Index Diachronica: involving /V/

568 results from /V/   384 results to /V/   1134 results with context involving /V/   

plain V̂ː Ṽː V̊ː

from /V/

568 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-OmoticVNC → VːC[+voiced]
6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North OmoticVː → V / #K[-voice]_C
Vː → V / #C_C$ + $(V)C$ suffix
6.2.2 Proto-Erythrean to Proto-North ErythreanV{j,w} → Vː / C_C
$VC$ → $CV$ “(This last rule turned all VC roots into CV)”
6.2.2.1.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-BoreafrasianV → ∅ / _# “in nominals”
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-BerberCVʕ → ħʔ / ! C = ɡw
ɡwVq → ʕ
xV → k / _h
6.2.2.1.5 Proto-Semitic to Classical ArabicV{j,w}V → aː / some sequences
6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Egyptian ArabicVː → V / C_C{ː,C}V
V → Vː / C_CV in U[-stress]
V → Vː / _# + suffix
6.2.2.1.8 Classical Arabic to Coastal Hadhrami ArabicV[-long] → ∅ / #C_C, in some words
6.2.2.1.9 Classical Arabic to Wādı̄ Hadhrami ArabicV[-long] → ∅ / #C_C (sporadic?)
6.2.2.1.10 Classical Arabic to Hassāniyya ArabicV[-long] → ∅ / C_{C,#} (except for the feminine marker)
6.2.2.1.17 Classical Arabic to Tunisian ArabicVː → V[-long] / _# (except as below)
V(ː) → Vː / in accented or stressed monosyllables
6.2.2.1.19 Biblical Hebrew to Modern Israeli HebrewVː → V[-long]
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River AbenakiV → ∅ / _#
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis AbenakiV[- high - long] → ∅ / #C_OO
V → ∅ / _#
7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-Atsina(W)V → ∅ / _#
Vː → V[-long] / _CC
7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapaho({C,#}V)ʔ → ({C,#}Vː)∅ / _C
(V[-long])N → ∅ / _#
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventre({C,#}V[-long])ʔ → ({C,#}Vː[+falling tone])∅ / _C
(V[-long])N → ∅ / _#
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee DelawareVː → V[-long] / _hC
V → ∅ / _# ! some monosyllables and analogical developments, in the latter of which long vowels were shortened
V[+high] → ə / _j
V[+high] → ə / _w (sporadic)
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to MenomineeV[-long] → ∅ / _# “[does not apply in disyllabic words containing two short vowels]”
V → Vː “when V is the second vowel of a word and follows a short-vowel syllable. Does not apply in glottal words”
Vː → V[-long] / CC(G)_C{V,#} “[i.e., when following a cluster but not followed by a cluster. Only applies ‘after the first long vowel of a nonglottal word, and everywhere in a glottal word’]”
V → Vː / _CC in even syllables
Vː → V[-long] / _C{V,#} in even syllables; “does not apply in the second syllable of a non-glottal word”
7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-IllinoismV[-long] → ∅ / #_{ʰC,s,ʃ} (allophonic, “optional”)
VNs VNʃ → V[+nas]z V[+nas]ʒ / not universal?
7.15 Proto-Algonquian to Ojibwe{j,w}V[-long] → ∅ / C_# in disyllables with Vː or in tri(-plus-)syllables
{w,j}V[-long] → ∅ / Vː_# (Whimemsz is unsure if this change is across-the-board or not)
V[-long] → ∅ / V[-long]{w,j}_# (Whimemsz is unsure if this change is across-the-board or not)
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to ShawneeV[-long] → ∅ / _{ʃp,ʃk}
V[-long] → ∅ / C_ʔC
V[-long] → ∅ / _hV
Vː → V[-long] / _#
Vː → V[-long] / _{ʔC,ʃp,ʃk,hV}
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-JaponicV → a / _Ca
V → u / _Cu
8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-KypchakV[- long] → ∅ (shared with Old Turkic)
V → V[- round] / U_
8.5.1.2 Proto-Kypchak to Kyrgyzæ Vh {ʕ,h} → ɑː Vː ∅ (seems to have largely been confined to loanwords from Persian)
10 Austronesian10.1.1.2 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to SasakV(h) → V(q) / _# (again, might’ve been a retention?)
10.1.1.3 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to SumbawanV(h) → V(q) / _# (again, might’ve been a retention?)
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to ChamorroV → ∅ / VC_CV (sporadic)
V0V0 → V0
10.2.3.1 Proto-Malayic to (Standard) MalayV → ə / _(C…)UU#
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to MadureseV → Vː / ə(C…?)_
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to PalauanV → ə / unstressed
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to KiputV0V0 → V0
V[+stress] → Vː / _C# ! V = ə and/or C = h “(applies to diphthongal nuclei as well a[s] monophthongs)”
(C)V → ∅ / #_C… “(irregular)”
10.2.6.2 Proto-North Sarawak to Proto-KenyahCV → ∅ / _NCVC “(in reduplications)”
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiw”V[+ high(er)] → ∅ / _CV
”V → ə / _CV
a(C)V[+ high] a(C)V[+ mid] aCa → ɔ(C) a(C) {ɔ,a}(C)ə
e(C){V[- low]} e(C)a → e(C) e(C)ə
i(C)V[+ high] i(C)V[+ mid] i(C)a → i(C) i(C)ə {e,i}(C)ə
o(C)V[+ high] o(C)V[+ mid] o(C)a → ɵ(C) o(C) ɔ(C)ə
u(C)V[+ high] u(C)e u(C)o u(C)a → {u,i}(C) u(C)ə e(C)ə {u,ɵ}(C)ə
V0V0 → V0
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to LemerigVV → V
— iCV[- high] → aC
— eCV[+ mid] → ɛC
— eCV[+ low] → aC
— aCV[+ high] → {ɛ,œ}C
— oCV[+ high] → øC
— oCV[- high] → ɔC
— uCV[- high] → oC
V → ∅ / #_C”V
V → ∅ / CVC_C”V
CV1C”V2 → CV2C”V2
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to MwotlapV0V0 → V0
V[- high] → ∅ / {ɔ,ɛ,ɪ}C_
aCV[+ high] → ɪ / when stressed unless primarily stressed
(C)V1C”V2 → (C)V2V2
V1 → ∅ / _”V2
V → ∅ / (C)V_VC”V
10.3.5 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-New CaledoniaV → ∅ / _C”V
10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to CaaàcV → ∅ / #(C)V(C)(C)_#
VnV → ṼlṼ
10.3.5.3 Proto-New Caledonia to Nemi-Pije-FwaiONV → SʰṼ / Pije and Fwai
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-NêlêmwaV → ∅ / _#, often
VnV → ṼlṼ
V[+ mid] → a / near nasals?
”V → Vː (usually)
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to NyelâyuV → ∅ / #(C)V(C)(C)_#
VnV → ṼlṼ
V → Ṽ / _N
10.3.5.6 Proto-New Caledonia to PwaameiV → ∅ / _# (sporadic?)
10.3.5.7 Proto-New Caledonia to PwapwâV → ∅ / _# (sporadic?)
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-YunagaV → ∅ / _#
10.3.5.8.1 Proto-Yunaga to Yunaga 1V → Ṽ / _N#
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark BayV[+ high] → ∅ / _# ! {p,z,d(r)}_
V → e / C_# ! C = j
V → ∅ / {”V,j}_
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to AnejomV → ∅ / _# (with very few exceptions)
10.3.11.3.1 Proto-Tanna to Kwamera{p(ʷ),v}Vh → fV
10.3.11.3.2 Proto-Tanna to Lenakel{p(ʷ),v}Vh → fV
10.3.11.3.4 Proto-Tanna to Southwest Tanna{p(ʷ),v}Vh → fV
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’aVV → V
i(C)V[+ high] → i(C)
i(C)V[- high] → i(C)ɪ
e(C)V[- low] → e(C)
e(C)V[+ low] → ɛCɛ
uCV[+ high] → iC “sometimes”
uCV[- high] → uCʊ
V → ∅ / #_C”V
V → ∅ / CVC_C”V
CV1C”V2 → CV2C”V2
10.4.1 Proto-Micronesian to MarshalleseV[+high] → ɘ / _C[-high]
V → ∅ / _#
V[+mid] → ɘ / _C[+high] when stressed
V → ∅ / ”VC_
V → ∅ / “in CV reduplications”
10.6 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-PaiwanVː → V[- long]
12 Northwest Caucasian12.1.1 Proto-Abazgi to Ashkharywa Abaza”Vʕ ʕ”V → ”aa a”a (but stays /ʕ/ sometimes?)
12.1.3 Proto-Abazgi to Ahchypsy Abkhaz”Vʕ ʕ”V → ”aa a”a
12.1.4 Proto-Abazgi to Bzyp Abkhaz”Vʕ ʕ”V → ”aa a”a
12.1.5 Proto-Abazgi to Abzhywa Proper”Vʕ ʕ”V → ”aa a”a
12.1.6 Proto-Abazgi to Tsabal Abzhywa”Vʕ ʕ”V → ”aa a”a
12.1.7 Proto-Abazgi to Khaltsys Sadz”Vʕ ʕ”V → ”aa a”a
12.1.8 Proto-Abazgi to Tswydzhy Sadz”Vʕ ʕ”V → ”aa a”a
13 Chumashan13.1 Proto-Chumash to BarbareñoR[- glottalized]VˀR → ˀRVR[- glottalized] / _$
R[- glottalized]VOʼ → ˀRVO[- ejective] / _$
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-AleutnV1nV2 → nV2nV2
15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow IñupiaqC0VC0 → C0ː
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie IñupiaqC0VC0 → Cː
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg AlbanianVn → V[+nasal] / _C?
17.2.1 Common Anatolian to HittiteV → Vː / in ”U[+open]
17.2.2 Common Anatolian to LuwianV → Vː / in ”U[+open]
V → Vː / in #”U
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to LycianVː → V[-long]
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to LydianVː → V[-long]
17.2.5 Common Anatolian to PalaicV → Vː / ”U[+open]
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh ArmenianVN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
V → (?) / _(C)#
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan ArmenianVN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
V → (?) / _(C)#
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul ArmenianVN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
V → (?) / _(C)#
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert ArmenianVN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
V → (?) / _(C)#
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia ArmenianVN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
V → (?) / _(C)#
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast ArmenianVN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
V → (?) / _(C)#
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest ArmenianVN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
V → (?) / _(C)#
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— Vː → V[-long] / _RC
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old IrishVː → V / _N#; “[i]t is thought that the long vowel probably needed to be unstressed- again, this is uncertain”
Vː → V[-long] / _H (includes diphthongs)
V → ∅ / C_# when unstressed ! C = j
— Vː → V[-long]
V → Vː / _#, when stressed; “[t]his remained as a phonologically conditioned rule in OIr”
VOR → VːR; “this is a tad unclear, because in some instances it didn’t seem to apply”
V → ∅ / #UU(_)U(U(_)U) / unstressed; this “remained as a phonologically conditioned rule in OIr”; “[t]hat’s a little unclear, so let me try and enumerate: in words of more than three syllables, every other vowel (only the even ones) dropped, if it’s unstressed. In some words, syncope didn’t apply because it would create an unwieldy consonant cluster: so PIE *komaktyom → OIr cumachte, not *cumchte”
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle WelshVː → V / _#
V → ə / _(C)#, also in proclitics
V → ɨ / _(C…)j(C…)#
V → ∅ / _#
V → ∅ / _[+intertonic]
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothic— V[- long] → ∅ / _# ! V = u
— V[- long] → ∅ / U_C# ! V = u
Vw → u / _s (to wit, the vowel is deleted and the *w syllabifies)
17.7.2.1 West Germanic to Anglo-FrisianVN → Ṽː / _F
17.7.2.1.1 Anglo-Frisian to Old EnglishV[+nas] → V[-nas]
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
Vː → V[-long] / in #U before a U with /iː/
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
Vː → V[-long] / in #U before a U with /iː/
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
Vː → V[-long] / in #U before a U with /iː/
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scots— V → Vː / _{r,F[+voiced],$,#}
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to ScotsV → Vː / _{r,F[+ voice],V,#}
17.7.2.1.11 Scots to Falkirk ScotspVn tVn kVn → ʔm̩ ʔn̩ ʔŋ̩ / _#
V → Ṽː / _nC “(works across word boundaries)”
V → Ṽ / N_
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
Vː → V[-long] / in #U before a U with /iː/
17.7.2.2.1 Old Low Franconian to Middle DutchV → ə / if short and unstressed
V[-long +stress] → Vː / in open syllables (ʏ → {œː,øː} here but this is not phonemically important; there seem to have been qualitative differences between original long vowels and long vowels resulting from this change—lengthened iː seems to have become eː, but lengthened aː merged with original aː); does not affect original long vowels or vowels in diphthongs
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard GermanVː → V[- long] / _CC (some exceptions; the change was more common around _xt and _rC)
Vː → V[- long] / _%Cə{r,l,n}# (some exceptions)
V → Vː / _%, when stressed (except for /ə/?)
V → Vː / _r{t,d,s,ts} (except /ə/)
V → Vː / in some monosyllables ending in alveolar resonants or vowels
V → Vː / by analogy in some cases
17.7.3 Common Germanic to Proto-NorseVn → Vː / _hV
Vː → V[- long] / ! #U, U#
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old NorseVN → Ṽ / _# ! in #U
V → Vː / _l{P,w,k,#}
Vː → V[- long] / ! in #U
au {ai,ey,ei} æ{y,i} øy Vː → o e æ ø V / #(C)(C)(C)_CC
V[- long] → ∅ / #U_UU
ai wi (w)V → eː weː (w)Vː / _h#
{æ,e}i ai au w{ɪ,i} wy wV iu Vː → eː aː oː weː woː wVː eː oː V
V{θ,ð} → Vː / #(C)(C)(C)_{l,r}
Ṽ → Vː / in #U (maybe only ı̃?)
