Tydotsuy noun phrase examples

See nouns.


I have water.
ohe jalTa oafepa
Hu altha ofupo.
[ˈhu ˈɑl.tʰɑ ɔ.ˈfu.pɔ]
Hu altha o= fupo
I have indf= drinking_water.

Because there's some specific mass of water that's mine, an article is used.

I have a cup of water.
ohe jalTa oaluhwI ofepa
Hu altha oluhwyy fupo.
[ˈhu ˈɑl.tʰɑ ɔ.lu.ˈhyː ˈfu.pɔ]
Hu altha o= luhwyy fupo
I have indf= cup.clf drinking_water.
I like water.
ohe jScdixflaf ofepa
Hu þdipflaf fupo.
[ˈhu ˈðdip̚.pflɑf ˈfu.pɔ]
Hu þdipflaf fupo
I like drinking_water.

Because I'm not talking about any specific water, but just water in general, no article is used.

I don't have water.
ohe oexmul Opua ofepa
Hu upmul puo fupo.
[ˈhu ˈup̚.mul ˈpyʊ ˈfu.pɔ]
Hu upmul puo fupo
I lack no water.

Because I'm not talking about any specific water, but rather a lack of water, the article puo is used.

Do we have any water?
JbaL ohure Jmi jalTa jsa ofepa
Balh huru mi altha sa fupo?
[ˈm̆bɑɬ ˈhu.ɾu ˈmi ˈɑl.tʰɑ ˈsɑ ˈfu.pɔ]
Balh huru mi altha sa fupo?
q we pl have any water?
I want any water you have./If you have water, I want it.
ohe juSCtua jLuSc ofepa
Hu eshtea lheþ fupo.
[ˈhu ˈɛʃ.tɪə ˈɬɛθ ˈfu.pɔ]
Hu eshtea lheþ fupo
I want any water.

I don't know if there is any water, but if there is, then I want it. This idea is conveyed by the article lheþ; sometimes any is used for this purpose in English.

JTix jLuscalTa jsa ofepa
ohe jLuSCtua jwA
Thit lheþaltha sa fupo; hu lheshtea waa.
[ˈtʰit̚ tɬɛ.ˈθɑl.tʰɑ ˈsɑ ˈfu.pɔ; ˈhu ˈɬɛʃ.tɪə ˈwɑː]
Thit lheþ– altha sa fupo; hu lh– eshtea waa
You.sg prot- have any drinking_water; I cond- want water.clf.

A more complex way of saying this, with an explicit condition. Because whether the water exists is part of the condition, it uses the article sa.

Take any food you want.
JTixlz jhuSC Otexhwax jai JmaSCna
Thitla hesh tu'hwat ai mashna.
[ˈtʰit̚.tɬɑ ˈhɛʃ ˈtuʔ.hwɑʔ ˈai ˈmɑʃ.nɑ]
Thit =la hesh tu'hwat ai mashna
You.sg =nvol opt take any food.

...not sure about the verb form here.

The relative clause there seems necessary in English; it's not necessary in Tydotsuy.


I see you.
ohe japuiniSc JTix
Hu apeiniþ thit.
[ˈhu ɑ.ˈpei.niθ ˈtʰit̚]
Hu apeiniþ thit
I see you.
We (me and you and maybe some other people) should go.
ohuruZxsZ Jmi jhuSC Omiemai
Húruutsu mi hesh myumoy.
[ˈhu.ɾuː.t̚.ʦu ˈmi ˈhɛʃ ˈmyʊ.mɔy]
Huru =utsu mi hesh myumoy
We =aben together opt leave.

Since I'm including the listener, I used the pronoun huru instead of hulof. Also, the =utsu ending (rather than =su), when used with hesh, implies that I'm suggesting something for the benefit of the listener rather than something that just I want.

We (but not you) have finished.
ohulafsZ Jmi jLiex Otuh
Húlofsu mi lhiet tuh.
[ˈhu.lɔf.su ˈmi ˈɬɪ̆ə̆t̚ ˈtuh]
Hulof =su mi lhiet tuh
We =vol together finish instance.clf.

Since I'm not inculding the listener, I used the pronoun hulof. Also, I haven't specified in the English sentence what they've finished, which is important in choosing a pronoun for the direct object; I decided that the speaker was finishing some task, with the classifier tuh.

The following are mammals: cats, dogs.
JwYH juif jswuitaf
Jmia ohif Jbah
Hwih eif sweitaf; mi·a hyf bah.
[ˈhwih ˈĕĭf ˈswei.tɑf; ˈmi.ɑ ˈhyf ˈbɑh]
Hwih eif sweitaf; mi·a hyf bah
cat be mammal; cat and dog.

