.pɔ]
ohe jScdixflaf ofepa Hu
/ˈhu ˈθdip.flɑf ˈfu.po/ I
Because I'm not talking about any specific water, but just water in general, no article is used.
I don't have water.
ohe oexmul Opua ofepa Hu upmul puo fupo.
[ˈhu ˈup̚.mul ˈpyʊ ˈfu.pɔ]
ohe oexmul Opua ofepa Hu
/ˈhu ˈup̚.mul ˈpyʊ ˈfu.po/ I
Because I'm not talking about any specific water, but rather a lack of water, the article
puo is used.
Do we have any water?
JbaL ohure Jmi jalTa jsa ofepa Balh huru mi altha sa fupo?
[ˈm̆bɑɬ ˈhu.ɾu ˈmi ˈɑl.tʰɑ ˈsɑ ˈfu.pɔ] I want any water you have./If you have water, I want it.
ohe juSCtua jLuSc ofepa Hu eshtea lheþ fupo.
[ˈhu ˈɛʃ.tɪə ˈɬɛθ ˈfu.pɔ]
I don't know if there is any water, but if there is, then I want it. This idea is conveyed by the article
lheþ; sometimes any is used for this purpose in English.
JTix jLuscalTa jsa ofepa ohe jLuSCtua jwA Thit lheþaltha sa fupo; hu lheshtea waa.
[ˈtʰit̚ tɬɛ.ˈθɑl.tʰɑ ˈsɑ ˈfu.pɔ; ˈhu ˈɬɛʃ.tɪə ˈwɑː]
JTix jLuSc jalTa jsa ofepa ohe L juSCtua jwA Thit
/ˈtʰit̚ ɬɛθ ˈɑl.tʰɑ ˈsɑ ˈfu.po; ˈhu ɬ ˈɛʃ.tɪə ˈwɑː/ You. sg
A more complex way of saying this, with an explicit condition. Because whether the water exists is part of the condition, it uses the article
Take any food you want.
JTixlz jhuSC Otexhwax jai JmaSCna Thitla hesh tu'hwat ai mashna.
[ˈtʰit̚.tɬɑ ˈhɛʃ ˈtuʔ.hwɑʔ ˈai ˈmɑʃ.nɑ]
...not sure about the verb form here.
The relative clause there seems necessary in English; it's not necessary in Tydotsuy.
I see you. ohe japuiniSc JTix Hu apeiniþ thit.
[ˈhu ɑ.ˈpei.niθ ˈtʰit̚] We (me and you and maybe some other people) should go.
ohuruZxsZ Jmi jhuSC Omiemai Húruutsu mi hesh myumoy.
[ˈhu.ɾuː.t̚.ʦu ˈmi ˈhɛʃ ˈmyʊ.mɔy]
ohure ZxsZ Jmi jhuSC Omiemai Huru
/ˈhu.ɾu ut.su ˈmi ˈhɛʃ ˈmyʊ.moy/ We
Since I'm including the listener, I used the pronoun
huru instead of hulof. Also, the =utsu ending (rather than =su), when used with hesh, implies that I'm suggesting something for the benefit of the listener rather than something that just I want.
We (but not you) have finished.
ohulafsZ Jmi jLiex Otuh Húlofsu mi lhiet tuh.
[ˈhu.lɔf.su ˈmi ˈɬɪ̆ə̆t̚ ˈtuh]
ohulaf sZ Jmi jLiex Oteh Hulof
/ˈhu.lof su ˈmi ˈɬɪət̚ ˈtuh/ We
Since I'm not inculding the listener, I used the pronoun
hulof. Also, I haven't specified in the English sentence what they've finished, which is important in choosing a pronoun for the direct object; I decided that the speaker was finishing some task, with the classifier tuh.
The following are mammals: cats, dogs.
JwYH juif jswuitaf Jmia ohif Jbah Hwih eif sweitaf; mi·a hyf bah.
[ˈhwih ˈĕĭf ˈswei.tɑf; ˈmi.ɑ ˈhyf ˈbɑh]
...can't think of a better example with the words I have, but cases where English would use "the following", Tydotsuy would use
Actually, there's a cat.
JwYH jusla JwYH osciaxhai jamia Hwih esla hwih þjo'hoy amí·a.
[ˈhwih ˈɛs.lɑ ˈhwiθ ˈθjɔʔ.hɔy ɑ.ˈmi.ɑ] Hwih is also required as the subject of certain senses of certain verbs; it's similar to English's dummy "it" pronoun.