Ṽ → V[- nas]
(Vː)θt → (V)tː
uN yN iN VN → o øː eː Vː / _{s,f}
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early IcelandicV → Vː / _(C)#, in monosyllables
V → Vː / ! _CCV, in polysyllables
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney NornV[- long] → ∅ / _#
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian GreekVns → Vːs
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic GreekVns → Vːs
Vː → V[-long]
”{i,e}V → j”V
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian GreekVns → Vːs
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan GreekVns → Vːs
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan GreekVns → Vːs
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric GreekVns → V(ː)s (Tucker says that “[i]n a few Doric dialects the lengthening did not occur”)
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian GreekVns → Vːs
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic GreekVns → Vːs
VCw → VːC
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian GreekVns → Vːs
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-AryanVH → Vː / _{C,#}
Vm → Ṽ / _(#){s,ɕ}
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-AryanVN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#
Vm → Vv → V[+nas]v / _V
Vː → V[-long] / _#
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-AryanVN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#
Vm → Vv → V[+nas]v / _V
Vː → V[-long] / _#
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-AryanVN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#
Vm → Vv → V[+nas]v / _V
Vː → V[-long] / _#
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-AryanVN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#
Vm → Vv → V[+nas]v / _V
Vː → V[-long] / _#
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to PolishV → ∅ / unstressed (sporadic)
Vː → V in certain frequently-used words
V → ɛ (sporadic, analogical)
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to LatinV → i / %(C)(C)_% when unstressed
V → o / %(C)(C)V_% when unstressed
V → e / %(C)(C)_%r when unstressed (with some exceptions)
V → {i,u} / %(C)(C)_%P when unstressed
Vː → V[-long] / _{m,(n)t,l,r}#
Vː → V[-long] / _#
V → Vː / _zC[+voiced]
V1…V2 → V2…V2 (rare)
V → Vː / _S[+voiced]{S[-voiced],F[-voiced]}; “(i, e, and o sometimes bypass this)”
V → Vː / _z{l,r}
V → Vː / _{t,d}t
Vː → V / _C(C)# “(irregular: often before -m, -t, -nt, but never before ?s)”
V → {Vː,V[+nas]} / _n{f,s}
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to CatalanV → ∅ / ”V%C_L(C)V(C)# (irregular)
V → ∅ / ”V%L_C(C)V(C)# (irregular)
V → ∅ / ”V%s_t(C)V(C)# (irregular)
VV → Vː (“For outcomes of word-final vowels, see down below”)
V → ∅ / _%”V (rare)
V → ∅ / ”V%_(C)(C)V(C)# (“irregular; e is kept before n”)
V → ∅ / “between first and tonic syllables; except when C_CC, _n”; “if there are multiple vowels between the initial and tonic syllables, the vowel directly before the tonic is usually dropped” ! V = a
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— V0V0 → V0ː
— V → ”V / ”VSr_
— V → ”V / _C*”{i,e}V
V → ∅ / in the unstressed penult
V → ∅ / intertonic ! V = a
V”e → ”Vi
V0V0 → V0
V → ∅ / _# “(except in monosyllables or after another vowel)” ! V = a
V → ə / _{CC,tʃ,dʒ} ! _{nt,nɡ,mp,rt,rd}
V[-high] → ə → ∅ / _V “(except that a is kept before o)”
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to ItaliantVk → dʒ / unstressed
kVl → kːj / unstressed
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to PortugueseV0V0 → V0ː
V → ∅ / ”V%L(C)(C)V(C)# (irregular)
V → ∅ / _L(C)(C)V(C)# (irregular)
V → ∅ ”V%s_t(C)V(C)# (irregular)
V → a / _{n,r}(C)V(C)# (irregular)
V → V[+nas] / _N$C when stressed
V → V[+nas] / _N$V
V → V[+nas] / #N_ (rare)
V[+nas] → V[-nas] / unstressed
V[+nas] → V[-nas] / in U#
V0[+nas]V0[-nas] → V0[+nas]
e V → o ∅ / _? (irregular)
V → ∅ / _”V (irregular)
V0V0 → V0 (irregular)
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old ProvençalVN → Vː / _S (except for the prefixes con-, in-); I’m assuming this change happened in Vulgar Latin and then vowel length went to quality
— V → ∅ (though /a/ seemed to resist this)
— V → ∅ / _r (seemed to be an intermittent change)
— V → ∅ (again, /a/ seemed to resist this change, which was itself generally blocked by analogy)
— V → ∅ / “penult of paroxytones”, though /a/ often remained “as an indistinct e”, probably /ə/
— CVK → CVj (intermittent if C was a resonant)
— V → ∅ / lv_r (dialect-dependent)
— V → ∅ / R_(C…)
— V → “indistinct e” (probably /ə/) if dropping it would create ugly consonant clusters:
— V → e “in many late words”
dVɡ (n)dVɡ → dʒ(?) ndʒ
lː{j,Vdʒ} lnj → ʎ ɲ
rdj rVɡ → rdz rdʒ
rːVɡ rːj → rdʒ ir
rtVɡ → {rdʒ,rts(→ rs)}
tVɡ trj → dʒ ir
17.12.1.1.7 Vulgar Latin to Rhaeto-Romancea V → e (= /ə/?) ∅ / in final syllables (though Friulian preserves the ending -is)
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to RomanianV0V0 → V0ː
V → ”V / ”VSr_
V → ”V / _(C…)”{i,e}V
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to SardinianVː → V[- long]
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to SpanishV → ∅ / C_{r,l} when unstressed and not at a word boundary
V → ∅ / {r,l}_C when unstressed and not at a word boundary
V → ∅ / C_s when unstressed and not at a word boundary (sporadic)
V → ∅ / s_C when unstressed and not at a word boundary (sporadic)
V → ∅ / unstressed ! V = a
Vɾ → ɾV / C_#
— Vdz → ∅ / {nts,ndz,rdz_
— ndzVɡ → nɡ
— mpVt skVp spVt stVk → nt sp st sk
17.13.1 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian AV → j / V_nʲtʲ ! V = E
V → [+ round] / Kʷ_
V → ∅ / _#
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.1.1 Pre-Bakairi to Eastern BakairiVNV → ṼṼ / ! _(C)#
18.1.2 Pre-Bakairi to Western BakairiV[- stress]NV → ṼṼ
18.2.1 Proto-Ofaié-Jê to Proto-JêVm → Ṽ / _#
VS → r / C_V
18.2.2 Proto-Ofaié-Jê to Ofaié-XavanteɲV → jṼ
18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to CocamaV0ʔV0 → V0ː
18.4.4 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to GuaraníV{m,n} → V[+nas] / _#
Vŋ → V[+nas]
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guarayo{Vm,Vŋ} Vn → V[+nas] {Vr,V[+nas]} / _#
18.4.7 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to ParintintínVn → V[+nas] (sometimes)
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to SirionóV{m,n} → V[+nas] / _#
Vŋ → V[+nas]
18.4.9.1.2 Proto-Monde to Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-ZoróV → Ṽ / _h
18.4.9.1.3 Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoró to Cinta LargaVh → Vː
V → Vː / _#
18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to UrubuVn → V[+nas] / _# (sometimes)
Vŋ → V[+nas]
20 Khoisan20.2.1 Proto-Kx’a to ǂHoanVn ŋ → V[+nas] ∅ / _#
21 Lakes Plain21.1 Proto-Lakes Plain to Proto-Far WestCV → ∅ / _# (possibly only when CV_#, possibly sporadic)
21.1.1 Proto-Far West to Aweraiiɛ Vdiɛ → ijɛ βe
21.1.2 Proto-Far West to Saponiiiɛ Vdiɛ → dzɛ ɾɛ
21.1.3 Proto-Far West to Rasawaiiɛ Vdiɛ → ijɛ βie
21.2.1.2 Proto-Central Tariku to IauCV → ∅ / _#
21.2.2.1 Proto-East Tariku to BiritaiV → ∅ / di_
21.2.2.2 Proto-East Tariku to DoutaiV → dz / _V̂
21.2.2.3 Proto-East Tariku to EritaidiV → dz
21.2.2.4 Proto-East Tariku to KaiV → ∅ / di_
21.2.2.5 Proto-East Tariku to ObokuitaiV → ∅ / di_
21.2.2.6 Proto-East Tariku to SikaritaidiV → dz
21.2.2.7 Proto-East Tariku to WaritaiV → ∅ / di_
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to ChibchaVs → h / n_
V → ∅ / s_j (sometimes)
23.1.1.1.3 Proto-Chibchan to KoginVs dVs → n(V(s)) ʒ(Vʒ)
23.1.1.1.4 Proto-Chibchan to Marocacerod(V)j s(V)j → lʲ dʒ
23.1.1.1.5 Proto-Chibchan to Motilóns(V)d → dʲ
23.1.1.1.6 Proto-Chibchan to Tunebo{d(V)s,n(V)j} n(V)s → r {VsV,r}
d(V)j → r(V)
24 Macro-Pama-Nyungan24.1.1 Proto-Paman to AritinŋitiÉ£Vː → V[-long] / in #U
24.1.2 Proto-Paman to AwŋtimVː → ə / in #U
24.1.3 Proto-Paman to LinŋitiÉ£Vː V[-long] → V[-long] ∅ / in #U
24.1.4 Proto-Paman to MbiywomVː → V[-long] / in #U
24.1.5 Proto-Paman to MpalicanNVS → VⁿS / #_
Vː → V[-long] / in #U
24.1.6 Proto-Paman to UraðiVː → V[-long] / in #U
24.1.7 Proto-Paman to YinwumNVS → VⁿS / #_
Vː → V[-long] / in #U
27 Mayan27.1 Proto-Mayan to Ch’olanVː → V[-long]
27.2 Proto-Mayan to ChujeanVː → V[-long]
27.3 Proto-Mayan to HuastecankV[+round]C[+glide] → kʷ
27.4 Proto-Mayan to IxileanCVʔVC → CVʔC
27.5 Proto-Mayan to Kaqchikel-Tz’utujilCVʔVC → CVʔC
Vː → V[-long]
27.6 Proto-Mayan to Core K’iche’CVʔVC → CVʔC
27.7 Proto-Mayan to MameanCVʔVC → CVʔC
27.8 Proto-Mayan to Q’anjob’alanVː → V[-long]
28 Muskogean28 MuskogeanV → V̂ː / _Cko, ko lost?
28.1 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Eastern MuskogeanVC[+ weak] → ∅ / _V#
28.1.1 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to AlabamakV → ∅ / V_#
28.1.2 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to CreekV1kV2 → V2ː / #((C)V(C))(C)_#
V1k → ∅ / _#
V0xV0 → V0ː
28.1.3 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to HitchitiV → ∅ / Vk_#
28.1.4 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to KorasatiVkV → ”V / _#
28.1.5 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to MikasuriV → ∅ / Vk_#
28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western MuskogeanV → ∅ / V{k,ʔ,h}_#
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.1 Proto-Athabaskan to AhtnaVˀ → V[-glottalized]
29.1.1.1.2 Proto-Athabaskan to BabineVˀ → V[-glottalized]
29.1.1.1.3 Proto-Athabaskan to BeaverVˀ → V[+high tone]
29.1.1.1.4 Proto-Athabaskan to ChilcotinV → {Vˀ,V[+RTR]}
Vˀ → V[+high tone]
29.1.1.1.5 Proto-Athabaskan to ChipewyanVˀ → V[+high tone]
29.1.1.1.6 Proto-Athabaskan to DakelhVˀ → V[-glottalized]
29.1.1.1.7 Proto-Athabaskan to Deg Hit’anVˀ → V[-glottalized]
29.1.1.1.8 Proto-Athabaskan to Dena’inaVˀ → V[-glottalized]
29.1.1.1.10 Proto-Athabaskan to Easter Gwich’inVˀ → V[+low tone]
29.1.1.1.11 Proto-Athabaskan to HanVˀ → V[+low tone]
29.1.1.1.12 Proto-Athabaskan to HolikachukVˀ → V[+low tone]
29.1.1.1.14 Proto-Athabaskan to Lower KoyukonVˀ → V[+low tone]
29.1.1.1.15 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper KoyukonVˀ → V[+low tone] → V[-tone]
29.1.1.1.16 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Kuskokwim KolchanVˀ → V[-glottalized]
29.1.1.1.17 Proto-Athabaskan to SarceeVˀ → V[+low tone]
29.1.1.1.18 Proto-Athabaskan to SekaniVˀ → V[+high tone]
29.1.1.1.19 Proto-Athabaskan to Proto-Southern AthabaskanVnC → V[+ nas]C / _#, unless C = ʔ
29.1.1.1.21 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Kiowa ApacheVnʔ VnC → V[+ nas] V[+ nas]C / _#
29.1.1.1.22 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to JicarillaVnʔ VnC → V[+ nas] V[+ nas]C / _#
29.1.1.1.23 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to LipanVnʔ VnC → V[+ nas] V[+ nas] / _#
29.1.1.1.25 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to ChiricahuaVnʔ → V[+ nas] / _#
29.1.1.1.26 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to MescaleroVnʔ → V[+ nas] / _#
29.1.1.1.28 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to San CarlosVnˀ → V[+ nas] / _#
29.1.1.1.34 Tahltan-Kaska-Tagish to KaskaVˀ → V[+high tone]
29.1.1.1.37 Proto-Athabaskan to TanacrossVˀ → V[+high tone]
Vɲ → V[+nas]
29.1.1.1.38 Proto-Athabaskan to Lower TananaVˀ → V[+low tone] (“since then partially neutralized in noun and verb stems, but ‘still clear in verbal prefixes’”)
29.1.1.1.39 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper TananaVɲ → V[+nas]
Vˀ → V[+low tone] (→ V[-tone] in “young speakers by 1980”)
29.1.1.1.41 Proto-Athabaskan to Northern TutchoneVˀ → V[+high tone]
29.1.1.1.42 Proto-Athabaskan to Southern TutchoneVˀ → V[+low tone]
30 Niger-Congo30.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Bantui ı̃ V[-round] → uɪ uɪ̃ V[+round] / Cʷ_
V[+nas] → V[-nas] / #S[+voiced]_
30.1.1.1 Proto-Bantu to Sebirwai u VS → j w A / _V[+high +ATR]
V[+high +ATR] → V[+high -ATR]
30.2 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Potou-Akanic(N)V1[+mid +nas](l̃) → CV[-nas]n
V[+nas](ʋ̃,l̃) → V[-nas](m,n) / #J[+voiced]_
30.2.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic to Proto-AkanicV[+high +ATR](C(V[+high -ATR])) → #(C)V[-high +ATR](CV[+high +ATR]) / #J[+dorsal -voiced]_
30.2.1.1 Proto-Akanic to AkanV → V[-round] / #C[+dorsal]_C[-labial]
jV[+nas] → jV[-nas] / #_
V → ∅ / #(C)VC[-coronal]_
V[+high] → V[+nas] / #(C)_N
30.3.1.1.1 Proto-Gbe to AjáV[+ nas - high] → [+ high] / _i
30.3.1.1.8 Proto-Vhe to AdángbeV → V[+ nas] / N_
V[+ nas] → V[- nas] / C_ ! C = N
30.3.1.1.11 Proto-Vhe to KpándoV → [+ round] / w_
30.3.1.1.12 Proto-Vhe to Pecı́V → [+ round] / w_
30.3.1.1.14 Proto-Vhe to Wacı́V → [+ round] / w_
31 Nyulnyulan31.1 Proto-Nyulnyulan to BardiV0 → ∅ / V(C)(C)V0(C)(C)_# (with some exceptions)
V → Vː / when stressed ?
