There's no simple equivalent of English is in The book is on the table; rather, separate verbs are used depending on various factors.
If the location is already a topic of conversation and the object in that location is being introduced, the verb altha "have" can be used. In this case, the location is the subject (it comes before the verb), but in the locative case, and the object in that location is the direct object of the verb. Otherwise, the object in the location is the subject, and one of the verbs from the following sections is used.
Postural verbs encode the object's orientation or relation to liquid or air, but don't specify the exact relation between the subject and the specified location. These verbs can also be used to state that the object exists. For most of these verbs, location is expressed using an ordinary subject and locative object, and existence is expressed with the subject hwih and the thing existing as the object (unmarked case). Existence of people and animals is not expressed using postural verbs (but location is), but rather using þjo'hoy, which works similarly.
To say that an object is not at a certain location, the verb myumoyho is used instead of the negation of the postural verb.
These verbs are more specific about the relation between the subject and the location. They are not used as existentials. They can also modify clauses. Most of them are derived from verbs of motion.
Location adverbials express where an action happened. There are a few ways to form these:
Tydotsuy primarily uses cardinal directions (north, south, east, west) rather than relative directions (left, right). Body parts can use relative directions; see pairs. Three of the words for cardinal directions also have related meanings relating to astronomical events.
|East||thatnish||sunrise (sun float)|
|West||thatthwee, tho'osh||sunset (sun fall, sun sink)|
|North||du=bu'juy Jde Obexiui||North Star (star center/axis)|
Aside from bu'juy, these don't take an article when used as directions. The object that one is comparing to can be used in the possessive case; e.g., ne=bwishmif=snet thatnish (the table=possessive east) means "the east of the table".
Thattwee and tho'osh literally mean "sun fall" and "sun sink", respectively. People who live on islands are more likely to use tho'osh (because they're not too far from a place where they can see the sun sink into the ocean), whereas people on the mainland are more likely to use thattwee (because Tydotsuy is on the east coast of the continent, so the sun doesn't set over the ocean).
Motion-related verbs primarily indicate the direction of motion, with adverbs indicating the manner.
Some basic verbs: onoy indicates motion towards a place (here or the specified place), myumoy indicates motion away, and ohwee indicates motion towards a place that doesn't reach it or motion without a specified destination.
Some direction verbs: waadee (into), a'jah (out of), shdesh (down), deidattah (up). All of these can indicate both going somewhere oneself and moving some other object.
Some manner adverbs: pappat (walking), pepepet (walking quickly), fut (running), lhoysos (flying), shushush (swimming on the surface of the water)