Index Diachronica: involving /ʷ/

472 results from /ʷ/   199 results to /ʷ/   40 results with context involving /ʷ/   

Šʷ bʷʲ cʷː h̃ʷ kʰʷ kʲʷː kʷʰ kʷʲʼ kʷʼ kʷː oːʷ pʷʲ pʷʲʼ pʷʼ qʲʷ qʲʷʼ qʲʷː qʷʲ qʷʲʼ qʷʼ qʷː qʼʷ qˤʲʷ qˤʲʷː qˤʷ qˤʷʲ qˤʷʲʼ qˤʷʼ qˤʷː sʲʷ sʲʷː sʷʲ sʷʲʼ sʷʼ sʷː sʼʷ tʷʲ tʷʲʼ tʷʼ tʷː xʲʷ xʷʲ xʷʼ zʲʷ zʷʲ ħʷ ŋʷ ɕʷ ɕʷʼ ɕʷː ɠʷ ɡʲʷ ɡʷ ɡʷʰ ɡʷʱ ɢʲʷ ɢʷ ɢʷʰ ɣʲʷ ɣʷ ɣʷʲ ɬʲʷ ɬʲʷː ɬʷ ɬʷʲ ɬʷʲʼ ɬʷʲː ɬʷʼ ɬʷː ɮʲʷ ɮʷ ɮʷʲ ʁʲʷ ʁʷ ʁʷʲ ʁˤʲʷ ʁˤʷ ʁˤʷʲ ʂʷ ʃʷ ʃʷʰ ʃʷʼ ʃʷː ʑʷ ʒʷ ʔʷ ʕʷ plain βʷ χʲʷ χʷ χʷʲ χʷʼ χˤʷ

from /ʷ/

472 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.2.1.1.1 Proto-Agaw to Awngi{x,ɢ}(ʷ) → ∅ / at word boundaries
{x,ɢ}(ʷ) → ɣ(ʷ)
kʼ kʷʼ → {ɣ,q} ɣʷ
6.2.1.1.2 Proto-Agaw to Blin{x,ɢ}(ʷ) → ∅ / at word boundaries
ɢ(ʷ) → x(ʷ) / else
6.2.1.1.3 Proto-Agaw to Kemantney{x,ɢ}(ʷ) → ∅ / at word boundaries
xʷ ɢʷ → w ɣʷ
kʷʼ → χʷ
6.2.1.1.4 Proto-Agaw to Xamtanga{xʷ,ɢʷ} → ∅ / at word boundaries
{xʷ,ɢʷ} → w / else
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-BerberKʷ → K
7 Algonquian7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfoot{k(ʷ)es,keθ} → sː
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee DelawareCʷ → C / _ə{(C){p,kʷ},m,w}
10 Austronesian10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorroɡʷ → ɡ / _V[+round]
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwp pʷ {c,*j} k q → β βʷ s ɣ ∅
βʷ bʷ mʷ → w kʷ ŋʷ
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerigp pʷ k q → β w ɣ ∅
b bʷ d ɡ → p kpʷ t k
mʷ → ŋmʷ
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to Mwotlapp pʷ bʷ k ɡ → β w kpʷ ɣ k
mʷ ɲ → ŋmʷ n
kpʷ → k / _C (sporadic)
10.3.6.2 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Nagumʷ → m
10.3.6.3 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Natügumʷ → m
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bayp pʷ k → v vʷ ɣ
b bʷ ɡ → p pʷ k
10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to Tolomakop(ʷ) k → v(ʷ) ɣ
mʷ b(ʷ) vʷ → m p b
10.3.9.1 Proto-Utupua to Asuboapʷ mʷ → w m
10.3.9.2 Proto-Utupua to Nebaopʷ → vʷ
10.3.9.3 Proto-Utupua to Tanibilipʷ bw → p b
10.3.10.1 Proto-Vanikoro to Bumapʷ bw mʷ → p b m
10.3.10.2 Proto-Vanikoro to Tanemapʷ w → b ∅
10.3.10.3 Proto-Vanikoro to Vanopʷ mʷ → p m
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejomv(ʷ) → h
b(ʷ) ɡ → p(ʷ) k
10.3.11.2 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Erromangomʷ pʷ bʷ vʷ → m p b v
10.3.11.3 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Tanna{vʷ,w} → kʷ
10.3.11.3.1 Proto-Tanna to Kwamerab(ʷ) d → p(ʷ) t
{p(ʷ),v}Vh → fV
10.3.11.3.2 Proto-Tanna to Lenakelb(ʷ) d → p(ʷ) t
kʷ → {w,u}
{p(ʷ),v}Vh → fV
10.3.11.3.3 Proto-Tanna to North Tannakʷ → p / _#
kʷ → ∅ / _u
kʷ → ∅ / _a (rare)
kʷ → {w,u}
10.3.11.3.4 Proto-Tanna to Southwest Tannab(ʷ) d → p(ʷ) t
{p(ʷ),v}Vh → fV
10.3.11.3.5 Proto-Tanna to Whitesandsb(ʷ) d → p(ʷ) t
kʷ → ∅ / u_
kʷ → ∅ / _u
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’ap pʷ k q → β w ɣ ∅
bʷ ɡ → kpʷ k
mʷ → ŋmʷ
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Ongan{qʷ,ku,qu} → kʷ (note that PAn might have had *qʷ *kʷ → q {k,w} instead; may be a change from POn-PAn, if it existed)
10.5.1 Proto-Ongan to Jarawak(ʷ) → h(ʷ)
12 Northwest Caucasian12.1 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Abazgi{pʷ,pʲ} {p(ʲ)ː,bˤ} bʷ pʷʲ bʷʲ → p b f tsʲ dzʲ
tʷː tʷʲ(ʼ) → d(w) tʷ(ʼ)
sʷʲ zʲ → sʲ z
tsʷː tsʷʲ → tsʷ (tʃ)
zʷʲ tsʷʲʼ dzʷʲ → dzʲ~zʲ tʃʼ dʒ~ʒ
tʃʷ(ʼ) tʃʷː dʒʷ → tʃ(ʼ) zʷ dzʷ~zʷ
ʃʷ ʃʷː ʒʷ → sʷ ʃ zʲ (this final change is marked as dubious)
tɕʷ(ʼ) tɕʷː → tʃ(ʼ) dʒ~ʒ
ɕʷ ɕʷː ʑʷ → ʃʷ ʃ ʒʷ
ɬʲ(~ɬʲʷː) ɮʲ → ɕ ʑ
tɬʷ(ː) tɬʼ dɮʷ → tsʷ tsʼ(ʷ) l
ɬʷ(ː) → ʃ
tɬʷʲ tɬʷʲː tɬʷʲʼ dɮʷʲ → tʃʷ ʒʷ tʃʷʼ dʒʷ
ɬʷʲ(~ɬʷː) → ʃ
ɮʷʲ → ʒ
kʷː → ɡʷ
kʷʲʼ → kʷʼ
xʷʲ ɣʷʲ → sʷ zʷ (*ɣʷʲ is marked as dubious)
qʷ qʷː ɢʷ → ħʷ qʷ ɣʷ
χʷ ʁʷ → ħʷ ʕʷ
qʷʲ ɢʷʰ → ħ(ʷ) ɣ(ʷ)
qʷʲʼ → ʕʷ (qʷʼ?)