33 Penutian33.2.1 Proto-Wintuan to NomlakiVrV → {Vː,M}
33.3.1.1 General Yokuts to Buena Vista YokutsV[+ high] → a / V[+ high]C_(C)#
33.3.1.3 Buena Vista Yokuts to TulamniVʔ → Vː / stressed
33.3.3 Proto-Yokuts to PalewyamiV → e / C”VC_
V → i / C”iC_
V → u / C”uC_
V → o / C”oC_
35 Salishan35.1.1 Proto-Central Salish to ComoxV3ʔ → V3(ː)ʔ / _#
35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack HalkomelemV3h → V3ː / _C
V3ʔ → V3(ː) / _#
V3ʔ → V3ː / _O
V3ʔR → V3ːR
35.1.3 Proto-Central Salish to Cowichan HalkomelemV3h → V3ː / _C
V03ʔ(V0) → {V03ː,V03ʔV0}
V3ʔR → {V3ʔR,V3ːRʔ} / _V
35.1.4 Proto-Central Salish to Musqueam HalkomelemV3h → V3ː / _C
V3ʔ → V3{ː,ʔ} / _O
V03ʔV0 → {V3ː,V03ʔV0}
V3ʔR → {V3ʔR,V3ːRʔ} / _V
35.1.5 Proto-Central Salish to KlallamV03ʔ(V0) → V03ʔV0
35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to LushootseedV3h → V3{ː,ʔ} / _C
V3ʔ → V3(ʔ) / _O
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern StraitsV3h → V3(ː) / _C
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern StraitsV3h → V3ː / _C
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old MandarinV1 → V2 / in syllables with /ɦ/, a nasal, or a liquid
V3 → V4 / in syllables with /ɦ/
V5 → V2 / in syllables with /ɦ/
V5 → V4 / in syllables with a nasal or liquid
V5 → V3 / else
36.3.1.1 Proto-Naish to LazeV% → low tone
N̥V → hṼ
36.3.1.2 Proto-Naish to Mosuo (Na)V% → high rising
N̥V → hṼ
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to NaxiV% → mid tone / C_ru
V% → high tone / else
{r,s}N → N̥ → hṼ → hV
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokee{wV,jV} → Vː[+low falling tone]
V → ∅ / C_hC
Vʔ → Vː[+low falling tone] / _C
{Vh,Vʔ} → Vː / _#
V[+nas] → aː[+high rising tone]
37.1.2 Proto-Iroquoian to Proto-Northern IroquoianV → ”V / “in antepenultimate syllables, if the vowel of the penultimate syllable was short */a/ followed by a single non-glottal consonant”
V → ”V / “in penultimate syllables not preceded by an accented antepenult”
Vː → V[-long] / ! in U#
”V → ”Vː / “in open penultimate syllables followed by a non-glottal consonant”
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayuga”V(C)(C)CaCV → V(C)”(C)CaCV / _#
V → Vː / _C[-glottal] “in even-numbered syllables when accented or immediately before the accent”
Vʔ → ʔV / “in odd-numbered unaccented non-final syllables;” ! {ʔ,h}_
V1”V2 ”V1ːV2 → ”V1V2 ”V1[-long]V2
”V0V0 → V0ː[-accent]
37.1.2.1.2 Cayuga to Lower CayugaV → V[-voiced] / _h “(odd syllables only)”
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to WyandotVː → ”V / in U#; “this change may have been present in Huron already”
Vh → Vː / _R
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondaga”V(ː)(C)(C)Vː → V[-long](C)”(C)CV[-long] / _#
”V(C)(C)CaCV → V(C)”(C)CaCV / _#
Vw → Vː / _{r,j}
”V → ”Vː / _C(R)V
V → Vː / _”C[-glottal](R)V{ː,H} in “even numbered syllables only”
V → Vː / _KRV “in the second syllable of a word”
V → V[+high tone] / _$”V
Vr → Vː / _C
rV → Vː / C_
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneida”V → ”Vː[+falling tone] / _{ʔ,hR}
Vː → V / _(C)(C)(C)#
CʔV0 → CV0ʔV0
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to MohawkV0 → ∅ / ”VC(C)(C)V0ʔ_C(C)(C)#
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneida”Vː[-falling tone]CV → Vː”CV
”V → ”Vː / _ʔ
”Vː[+falling tone] → ”V[-long -falling tone]
Vː → V[-long] _”C(C)(C)V (“this change happens only in the Ontario dialect”)
— Vː[+falling tone]C(C)V(H) → V̊ː[+falling tone]C̊(C̊)V̊(H̊) / _#
— CVː[+falling tone] → C̊V̊ː[+falling tone] / _#
— CVʔ → C̊V̊ʔ̊ / _#
— V[-long] → V̊ / R_#
— OV[-long] → O̊V̊ / _#
— jV → ∅ / Ci_(H)#
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to SenecaV → Vː / _{t,k(ʷ),s,n,r,j,w} “in even penultimate syllables”
Vh → Vː / _{n,w,j}
Vː → V / V_
V1”V2 → ”V1V2
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscarora”V → ”Vː / _n in “penultimate syllables only”
”V → ”Vː / _{k(ʷ),(ˀ)t}{s,R,H} (“penultimate syllables only”)
”V → ”Vː / _RR
37.2.1 Proto-Siouan to Catawba”V[+nas] → Vn (*)
37.2.3 Proto-Siouan to MandanCʔV0 → CV0ʔV0
37.2.4.2 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to WinnebagoV → ∅ / _#
37.2.6.1 Proto-Dhegiha to KansaV[+nas] → V[-nas]n
V → V[+nas] / N_
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.1 Proto-Tai to AhomV → Vː / _%
38.1.1.2 Proto-Tai to SaekV → Vː / _%
38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central TaiV → Vː / _%
38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to LungchowV → Vː / _V
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North TaiV → Vː / _%
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest TaiV → Vː / _%
40 Totozoquean40.1 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Mixe-ZoqueanV[+ creaky voice] → V[- creaky voice]
41 Trans-New Guinea41.5.1.8 Proto-Gorokan to MoveV[+ low tone] → ∅ / C_hV[+ high tone]
V[+ low tone] → ∅ / C_CV[+ high tone] if both vowels are the same
42 Uralic42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-FinnicV → Vː / _#
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-FinnishVː → V[-long] / _i
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard FinnishVh → hV / {j,v,n,r,l}_# (also some double-metathesis triggered by the condition of being m_ ?)
V → Vː / h_hC
V → Vː / _hC (sporadic)
VU → Vː / _#
42.1.1.1.2 Standard Finnish to Modern Standard FinnishVa → Vː / unstressed
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to LivonianVn → Vː / _s
V → ə / unstressed ! V = ɑ
Vh → Vːɦ / _C, except maybe ! _j and/or _ʋ
LV → VL / {#,V,O}_
VCːɑ → VːCɑ
V → Vː / _RC(C)ɑ (includes diphthongs)
43 Uto-Aztecan43.3 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to LuiseñoV → ∅ / “in some final syllables (conditions are unknown and it varies by dialect)”
43.5.1.1 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to KawaiisuuV Vː → uː Vː (not sure if this occurs before or after the previous change)
43.5.1.2 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to MonouV → u(i)
43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhamV → ∅ / “when in the first syllable of a bisyllabic morpheme, if after a morpheme boundary in the word (all other first-syllable vowels have non-zero reflexes)”
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to BasqueVn → Ṽ / _# (seems to have been reverted in most dialects, except for Souletin)
Vn → Ṽ / _V (?)
V → Ṽ / _N (Souletin, perhaps in other dialects?)
Ṽ → Vɲ / _V (not Souletin)
Ṽ → Vn or a diphthong (not Souletin)
V → ∅ / Vj_
— V → ∅ / S_{ɾ,l} (more common in Roncalese and Salazarese, but also in Navarrese and Aescoan?)
— V → ∅ / C[+ sibilant]_ɾ (Roncalese and Salazarese)
— V → ∅ / {O,ɾ,r}_O (Roncalese, Salazarese, Navarrese, Aescoan)
V → ∅ / _#, in trisyllables
VɪC → VCʲ
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.1 Proto-Pai to ChapaiVː → V ?
45.1.3 Proto-Pai to TipaiVː → V (sporadic? conditioned?)
46 Vowel Shifts46.5 Old English-to-Scots Vowel Shifts— V → Vː / _{r,F[+voiced],$,#}
46.11 Middle Chinese to Cantonese Vowel Shift (“The Inner-Outer Flip”)V → Vː / _#

to /V/

384 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-OmoticVNC → VːC[+voiced]
6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North OmoticVː → V / #K[-voice]_C
Vː → V / #C_C$ + $(V)C$ suffix
6.2.2 Proto-Erythrean to Proto-North ErythreanV{j,w} → Vː / C_C
$VC$ → $CV$ “(This last rule turned all VC roots into CV)”
6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Egyptian ArabicVː → V / C_C{ː,C}V
V → Vː / C_CV in U[-stress]
V → Vː / _# + suffix
6.2.2.1.17 Classical Arabic to Tunisian ArabicVː → V[-long] / _# (except as below)
V(ː) → Vː / in accented or stressed monosyllables
6.2.2.1.19 Biblical Hebrew to Modern Israeli HebrewVː → V[-long]
7 Algonquian7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-AtsinaVː → V[-long] / _CC
7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapaho({C,#}V)ʔ → ({C,#}Vː)∅ / _C
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventre({C,#}V[-long])ʔ → ({C,#}Vː[+falling tone])∅ / _C
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee DelawareVː → V[-long] / _hC
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to MenomineeV → Vː “when V is the second vowel of a word and follows a short-vowel syllable. Does not apply in glottal words”
Vː → V[-long] / CC(G)_C{V,#} “[i.e., when following a cluster but not followed by a cluster. Only applies ‘after the first long vowel of a nonglottal word, and everywhere in a glottal word’]”
V → Vː / _CC in even syllables
Vː → V[-long] / _C{V,#} in even syllables; “does not apply in the second syllable of a non-glottal word”
7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-IllinoisVNs VNʃ → V[+nas]z V[+nas]ʒ / not universal?
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to ShawneeVː → V[-long] / _#
Vː → V[-long] / _{ʔC,ʃp,ʃk,hV}
8 Altaic8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-KypchakV → V[- round] / U_
8.5.1.2 Proto-Kypchak to Kyrgyzæ Vh {ʕ,h} → ɑː Vː ∅ (seems to have largely been confined to loanwords from Persian)
10 Austronesian10.1.1.2 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to SasakV(h) → V(q) / _# (again, might’ve been a retention?)
10.1.1.3 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to SumbawanV(h) → V(q) / _# (again, might’ve been a retention?)
10.1.2.7.3 Proto-Kalamian to Kalamian Tagbanwab ɡ → β V / V_V
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to ChamorroV0V0 → V0
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to MadureseV → Vː / ə(C…?)_
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to KiputV0V0 → V0
V[+stress] → Vː / _C# ! V = ə and/or C = h “(applies to diphthongal nuclei as well a[s] monophthongs)”
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to HiwV0V0 → V0
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to LemerigVV → V
CV1C”V2 → CV2C”V2
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to MwotlapV0V0 → V0
(C)V1C”V2 → (C)V2V2
10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to CaaàcVnV → ṼlṼ
10.3.5.3 Proto-New Caledonia to Nemi-Pije-FwaiONV → SʰṼ / Pije and Fwai
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-NêlêmwaVnV → ṼlṼ
”V → Vː (usually)
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to NyelâyuVnV → ṼlṼ
V → Ṽ / _N
10.3.5.8.1 Proto-Yunaga to Yunaga 1V → Ṽ / _N#
10.3.11.3.1 Proto-Tanna to Kwamera{p(ʷ),v}Vh → fV
10.3.11.3.2 Proto-Tanna to Lenakel{p(ʷ),v}Vh → fV
10.3.11.3.4 Proto-Tanna to Southwest Tanna{p(ʷ),v}Vh → fV
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’aVV → V
CV1C”V2 → CV2C”V2
10.6 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-PaiwanVː → V[- long]
13 Chumashan13.1 Proto-Chumash to BarbareñoR[- glottalized]VˀR → ˀRVR[- glottalized] / _$
R[- glottalized]VOʼ → ˀRVO[- ejective] / _$
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-AleutnV1nV2 → nV2nV2
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg AlbanianVn → V[+nasal] / _C?
17.2.1 Common Anatolian to HittiteV → Vː / in ”U[+open]
17.2.2 Common Anatolian to LuwianV → Vː / in ”U[+open]
V → Vː / in #”U
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to LycianVː → V[-long]
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to LydianVː → V[-long]
17.2.5 Common Anatolian to PalaicV → Vː / ”U[+open]
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh ArmenianVN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan ArmenianVN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul ArmenianVN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert ArmenianVN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia ArmenianVN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast ArmenianVN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest ArmenianVN → V[+nasal] → V → (?) / _#, in polysyllables
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— Vː → V[-long] / _RC
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old IrishVː → V / _N#; “[i]t is thought that the long vowel probably needed to be unstressed- again, this is uncertain”
Vː → V[-long] / _H (includes diphthongs)
— Vː → V[-long]
V → Vː / _#, when stressed; “[t]his remained as a phonologically conditioned rule in OIr”
VOR → VːR; “this is a tad unclear, because in some instances it didn’t seem to apply”
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle WelshVː → V / _#
17.7.2.1 West Germanic to Anglo-FrisianVN → Ṽː / _F
17.7.2.1.1 Anglo-Frisian to Old EnglishV[+nas] → V[-nas]
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
Vː → V[-long] / in #U before a U with /iː/
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
Vː → V[-long] / in #U before a U with /iː/
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
Vː → V[-long] / in #U before a U with /iː/
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scots— V → Vː / _{r,F[+voiced],$,#}
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to ScotsV → Vː / _{r,F[+ voice],V,#}
17.7.2.1.11 Scots to Falkirk ScotsV → Ṽː / _nC “(works across word boundaries)”
V → Ṽ / N_
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
Vː → V[-long] / in #U before a U with /iː/
17.7.2.2.1 Old Low Franconian to Middle DutchV[-long +stress] → Vː / in open syllables (ʏ → {œː,øː} here but this is not phonemically important; there seem to have been qualitative differences between original long vowels and long vowels resulting from this change—lengthened iː seems to have become eː, but lengthened aː merged with original aː); does not affect original long vowels or vowels in diphthongs
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard GermanVː → V[- long] / _CC (some exceptions; the change was more common around _xt and _rC)
Vː → V[- long] / _%Cə{r,l,n}# (some exceptions)
V → Vː / _%, when stressed (except for /ə/?)