I see a cup of water. It (the water) is blue.
ohe japuiniSc oaluhwI ofepa oluhwI olisCax Hu apeiniþ oluhwyy fupo. Luhwyy lyshot.
[ˈhu ɑ.ˈpei.niθ ɔ.lu.ˈhyː ˈfu.pɔ lu.ˈhyː ˈly.ʃɔt̚]
ohe japuiniSc oa oluhwI ofepa oluhwI olisCax Hu
/ˈhu ɑ.ˈpei.niθ o lu.ˈhyː ˈfu.po lu.ˈhyː ˈly.ʃot̚/ I
Fupo is singular and takes the classifier luhwyy, so that classifier is used as a pronoun.
I see some food. It is blue.
ohe japuiniSc jamaSCna Obix olisCax Hu apeiniþ amashna. Byt lyshot.
[ˈhu ɑ.ˈpei.niθ ɑ.ˈmɑʃ.nɑ ˈbyt̚ ˈtɬy.ʃɔt̚]
ohe japuiniSc ja JmaSCna Obix olisCax Hu
/ˈhu ɑ.ˈpei.niθ ɑ ˈmɑʃ.nɑ ˈbyt̚ ˈly.ʃot̚/ I
The food is not singular, and it's not animate, so it gets the pronoun "byt".
I see some drinking water. It is blue.
ohe japuiniSc oafepa jwA olisCax Hu apeiniþ ofupo. Waa lyshot.
[ˈhu ɑ.ˈpei.niθ ɔ.ˈfu.pɔ ˈwɑː ˈly.ʃɔt̚]
ohe japuiniSc oa ofepa jwA olisCax Hu
/ˈhu ɑ.ˈpei.niθ o ˈfu.po ˈwɑː ˈly.ʃot̚/ I
The water is liquid and not singular, so it gets the pronoun "waa".
I see the ocean. It is blue.
ohe japuiniSc OduliSCpil ofE olisCax Hu apeiniþ dulyshpyl. Fuu lyshot.
[ˈhu ɑ.ˈpei.niθ du.ˈlyʃ.pyl ˈfuː ˈly.ʃɔt̚]
ohe japuiniSc Ode oliSCpil ofE olisCax Hu
/ˈhu ɑ.ˈpei.niθ du ˈlyʃ.pyl ˈfuː ˈly.ʃot̚/ I
Lyshpyl is listed as having the classifier fuu, so that classifier is used to refer to it. Since it is always singular, it doesn't take a classifier prefix.
I see some people. They are blue.
ohe japuiniSc jalafnwil olaf Otif olisCax Hu apeiniþ alafnwil. Lof tyf lyshot.
[ˈhu ɑ.ˈpei.niθ ɑ.ˈlɑf.nwil ˈlɔf ˈtyf ˈly.ʃɔt̚]
ohe japuiniSc ja jlaf Jnwil olaf Otif olisCax Hu
/ˈhu ɑ.ˈpei.niθ ɑ lɑf ˈnwil ˈlof ˈtyf ˈly.ʃot̚/ I
Since people are animate, they take the plural pronoun
I see myself. ohe japuiniSc Opai Hu apeiniþ poy.
[ˈhu ɑ.ˈpei.niθ ˈpɔy]
ohe japuiniSc Opai Hu
/ˈhu ɑ.ˈpei.niθ ˈpoy/ I
Poy is the reflexive pronoun; it doesn't change based on person.
I washed myself.
ohePsZ oletiL Huphusu lutylh.
If the reflexive pronoun is an object and the subject would otherwise get the case ending
=se, there's an alternate way of forming the reflexive.
Rich people live by the ocean. jalTaS Jnwil Otif ofraxbaibai oliSCnex Althas nwil tyf frobbaibai lyshnut.
[ˈɑl.tʰɑs ˈnwil ˈtyf fɾɔp̚.ˈbai.bai ˈlyʃ.nut̚]
jalTa S Jnwil Otif ofraxbai bai oliSCnex Altha
/ˈɑl.tʰɑ s ˈnwil ˈtyf ˈfɾop̚.bai bai ˈlyʃ.nut̚/ Rich
Altha, when meaning "rich", is an intransitive stative verb, so it can be used as an adjective by adding –s. Also, lyshnut "shore" is used instead of lyshpyl "ocean"; the latter would imply that they live in the ocean. (A longer way of saying "by the ocean" would be o=ne=lyshpyl=snet nutnylh=syu)
Poor people live by the ocean.
oexmuS Jnwil Otif ofraxbaibai oliSCnex Upmus nwil tyf frobbaibai lyshnut.