χʷʲ ʁʷʲ → ħ(ʷ) ʕ(ʷ)
qˤʷ qˤʷː qˤʷʼ χˤʷ ʁˤʷ → ħʷ ʕʷ qʷ(ʼ) ħʷ (ħʷ?)
qˤʷʲ qˤʷʲ qˤʷʲʼ ʁˤʷʲ → qʷ ʕʷ ħʷ ʕʷ
12.1.1 Proto-Abazgi to Ashkharywa Abazatʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) v dz
ʕʷ → ɥ
tʷ(ʼ) dʷ → {tʷ(ʼ),p(ʼ)} {dʷ,b}
12.1.2 Proto-Abazgi to Tapanta Abaza{tʃʷ(ʼ),tɕ} {dʒʷ,dʑ} → ts(ʼ) dz
tɕʷ(ʼ) dʑʷ → {tɕ(ʷ)(ʼ),tʃʷ(ʼ)} {dʑ(ʷ),dʒʷ}
ʃʷ ʒʷ ɕʷ ʑʷ → {ɕ(ʷ),ʃ(ʷ)} {ʑ(ʷ),ʒ(ʷ)} {ɕ(ʷ),ʃʷ} {ʑ(ʷ),ʒʷ}
{tʷ(ʼ),dʷ} → {tɕ(ʷ)(ʼ),tʃ(ʷ)(ʼ)} {dʒ(ʷ),dʑ(ʷ)}
12.1.3 Proto-Abazgi to Ahchypsy Abkhaztʃʷ tʃʷʼ dʒʷ tɕ(ʼ) dʑ → f pʼ ts(ʼ) v dz
ʕ ʕʷ → aː ɥ
q qʷ → χˤ χˤʷ
12.1.4 Proto-Abazgi to Bzyp Abkhaztʃʷ tʃʷʼ dʒʷ → pʼ f v
ʕʷ → ɥ
q qʷ → χˤ χˤʷ
12.1.5 Proto-Abazgi to Abzhywa Propertʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑ
ɕ ɕʷ ʑ ʑʷ → s ʃʷ z ʒʷ
ʕ ʕʷ → aː ɥ
q qʷ → χ χʷ
12.1.6 Proto-Abazgi to Tsabal Abzhywatʃʷ tʃʷʼ tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f pʼ ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑ
ɕ ɕʷ ʑ ʑʷ → s ʃʷ z ʒʷ
ʕ ʕʷ → aː ɥ
q qʷ → χˤ χˤʷ
12.1.7 Proto-Abazgi to Khaltsys Sadztʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑʷ
ɕ ɕʷ ʑ ʑʷ → s {ʃʷ,ɕʷ} z {ʒʷ,ʑʷ}
ʕʷ → ɥ
q qʷ → χ χʷ
12.1.8 Proto-Abazgi to Tswydzhy Sadztʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑʷ
ʕʷ → ɥ
q qʷ → χˤ χʷ
12.2 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Circassianpʷ pʷʲ pʷʲʼ bʷ bʷʲ → p tʷ tʷʼ b d
tʷ(ː) tʷʼ dʷ → t(ː) tʼ d
tʷʲ tʷʲʼ → ts tsʼ
tsʷ lʲ {qʲʷ,qˤʷ} → sʷ d qʷ / #_ (data not given for non-initial forms)
tsʲʷ tsʲʷ dzʲʷ → tsʲ tsʲʼ dzʲ
sʲʷ zʲʷ → sʲ zʲ
tʃʷ(ː) tʃʷʼ dʒʷ → tɕ(ː) tɕʼ dʑ~ʑ
ʃʷ(ː) ʒʷ → ʃ(ː) ʒ
tcʷ(ː) tɕʷʼ → tʃ(ː) tʃʼ
ɕʷ ɕʷ ʑʷ → sʲ ʃː zʲ
tɬʷ(ː) tɬʷʼ dɮʷ → tʃ(ː) tʃʼ ħ
ɬʷ ɬʷː → x(ʷ) ɕː
tɬʲʷ tɬʲʷ tɬʲʷ dɮʲʷ → x tɕː tɕʼ ɮ
ɬʲʷ(~ɬʷː) ɮʲʷ → x(ʷ) ɣʲ
xʷ → x(ʷ)
ɡʲʷ xʲʷ ɣʲʷ(?) → ɡʷ xʷ ʁʷ
qʷ → qʷː / !_
qʷʼ ɢʷ → qʷː ʁʷ
qʲʷː qʲʷ ɢʲʷ,ʁʲʷ} χʲʷ → qʷː ʔʷ ʁʷ χʷ
{qˤʷː,qˤʷʼ} χˤʷ ʁˤʷ → qʷː χʷ ʁʷ
qˤʲʷ {qˤʲʷː,qˤʲʷ} ʁˤʲʷ → ħ ʔʷ w~ʁʷ
12.2.1 Proto-Circassian to Adyghetsʷ → tsʲʷ
ʔ(ʷ)~qʼ(ʷ) → ʔ(ʷ)
dzʲ dzʷ → dʑ ʑʷ
sʷ ɕ → ɕʷ~ʃʷ ɕ~ʃ
xʷ χʲ → f~ɸ? ħ
zʷ → ʑʷ~ʒʷ
12.2.1.1 Adyghe to Abadzekh Adyghetsʷ → tʃʷ
pː tː tsː tsʷ ʃː tʃː tɕː kʲː kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → p t ts tʃʷ ʃ ɕ tɕ tʃ kʷ qː qʷ
tʃʷʼ~ʃʷʼ → ɕʷʼ~ʃʷʼ
12.2.1.2 Adyghe to Bzhedug Adyghetsʷː → tsʲʷː
qː~χ qʷː~qχʷ → qː qʷː
tsʷʼ~ʃʷʼ → ɕʷʼ~ʃʷʼ
12.2.1.3 Adyghe to Shapsug Adyghetsʲ(ː) tsʷ tʃ tɕ → tɕ tʃʷ ʃ ʂ
pː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː tsː tcː kʲː kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → p t ts tʃʷ ʃ tʃ tɕ kʲ kʷ χ~q χʷ~qʷ
p(ʷ)ʼ t(ʷ)ʼ tsʼ tsʷʼ~ʃʷʼ → pˤ tˤ tsˤ ʂʷ
12.2.1.4 Adyghe to Temirgoy Adyghetsʲ(ː) tsʷ → tɕ tsʲʷ
kʲ(ː) kʲʼ kʷː ɡʲ → tʃ tʃʼ kʷ dʑ
q qʷ → qː qʷː / ! #_
pː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː tʃː tɕː → p t ts tsʷʲ ʃ tʃ tɕ
qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → qː qʷː
tsʲʼ tsʷʼ~ʃʷʼ → ɕʼ~ʃʼ ɕʷʼ~ʃʷʼ
12.2.2 Proto-Circassian to Kabardiantsʲ(ː) tsʷ {tʃ,tɕ} → ɕ f ʃ
pː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː {tʃː,tɕː} kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → b d dz v ɕ ʒ dʒ ɡʷ qʼ~qχ qʷʼ~qχʷ
dɮ dzʲ dzʷ dʑ ɡʲ → ʒ ʑ {v,w} ʒ dʒ
tsʲʼ tʃʷʼ~ʃʷʼ tʃʼ tɕʼ tɬʼ kʲʼ → ɕʼ fʼ ɕʼ {ɕʼ,cçʼ} ɬʼ tʃʼ
sʷ zʷ {ʃ,ʂ} {ʑ,ʐ,ɣʲ} ʑ χʲ → f v ɕ ʑ ʑ~ʒ χ
12.3 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Ubykh{pʷ,bʷ} → f
pʷʲ bʷʲ → tʷ dʷ
pʷʲʼ pˤ pˤː pˤʼ bˤ → tʷʼ vˤ bˤ pˤʼ bˤ
t(ʷ)ː tʷʲʼ → t(ʷ) tʷʼ
ts(ʲ)ː tsʷː dzʲ → ts tsʷ dz
z(ʲ) zʷ → dz(ʲ)~z(ʲ) dzʷ~zʷ
sʷʲ zʷʲ tsʷʲʼ dzʷʲ → tʃʷ ʒʷ tʃʲʼ dʒʲ
ʃʷ(ː) ʒʷ tʃʷ(ʼ) dʒ → ʃ ʒ tʃ(ʼ) dʒ
tɕʷ(ː) tɕʷʼ → tɕ tɕʼ
ɕʷ ɕʷː ʑʷ → ʃʷ sʷ ʒʷ
tɬʷ(ː) tɬʷʼ dɮʷ → tsʷ ts(ʷ)ʼ w
ɬʷ ɬʷː → sʷ s(ʷ)
tɬʷʲ tɬʷʲː tɬʷʲʼ dɮʷʲ → f dʑ tsʼ dʒ
ɬʷʲ(~ɬʷː) ɮʷʲ → ʃʷ ʒʷ
kʷː xʷ → ɡʷ x
kʲʷː xʲʷ ɣʲʷ(?) → ɡʲ kʲʼ xʲ ʁʲ
qʷː ɢʷ → qʷ ʁʷ
qʲʷ qʲʷː qʲʷʼ ɢʲʷ χʲʷ ʁʲʷ → xʲ qʲ qʲʼ ʁʲ χʲ ʁʲ
qˤʲʷ {qˤʲʷː,qˤʲʷ} ʁˤʲʷ → χʷ qʷʼ w
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albaniankʷ → s / _”E?
kʷ → c / _B?
kʷ → k / else?
ɡʷ(ʱ) → {ɡ,z}
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albaniankʷ → s / _”E?
kʷ → c / _B?
kʷ → k / else?
ɡʷ(ʱ) → {ɡ,z}
17.2.2 Common Anatolian to Luwiankʷ → w
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lyciankʷ → t / _E
kʷ → k / _E, in Milyan