V → Vː / _r{t,d,s,ts} (except /ə/)
V → Vː / in some monosyllables ending in alveolar resonants or vowels
V → Vː / by analogy in some cases
17.7.3 Common Germanic to Proto-NorseVn → Vː / _hV
Vː → V[- long] / ! #U, U#
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old NorseVN → Ṽ / _# ! in #U
V → Vː / _l{P,w,k,#}
Vː → V[- long] / ! in #U
au {ai,ey,ei} æ{y,i} øy Vː → o e æ ø V / #(C)(C)(C)_CC
ai wi (w)V → eː weː (w)Vː / _h#
{æ,e}i ai au w{ɪ,i} wy wV iu Vː → eː aː oː weː woː wVː eː oː V
V{θ,ð} → Vː / #(C)(C)(C)_{l,r}
Ṽ → Vː / in #U (maybe only ı̃?)
Ṽ → V[- nas]
(Vː)θt → (V)tː
woː wøː jæː Vː → wo wøje V[- long] / _%
uN yN iN VN → o øː eː Vː / _{s,f}
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early IcelandicV → Vː / _(C)#, in monosyllables
V → Vː / ! _CCV, in polysyllables
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian GreekVns → Vːs
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic GreekVns → Vːs
Vː → V[-long]
”{i,e}V → j”V
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian GreekVns → Vːs
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan GreekVns → Vːs
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan GreekVns → Vːs
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric GreekVns → V(ː)s (Tucker says that “[i]n a few Doric dialects the lengthening did not occur”)
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian GreekVns → Vːs
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic GreekVns → Vːs
VCw → VːC
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian GreekVns → Vːs
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-AryanVH → Vː / _{C,#}
Vm → Ṽ / _(#){s,ɕ}
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-AryanVN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#
Vm → Vv → V[+nas]v / _V
Vː → V[-long] / _#
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-AryanVN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#
Vm → Vv → V[+nas]v / _V
Vː → V[-long] / _#
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-AryanVN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#
Vm → Vv → V[+nas]v / _V
Vː → V[-long] / _#
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-AryanVN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#
Vm → Vv → V[+nas]v / _V
Vː → V[-long] / _#
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to PolishVː → V in certain frequently-used words
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to LatinVː → V[-long] / _{m,(n)t,l,r}#
Vː → V[-long] / _#
V → Vː / _zC[+voiced]
V1…V2 → V2…V2 (rare)
V → Vː / _S[+voiced]{S[-voiced],F[-voiced]}; “(i, e, and o sometimes bypass this)”
V → Vː / _z{l,r}
V → Vː / _{t,d}t
l → r → _Vl
Vː → V / _C(C)# “(irregular: often before -m, -t, -nt, but never before ?s)”
V → {Vː,V[+nas]} / _n{f,s}
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to CatalanVV → Vː (“For outcomes of word-final vowels, see down below”)
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— V0V0 → V0ː
— V → ”V / ”VSr_
— V → ”V / _C*”{i,e}V
V”e → ”Vi
V0V0 → V0
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to PortugueseV0V0 → V0ː
V → V[+nas] / _N$C when stressed
V → V[+nas] / _N$V
V → V[+nas] / #N_ (rare)
V[+nas] → V[-nas] / unstressed
V[+nas] → V[-nas] / in U#
V0[+nas]V0[-nas] → V0[+nas]
V0V0 → V0 (irregular)
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old ProvençalVN → Vː / _S (except for the prefixes con-, in-); I’m assuming this change happened in Vulgar Latin and then vowel length went to quality
— CVK → CVj (intermittent if C was a resonant)
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to RomanianV0V0 → V0ː
V → ”V / ”VSr_
V → ”V / _(C…)”{i,e}V
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to SardinianVː → V[- long]
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to SpanishVɾ → ɾV / C_#
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.1.1 Pre-Bakairi to Eastern BakairiVNV → ṼṼ / ! _(C)#
18.1.2 Pre-Bakairi to Western BakairiV[- stress]NV → ṼṼ
18.2.1 Proto-Ofaié-Jê to Proto-JêVm → Ṽ / _#
18.2.2 Proto-Ofaié-Jê to Ofaié-XavanteɲV → jṼ
18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to CocamaV0ʔV0 → V0ː
18.4.4 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to GuaraníV{m,n} → V[+nas] / _#
Vŋ → V[+nas]
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guarayo{Vm,Vŋ} Vn → V[+nas] {Vr,V[+nas]} / _#
18.4.7 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to ParintintínVn → V[+nas] (sometimes)
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to SirionóV{m,n} → V[+nas] / _#
Vŋ → V[+nas]
18.4.9.1.2 Proto-Monde to Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-ZoróV → Ṽ / _h
18.4.9.1.3 Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoró to Cinta LargaVh → Vː
V → Vː / _#
18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to UrubuVn → V[+nas] / _# (sometimes)
Vŋ → V[+nas]
20 Khoisan20.2.1 Proto-Kx’a to ǂHoanVn ŋ → V[+nas] ∅ / _#
21 Lakes Plain21.2.2.3 Proto-East Tariku to Eritai∅ → dz → î_V
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.3 Proto-Chibchan to KoginVs dVs → n(V(s)) ʒ(Vʒ)
23.1.1.1.6 Proto-Chibchan to Tunebo{d(V)s,n(V)j} n(V)s → r {VsV,r}
d(V)j → r(V)
24 Macro-Pama-Nyungan24.1.1 Proto-Paman to AritinŋitiÉ£Vː → V[-long] / in #U
24.1.3 Proto-Paman to LinŋitiÉ£Vː V[-long] → V[-long] ∅ / in #U
24.1.4 Proto-Paman to MbiywomVː → V[-long] / in #U
24.1.5 Proto-Paman to MpalicanNVS → VⁿS / #_
Vː → V[-long] / in #U
24.1.6 Proto-Paman to UraðiVː → V[-long] / in #U
24.1.7 Proto-Paman to YinwumNVS → VⁿS / #_
Vː → V[-long] / in #U
27 Mayan27.1 Proto-Mayan to Ch’olanVː → V[-long]
27.2 Proto-Mayan to ChujeanVː → V[-long]
27.4 Proto-Mayan to IxileanCVʔVC → CVʔC
27.5 Proto-Mayan to Kaqchikel-Tz’utujilCVʔVC → CVʔC
Vː → V[-long]
27.6 Proto-Mayan to Core K’iche’CVʔVC → CVʔC
27.7 Proto-Mayan to MameanCVʔVC → CVʔC
27.8 Proto-Mayan to Q’anjob’alanVː → V[-long]
28 Muskogean28 MuskogeanV → V̂ː / _Cko, ko lost?
28.1.2 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to CreekV1kV2 → V2ː / #((C)V(C))(C)_#
V0xV0 → V0ː
28.1.4 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to KorasatiVkV → ”V / _#
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.1 Proto-Athabaskan to AhtnaVˀ → V[-glottalized]
29.1.1.1.2 Proto-Athabaskan to BabineVˀ → V[-glottalized]
29.1.1.1.3 Proto-Athabaskan to BeaverVˀ → V[+high tone]
29.1.1.1.4 Proto-Athabaskan to ChilcotinV → {Vˀ,V[+RTR]}
Vˀ → V[+high tone]
29.1.1.1.5 Proto-Athabaskan to ChipewyanVˀ → V[+high tone]
29.1.1.1.6 Proto-Athabaskan to DakelhVˀ → V[-glottalized]
29.1.1.1.7 Proto-Athabaskan to Deg Hit’anVˀ → V[-glottalized]
29.1.1.1.8 Proto-Athabaskan to Dena’inaVˀ → V[-glottalized]
29.1.1.1.10 Proto-Athabaskan to Easter Gwich’inVˀ → V[+low tone]
29.1.1.1.11 Proto-Athabaskan to HanVˀ → V[+low tone]
29.1.1.1.12 Proto-Athabaskan to HolikachukVˀ → V[+low tone]
29.1.1.1.14 Proto-Athabaskan to Lower KoyukonVˀ → V[+low tone]
29.1.1.1.15 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper KoyukonVˀ → V[+low tone] → V[-tone]
29.1.1.1.16 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Kuskokwim KolchanVˀ → V[-glottalized]
29.1.1.1.17 Proto-Athabaskan to SarceeVˀ → V[+low tone]
29.1.1.1.18 Proto-Athabaskan to SekaniVˀ → V[+high tone]
29.1.1.1.19 Proto-Athabaskan to Proto-Southern AthabaskanVnC → V[+ nas]C / _#, unless C = ʔ
29.1.1.1.21 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Kiowa ApacheVnʔ VnC → V[+ nas] V[+ nas]C / _#
29.1.1.1.22 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to JicarillaVnʔ VnC → V[+ nas] V[+ nas]C / _#
29.1.1.1.23 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to LipanVnʔ VnC → V[+ nas] V[+ nas] / _#
29.1.1.1.25 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to ChiricahuaVnʔ → V[+ nas] / _#
29.1.1.1.26 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to MescaleroVnʔ → V[+ nas] / _#
29.1.1.1.28 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to San CarlosVnˀ → V[+ nas] / _#
29.1.1.1.34 Tahltan-Kaska-Tagish to KaskaVˀ → V[+high tone]
29.1.1.1.37 Proto-Athabaskan to TanacrossVˀ → V[+high tone]
Vɲ → V[+nas]
29.1.1.1.38 Proto-Athabaskan to Lower TananaVˀ → V[+low tone] (“since then partially neutralized in noun and verb stems, but ‘still clear in verbal prefixes’”)
29.1.1.1.39 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper TananaVɲ → V[+nas]
Vˀ → V[+low tone] (→ V[-tone] in “young speakers by 1980”)
29.1.1.1.41 Proto-Athabaskan to Northern TutchoneVˀ → V[+high tone]
29.1.1.1.42 Proto-Athabaskan to Southern TutchoneVˀ → V[+low tone]
30 Niger-Congo30.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Bantui ı̃ V[-round] → uɪ uɪ̃ V[+round] / Cʷ_
V[+nas] → V[-nas] / #S[+voiced]_
30.1.1.1 Proto-Bantu to SebirwaV[+high +ATR] → V[+high -ATR]
30.2 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Potou-Akanic(N)V1[+mid +nas](l̃) → CV[-nas]n
V[+nas](ʋ̃,l̃) → V[-nas](m,n) / #J[+voiced]_
30.2.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic to Proto-AkanicV[+high +ATR](C(V[+high -ATR])) → #(C)V[-high +ATR](CV[+high +ATR]) / #J[+dorsal -voiced]_
30.2.1.1 Proto-Akanic to AkanV → V[-round] / #C[+dorsal]_C[-labial]
jV[+nas] → jV[-nas] / #_
V[+high] → V[+nas] / #(C)_N
30.3.1.1.8 Proto-Vhe to AdángbeV → V[+ nas] / N_
V[+ nas] → V[- nas] / C_ ! C = N
31 Nyulnyulan31.1 Proto-Nyulnyulan to BardiV → Vː / when stressed ?
32 Oto-Manguean32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to Tlapanecj → l(V)
h → CVʔV / _# (or possibly in just any final syllable?)
33 Penutian33.2.1 Proto-Wintuan to NomlakiVrV → {Vː,M}
33.3.1.3 Buena Vista Yokuts to TulamniVʔ → Vː / stressed
35 Salishan35.1.1 Proto-Central Salish to ComoxV3ʔ → V3(ː)ʔ / _#
35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack HalkomelemV3h → V3ː / _C
V3ʔ → V3(ː) / _#
V3ʔ → V3ː / _O
∅ → V0 / ”V03_
V3ʔR → V3ːR
35.1.3 Proto-Central Salish to Cowichan HalkomelemV3h → V3ː / _C
V03ʔ(V0) → {V03ː,V03ʔV0}
V3ʔR → {V3ʔR,V3ːRʔ} / _V
35.1.4 Proto-Central Salish to Musqueam HalkomelemV3h → V3ː / _C
V3ʔ → V3{ː,ʔ} / _O
V03ʔV0 → {V3ː,V03ʔV0}
V3ʔR → {V3ʔR,V3ːRʔ} / _V
35.1.5 Proto-Central Salish to KlallamV03ʔ(V0) → V03ʔV0
35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to LushootseedV3h → V3{ː,ʔ} / _C
V3ʔ → V3(ʔ) / _O
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to Nooksack∅ → V0 / ”V03ʔ_
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern StraitsV3h → V3(ː) / _C
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern StraitsV3h → V3ː / _C
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old MandarinV1 → V2 / in syllables with /ɦ/, a nasal, or a liquid
V3 → V4 / in syllables with /ɦ/
V5 → V2 / in syllables with /ɦ/
V5 → V4 / in syllables with a nasal or liquid
V5 → V3 / else
36.3.1.1 Proto-Naish to LazeN̥V → hṼ
36.3.1.2 Proto-Naish to Mosuo (Na)N̥V → hṼ
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to Naxi{r,s}N → N̥ → hṼ → hV
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokee{wV,jV} → Vː[+low falling tone]
Vʔ → Vː[+low falling tone] / _C
{Vh,Vʔ} → Vː / _#
∅ → Vː[+high rising tone] / C_# (“usually one of [/aː iː ʌ̃ː/ with this tone], the conditions are unclear”)
37.1.2 Proto-Iroquoian to Proto-Northern IroquoianV → ”V / “in antepenultimate syllables, if the vowel of the penultimate syllable was short */a/ followed by a single non-glottal consonant”
V → ”V / “in penultimate syllables not preceded by an accented antepenult”
Vː → V[-long] / ! in U#
”V → ”Vː / “in open penultimate syllables followed by a non-glottal consonant”
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayuga”V(C)(C)CaCV → V(C)”(C)CaCV / _#
V → Vː / _C[-glottal] “in even-numbered syllables when accented or immediately before the accent”
Vʔ → ʔV / “in odd-numbered unaccented non-final syllables;” ! {ʔ,h}_
V1”V2 ”V1ːV2 → ”V1V2 ”V1[-long]V2
”V0V0 → V0ː[-accent]
37.1.2.1.2 Cayuga to Lower CayugaV → V[-voiced] / _h “(odd syllables only)”
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to WyandotVː → ”V / in U#; “this change may have been present in Huron already”
Vh → Vː / _R
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondaga”V(ː)(C)(C)Vː → V[-long](C)”(C)CV[-long] / _#
”V(C)(C)CaCV → V(C)”(C)CaCV / _#
Vw → Vː / _{r,j}
”V → ”Vː / _C(R)V
V → Vː / _”C[-glottal](R)V{ː,H} in “even numbered syllables only”
V → Vː / _KRV “in the second syllable of a word”
V → V[+high tone] / _$”V
Vr → Vː / _C
rV → Vː / C_
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneida”V → ”Vː[+falling tone] / _{ʔ,hR}
Vː → V / _(C)(C)(C)#
CʔV0 → CV0ʔV0
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneida”Vː[-falling tone]CV → Vː”CV
”V → ”Vː / _ʔ
”Vː[+falling tone] → ”V[-long -falling tone]
Vː → V[-long] _”C(C)(C)V (“this change happens only in the Ontario dialect”)
— Vː[+falling tone]C(C)V(H) → V̊ː[+falling tone]C̊(C̊)V̊(H̊) / _#
— CVː[+falling tone] → C̊V̊ː[+falling tone] / _#
— CVʔ → C̊V̊ʔ̊ / _#
— V[-long] → V̊ / R_#
— OV[-long] → O̊V̊ / _#
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to SenecaV → Vː / _{t,k(ʷ),s,n,r,j,w} “in even penultimate syllables”
Vh → Vː / _{n,w,j}
Vː → V / V_
V1”V2 → ”V1V2
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscarora”V → ”Vː / _n in “penultimate syllables only”
”V → ”Vː / _{k(ʷ),(ˀ)t}{s,R,H} (“penultimate syllables only”)
”V → ”Vː / _RR
37.2.1 Proto-Siouan to Catawba”V[+nas] → Vn (*)
37.2.2 Proto-Siouan to Dakotamn → mV0nV0 / #_
km → kV0mV0
37.2.3 Proto-Siouan to MandanCʔV0 → CV0ʔV0
tʲr → sV0rV0
mn → mV0nV0 / #_
mn → mV0nV0 / {C,V}_{C,V}
sn → {ʃV0nV0,sV0rV0}
km → kV0pV0
37.2.4 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Čiwere-Winnebagokr → kV0rV0
37.2.4.1 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Čiweretʲr → ʃV0rV0
37.2.4.2 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Winnebagopr {sr,xr} sn km → pV0rV0 ʃV0rV0 sV0nV0 kV0wV0
37.2.5 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Crow-Hidatsawt → wV0tV0
37.2.5.2 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Hidatsakr → kV0rV0 / #_
sn → tsV0rV0
∅ → V / x_k
37.2.6.1 Proto-Dhegiha to KansaV[+nas] → V[-nas]n
V → V[+nas] / N_
37.2.6.2 Proto-Dhegiha to Omaha-Poncamn → mV0nV0 / #_
37.2.7.2 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Ofosr kr → ft kV0lV0
∅ → V / k_m
37.2.7.3 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Tutelomn → mV0nV0 / #_ (in morphemes)
sn → sV0nV0
∅ → V / k_m
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.1 Proto-Tai to AhomV → Vː / _%
38.1.1.2 Proto-Tai to SaekV → Vː / _%
38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central TaiV → Vː / _%
38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to LungchowV → Vː / _V
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North TaiV → Vː / _%
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest TaiV → Vː / _%
40 Totozoquean40.1 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Mixe-ZoqueanV[+ creaky voice] → V[- creaky voice]
42 Uralic42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-FinnicV → Vː / _#
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-FinnishVː → V[-long] / _i
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard FinnishVh → hV / {j,v,n,r,l}_# (also some double-metathesis triggered by the condition of being m_ ?)