[ˈup̚.mus ˈnwil ˈtyf fɾɔp̚.ˈbai.bai ˈlyʃ.nut̚]
oexme S Jnwil Otif ofraxbai bai oliSCnex Upmu
/ˈup̚.mu s ˈnwil ˈtyf ˈfɾop̚.bai bai ˈlyʃ.nut̚/ Poor
Upmul ends in a consonant, so that consonant is removed to make the adjective form.
People who live by the ocean are rich.
oliSCnex ofraxbaiS Jnwil Otif jalTa Lyshnut frobbais nwil tyf altha.
[ˈlyʃ.nup̚ ˈpfɾɔp̚.băĭs ˈnwil ˈtyf ˈɑl.tʰɑ]
frobbai is being used as a transitive verb here, the object of the verb goes before the verb.
OnuliSCnex ofraxbaiS Jnwil Otif jalTa Nulyshnut frobbais nwil tyf altha.
[nu.ˈlyʃ.nup̚ ˈpfɾɔp̚.băĭs ˈnwil ˈtyf ˈɑl.tʰɑ]
One oliSCnex ofraxbai S Jnwil Otif jalTa Nu=
/nu ˈlyʃ.nut̚ ˈfɾop̚.bai s ˈnwil ˈtyf ˈɑl.tʰɑ/ The. gen=
If one is talking about a specific shore, then of course one would use a definite article. Showing this example to show that the genitive form of the article is used.
There's a rich person.
JwYH osciaxhai janwil jalTaS Hwih þjo'hoy anwíl althas.
[ˈhwiθ ˈθjɔʔ.hɔy ɑ.ˈnwil ˈɑl.tʰɑs]
nwil has an indefinite article, its adjective goes after the noun.
The person, who is rich, lives by the ocean.
Jdenwil jalTaS ofraxbaibai oliSCnex Denwíl althas frobbaibai lyshnut.
[n̆dɛ.ˈnwil ˈɑl.tʰɑs fɾɔp̚.ˈbai.bai ˈlyʃ.nut̚]
Jde Jnwil jalTa S ofraxbai bai oliSCnex De=
/dɛ ˈnwil ˈɑl.tʰɑ s ˈfɾop̚.bai bai ˈlyʃ.nut̚/ The=
Since "rich" is being used nonrestrictively, it goes after the noun.
I see my books. ohe japuiniSc OduhuSnZx jlaftI Hu apeiniþ duhusnut laftyy.
[ˈhu ɑ.ˈpei.niθ du.ˈhus.nut̚ tɬɑf.ˈtyː]
The definite article is used as well as the possessor, unlike in English.
I see some of my books.
ohe japuiniSc jalaftI ohuSnZx Hu apeiniþ alaftyy husnut.
[ˈhu ɑ.ˈpei.niθ ɑ.lɑf.ˈtyː ˈhus.nut̚]
Indefinite articles can also be used with possession. The possessor is treated more like an adjective than a determiner. Also, the possessive phrase goes after the the noun because it's indefinite, same as with adjectives.
I see the person's books.
ohe japuiniSc JnenwilSnZx jlaftI Hu apeiniþ nenwilsnet laftyy.
[ˈhu ɑ.ˈpei.niθ nɛ.ˈnwils.nɛt̚ tɬɑf.ˈtyː]
Both the possessor and the possessed object can take articles. The articles for the possessor are different (
ne instead of de). However, dene contracts into ne.
ohe japuiniSc jalaftI JnenwilSnZx Hu apeiniþ alaftyy nenwilsnet.
[ˈhu ɑ.ˈpei.niθ ɑ.lɑf.ˈtyː nɛ.ˈnwils.nɛt̚]
This can be used if the speaker doesn't assume that the listener knows which of the person's books the speaker is talking about.
These are my books.
OduSnA jlaftI jaxlaha ohu Dusnóo laftyy atlaha hu.
[n̆dus.ˈnoː lɑf.ˈtyː ɑt̚.ˈtɬɑ.hɑ ˈhu]
Since the possession is the focus of the sentence, the verb
atlaha is used, rather than the literal translation:
oSnA juif OduhuSnZx jlaftI Snoo eif duhusnut laftyy.
[ˈsnoː ˈĕĭf du.ˈhus.nut̚ tɬɑf.ˈtyː]
This version would make sense as well, but does not focus as much on the fact that the books are mine. On the other hand, this version might be used if these specific books were already a topic of conversation (since it makes "my books" definite).