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to LydianKʷ → K / _V[+round]
17.2.5 Common Anatolian to Palaicɡʷ → hʷ / medially
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armeniankʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
p ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʷʱ → p t j k / #_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armeniankʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
p ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
ɡʷʱ → ɡʱ / #_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armeniankʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
p ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
ɡʷʱ → dʒ / #_{e,i}
bʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡ(ʷ)ʱ → b j k / #_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armeniankʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
p ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡ(ʷ)ʱ → p t j k / #_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armeniankʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
p ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ / ! _#
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armeniankʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
p ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
ɡʷʱ → dʒ / #_{e,i}
bʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʷʱ → b j ɡ / #_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armeniankʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
p ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
b d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
ɡʷʱ → dʒ / #_{e,i}
bʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʷʱ → b j ɡ / #_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestank(ʷ) ɡ(ʷ)(ʱ) → tʃ dʒ / _E
k kʷ ɡ(ʷ)(ʱ) → x k ɡ / else
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— ɡʷ → b
— p…kʷ → kʷ…kʷ
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old IrishKʷ → K
ɡʷ → b / #_V ! _u(ː)
ɡʷ → b / #_N
ɡʷ → b / C_V
ɡʷ → ɡ
p t k kʷ b d ɡ m n l r s → f θ x xʷ v ð ɣ M N L R h / V(#)_{R,V} (“We don’t know the exact values of lenited /m n l r/. We can guess that lenited m became a nasalized labial continuant of some sort, but beyond that, we don’t know.”)
p t k kʷ b d ɡ ∅ → b d ɡ ɡʷ mb nd ŋɡ n / n#_”V
Kʷ → K
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshkʷ → p
17.6 Proto-Indo-European to Dacianbʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → b d ɡ́ ɡ ɡʷ
{kʷ,kw} {ɡʷ,ɡw} → tʃ dʒ (→ s~z z ?) / _E
{kʷ,kw} {ɡʷ,ɡw} → k ɡ / else
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.10 Proto-Indo-European to Mycenaean Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittitekʷ ɡʷ ɡʷʱ → ku ɡu ku
17.10 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-IranianKʷ → K
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavicbʱ dʱ {ɡʱ,ɡ́ʱ} ɡʷʱ → b d ɡ ɡʷ
Kʷ ḱ ɡ́ → K s z
17.12 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Italicǵʰ gʷʰ → ɡʰ xʷ
17.12.1 Proto-Italic to Proto-Latino-Falsicanɡʷ → w
xʷ → f
xʷ → {w,ɡʷ}
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latin{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʷʱ} → f / #_
kʷ → ∅ / C_C
kʷ → k / _{o,i,C}
ɡʷ(ʱ) → ɡu / ŋ_
ɡʷ → v
ɡʷʱ → f / _r
ɡʷʱ → v / V_V
p…kʷ → kʷ…kʷ
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalankʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ / #_{i,e}
kʷ → k / C_V
kʷ → ɡ / V_{i,e}
kʷ → k / #_a%”V
kʷ → ɡw / V_a
kʷ → kw / #_”a
ɡʷ → ɡw / #_a
ɡʷ → ɡ / C_{i,e}
ɡʷ → ɡw / C_a
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to Frenchkʷ → {v,u} / V_E
kʷ → j{v,u} / V_a
kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguesekʷ → kw / #_”a
kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ / #_{i,e,o}
kʷ → ɡ / V_{i,e}
kʷ → k / VC_{a,i,e}
kʷ → ɡw / V_a
ɡʷ → ɡw / #_
ɡʷ → ɡw / C_a
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençalkʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ / _B
kʷ ɡʷ → kw ɡw (in western dialects)
kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ (else)
βw tw → wː dw → ɡʷ ɡʷ → ɡ ɡ
{d,k}w → ɡʷ → ɡ
(kʷ → ɡʷ → ɡ ?)