V → Vː / h_hC
V → Vː / _hC (sporadic)
VU → Vː / _#
42.1.1.1.2 Standard Finnish to Modern Standard FinnishVa → Vː / unstressed
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to LivonianVn → Vː / _s
Vh → Vːɦ / _C, except maybe ! _j and/or _ʋ
LV → VL / {#,V,O}_
VCːɑ → VːCɑ
V → Vː / _RC(C)ɑ (includes diphthongs)
43 Uto-Aztecan43.5.1.1 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to KawaiisuuV Vː → uː Vː (not sure if this occurs before or after the previous change)
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to BasqueVn → Ṽ / _# (seems to have been reverted in most dialects, except for Souletin)
Vn → Ṽ / _V (?)
V → Ṽ / _N (Souletin, perhaps in other dialects?)
Cr → Cɾ → CVɾ (perhaps not a sound change per se, just a historical tendency)
Ṽ → Vɲ / _V (not Souletin)
Ṽ → Vn or a diphthong (not Souletin)
∅ → V / Vk_# (Zeberio Biscayan)
VɪC → VCʲ
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.1 Proto-Pai to ChapaiVː → V ?
45.1.3 Proto-Pai to TipaiVː → V (sporadic? conditioned?)
46 Vowel Shifts46.5 Old English-to-Scots Vowel Shifts— V → Vː / _{r,F[+voiced],$,#}
46.11 Middle Chinese to Cantonese Vowel Shift (“The Inner-Outer Flip”)V → Vː / _#

with context involving /V/

1134 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Omoticw → ∅ / #C_V, except _i(ː)
6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North OmoticN → ∅ / V_{C[+sibilant],p}
6.1.1.1 North Omotic to Benchx2 s3 → ∅ ʃ / V_V
l → d / #_VC
l → n / #_VN
6.1.1.2 North Omotic to Dizinz → d / Vj_
tsʼ → ʒ / V_
x2 → ∅ / V_V
6.1.1.3 North Omotic to Kafap → f / V_
s → ʃ / !V_
x2 → ∅ / V_V
{ts,ʒ} → tʃ / V_
s3 → ʃ / V_V
s3 → s / V_$#
l → d / #_VC
l → n / #_Vb
6.1.1.4 North Omotic to Maaleb → w / V_V
p → f / V_
z → d / V_
z → ts / Vj_
x2 → ɡ / V_V
ts tsː → s ts / V_
tsʼ → s / V_
6.1.1.5 North Omotic to Shekkachob → w / V_V
pʼ → p / V_
z → j / {#,V}_
z → dʒː / Vj_
s → ʃ / ! V_
x2 → ∅ / V_V
ts → ʃ / V_
s3 → s / V_$#
s2 → {s,tʃː} / V_
l → d / #_VC
l → n / #_Vb
6.1.1.6 North Omotic to Wolayttab → w / V_V
x2 → ∅ / V_V
x2 s3 → k ʃ / V_$#
s → s3 / V_(V)
s2 → s / V_
l → n / #_VN
6.1.1.7 North Omotic to Yemsab → w / V_V
z → d / V_
x2 → ∅ / V_V
l → n / #_VC
r → {r,lː} / V_
6.1.1.8 North Omotic to Zayse-Zergullab → w / V_V
z → ts / Vj_
x2 → ∅ / V_V
x3 → ɡ / V_#
tsː → ts / V_
s2 → tʃ / V_
l → n / #_VN
6.1.2.1 South Omotic to Aariz → {d,z} / V_
6.1.2.2 South Omotic to Dimez → {d,z} / V_
s2 s3 → tʃː tʃ / V_
6.2.1 Proto-Erythrean to Proto-Cushiticb → m / #_Vn
ɡ → k / #{d,w}V_
ɣ → ɡ / #_Vx$
6.2.2.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-Chadicŋ → ∅ / V_{ts,q}
6.2.2.1.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-Boreafrasianh → ħ / #_Vs
ŋ → ∅ / #_CV
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berberh → ħ / _Vz
l → ∅ / #{d,tʼ}_VC
ɬ → s / #_VC
f → p / #_V{Z,C[-voice],r}
p → b / #dlV_
k(w) → tʃ / #_Vt
ɡ(w) → dʒ / #_Vd
q → i / #_V{Z,C[+dental]}
ʕ → i / #_VR
ʔ → ʕ / _V{n,r,ɡ}
{h,ħ,q} → ʕ / C[+voice]_V
{h,ħ} → ʔ / KV_
tlʼ → dl / #_Vħr
r → l / #_V(V)O[+labial]
l → r / #nV_C
6.2.2.1.3 Ancient Egyptian to Copticn → l / #_Vb
n → l / #_(V){s,ʃ,h}V{m,b}#
n → l / #_V{m,b}{s,ʃ,h}
n → l / #_Vk
n → l / mV_C
n → l / CV_m
6.2.2.1.4 Proto-Boreafrasian to Proto-Semiticɣ → ɡ / #_VCH
ɣ(w) → ɡ / #_Vx
kʼ(w) → k / #dlV_
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot ArabicS → [+ voice] / {V,R}_V
S → [+ voice] / V_R
j(ː) → ∅ / V_E
6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Egyptian ArabicVː → V / C_C{ː,C}V
V → Vː / C_CV in U[-stress]
{i,u} → ∅ / VC_CV when unstressed (short only)
∅ → e / CVCC_CVCV (applies across word boundaries)
6.2.2.1.10 Classical Arabic to Hassāniyya Arabic— j w → i u / #_CV
6.2.2.1.12 Classical Arabic to Eastern Libyan Arabic∅ → ə / C_CV(ː,V)CC
6.2.2.1.13 Classical Arabic to Western Libyan Arabic∅ → ə / CCV(ː,V)C_C
6.2.2.1.14 Classical Arabic to Moroccan ArabicCˤ → C / {#,V}_V
7 Algonquian7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenaki{R,h} → ∅ / V_V (sporadic?)
7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-AtsinaW → n / {#,V}_
s → h / {V,C}_
r → n / {#,V}_
7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapaho∅ → ʔ / CV[-long]_#
∅ → h / #_V
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventre∅ → ʔ / #_V
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfoot∅ → i / C_jV#
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawareə → o / _x{p,kʷ,V[+round]}
x → χʷ / o(ː)_{V,#}
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menominee∅ → h / V[-long]_#
w → ∅ / h_V
e → i / Vː%_ ! _H
Vː → V[-long] / CC(G)_C{V,#} “[i.e., when following a cluster but not followed by a cluster. Only applies ‘after the first long vowel of a nonglottal word, and everywhere in a glottal word’]”
Vː → V[-long] / _C{V,#} in even syllables; “does not apply in the second syllable of a non-glottal word”
7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-Illinoiss → ʃ / _iV
{θ,l} → r → l / V_V
S → ⁿS / #NV_ (sporadic)
7.15 Proto-Algonquian to Ojibwe{w,j}V[-long] → ∅ / Vː_# (Whimemsz is unsure if this change is across-the-board or not)
V[-long] → ∅ / V[-long]{w,j}_# (Whimemsz is unsure if this change is across-the-board or not)
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to ShawneeV[-long] → ∅ / _hV
Vː → V[-long] / _{ʔC,ʃp,ʃk,hV}
∅ → ʔ / C{v,d}_{ʃp,ʃk,hV}
∅ → h / #_V
∅ → i / #C_jVː “(for some speakers)”
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonicb → w / ! _{a,ə,Vj}
ɡ → ∅ / iV_
8.1.1 Early Middle Japanese to Modern Japaneseɸ → w / V_V
8.2 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Korean{tʰ,d} {k,ɡ} → r {h,∅} / {C,V}_{C,V}
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolicɡ → h / ! {C,V}_h
kʰ → ɡ / {C,V}_h
8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusico → {o,u} / _CV
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkictʰ → d / #_(V){lʲ,r(ʲ)}
k → ɡ / _(V)r
8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchakb → v / V_
d → ð → j / V_
ɡ → w / V_
s → tʃ / _Vtʃ
s → ç / _Vç
f → w / _V
8.5.1.2 Proto-Kypchak to Kyrgyzb → m / V_V (sporadic?)
ɣ → ∅ / V_V
8.5.2 Proto-Turkic to Sakhad s {ʃ,z} → t ∅ s / V_V
9 Austroasiatic9.1.1 Proto-Vietic to Muong Khenw → ∅ / tʰV_k (conjectured)
9.1.2.1 Middle Vietnamese to Hanoi Vietnamesew → ∅ / tV_wk (conjectured)
9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnamesew → ∅ / tV_wk (conjectured)
10 Austronesian10.1.2.1 Proto-Philippine to Bicolə → a / V_V
*j {*D,z} → r d / V_V
10.1.2.2 Proto-Philippine to Cebuano*D d → l r / V_V
{*j,*Z} z → l r / V_V
10.1.2.3 Proto-Philippine to Hiligaynon{*Z,*j} z → l r / V_V
10.1.2.4 Proto-Philippine to Ibanagz → r / V_V
10.1.2.6 Proto-Philippine to Ilocano{z,*Z,*j} → d / V_V
10.1.2.7 Proto-Philippine to Proto-Kalamiand → r / V_V
10.1.2.7.1 Proto-Kalamian to Agutaynenk → ∅ / _{V,#}
s → t / _V ! _E
∅ → ʔ / V_#
10.1.2.7.2 Proto-Kalamian to Karamiananenk → ∅ / _{V,#}
s → t / _V ! _E
b → β / V_V
ɡ → h / V_V
∅ → ʔ / V_#
10.1.2.7.3 Proto-Kalamian to Kalamian Tagbanwak → ∅ / _{V,#}
b ɡ → β V / V_V
∅ → ʔ / V_#
10.1.2.8 Proto-Philippine to Kankanay{z,*j} → d / V_V
10.1.2.9 Proto-Philippine to Tagalog {*D,*j} {d,z} → l r / V_V
10.1.2.10 Proto-Philippine to Waray{*D,*Z} → r / V_V
*j → r / V_V
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorroə → ∅ / VC_CV
V → ∅ / VC_CV (sporadic)
∅ → w / #_V
ɡʷ → ɡ / _V[+round]
10.2.4.1 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Javaneseh → {o,h,w} / V_V
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauan∅ → w / u_V
∅ → j / i_V
∅ → ŋ / #_V
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North Sarawak{ʔ,h} → ∅ / V1[+high]_V2
h → ʔ / V0_V0
ə → ∅ / _V
C → Cː / ə_V (?)