...can't think of a better example with the words I have, but cases where English would use "the following", Tydotsuy would use hwih.

Actually, there's a cat.
JwYH jusla JwYH osciaxhai jamia
Hwih esla hwih þjo'hoy amí·a.
[ˈhwih ˈɛs.lɑ ˈhwiθ ˈθjɔʔ.hɔy ɑ.ˈmi.ɑ]
Hwih esla hwih þjo'hoy a= mi·a
cat happen cat live a= cat.

Hwih is also required as the subject of certain senses of certain verbs; it's similar to English's dummy "it" pronoun.

I see a cup of water. It (the water) is blue.
ohe japuiniSc oaluhwI ofepa
oluhwI olisCax
Hu apeiniþ oluhwyy fupo. Luhwyy lyshot.
[ˈhu ɑ.ˈpei.niθ ɔ.lu.ˈhyː ˈfu.pɔ lu.ˈhyː ˈly.ʃɔt̚]
Hu apeiniþ o= luhwyy fupo Luhwyy lyshot
I see a= serving.clf water. Serving.clf blue.

Fupo is singular and takes the classifier luhwyy, so that classifier is used as a pronoun.

I see some food. It is blue.
ohe japuiniSc jamaSCna
Obix olisCax
Hu apeiniþ amashna. Byt lyshot.
[ˈhu ɑ.ˈpei.niθ ɑ.ˈmɑʃ.nɑ ˈbyt̚ ˈtɬy.ʃɔt̚]
Hu apeiniþ a= mashna Byt lyshot
I see indf= food. Pile.clf blue.

The food is not singular, and it's not animate, so it gets the pronoun "byt".

I see some drinking water. It is blue.
ohe japuiniSc oafepa
jwA olisCax
Hu apeiniþ ofupo. Waa lyshot.
[ˈhu ɑ.ˈpei.niθ ɔ.ˈfu.pɔ ˈwɑː ˈly.ʃɔt̚]
Hu apeiniþ o= fupo Waa lyshot
I see indf= water. Water.clf blue.

The water is liquid and not singular, so it gets the pronoun "waa".

I see the ocean. It is blue.
ohe japuiniSc OduliSCpil
ofE olisCax
Hu apeiniþ dulyshpyl. Fuu lyshot.
[ˈhu ɑ.ˈpei.niθ du.ˈlyʃ.pyl ˈfuː ˈly.ʃɔt̚]
Hu apeiniþ du= lyshpyl Fuu lyshot
I see the.sg= ocean. Cloud.clf blue.

Lyshpyl is listed as having the classifier fuu, so that classifier is used to refer to it. Since it is always singular, it doesn't take a classifier prefix.

I see some people. They are blue.
ohe japuiniSc jalafnwil
olaf Otif olisCax
Hu apeiniþ alafnwil. Lof tyf lyshot.
[ˈhu ɑ.ˈpei.niθ ɑ.ˈlɑf.nwil ˈlɔf ˈtyf ˈly.ʃɔt̚]
Hu apeiniþ a= laf– nwil Lof tyf lyshot
I see indf= pl- person. Herd.clf each blue.

Since people are animate, they take the plural pronoun lof.


I see myself.
ohe japuiniSc Opai
Hu apeiniþ poy.
[ˈhu ɑ.ˈpei.niθ ˈpɔy]
Hu apeiniþ poy
I see self.

Poy is the reflexive pronoun; it doesn't change based on person.

I washed myself.
ohePsZ oletiL
Huphusu lutylh.
[hu.ˈpʰu.su ˈlu.tyɬ]
Hu =phusu lutylh
I =refl lutylh.

If the reflexive pronoun is an object and the subject would otherwise get the case ending =se, there's an alternate way of forming the reflexive.


Rich people live by the ocean.
jalTaS Jnwil Otif ofraxbaibai oliSCnex
Althas nwil tyf frobbaibai lyshnut.
[ˈɑl.tʰɑs ˈnwil ˈtyf fɾɔp̚.ˈbai.bai ˈlyʃ.nut̚]
Altha –s nwil tyf frobbai ~bai lyshnut
Rich -adj person each go_home ~hab shore.

Altha, when meaning "rich", is an intransitive stative verb, so it can be used as an adjective by adding –s. Also, lyshnut "shore" is used instead of lyshpyl "ocean"; the latter would imply that they live in the ocean. (A longer way of saying "by the ocean" would be o=ne=lyshpyl=snet nutnylh=syu)

Poor people live by the ocean.
oexmuS Jnwil Otif ofraxbaibai oliSCnex
Upmus nwil tyf frobbaibai lyshnut.
[ˈup̚.mus ˈnwil ˈtyf fɾɔp̚.ˈbai.bai ˈlyʃ.nut̚]
Upmu –s nwil tyf frobbai ~bai lyshnut
Poor -adj person each go_home ~hab shore.