{l,r}w {n,ŋk,ŋɡ}w → lɡʷ ŋɡʷ → lɡ ŋɡ
{tʃ(ː),kʷ}j → ts
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romaniankʷ ɡʷ → p b / V_a
17.12.2 Proto-Italic to Proto-Sibellianḱ ɡ́ kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ p b
{ɡ́ʰ,x} {ɸ,θ,ɡʷʰ} → h f
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-TocharianKʷ → K / _{C,o,a} ! C = syllabic
Kʷ → ɕ / _e(ː)
Kʷy → ɕ
p {ts,k(ʷ)} m n l r y → pj sʲ ʂ mj ɲ lj rj wj / _{E(:),y}
17.13.1 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian A{kʷ,kw} → k
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.2.1 Proto-Ofaié-Jê to Proto-Jêŋʷ {kʷ,hʷ} → m p
18.2.2 Proto-Ofaié-Jê to Ofaié-Xavantek(ʷ) → ʔ / _#
kʷ → k
ŋʷ hʷ → j̃ h
18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makurápkʷ → ∅
ɡʷ → β / _V[-nas]
ð nŋʷ → c β / #_V[-nas]
j ŋʷ m n → ɲ m {m,p} {∅,t} / _V[+nas]
18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekensɡʷ → k / _o
ɡʷ ŋɡ → kʷ k / _V[-nas]
ɡʷ → kʷ / #_V[+nas]
ŋ ŋʷ → k m / _V[+nas]
ŋʷ → kʷ / #_V[-nas]
18.3.3 Proto-Tuparí to Tuparíkʷ ɡ → ∅ k
ɡʷ → ∅ / _o
ɡʷ ŋɡ → β k / _V[-nas]
ᵐb ŋʷ → p β / #_V[-nas]
ŋʷ → m / V[+nas]_V[+nas]
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayoróɡʷ → ɡ / _o
bʷ → β / #_V[+nas]
r ŋʷ → n β / V[+nas]_V[+nas]
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.6 Proto-Chibchan to Tuneboɡ ɡʷ → ∅ b
28 Muskogean28.1 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Eastern Muskogeanxʷ → f
28.1.2 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Creekkʷ → k / #_
kʷ → b
28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western Muskogeanxʷ → h / %_{o,i}(C)#
28.2.1 Proto-Western Muskogean to Chickasawxʷɬ → ɬː
28.2.2 Proto-Western Muskogean to Choctawxʷ → h / V_V
29 Na-Dene29.1.1 Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak to Proto-Athabaskank kʼ kʷ kʷʼ ɡ ɡʷ → kʲ kʲʼ tʂ tʂʼ ɡʲ ɖʐ
x xʷ → {xʲ,j} {ʂ,ʐ}
Qʷ → Qʷ → Q ?
χ(ʷ) → {χ,ʁ}
29.1.1.1.1 Proto-Athabaskan to Ahtna{TŠ,TŠʷ} → TS
{ʃ(ʷ),x} → s
29.1.1.1.2 Proto-Athabaskan to Babine{TŠ,TŠʷ} → TS
29.1.1.1.3 Proto-Athabaskan to Beaver{TŠ,TŠʷ} → TS
29.1.1.1.4 Proto-Athabaskan to Chilcotin{TŠ,TŠʷ} K → TS TŠ
29.1.1.1.5 Proto-Athabaskan to ChipewyanTS {TŠ,TŠʷ} K Q → TH TS TŠ K
29.1.1.1.6 Proto-Athabaskan to Dakelh{TŠ,TŠʷ} K Q → TS TŠ K
29.1.1.1.7 Proto-Athabaskan to Deg Hit’anTŠʷ → TṢ (→ TS in Kuskokwim dialect)
29.1.1.1.8 Proto-Athabaskan to Dena’ina{TŠ,TŠʷ} → TŠ (→ TS in Upper Inlet dialect)
{ʃ(ʷ),x {z,ʒ(ʷ),ɣ} → s j
29.1.1.1.9 Proto-Athabaskan to Dogrib{TŠ,TŠʷ} K Q → TS TŠ K
29.1.1.1.10 Proto-Athabaskan to Easter Gwich’inTŠ TŠʷ Q → TS TṢ K
29.1.1.1.11 Proto-Athabaskan to HanTS TŠ TŠʷ K Q → TH TS TṢ TŠ K
29.1.1.1.12 Proto-Athabaskan to HolikachukTS {TŠ,TŠʷ} → TŁ TS
29.1.1.1.13 Proto-Athabaskan to Hupa{qʷ,xʷ} qʷʼ ɢʷ ɣʷ → x(ʷ) q(ʷ)ʼ ɢ(ʷ) w
29.1.1.1.14 Proto-Athabaskan to Lower KoyukonTS {TŠ,TŠʷ} → TŁ TS
29.1.1.1.15 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper KoyukonTS {TŠ,TŠʷ} → TŁ TS
29.1.1.1.16 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Kuskokwim KolchanTŠ TŠʷ K Q → TS TṢ TŠ K
29.1.1.1.17 Proto-Athabaskan to Sarcee{TŠ,TŠʷ} K Q → TS TŠ K
29.1.1.1.18 Proto-Athabaskan to Sekani{TŠ,TŠʷ} K Q → TS TŠ Q
29.1.1.1.29 Proto-Athabaskan to Bearlake Slavey-Hare{TŠ,TŠʷ} K Q → TS TŠ K
29.1.1.1.30 Proto-Athabaskan to Hare Slavey-Haretɬʰ tʃ(ʷ)ʰ kʰ → ɬ s ʃ
{TŠ,TŠʷ} K → TS TŠ (with exceptions)
29.1.1.1.31 Proto-Athabaskan to Mountain Slavey-Hare{TŠ,TŠʷ} K Q → TS TŠ K
29.1.1.1.32 Proto-Athabaskan to Slavey Slavey-Hare{TŠ,TŠʷ} K Q → TS TŠ K
29.1.1.1.34 Tahltan-Kaska-Tagish to KaskaTS {TŠ,TŠʷ} → TH TS
29.1.1.1.35 Tahltan-Kaska-Tagish to Tagish{TŠ,TŠʷ} TS → TS TSʲ
29.1.1.1.36 Tahltan-Kaska-Tagish to Tahltan{TŠʷ,K} → TŠ (although /xʲ/ stays as such in a few dialects)
29.1.1.1.37 Proto-Athabaskan to TanacrossTS TŠ TŠʷ Q → TH TS TṢ K
29.1.1.1.39 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper TananaTS TŠ TŠʷ Q → TH TS TṢ K
29.1.1.1.41 Proto-Athabaskan to Northern TutchoneTS {TŠ,TŠʷ} → TH TS
29.1.1.1.42 Proto-Athabaskan to Southern TutchoneTS {TŠ,TŠʷ} → TH TS
29.1.2 Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak to EyakKʷ → K
qʷ qʷʼ ɢʷ → q qʼ ɢ
$ → xʷ → {x,s}
29.2 Proto-Na-Dene to Tlingitk(ʷ)ʼ → {x,k}(ʷ)ʼ
x(ʷ) → x
qʼ qʷʼ → χ(ʷ)ʼ {χʼ,q(ʷ)ʼ}
30 Niger-Congo30.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Bantuɠʷ → w / #_V[-nas]
ɠʷ → w̃ / #_V[+nas]
30.2 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Potou-Akanicɟ ʄ j c ɠʷ → c ɟ ʄ t ɠ̥p
30.2.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic to Proto-Akanich̃ hʷ → ɕ ɕʷ
30.3.1.1.1 Proto-Gbe to Ajáχʷ hʷ → w p
30.3.1.1.3 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Fonhʷ → ʁʷ