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiputʔ → ∅ / V_V
k → ∅ / V_V “(in some forms)”
s → ∅ / V_V (sporadic)
u → əw / _V “(also cases of (C)u → w /__V)”
i → əj / _V “(also cases of (C)i → j /__V)”
v ɡ ɟ → f k c / V_V
k ŋ → ʔ ∅ / Və̯_#
{s,c} → t / _V{s,c}V
10.2.6.2 Proto-North Sarawak to Proto-Kenyahʀ →h / V_V(C)#
s → t / _VsVC
CV → ∅ / _NCVC “(in reduplications)”
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lónghi u → e o / _CV[+close-mid](C)# “(iə is treated as close mid for this change)”
i u → ɛ ɔ / _CV[+open-mid](C)#
i u → əj əw / _V(C)#
p k → f ɣ / V_V ! ”ə_V
d → r / V_V “(irregular)”
dz → ɟ / V_V
h → ∅ / V_V
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiw”V[+ high(er)] → ∅ / _CV
”V → ə / _CV
a → e / _CV[+ mid] (sporadic)
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to LemerigV → ∅ / #_C”V
V → ∅ / CVC_C”V
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to Mwotlapo e i → ɔ ɛ ɪ / C_V[- high]
u a → ʊ ɛ / _CV[+ high]
V1 → ∅ / _”V2
V → ∅ / (C)V_VC”V
10.3.5 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-New CaledoniaV → ∅ / _C”V
10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to CaaàcV → ∅ / #(C)V(C)(C)_#
{p,pw,k} → ∅ / V_V
t c → l j / V_V
10.3.5.2 Proto-New Caledonia to Jawét̪ → l / V_V
10.3.5.3 Proto-New Caledonia to Nemi-Pije-Fwait̪ → l / V_V
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-Nêlêmwak → c / V_V
pw p t ʈ k c → (v)w v r l ɣ j / V_V
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to NyelâyuV → ∅ / #(C)V(C)(C)_#
p pw t̪ ʈ c → v (v)w r l j / V_V
ⁿS → N / _Ṽ
10.3.5.6 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwaameiʈ → l / V_V
k c → ∅ {j,∅} / V_V
10.3.5.7 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwapwâp pw t {k,c} → {v,∅} w l ∅ / V_V
bw mw → ɡw ŋw (→ ɡ ŋ / _V[+ rounded])
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Yunagap pw t̪ ʈ k c → v w ð l ∅ j / V_V
10.3.6.1 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Äiwoo{t,k} → ∅ / V_V
10.3.6.2 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Nagut → l / V_V
10.3.6.3 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Natügut k → l ∅ / V_V
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bayt → ts / _V[+ high]
”a → i / _CV[- high]
”a → e / _CV[+ high]
p ŋ → f ∅ / ”V_V
V → ∅ / {”V,j}_
∅ → h / #_V (“it isn’t clear if this happens unconditionally”)
10.3.9.2 Proto-Utupua to Nebaot → {r,t} / V_V
10.3.9.3 Proto-Utupua to Tanibilit k → {t,r,kʷ,∅} ∅ / V_V
10.3.10 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Vanikorok → ∅ / V_V
10.3.10.3 Proto-Vanikoro to Vanot → l / V_V
10.3.11 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Southern Vanuatun → ŋ / _V[- stress]q
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejomk → ∅ / V_V (sporadic?)
10.3.11.2 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Erromangoa → i / _CV[+ high]
10.3.11.2.1 Proto-Erromango to Syef → v / V_V
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Urap → b / V_V
10.3.11.3.2 Proto-Tanna to Lenakelr → l / _Vl
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’aV → ∅ / #_C”V
V → ∅ / CVC_C”V
10.4.1 Proto-Micronesian to MarshalleseK → Kʷ / _{C[+round],V[+round]}
V → ∅ / ”VC_
f → ∅ / #_{C[-low],V[-low]}
∅ → j / #_{aC[+low],V[-back],C[-back]}
∅ → w / #_{C[+round],V[+round]}
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Onganq → ∅ / #_V
10.5.1 Proto-Ongan to Jarawae → {e,ə,o} / _V
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to Onged → r / V_{V,#}
e → {e,ə,o} / _V
11 Northeast Caucasian11.7.2 Proto-Tsezic to Tseztsː tɬː → z l / V_V
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.1 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Proto-Dravidianw → v / #_{i,e}lV
w → v / V_
k ʃk → k* kː / V_V (the asterisk-marked k is what McAlpin terms “weak k”, which tends to drop out in morphology)
t → ∅ / #_VrC
t → {t,ʈ} / V_V
rt → ʈ / V_V
p → v / V_V
s → t / #_VLV
s → j / V_{V,#}
s → ∅ / #V_{r̀,l}
s → ∅ / C_V
s → ∅ / V_C
ŕ → r / V_V
n nː rn → {n̲,r} n̲(ː) ɳ / V_V
l lː → {l,ɭ} ɭ(ː) / V_V
l → ɭ / V_#
14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamitew → ú / V_ (McAlpin uses the accented-vowel notation due to some apparent height-contrast neutralizations before /a/)
k ŋk ŋkː → ∅ k kː / V_V
mp → p(ː) / V_V
ɲc → ns / V_V
r̀ → r / V_{V,C}
ŕ → rː / V_V
l → n / V_#
v → m / #_V (?)
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamil{k,v} → ∅ / V_V
l ɭ → lːʉ ɭːʉ / _#(C)V[-long]
{ɾ,l,ɭ} → ∅ / V_S
j → ∅ / V[-front]_#
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales Iñupiaqp k q s → v ɣ ʁ z / V_V
v → u / V_V
v → ∅ / u_V
v → ∅ / V_u
ɣ → ∅ / V_u
ɣ → ∅ / u_V
ɣ → u / {i,ə}_V
15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’ikC → Cː / _V(…V) except in #U
i → ∅ / #C[+dental]_C[+dental]V
v → ∅ / u[+short]_V[+short]
v → ∅ / V[+short]_u[+short]
u → ∅ / #_vV
s → dʒ / {i,u}_V
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’ikC → Cː / _V(…V) except in #U
i → ∅ / #C[+dental]_C[+dental]V
v → ∅ / u[+short]_V[+short]
v → ∅ / V[+short]_u[+short]
u → ∅ / #_vV
s → dʒ / {i,u}_V
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’iki → ∅ / #C[+dental]_C[+dental]V
v → ∅ / u[+short]_V[+short]
v → ∅ / V[+short]_u[+short]
u → ∅ / #_vV
s → dʒ / {i,u}_V
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’ikC → Cː / _V(…V), after #U
i → ∅ / #C[+dental]_C[+dental]V
v → ∅ / u[+short]_V[+short]
v → ∅ / V[+short]_u[+short]
u → ∅ / #_vV
s → dʒ / {i,u}_V
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.1 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Nafrip k → b ɡ / V_V
16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central Sentanip k → b ɡ / V_V
16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern Sentanip k → b ɡ / V_V
16.1.4 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Western Sentanip k → b ɡ / V_V
16.1.5 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Tablai → ∅ / V_ (with a few exceptions)
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albaniand dʱ → ð / V_V
s → ʃ / V{i̯,u̯,r,k}_V
s → h / V_V
i̯ → h / V_
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albaniand dʱ → ð / V_V
s → ʃ / V{i̯,u̯,r,k}_V
s → h / V_V
i̯ → h / V_
n → ∅ / V_C?
17.2 Proto-Indo-European to Common AnatolianH → R / VR_V
T h2 → D h3 / V[-stress]_V[-stress]
17.2.1 Common Anatolian to Hittitej → ∅ / V_V
17.2.2 Common Anatolian to Luwiank → ∅ / V_V
hh h → h ∅ / ”Vː_u
hh h → h ∅ / u_”Vː
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lycianɡ → ∅ / V_V
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to LydianKʷ → K / _V[+round]
j → ð / V_V
17.2.5 Common Anatolian to Palaich → ∅ / ”Vː_u
h → ∅ / u_”Vː
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenianl → ɫ / {C,lV}_
l → ɫ / V_V
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenianl → ɫ / {C,lV}_
l → ɫ / V_V
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenianl → ɫ / {C,lV}_
l → ɫ / V_V
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenianl → ɫ / {C,lV}_
l → ɫ / V_V
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenianl → ɫ / {C,lV}_
l → ɫ / V_V
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenianl → ɫ / {C,lV}_
l → ɫ / V_V
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenianl → ɫ / {C,lV}_
l → ɫ / V_V
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— H → ∅ / V_C when pretonic
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishp → f / {V,#}_
r̩ l̩ → {ra,ar} {la,al} / _{s,CC,V,#} (the results are unpredictable)
m̩ n̩ → am an / _{s,({m,j,w)V}
ɡʷ → b / #_V ! _u(ː)
ɡʷ → b / C_V
p t k kʷ b d ɡ m n l r s → f θ x xʷ v ð ɣ M N L R h / V(#)_{R,V} (“We don’t know the exact values of lenited /m n l r/. We can guess that lenited m became a nasalized labial continuant of some sort, but beyond that, we don’t know.”)
k → x / V_t
m → n / V_#; “[i]t is thought that the vowel needs to be unstressed, but this is not certain”
p t k kʷ b d ɡ ∅ → b d ɡ ɡʷ mb nd ŋɡ n / n#_”V
w → ∅ / V_{V,#}
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshs → ∅ / V_V
j → ð / V_
p t k {b,m} d ɡ → b d ɡ v ð ɣ / _V
$ → h / V_ (what $ is is unclear)
ɣ → i / C_V
17.7 Proto-Indo-European to Common Germanic{i,j} {u,w} → j w / V[+short]C_
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothicoːw æːj → ɔː ɛː / _V
β ð ɣ → ɸ θ x / V_(s)#
ɣ → ɡ / C_V
17.7.2 Common Germanic to West Germanicβ ð ɣ → b d ɡ / {#,”V}_
17.7.2.1 West Germanic to Anglo-Frisianh → ∅ / V_V
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
oɣ → ɔːw / _V
ɣ → w / C_V
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
oɣ → ɔːw / _V
ɣ → w / C_V
17.7.2.1.5 Early Modern English to American English{t,d} → ɾ / V_V[-stress]
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englisht d → ɾ / V_V[-stress]
j → ∅ / %{θ,s,z,l}_”V
ɔː → ɔ / _ɹV[-stress]
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
oɣ → ɔːw / _V
ɣ → w / C_V
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsd~ð → d / V_u
d~ð → ð / V_V
{f,v} → ∅ / {l,r,V}_ (sometimes blocked)
ð → ∅ / {l,r,V}_C
θ → f / {V,r}_# (sometimes blocked)
t → ʔ / V_V
17.7.2.1.11 Scots to Falkirk Scotsn → ∅ / V_C (in words of more than one syllable)
k → ç / V_# ! _C “(sometimes)”; “(except when phonemic)”
ɡ → ʝ / V_# ! _C “(most times)”
p b → ɸ β / {#,V}_ ! _C
n → ∅ / V_V# “in some disyllabic words”
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
oɣ → ɔːw / _V
ɣ → w / C_V
17.7.2.1.14 Anglo-Frisian to Old Frisianh → ∅ / V_V
17.7.2.1.15 North Frisian Lenitionp t k → b d ɡ → v r ɣ / Vː_{V,#}
17.7.2.2 West Germanic to Old Low Franconianh → ∅ / V_V
uː → ʉw / _V (probably, in most areas)
uː → ʊw / _V (probably, in areas that did not undergo the above change, such as Limburg)
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard German{h,j} → ∅ / V_V
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlautp t k → fː zː xː / V_V
β → b / V_V
17.7.2.5 West Germanic to Old Low Germanɡ → ɣ / _V (singleton only)
17.7.3 Common Germanic to Proto-Norseβ → ∅ / V_B
i → j / _V ! in #U
n → ∅ / V{ː,V}_hV
Vn → Vː / _hV
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norsew → ∅ / #P_Vː
{v,w} → ∅ / #_V[+ round]
l(ː)ʀ n(ː)ʀ → lː nː / ”Vː_ (or all V_ ?)
{l(ː),n}{r,ʀ} → ∅ / V{ː,V}_
ai → aː / _h{C,V}
ts → sː / V_V
r → ∅ / {p,t,k}_Vr
o → u / V_
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandict → ð / V_# “in some verbal endings”
ɡ ɟ → ɣ j / V_V
ɡ → ɣ / V_#
S[- voice] → Sʰ / #v_V
V → Vː / ! _CCV, in polysyllables
{n̥n,nn̥ → tn̥ / V_
nː → tn̥ / V_#
nː → tn / V_
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornp(ː) t(ː) k(ː) → b(ː) d(ː) ɡ(ː) / {V,R}_{V,R}
f → ∅ / Vː_V
θ → ð / V_V
ð → d / ! V_V
s → ʃ / _Vr ?