Upmul ends in a consonant, so that consonant is removed to make the adjective form.

People who live by the ocean are rich.
oliSCnex ofraxbaiS Jnwil Otif jalTa
Lyshnut frobbais nwil tyf altha.
[ˈlyʃ.nup̚ ˈpfɾɔp̚.băĭs ˈnwil ˈtyf ˈɑl.tʰɑ]
Lyshnut frobbai –s nwil tyf altha
Shore go_home -adj person each rich.

Since frobbai is being used as a transitive verb here, the object of the verb goes before the verb.

OnuliSCnex ofraxbaiS Jnwil Otif jalTa
Nulyshnut frobbais nwil tyf altha.
[nu.ˈlyʃ.nup̚ ˈpfɾɔp̚.băĭs ˈnwil ˈtyf ˈɑl.tʰɑ]
Nu= lyshnut frobbai –s nwil tyf altha
The.gen= shore go_home -adj person each rich.

If one is talking about a specific shore, then of course one would use a definite article. Showing this example to show that the genitive form of the article is used.

There's a rich person.
JwYH osciaxhai janwil jalTaS
Hwih þjo'hoy anwíl althas.
[ˈhwiθ ˈθjɔʔ.hɔy ɑ.ˈnwil ˈɑl.tʰɑs]
Hwih þjo'hoy a= nwil altha –s
cat live a= person rich -adj.

Since nwil has an indefinite article, its adjective goes after the noun.

The person, who is rich, lives by the ocean.
Jdenwil jalTaS ofraxbaibai oliSCnex
Denwíl althas frobbaibai lyshnut.
[n̆dɛ.ˈnwil ˈɑl.tʰɑs fɾɔp̚.ˈbai.bai ˈlyʃ.nut̚]
De= nwil altha –s frobbai ~bai lyshnut
The= person rich -adj go_home ~hab shore.

Since "rich" is being used nonrestrictively, it goes after the noun.

Genitive constructions

I see my books.
ohe japuiniSc OduhuSnZx jlaftI
Hu apeiniþ duhusnut laftyy.
[ˈhu ɑ.ˈpei.niθ du.ˈhus.nut̚ tɬɑf.ˈtyː]
Hu apeiniþ du= hu =snut laftyy
I see the= I =pos book.

The definite article is used as well as the possessor, unlike in English.

I see some of my books.
ohe japuiniSc jalaftI ohuSnZx
Hu apeiniþ alaftyy husnut.
[ˈhu ɑ.ˈpei.niθ ɑ.lɑf.ˈtyː ˈhus.nut̚]
Hu apeiniþ a= laftyy hu =snut
I see indf= book I =pos.

Indefinite articles can also be used with possession. The possessor is treated more like an adjective than a determiner. Also, the possessive phrase goes after the the noun because it's indefinite, same as with adjectives.

I see the person's books.
ohe japuiniSc JnenwilSnZx jlaftI
Hu apeiniþ nenwilsnet laftyy.
[ˈhu ɑ.ˈpei.niθ nɛ.ˈnwils.nɛt̚ tɬɑf.ˈtyː]
Hu apeiniþ ne= nwil =snet laftyy
I see the.gen= person =pos book.

Both the possessor and the possessed object can take articles. The articles for the possessor are different (ne instead of de). However, dene contracts into ne.

ohe japuiniSc jalaftI JnenwilSnZx
Hu apeiniþ alaftyy nenwilsnet.
[ˈhu ɑ.ˈpei.niθ ɑ.lɑf.ˈtyː nɛ.ˈnwils.nɛt̚]
Hu apeiniþ a= laftyy ne= nwil =snet
I see indf= book the.gen= person =pos.

This can be used if the speaker doesn't assume that the listener knows which of the person's books the speaker is talking about.

These are my books.
OduSnA jlaftI jaxlaha ohu
Dusnóo laftyy atlaha hu.
[n̆dus.ˈnoː lɑf.ˈtyː ɑt̚.ˈtɬɑ.hɑ ˈhu]
Du= snoo laftyy atlaha hu
The= this book belong me.

Since the possession is the focus of the sentence, the verb atlaha is used, rather than the literal translation:

oSnA juif OduhuSnZx jlaftI
Snoo eif duhusnut laftyy.
[ˈsnoː ˈĕĭf du.ˈhus.nut̚ tɬɑf.ˈtyː]
Snoo eif du= hu =snut laftyy
These are the= me =pos book.

This version would make sense as well, but does not focus as much on the fact that the books are mine. On the other hand, this version might be used if these specific books were already a topic of conversation (since it makes "my books" definite).