30.3.1.1.4 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Genχʷ → p
hʷ → {w,ʁʷ}
30.3.1.1.5 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Phla-Pheráhʷ → ʁʷ
30.3.1.1.7 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Vheχʷ ʁʷ → ɸ β
hʷ → w
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinokʷ → ɾ / #_ek
kʷ → b / else
32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinokʷ → w / _eːj
kʷ → w / _ek
kʷ → ʍ / ku_ (medial)
kʷ → kw / else
hʷ → ʍ
32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to Tlapaneckʷ → p
{ns,nt} nkʷ nj nw → (n)d (m)b r m
33 Penutian33.1.1.1 Proto-Costanoan to Chochenyokʷ → k / #_
kʷ → w / else
33.1.1.2 Proto-Utian to Proto-Miwokkʷ ʃ → w ʂ
33.1.1.3 Proto-Costanoan to Mutsunkʷ → k / #_
kʷ → {k,w} / else
33.1.1.4 Proto-Costanoan to Rumsenkʷ → k / #_
kʷ → {k,w} / else
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeek kʷ → ts k / _i
t ts k kʷ → d dz ɡ ɡʷ / _V
37.1.2.1.1 Cayuga to Upper Cayugat k kʷ → d ɡ ɡʷ / _{V,R}
37.1.2.1.2 Cayuga to Lower Cayugatʔ tsʔ kʔ kʷʔ → tʼ tsʼ kʼ kʷʼ
t k kʷ → d ɡ ɡʷ / _{V,R} ! _V[-voiced]
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huronkʷ → xʷ / V_V
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandotxʷ → w
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagat tʃ k(ʷ) → d dʒ ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Mohawk— t tʃ k(ʷ) → d dʒ ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneidat tʃ k(ʷ) → d dʒ ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Seneca— t k(ʷ) → d ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscarorat k(ʷ) → d ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.1 Proto-Tai to Ahomxʷ Kʷ → {kʰ,x} K(ʷ)
38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Taixʷ ɣʷ → kʷʰ {v,w}
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Tai{pʰ,b} ɓ {tʰ,d} ɗ {kʰ,ɡ} {kʷʰ,ɡ} → p b t d k kʷ
xr x {x,ɣ}ʷ → r̥ h {w,v,h}
38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-AiCʷə → Cɔ
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Taiɡʷ → kʷʰ
38.1.1.5.1 Southwest Tai to Laoxʷ ɣʷ → kʷ ɡʷ
38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lükʷʰ ɣʷ → xʷ x(ʷ)
38.1.1.5.3 Southwest Tai to Shanxʷ → kʷ
38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siamesexʷ ɣʷ → kʷ ɡʷ
38.1.1.5.5 Southwest Tai to Black Taixʷ ɣʷ → kʷ ɡʷ
38.1.1.5.6 Southwest Tai to White Taikʷʰ ɣʷ → xʷ x(ʷ)
39 Tanoan39.1 Proto-Tanoan to Jimezk(ʷ)ʰ kʷ(ʼ) ɡ ɡʷ → h ɡ k kʷ
39.2 Proto-Tanoan to Kiowakʷ kʷʰ kʷʼ ɡʷ → k kʰ kʼ ɡ
39.3 Proto-Tanoan to Taoskʰ kʰʷ ɡ ɡʷ → x xʷ k w
39.4 Proto-Tanoan to Tewakʰ kʷʰ ɡʷ → x xʷ w
43 Uto-Aztecan43.5.1.1 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Kawaiisuhkʷ hʔ (h)S Sː → w ʔ S[+ voiced] S[- voiced - long] / V_V
43.5.1.2 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Mono(h)kʷ → hq(ʷ) / _{o,a}
43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhamkʷ → b
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.1 Proto-Pai to Chapaikʷ → k / _#
45.1.2 Proto-Pai to Paipaixʷ → w / tʃ_
kʷ xʷ → k x / _#
45.1.3 Proto-Pai to Tipaikʷ xʷ → q χ / _# (the paper calls these “back velars”)

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6 Afro-Asiatic6.2.1.1.1 Proto-Agaw to Awngiz dz ɡ → ɡ {z,dz} ɡ(ʷ)
{x,ɢ}(ʷ) → ɣ(ʷ)
kʼ kʷʼ → {ɣ,q} ɣʷ
6.2.1.1.2 Proto-Agaw to Blinɢ(ʷ) → x(ʷ) / else
6.2.1.1.3 Proto-Agaw to Kemantneyxʷ ɢʷ → w ɣʷ
kʼ → χʷ / #_
kʷʼ → χʷ
6.2.1.1.4 Proto-Agaw to Xamtangakʼ → {χʷ,qʷ} / #_
6.2.2.1.10 Classical Arabic to Hassāniyya Arabicaj aw → eː(ʲ) oː(ʷ) (sometimes, the article is unclear)
6.2.2.1.14 Classical Arabic to Moroccan ArabicC[+labial/+velar] → ʷ / adjacent to short u
7 Algonquian7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawarekw pw mw → kʷ pʷ mʷ
x → χʷ / o(ː)_{V,#}
10 Austronesian10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorroj w → dz ɡʷ
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwp pʷ {c,*j} k q → β βʷ s ɣ ∅
β b m → βʷ bʷ mʷ / typically near *u
βʷ bʷ mʷ → w kʷ ŋʷ
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerigb bʷ d ɡ → p kpʷ t k
mʷ → ŋmʷ
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to Mwotlapp pʷ bʷ k ɡ → β w kpʷ ɣ k
mʷ ɲ → ŋmʷ n
10.3.5.2 Proto-New Caledonia to Jawépː pwː t̪ː tː kː cː → pʰ hʷ t̪ʰ tʰ h jʰ
10.3.5.3 Proto-New Caledonia to Nemi-Pije-Fwaipː pwː tː t̪ː kː cː → f hʷ t̪ʰ tʰ h jʰ
10.3.5.6 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwaameipː pwː tː ʈ kː cː → f hʷ tʰ lʰ h s
10.3.5.7 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwapwâpː pwː t̪ː tː kː cː → pʰ xʷ t̪ʰ tʰ x s
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bayp pʷ k → v vʷ ɣ
b bʷ ɡ → p pʷ k
10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to Tolomakop(ʷ) k → v(ʷ) ɣ