l → ∅ / V_V
ɒ → {ɛ,e} / _CːV (V can be a syllabic consonant)
ei → eː / _C(ː,V)# (V can be a syllabic consonant)
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornp t k → b d ɡ / V_V (the second V at least can be a syllabic consonant)
ɡ(ː) → dʒ / _iV
pː tː kː → b d {ɡ,ɣ} / V_V
∅ → h / #_V
h → ∅ / _{V,w,j} (sporadic)
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian Greeks → h / V_V
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greeks → h / V_V
j → ∅ / Vː_
eː → iː / _V
b d ɡ → v ð ɣ / V_V
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greeks → h / V_V
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greeks → h / V_V
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan Greeks → h / V_V
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric Greeks → h / V_V
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian Greeks → h / V_V
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greeks → h / V_V
j → ∅ / Vː_
eː → iː / _V
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greeks → h / V_V
17.8.10 Proto-Indo-European to Mycenaean Greeks → h / V_V
17.10 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iraniano → aː / _CV, “does not affect o2 < eh3
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-AryanR̊H → {u,i}R / _V (sporadic)
n → ɳ / R(V)_
s → ʂ / _V{ʂ,ʈ,ɖ(ʱ)}
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-Aryanj w → dʒ b / V_V
C → C[+voiced] / V_V
{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʱ} {j,v} → h ∅ / V_V
Vm → Vv → V[+nas]v / _V
C1C2 → C2C2 / V_V
Cn → CC / V_V ! C = dʒ
dʒɲ → ɳː / V_V
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-Aryanj w → dʒ b / V_V
C → C[+voiced] / V_V
{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʱ} {j,v} → h ∅ / V_V
b {d,dʒ,ɡ} → v j / V_V
Vm → Vv → V[+nas]v / _V
C1C2 → C2C2 / V_V
Cn → CC / V_V ! C = dʒ
dʒɲ → ɲː / V_V
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-Aryanj w → dʒ b / V_V
C → C[+voiced] / V_V
{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʱ} {j,v} → h ∅ / V_V
Vm → Vv → V[+nas]v / _V
C1C2 → C2C2 / V_V
Cn → CC / V_V ! C = dʒ
dʒɲ → ɳː / V_V
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-Aryanj w → dʒ b / V_V
C → C[+voiced] / V_V
{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʱ} {j,v} → h ∅ / V_V
Vm → Vv → V[+nas]v / _V
C1C2 → C2C2 / V_V
Cn → CC / V_V ! C = dʒ
dʒɲ → ɳː / V_V
17.10.1.5.1 Vedic Sanskrit to Classical Sanskritau aːu ai aːi → au oː ai eː / ! _V
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavice → ь / _jV
e → o / _wV
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishtsi ʐi → tɕ ʐ / V_
{i,ɨ} → ∅ / _jV when unstressed
t → r / tV_
n → m / {b,p}{l,r,ʐ}V_
OR → RO / V_C
RO → OR / C_V
vC → Cv / _V
n → s / k_Vn
17.11.2 Proto-Slavic to Old Russian{t,d} → ∅ / V_lV
je → o / V_ (sporadic)
j → ∅ / V_u (sporadic)
17.12.1 Proto-Italic to Proto-Latino-Falsicanɸ θ → b {d,b} / V_V
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to LatinV → o / %(C)(C)V_% when unstressed
t → d / V_
d → ∅ / Vː_#
dʱ → b / rV_
dʱ → b / _Vr
w → ∅ / ɡV_{l,r}
ɡʷʱ → v / V_V
s → z → r / V_V
mː → n / {W,Vː}_
sː → s / {W,Vː}_
l → r / lV_ “(in suffixes with l if root already has l)”
n → ∅ / V[+nas]_
17.12.1.1.1 Classical Latin vs. Vulgar Latin{e,i} → j / C_V when unstressed
j → ʝ / #_V
j → ʝː / V_V
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to CatalanV → ∅ / ”V%C_L(C)V(C)# (irregular)
V → ∅ / ”V%L_C(C)V(C)# (irregular)
V → ∅ / ”V%s_t(C)V(C)# (irregular)
iː → i / _%”V
{i,eː,e} → e / _%”V
i → j / ”V_#
uː → u / _%”V
{u,o(ː)} → u / _%”V in East Catalan
{u,o(ː)} → o / _%”V else
ae au → e o / _%”V
o → u / _%”V (irregular)
l → ∅ / {o,u}_CV
l → w / V_CV (“although l was usually restored later”)
p b t d k ɡ → β {β,w} ∅ {j,w} ɣ {j,∅,ɡ} / V_rV
p b → b w / V_lV (the latter is irregular)
{kl,ɡl} → ʎ / V_V (the latter is irregular)
sk → ʃ / V_{i,e}
p k → ∅ j / V_tV
k → ∅ / Vn_tV
ks → ʃ / V_V
ɡn tj → ɲ ∅ / V_V
sj ssj jn → js jʃ ɲ / V_V
mnj → {mni,ɲ} / V_V
lj rj kj ɡj → ʎ jr ts ʒ / V_V
{bj,vj} → wʒ / _%”V
b → v / V̈%_j
V → ∅ / _%”V (rare)
V → ∅ / ”V%_(C)(C)V(C)# (“irregular; e is kept before n”)
b → v / V_V
p t → b d / V_V
f → v / V_V (irregular)
s → z / ”V%V_V
s → ∅ / V_V%”V
k ɡ → ∅ {∅,ʒ} / V_{i,e} (ɡ → ʒ is learned)
ɡ → ∅ / V_V%”V
k j → ɡ ʒ / V_V
— d → z → ∅ / V_V
— d → w / _V#
t → ∅ / V_sV
{b,v} → w / V_#
kʷ → k / C_V
kʷ → ɡ / V_{i,e}
kʷ → k / #_a%”V
kʷ → ɡw / V_a
b → m → ∅ / Vm_V
k → w / V_rV
{b,v} → w / V_tV
ɡ → ∅ / V_dV
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— u → ∅ / CC_V
— V → ”V / ”VSr_
— V → ”V / _C*”{i,e}V
— {i,e} → j / _V
j → ∅ / V_”E
j → dʒ / V_V (rare)
{p,b} {t,d} → v ð / V_{V,r}
v → ∅ / V_B
(t)s → (d)z / V_V
k → js / V_sV
{k,ɡ} → ∅ / V_B
kʷ → {v,u} / V_E
kʷ → j{v,u} / V_a
t → ∅ / V_#
ɔ → u / _”V
V[-high] → ə → ∅ / _V “(except that a is kept before o)”
k → ∅ / V[+nas]_#
j → ∅ / {ʃ,ʒ}_V[-nas]
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to Italianɡ → ∅ / a_V
j → dʒ / V_V
b → v / V_
C → Cː / V_jV
t k → d ɡ / V_r
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to PortugueseV → ∅ / _L(C)(C)V(C)# (irregular)
u → w / _V (between first and stressed syllables)
w → u / _”V
w → ∅ / _V
iː {i,e(ː)} → i e / _%”V
{u,o(ː)} → o / _%”V
ɫ → w / V_Ca
o → u / _(”V)
V → a / _{n,r}(C)V(C)# (irregular)
N → ∅ / V[+nas]_$C ! C = S
V → V[+nas] / _N$V
N → ∅ / V[+nas]_$V
e → o / _m”V (irregular)
V → ∅ / _”V (irregular)
e → i / _(C)(C)V(C)#
s → ʃ / V_C[-voiced]V
s → ʒ / V_C[+voiced]V
kʷ → ɡ / V_{i,e}
kʷ → k / VC_{a,i,e}
kʷ → ɡw / V_a
b → v / V_{V,r}
d → ∅ / V_V
ɡ → {∅,ʒ} / V_{i,e} (ɡ → ʒ is learned)
ɡ → j / V_r
pl bl p t → br {br,l} b d / V_V (bl → l is learned)
p t k → b d ɡ / V_r
p → ∅ / V_{t,s}V
k → j / V_tV
k → ∅ / Vn_tV
ks ɡn tj → ʃ ɲ {z,s} / V_V (tj → s is learned)
tj → s / C_V
dj → dʒ → ʒ / V_V
dj → dz → ts → s / r_V
ndj → nts → ns → ɲ / V_V
sj → jʒ / V_V
j → ∅ / i_ʒV
sːj (m)nj lj rj → jʃ ɲʎ jr / V_V
kj → ts → s / V_V
ɡj → {ʒ,j} / V_V (ɡj → j is learned)
pj {bj,vj} → jb jv / V_V
f → v / V_V (irregular)
s l → z ∅ / V_V
sk k → jʃ z / V_{i,e}
k → ɡ / V1_V2 ! V2 = ɔ
j → {∅,ʒ} / V_V (j → ʒ is learned)
b → v / VL_V
{e,i} → ∅ / {L,N}_(C)(C)V(C)#
o → ∅ / _(C)(C)V(C)#
d → ∅ / V_V (in Portugal)
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— e → i / _V (and possibly V_?)
— e → i / _(C…)i{C(C…)V,#}
d → ∅ / V_V (seems to have happened in the north and northeast at some point)
b d ɡ → β ð ɣ / V_V
ɡ → ∅ / V_(VC…)”V
j → ∅ / V_”E
sː → s / Vː_
p t k s → b d ɡ z / V_V (this b → v?)
β → w / V_C
β → u / V_(s)#
n → ∅ / V_# (did not occur in extreme western areas, some northern areas, the southeast, and the east)
ɡ → {k,j} / V_ (if /j/ resulted, it dropped after /i/; forms with k are “most persistent in the west” and more common overall)
l → w / V_s
β → b / V_V (in western and some central dialects)
tʃ → jdz → jz / V_V (in the south and northwest)
tʃ → dz → z / V_V (otherwise)
j → dʒ / V_V (did not occur in the northeast and some northern dialects)
rj → rʲ → ir / V_V
17.12.1.1.7 Vulgar Latin to Rhaeto-RomanceC[+ voiced] → ∅ / V_V (only for obstruents?)
C[- voiced] → C[+ voiced] / V_V
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanianu → ∅ / CC_V
V → ”V / ”VSr_
V → ”V / _(C…)”{i,e}V
— u → o / ! V_
s → i / #(C…)V_#
kʷ ɡʷ → p b / V_a
i → ∅ / {ts,dz,S}_V
li → lj / _V
{b,v} → ∅ / V_{V,t}
l → r / V_V
m → u / a_nV
b → u / V_{l,r}
dj → z / V_V
e → ə / ”U…P_(C…)V# ! V = i
u → ∅ / ! {OL,”V}_#
a → a / #(C…)V…C[+palatal]_…”U
a o → ə u / #(C…)V…_…”U
e → i / #(C…)V…_n…”U
e → ə / #(C…)V…{t,d,n}_…”U
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardiniane → i / C_V
i → j / V_V
i → j / _V
{b,v,w} → ∅ / V_V
nd {lː,ld} → ɳɖ ɖː / V_V
{i,j} → dʒ / Vr_V (“dialectal”)
S[- voice] → S[+ voice] / V_”V
w → ∅ / #k_V
t → d / V_rV
d → ∅ / V_{i,j}
n{i,j} t{i,j} → ndʒ ts / _V
d → r / V_V (“[s]ome Campidanese”)
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanishb → β / V_V
ɾj pj → jɾ jp / V_
d → {∅,ð} / V_V
ɡ → {∅,ɣ} / V_V
p t k s ts → b d ɡ z dz / V_V
sj → js / V_
e → ∅ / V{d,s,n,l,ɾ}_#
d ɡ → ð ɣ / V_V
/dɾ/ [ðɾ] → ɾ / V_V
17.12.2.2 Proto-Sibellian to Umbriand → rs / V_V
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-TocharianCh → C / _(V)Ch
H → ∅ / V_V
17.13.1 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian An → j / V_sV ! E_
V → j / V_nʲtʲ ! V = E
17.13.2 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian Bmn → nm / V_V
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.1.1 Pre-Bakairi to Eastern Bakairiɾ → ∅ / V_V, when neither vowel is stressed
18.1.2 Pre-Bakairi to Western Bakairiz → h / V_a
z → ∅ / V_V
ɾ → ∅ / V_V, where at least one of the vowels is nasalized
18.2.1 Proto-Ofaié-Jê to Proto-JêVS → r / C_V
ə → ∅ / C_CV (not sure if this happened all the time or not)
18.2.2 Proto-Ofaié-Jê to Ofaié-Xavanteŋ → n / V_V
18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makurápt → r / _”V
t → l / _V
b → β / V_V
ɡʷ → β / _V[-nas]
h → ∅ / V_C
r → l / V[+nas]_V[+nas]
ð nŋʷ → c β / #_V[-nas]
j ŋʷ m n → ɲ m {m,p} {∅,t} / _V[+nas]
ⁿd ŋ → t {ɡ,k} / _V[-nas]
18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekenst → r / _”V
ɡʷ ŋɡ → kʷ k / _V[-nas]
ɡʷ → kʷ / #_V[+nas]
h → ∅ / V_C
{ᵐb,ⁿd,ð} → t / _V[+nas]
ŋ ŋʷ → k m / _V[+nas]
ŋʷ → kʷ / #_V[-nas]
18.3.3 Proto-Tuparí to Tuparít → r / _V
ɡʷ ŋɡ → β k / _V[-nas]
ᵐb ŋʷ → p β / #_V[-nas]
n → ∅ / ! #_V[-nas]
ŋ → k / #_V[+nas]
ŋʷ → m / V[+nas]_V[+nas]
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayoróp → β / V_
t → r / _”V
p t → ∅ l / _V
b → ∅ / V_V
bʷ → β / #_V[+nas]
h → ∅ / V_C
r ŋʷ → n β / V[+nas]_V[+nas]
ŋɡ → k / ! _V[-nas]
18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Cocamaiʔ uʔ → j w / C_V
18.4.7 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Parintintín∅ → ŋ / {#,V}_w
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Sirionów → {ɡ,k} / {#,V}_
18.4.9.1.1 Proto-Monde to Gaviãoh → ∅ / V_ (sporadic, likely an areal feature)
18.4.9.1.2 Proto-Monde to Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoróh → ∅ / V_
18.4.9.1.4 Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoró to Suruíh → ∅ / V_
18.4.9.1.5 Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoró to Zoróh → ∅ / V_
∅ → ʔ / V_#
20 Khoisan20.2.2 Proto-Kx’a to Northwestern !Xuni → ∅ / V_
20.2.3 Proto-Kx’a to Southeastern !Xuni → ∅ / V_
21 Lakes Plain21.1 Proto-Lakes Plain to Proto-Far Westd → ɾ / V_V
∅ → echo vowel / C_CV
21.1.1 Proto-Far West to Awerak → ɣ / V_V
b → β~m / #_V[-high]
b d ɡ → β~w ɾ~∅ ɣ / V_V
ti → s / #_V
21.1.2 Proto-Far West to Saponiti → s / #_V
b → β~m / #_V[+ low]
p b d k → p~f w ɾ ɡ~ɣ / V_V
21.1.3 Proto-Far West to Rasawap b d k → ɸ β ɾ x~k / V_V
ti → s / #_V
b → β~m / #_V[+ low]
21.2 Proto-Lakes Plain to Proto-Tarikup d → ɸ ɾ / V_V
21.2.1 Proto-Tariku to Proto-Central Tariku∅ → echo vowel / C_CV
ti → s~ti / _V
d → ɾ~d / V_V
21.2.1.2 Proto-Central Tariku to Iauɾ → ∅ / V_V
21.2.2 Proto-Tariku to Proto-East Tarikuti → s~ti / _V
ɾ → ɾ~∅ / V_V
21.2.2.1 Proto-East Tariku to Biritai∅ → dz / î_V
k → ∅ / _V̂
21.2.2.2 Proto-East Tariku to Doutaidi → dz / _V
V → dz / _V̂
21.2.2.4 Proto-East Tariku to Kai∅ → dz / î_V
21.2.2.6 Proto-East Tariku to Sikaritai∅ → dz / î_V
21.2.2.7 Proto-East Tariku to Waritaik → ∅ / _V̂
∅ → dz / î_V
21.2.3 Proto-Tariku to Proto-West Tarikuɾ → ɾ~∅ / V_V
21.2.3.1 Proto-West Tariku to Deirateb d k → b~β ɾ~l~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
ti di → s dz / _V
21.2.3.2 Proto-West Tariku to Faiab d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