10.3.9.2 Proto-Utupua to Nebaopʷ → vʷ
10.3.9.3 Proto-Utupua to Tanibilit → {t,r,kʷ} / #_ (I’m not kidding. That’s what’s listed as the reflexes.)
t k → {t,r,kʷ,∅} ∅ / V_V
10.3.11 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Southern Vanuatum b → mʷ bʷ / _u
p → b(ʷ) (sporadic)
p → vʷ / _u (a change thetha reconstructs in order to account for phenomena in later posts about this group of languages)
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejomb(ʷ) ɡ → p(ʷ) k
10.3.11.3 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Tanna{vʷ,w} → kʷ
10.3.11.3.1 Proto-Tanna to Kwamerab(ʷ) d → p(ʷ) t
10.3.11.3.2 Proto-Tanna to Lenakelb(ʷ) d → p(ʷ) t
10.3.11.3.4 Proto-Tanna to Southwest Tannab(ʷ) d → p(ʷ) t
10.3.11.3.5 Proto-Tanna to Whitesandsb(ʷ) d → p(ʷ) t
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’abʷ ɡ → kpʷ k
mʷ → ŋmʷ
10.4.1 Proto-Micronesian to MarshalleseK → Kʷ / _{C[+round],V[+round]}
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Ongan{qʷ,ku,qu} → kʷ (note that PAn might have had *qʷ *kʷ → q {k,w} instead; may be a change from POn-PAn, if it existed)
10.5.1 Proto-Ongan to Jarawak(ʷ) → h(ʷ)
12 Northwest Caucasian12.1 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Abazgitʷː tʷʲ(ʼ) → d(w) tʷ(ʼ)
tsʷː tsʷʲ → tsʷ (tʃ)
tʃʷ(ʼ) tʃʷː dʒʷ → tʃ(ʼ) zʷ dzʷ~zʷ
ʃʷ ʃʷː ʒʷ → sʷ ʃ zʲ (this final change is marked as dubious)
ɕʷ ɕʷː ʑʷ → ʃʷ ʃ ʒʷ
tɬʷ(ː) tɬʼ dɮʷ → tsʷ tsʼ(ʷ) l
tɬʷʲ tɬʷʲː tɬʷʲʼ dɮʷʲ → tʃʷ ʒʷ tʃʷʼ dʒʷ
kʷː → ɡʷ
kʷʲʼ → kʷʼ
xʷʲ ɣʷʲ → sʷ zʷ (*ɣʷʲ is marked as dubious)
qʷ qʷː ɢʷ → ħʷ qʷ ɣʷ
χʷ ʁʷ → ħʷ ʕʷ
qʷʲ ɢʷʰ → ħ(ʷ) ɣ(ʷ)
qʷʲʼ → ʕʷ (qʷʼ?)
χʷʲ ʁʷʲ → ħ(ʷ) ʕ(ʷ)
qˤʷ qˤʷː qˤʷʼ χˤʷ ʁˤʷ → ħʷ ʕʷ qʷ(ʼ) ħʷ (ħʷ?)
qˤʷʲ qˤʷʲ qˤʷʲʼ ʁˤʷʲ → qʷ ʕʷ ħʷ ʕʷ
12.1.1 Proto-Abazgi to Ashkharywa Abazatʷ(ʼ) dʷ → {tʷ(ʼ),p(ʼ)} {dʷ,b}
12.1.2 Proto-Abazgi to Tapanta Abazatɕʷ(ʼ) dʑʷ → {tɕ(ʷ)(ʼ),tʃʷ(ʼ)} {dʑ(ʷ),dʒʷ}
ʃʷ ʒʷ ɕʷ ʑʷ → {ɕ(ʷ),ʃ(ʷ)} {ʑ(ʷ),ʒ(ʷ)} {ɕ(ʷ),ʃʷ} {ʑ(ʷ),ʒʷ}
{tʷ(ʼ),dʷ} → {tɕ(ʷ)(ʼ),tʃ(ʷ)(ʼ)} {dʒ(ʷ),dʑ(ʷ)}
12.1.3 Proto-Abazgi to Ahchypsy Abkhazq qʷ → χˤ χˤʷ
12.1.4 Proto-Abazgi to Bzyp Abkhazq qʷ → χˤ χˤʷ
12.1.5 Proto-Abazgi to Abzhywa Propertʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑ
ɕ ɕʷ ʑ ʑʷ → s ʃʷ z ʒʷ
q qʷ → χ χʷ
12.1.6 Proto-Abazgi to Tsabal Abzhywatʃʷ tʃʷʼ tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f pʼ ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑ
ɕ ɕʷ ʑ ʑʷ → s ʃʷ z ʒʷ
q qʷ → χˤ χˤʷ
12.1.7 Proto-Abazgi to Khaltsys Sadztʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑʷ
ɕ ɕʷ ʑ ʑʷ → s {ʃʷ,ɕʷ} z {ʒʷ,ʑʷ}
q qʷ → χ χʷ
12.1.8 Proto-Abazgi to Tswydzhy Sadztʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑʷ
q qʷ → χˤ χʷ
12.2 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Circassianf → xʷ
pʷ pʷʲ pʷʲʼ bʷ bʷʲ → p tʷ tʷʼ b d
tsʷ lʲ {qʲʷ,qˤʷ} → sʷ d qʷ / #_ (data not given for non-initial forms)
ɬʷ ɬʷː → x(ʷ) ɕː
ɬʲʷ(~ɬʷː) ɮʲʷ → x(ʷ) ɣʲ
xʷ → x(ʷ)
ɡʲʷ xʲʷ ɣʲʷ(?) → ɡʷ xʷ ʁʷ
qʷ → qʷː / !_
qʷʼ ɢʷ → qʷː ʁʷ
qʲʷː qʲʷ ɢʲʷ,ʁʲʷ} χʲʷ → qʷː ʔʷ ʁʷ χʷ
{qˤʷː,qˤʷʼ} χˤʷ ʁˤʷ → qʷː χʷ ʁʷ
qˤʲʷ {qˤʲʷː,qˤʲʷ} ʁˤʲʷ → ħ ʔʷ w~ʁʷ
12.2.1 Proto-Circassian to Adyghetsʷ → tsʲʷ
ʔ(ʷ)~qʼ(ʷ) → ʔ(ʷ)
dzʲ dzʷ → dʑ ʑʷ
sʷ ɕ → ɕʷ~ʃʷ ɕ~ʃ
zʷ → ʑʷ~ʒʷ
12.2.1.1 Adyghe to Abadzekh Adyghetsʷ → tʃʷ
pː tː tsː tsʷ ʃː tʃː tɕː kʲː kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → p t ts tʃʷ ʃ ɕ tɕ tʃ kʷ qː qʷ
tʃʷʼ~ʃʷʼ → ɕʷʼ~ʃʷʼ
12.2.1.2 Adyghe to Bzhedug Adyghetsʷː → tsʲʷː
qː~χ qʷː~qχʷ → qː qʷː
tsʷʼ~ʃʷʼ → ɕʷʼ~ʃʷʼ
12.2.1.3 Adyghe to Shapsug Adyghetsʲ(ː) tsʷ tʃ tɕ → tɕ tʃʷ ʃ ʂ
pː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː tsː tcː kʲː kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → p t ts tʃʷ ʃ tʃ tɕ kʲ kʷ χ~q χʷ~qʷ
p(ʷ)ʼ t(ʷ)ʼ tsʼ tsʷʼ~ʃʷʼ → pˤ tˤ tsˤ ʂʷ
12.2.1.4 Adyghe to Temirgoy Adyghetsʲ(ː) tsʷ → tɕ tsʲʷ
kʲ(ː) kʲʼ kʷː ɡʲ → tʃ tʃʼ kʷ dʑ
q qʷ → qː qʷː / ! #_
pː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː tʃː tɕː → p t ts tsʷʲ ʃ tʃ tɕ
qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → qː qʷː
tsʲʼ tsʷʼ~ʃʷʼ → ɕʼ~ʃʼ ɕʷʼ~ʃʷʼ
12.2.2 Proto-Circassian to Kabardianʔ~qʼ → ʔʷ
pː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː {tʃː,tɕː} kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → b d dz v ɕ ʒ dʒ ɡʷ qʼ~qχ qʷʼ~qχʷ
12.3 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Ubykhpʲʼ → tʷʼ
pʲː → tʷ~dʷ
pʷʲ bʷʲ → tʷ dʷ
pʷʲʼ pˤ pˤː pˤʼ bˤ → tʷʼ vˤ bˤ pˤʼ bˤ
t(ʷ)ː tʷʲʼ → t(ʷ) tʷʼ
ts(ʲ)ː tsʷː dzʲ → ts tsʷ dz
z(ʲ) zʷ → dz(ʲ)~z(ʲ) dzʷ~zʷ
sʷʲ zʷʲ tsʷʲʼ dzʷʲ → tʃʷ ʒʷ tʃʲʼ dʒʲ
ɕʷ ɕʷː ʑʷ → ʃʷ sʷ ʒʷ
tɬʷ(ː) tɬʷʼ dɮʷ → tsʷ ts(ʷ)ʼ w
ɬʷ ɬʷː → sʷ s(ʷ)
ɬʷʲ(~ɬʷː) ɮʷʲ → ʃʷ ʒʷ
kʷː xʷ → ɡʷ x
qʷː ɢʷ → qʷ ʁʷ
qˤʲʷ {qˤʲʷː,qˤʲʷ} ʁˤʲʷ → χʷ qʷʼ w
17 Indo-European17.2.5 Common Anatolian to Palaicɡʷ → hʷ / medially
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestanhw → ŋʷh / a_a
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— p…kʷ → kʷ…kʷ
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishp t k kʷ b d ɡ m n l r s → f θ x xʷ v ð ɣ M N L R h / V(#)_{R,V} (“We don’t know the exact values of lenited /m n l r/. We can guess that lenited m became a nasalized labial continuant of some sort, but beyond that, we don’t know.”)
p t k kʷ b d ɡ ∅ → b d ɡ ɡʷ mb nd ŋɡ n / n#_”V
C → Cʷ / _{B,w}
17.6 Proto-Indo-European to Dacianbʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → b d ɡ́ ɡ ɡʷ
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavicbʱ dʱ {ɡʱ,ɡ́ʱ} ɡʷʱ → b d ɡ ɡʷ
17.12 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Italicp → {p,kʷ}
ǵʰ gʷʰ → ɡʰ xʷ
17.12.1 Proto-Italic to Proto-Latino-Falsicanxʷ → {w,ɡʷ}
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latinp…kʷ → kʷ…kʷ
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençalβw tw → wː dw → ɡʷ ɡʷ → ɡ ɡ
{d,k}w → ɡʷ → ɡ
(kʷ → ɡʷ → ɡ ?)
{l,r}w {n,ŋk,ŋɡ}w → lɡʷ ŋɡʷ → lɡ ŋɡ
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekensɡʷ ŋɡ → kʷ k / _V[-nas]
ɡʷ → kʷ / #_V[+nas]
ŋʷ → kʷ / #_V[-nas]
25 Macro-Panoan25.1.1 Proto-Tacanan to Cavineñak → kʷ
25.1.2 Proto-Tacanan to Chamat k → k kʷ
25.1.3 Proto-Tacanan to Reyesanok → kʷ
25.1.4 Proto-Tacanan to Tacanak → kʷ / _a
k → kʷ / #_i
27 Mayan27.3 Proto-Mayan to HuastecankV[+round]C[+glide] → kʷ
29 Na-Dene29.1.1 Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak to Proto-AthabaskanQʷ → Qʷ → Q ?
29.1.1.1.9 Proto-Athabaskan to Dogribts tsʰ tsʼ s z → kʷ kʷʰ kʷʼ ʍ w
29.1.1.1.13 Proto-Athabaskan to Hupa{qʷ,xʷ} qʷʼ ɢʷ ɣʷ → x(ʷ) q(ʷ)ʼ ɢ(ʷ) w
29.1.1.1.29 Proto-Athabaskan to Bearlake Slavey-Harets tsʰ tsʼ s z → kʷ kʷʰ kʷʼ ʍ w
29.1.1.1.30 Proto-Athabaskan to Hare Slavey-Harets tsʰ tsʼ {s,z} → {kʷ,p} f wˀ w
29.1.2 Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak to Eyak$ → xʷ → {x,s}
29.2 Proto-Na-Dene to Tlingitk(ʷ)ʼ → {x,k}(ʷ)ʼ
qʼ qʷʼ → χ(ʷ)ʼ {χʼ,q(ʷ)ʼ}
30 Niger-Congo30.2.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic to Proto-Akanicɰ ɰ̃ w̃ → h h̃ h̃ʷ / #_
h̃ hʷ → ɕ ɕʷ
30.2.1.1 Proto-Akanic to AkanC[+dorsal] → Cʷ / _V[+round]
30.3.1.1.3 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Fonhʷ → ʁʷ
30.3.1.1.4 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Genhʷ → {w,ʁʷ}
30.3.1.1.5 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Phla-Pheráhʷ → ʁʷ
35 Salishan35.1.5 Proto-Central Salish to Klallamw j → kʷ tʃ / _V
35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to Lushootseedw j → ɡʷ dz / _V
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern Straitsj w → tʃ kʷ / _V
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern Straitsj w → tʃ kʷ / _V
35.1.11 Proto-Central Salish to Sooke Northern Straitsj w → tʃ kʷ / _V
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1 Proto-Sino-Tibetan to Middle ChineseKw → Kʷ- / _a-
Kwə- → Kʷɨ-
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoianp → kʷ / else
37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeet ts k kʷ → d dz ɡ ɡʷ / _V
37.1.2.1.1 Cayuga to Upper Cayugat k kʷ → d ɡ ɡʷ / _{V,R}
37.1.2.1.2 Cayuga to Lower Cayugatʔ tsʔ kʔ kʷʔ → tʼ tsʼ kʼ kʷʼ
t k kʷ → d ɡ ɡʷ / _{V,R} ! _V[-voiced]
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huronkʷ → xʷ / V_V
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagat tʃ k(ʷ) → d dʒ ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Mohawk— t tʃ k(ʷ) → d dʒ ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneidat tʃ k(ʷ) → d dʒ ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Seneca— t k(ʷ) → d ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscarorat k(ʷ) → d ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.1 Proto-Tai to Ahomxʷ Kʷ → {kʰ,x} K(ʷ)
38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Taixʷ ɣʷ → kʷʰ {v,w}
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Tai{pʰ,b} ɓ {tʰ,d} ɗ {kʰ,ɡ} {kʷʰ,ɡ} → p b t d k kʷ
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Taiɡʷ → kʷʰ
38.1.1.5.1 Southwest Tai to Laoxʷ ɣʷ → kʷ ɡʷ
38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lükʷʰ ɣʷ → xʷ x(ʷ)
38.1.1.5.3 Southwest Tai to Shanxʷ → kʷ
38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siamesexʷ ɣʷ → kʷ ɡʷ
38.1.1.5.5 Southwest Tai to Black Taixʷ ɣʷ → kʷ ɡʷ
38.1.1.5.6 Southwest Tai to White Taikʷʰ ɣʷ → xʷ x(ʷ)
39 Tanoan39.1 Proto-Tanoan to Jimezk(ʷ)ʰ kʷ(ʼ) ɡ ɡʷ → h ɡ k kʷ
39.3 Proto-Tanoan to Taoskʰ kʰʷ ɡ ɡʷ → x xʷ k w
39.4 Proto-Tanoan to Tewakʰ kʷʰ ɡʷ → x xʷ w
43 Uto-Aztecan43.2 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Hopiw → ŋʷ / ɨn_
43.5.1.2 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Mono(h)kʷ → hq(ʷ) / _{o,a}

with context involving /ʷ/

40 matches

7 Algonquian7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfoot{a,e,i} → o / _kʷ
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee DelawareCʷ → C / _ə{(C){p,kʷ},m,w}
ə → o / _h{p,kʷ,w,m}
ə → o / _x{p,kʷ,V[+round]}
ə → o / _ŋkʷ
17 Indo-European17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tochariani → ə / {P,K(ʷ),s}_
17.13.1 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian AV → [+ round] / Kʷ_
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to Chibchab → p / _Vkʷ
28 Muskogean28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western Muskogeana → o / xʷ_#
30 Niger-Congo30.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Bantui ı̃ V[-round] → uɪ uɪ̃ V[+round] / Cʷ_
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinok → tʃ / _Ek(ʷ)
35 Salishan35.1.3 Proto-Central Salish to Cowichan Halkomelems → ʃ / _xʷ
35.1.5 Proto-Central Salish to Klallama3 → u3 / _{Cu,Cʷ[+uvular],w}
35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to Lushootseeds → {ʃ,s} / _xʷ
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to Nooksacks → {s,ʃ} / _xʷ
s → ʃ / #_{xʲ,w{i,a},qʷa}
35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straitss → ʃ / _xʷ
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern Straitss → {ʃ,s} / _xʷ
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern Straitss → {ʃ,s} / _xʷ
35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to Twanas → {ʃ,s} / _xʷ
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayugaʔ → ∅ / _nk(ʷ)
n → t / _k(ʷ)
ns → ts / _k(ʷ)
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Hurons → ʃ / ! _{n,t,k(ʷ),w} “or when part of the affricate /ts/”
t → ∅ / _k(ʷ)
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagans → ts / _k(ʷ)
n → t / _k(ʷ)
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneidats → hs / V_{t,k(ʷ)}
ns → ts / _{t,k(ʷ)}
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Mohawk∅ → e / n_k(ʷ)
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneida∅ → i / {V,t}n_k(ʷ)V
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to SenecaV → Vː / _{t,k(ʷ),s,n,r,j,w} “in even penultimate syllables”
ʔ → ∅ / _nk(ʷ)
n → t / _k(ʷ)
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscaroran → t / ! _{h,kʷ,V[+nas]}
”V → ”Vː / _{k(ʷ),(ˀ)t}{s,R,H} (“penultimate syllables only”)
n → t / _kʷ
43 Uto-Aztecan43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhaml → i / {p,m,k(ʷ),w}_# “in all dialects, and varies by dialect after other consonants”
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.1 Proto-Pai to Chapaitʃ → ∅ / _xʷ
45.1.3 Proto-Pai to Tipaitʃ → ∅ / _xʷ