ti → s / _V
21.2.3.3 Proto-West Tariku to Fayub d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
ti di → s dz / _V
21.2.3.4 Proto-West Tariku to Kirikirib d k → b~β ɾ~l~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
ti → s / _V
21.2.3.5 Proto-West Tariku to Sehudateb d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
ti di → s dz / _V
21.2.3.6 Proto-West Tariku to Tauseb d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
ti di → s j / _V
21.2.3.7 Proto-West Tariku to Weirateb d k → b~β ɾ~l~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
ti di → s dz / _V
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.1 Proto-Chibchan to Arhuacos → kh / _(V)k
s d → z r / _(V)j
∅ → u / w_V
j → ∅ / i_V
i → ∅ / C”V(C)_
i → ∅ / _(C)”V
23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to Chibchab → p / _Vkʷ
s → h / V_V
a {e,i} → i ∅ / C”V(C)_
i → ∅ / _(C)”V
a → ∅ / _”V
23.1.1.1.3 Proto-Chibchan to Kogis → h / _Vn
j → i / C(V)_
23.1.1.1.4 Proto-Chibchan to Marocaceroi → ∅ / C”V(C)_
i → ∅ / _(C)”V
23.1.1.1.5 Proto-Chibchan to Motilónd → ∅ / V_s
{u,i} → ∅ / C”V(C)_
i → ∅ / _(C)”V
23.1.1.1.6 Proto-Chibchan to Tunebos → h / _(V)C
{a,i} → ∅ / C”V(C)_
i → ∅ / _(C)”V
23.1.2 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Lencanb d → m n / _V[+ nasal] (I’m inferring this from the statement that “[t]here are also a series…of nasal vowels”)
23.1.3 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Misumalpanb d → m n / _V[+ nasal] (I’m inferring this from the statement that “[t]here are also a series…of nasal vowels”)
24 Macro-Pama-Nyungan24.1.2 Proto-Paman to Awŋtim(N)S → F / #(C)V_
∅ → j / #(C)iː(C)_V ! _i
∅ → w / #(C)uː(C)_V ! _u
∅ → a / #(C)aː(C)_V ! _a
24.1.3 Proto-Paman to LinŋitiÉ£(N)S → F / #(C)V_
N → ∅ / #NV_SV
24.1.6 Proto-Paman to Uraði(N)S → F / #(C)V_
24.1.7 Proto-Paman to Yinwuma → i / #C[+palatal]V[-long]C_
25 Macro-Panoan25.1.3 Proto-Tacanan to Reyesanoj → tʃ / V_V
25.1.4 Proto-Tacanan to Tacanaj → tʃ / V_V
27 Mayan27.5 Proto-Mayan to Kaqchikel-Tz’utujilɓ w → ʔ j / VCV_#
28 Muskogean28 Muskogeank → ∅ / V_C ! penult
28.1 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Eastern MuskogeanVC[+ weak] → ∅ / _V#
28.1.1 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to AlabamakV → ∅ / V_#
28.1.2 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to CreekV1kV2 → V2ː / #((C)V(C))(C)_#
S → S[+ voice] / V_V
28.1.3 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to HitchitiV → ∅ / Vk_#
x → j / V0_V0
28.1.5 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to MikasuriV → ∅ / Vk_#
x → j / V0_V0
28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western MuskogeanC1[+ weak] C2[+ weak] → ʔ h / V_V#
V → ∅ / V{k,ʔ,h}_#
i → ∅ / #(C)V(C)(C)V(C)(C)_# (sporadic in the case of other vowels)
28.2.2 Proto-Western Muskogean to Choctawxʷ → h / V_V
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.3 Proto-Athabaskan to Beaver{n,ɲ} → d / $_V[-nas] (→ dʒ in the British Columbian dialect)
29.1.1.1.10 Proto-Athabaskan to Easter Gwich’in{n,ɲ} → ⁿd / _V[-nas]
29.1.1.1.11 Proto-Athabaskan to Hann → (ⁿ)d / $_V[-nas]
29.1.1.1.15 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Koyukonw → m / _Vn (sporadic)
30 Niger-Congo30.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Bantuɠʷ → w / #_V[-nas]
ɠʷ → w̃ / #_V[+nas]
ɪ̃ → ɛ̃ / #(C)V_C
ɪ ɪ̃ → i ı̃ / #(C)V[-high]C_
ʋ̃ → m / #(C)V_
O[+nas -voiced] → O[-nas] / #(C)VC_
30.1.1.1 Proto-Bantu to Sebirwai u VS → j w A / _V[+high +ATR]
∅ → ɡ / #n_V (in verbs)
30.1.1.2 Proto-Bantu to Tswana{p,t,tʃ,k} {mp,nt,ɲtʃ,nk} {(m)b,(n)d,(ɲ)dʒ,(n)ɡ} {m,n} → s tsʰ ts ɲ / _iV
{tʃ,k} {ntʃ,nk,r} {ɲdʒ,nɡ} mp mb p b {d,l} m n → s tsʰ ts tʃʰ(w) tʃ(w) ʃ(w) dʒ(w) dʒ ŋw ɲ / _{ɪ,e}V
{p,t,tʃ,k} {mp,nt,ɲtʃ,nk} {(m)b,(n)d,(ɲ)dʒ,(n)ɡ} {m,n,ɲ} → sw tsʰw tsw ɲw / _iV
mp mb p b m → tʃʰ(w) tʃ(w) ʃ(w) dʒ(w) ŋw / _{ʊ,o}V
30.1.2 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-Manenguba{u,o} {ɛ,e,i} → w j / C_$V in noun class prefixes
30.2 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Potou-AkanicC → J[+nas] / #(C)V[+nas]_
ɰɰ̃ →l l̃ / #(C)V_
C → J / #(C)V_
30.2.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic to Proto-Akanict → c / #_V[-nas]
30.2.1.1 Proto-Akanic to AkanC[+dorsal] → Cʷ / _V[+round]
f → j / #_V[-nas]
f → j̃ / #_V[+nas]
n → ŋ / #(C)V_
V → ∅ / #(C)VC[-coronal]_
ʋ l → w ɹ / #(C)V_
30.3.1.1.1 Proto-Gbe to Ajáj → ɲ / _V[+ nas]
30.3.1.1.4 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Genj → ɲ / _V[+ nas]
30.3.1.1.7 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Vhej → ɲ / _V[+ nas]
31 Nyulnyulan31.1 Proto-Nyulnyulan to Bardi{w,j} → ∅ / V0_V0
ɟ → j / V_V
V0 → ∅ / V(C)(C)V0(C)(C)_# (with some exceptions)
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinots → tʃ / V[+high]_
s → ʃ / V_V
33 Penutian33.1.1.1 Proto-Costanoan to Chochenyol → ɾ / V_V
33.1.1.3 Proto-Costanoan to Mutsunl → ɾ / V_V
33.1.1.4 Proto-Costanoan to Rumsenl → ɾ / V_V
33.3.1.2 Buena Vista Yokuts to Hometwoli∅ → h / V(ː)_, when stressed (only sometimes, “particularly before consonants”)
33.3.3 Proto-Yokuts to Palewyami{u,a} → e / _CVC#, when stressed (short only)
i → e / _CVC#, when stressed (! _H, short only)
V → e / C”VC_
34 Quechumaran34.1 Proto-Quechumaran to Ayachucoʈʂ → tʃ / _V
34.2 Proto-Quechumaran to Boliviaʈʂ → tʃ / _V
34.3 Proto-Quechumaran to Cuzcoph → p / #_VA
ʈʂ → tʃ / _V
34.4 Proto-Quechumaran to Huarásʈʂ → tʃ / _V
34.5 Proto-Quechumaran to Putamayoʈʂ → tʃ / _V
34.6 Proto-Quechumaran to Quitoʈʂ → tʃ / _V
34.7 Proto-Quechumaran to Riobambaʈʂ → tʃ / _V
ɸ → pʰ / _V
34.8 Proto-Quechumaran to Santiagoʈʂ → tʃ / _V
w → ∅ / V_V
34.9 Proto-Quechumaran to Tenaʈʂ → tʃ / _V
35 Salishan35.1.1 Proto-Central Salish to Comoxw j → ɡ dʒ / _V
35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack Halkomelemʔ → ∅ / V1_#
∅ → V0 / ”V03_
ʔ → ∅ / VR_V3
lʔn → lː / V3_V
ʔ → ∅ / V1_#
35.1.3 Proto-Central Salish to Cowichan HalkomelemV3ʔR → {V3ʔR,V3ːRʔ} / _V
35.1.4 Proto-Central Salish to Musqueam HalkomelemV3ʔR → {V3ʔR,V3ːRʔ} / _V
35.1.5 Proto-Central Salish to Klallamw j → kʷ tʃ / _V
35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to Lushootseedw j → ɡʷ dz / _V
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to Nooksack∅ → V0 / ”V03ʔ_
ʔR → {ʔS,R} / V3_V
ʔ → ∅ / VR_V3
ʔ → ∅ / V3R_{C,#}
ʔ → ∅ / V1R_#
ʔ → ∅ / V1_#
35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straitsj → tʃ / _V
ʔ → ∅ / V3l_nV
ʔ → {∅,ʔ} / V3R_{C,#}
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern Straitsj w → tʃ kʷ / _V
ʔR → Rʔ / V3_V
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern Straitsj w → tʃ kʷ / _V
35.1.11 Proto-Central Salish to Sooke Northern Straitsj w → tʃ kʷ / _V
35.1.12 Proto-Central Salish to Pentlatchʔ → ∅ / V3_O
ʔ → ∅ / V3R_{V,#}
35.1.13 Proto-Central Salish to Secheltʔ → ∅ / V_V3
ʔ → ∅ / V1_#
35.1.14 Proto-Central Salish to SqamishʔR → Rʔ / V3_V
35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to TwanaʔR → ʔ{R,b} / V3_V
Rʔ → ʔR / V3_#
ʔ → ∅ / V1R_#
ʔ → ∅ / V3R_C
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old Mandarin∅ → w / P_V
ɦ → h / S_V2
k → w / V_
{p,t} → ∅ / V_
36.1.1.1 Old Mandarin to Modern Pekingesem → n / V_
36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàw → u / _V
ʔ → ŋ / _V[-high]
36.3.1.1 Proto-Naish to Laze{Np,mb} → b / _V (the paper implies similar developments occurred at other POAs)
{r,s}p(ʰ) {r,s}{Np,(m)b} → f v / _V (the paper implies similar developments occurred at other POAs)
{r,s}k {r,s}Nk → f w / _V
S{b,ɡ} Sk → v h / _V
{r,s}l {r,s}n → l̥ N̥ / %_V
n̥ → l̥ / %_V
l̥ → ɬ / %_V
36.3.1.2 Proto-Naish to Mosuo (Na){Np,mb} → b / _V
{r,s}pʰ {r,s}{(N)p,(m)b} → pʰ p b / _V (the paper implies similar developments occurred with stops at other POAs)
{r,s}k {r,s}Nk → k ʁ / _V
n̥ → l̥ / %_V
l̥ → ɬ / %_V
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to NaxiN → ∅ / _pV
{r,s}pʰ {r,s}(N)p {r,s}b {r,s}mb → pʰ p b mb / _V (the paper implies similar developments occurred with stops at other POAs)
{r,s}(N)k → k / _V
Sb Sk Sɡ → b ? ɡ / _V
n̥ → l̥ → h / %_V
{r,s} → ∅ / %_V
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokees → ∅ / #h_V
ks → ts / _V
t ts k kʷ → d dz ɡ ɡʷ / _V
37.1.2 Proto-Iroquoian to Proto-Northern Iroquoian∅ → i(ː) / #_(C)(C)CVC(C)(C)#
t → ∅ / n_V
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayugats → hs / V_ ! _{h,i,j,r}
r → ∅ / VH_
r → ∅ / V_V
h → ∅ / Vː_#
37.1.2.1.1 Cayuga to Upper Cayugat k kʷ → d ɡ ɡʷ / _{V,R}
37.1.2.1.2 Cayuga to Lower Cayugat k kʷ → d ɡ ɡʷ / _{V,R} ! _V[-voiced]
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huronk → x / {#,R,ʔ,V}_{V,ʔ,R,#}
kʷ → xʷ / V_V
j → ∅ / #_V
j → ∅ / V_{V,#}
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandot∅ → w / {o(ː),õ(ː)}_V
∅ → j / {e(ː),ẽ(ː),i(ː)}_V
j → ʒ / {#,ʔ,V}_V
x → j / _V
n → ⁿd / _{V[-nas],r}
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagats → hs / V_V ! _i
”V → ”Vː / _C(R)V
hts → tsh / C_V
V → Vː / _”C[-glottal](R)V{ː,H} in “even numbered syllables only”
V → Vː / _KRV “in the second syllable of a word”
V → V[+high tone] / _$”V
r → j / {e(ː),ẽ(ː),i(ː)}_V
r → w / {o(ː),õ(ː)}_V
t tʃ k(ʷ) → d dʒ ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneidats → hs / V_{t,k(ʷ)}
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to MohawkV0 → ∅ / ”VC(C)(C)V0ʔ_C(C)(C)#
∅ → e / {#,V}s_n
∅ → e / {#,V}s_w
— t tʃ k(ʷ) → d dʒ ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
— s → z / {#,V}_{V,R} ! R = j
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneidaʔ → ∅ / ”Vː_
∅ → i / {V,t}n_k(ʷ)V
— ∅ → e / C_{n,l}V(H)#
— ∅ → o / C_wV(H)#
— ∅ → i / C_jV(H)#
t tʃ k(ʷ) → d dʒ ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
s → z / {#,V}_{V,R}
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecar → ∅ / Vh_
h → ∅ / V_V
r → j / i(ː)_V
r → w / {o(ː),õ(ː)}_V
Vː → V / V_
a(ː) → õ(ː) / V[+nas]H_
a(ː) → õ(ː) / V[+nas]({ʔ,s})w_
— t k(ʷ) → d ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscaroran → t / ! _{h,kʷ,V[+nas]}
ˀt → ʔn / V_{V,w,j}
ˀt → n / {#,C}_{V,w,j}
h → ∅ / Vː_#
t k(ʷ) → d ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.2 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Siouanh → ∅ / V_C
ʔ → ∅ / V_
37.2.1 Proto-Siouan to Catawbap → b / V_V (*)
37.2.2 Proto-Siouan to Dakotas → z / V_V
k → ∅ / _x”V
x → ʔ / ”Vk_
37.2.3 Proto-Siouan to MandanLʲ → n / _V[+nas]
L → r / _V[-nas]
tʲ → s / _ʔV
mn → mV0nV0 / {C,V}_{C,V}
sk → ʃ / _”V
37.2.4 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Čiwere-Winnebagok → ɡ / V[+nas]_ ! _#
37.2.4.1 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Čiwerep → w / V_V
k → ɡ / ”V_
Lʲ → n / _V[+nas]
Lʲ → r / _V[-nas]
x → ∅ / k_”V
37.2.4.2 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Winnebagop → b / V_V
Lʲ → n / _V[+nas]
Lʲ → r / _V[-nas]
37.2.5.1 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Crowt → s / _V
sk → tsk / _”V
x → ∅ / k_”V
37.2.5.2 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Hidatsar → ∅ / {C,V}k_{C,V}
mn → w / {C,V}_{C,V}
sk kx → tsk hk / _”V
sk → hts / ”V_
37.2.6 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Dhegihak → ɡ / ”V_
s → z / V_V
L Lʲ → {ð,j} ʒ / _”V
L → d / ”V_
37.2.6.1 Proto-Dhegiha to KansaN → S / V_V
mn → bl / {C,V}_{C,V}
37.2.6.2 Proto-Dhegiha to Omaha-Poncap → b / V_V
L → θ / _”V
d → n / ”V_
Lʲ → {θ,n} / _V[+nas -stress]
mn → bθ / {C,V}_{C,V}
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to OsageLʲ → ð / _V[+nas -stress]
mn → bð / {C,V}_{C,V}
ʃ → s / ”V_k
xk → (ʃ)k / _”V
xk → ɡ / ”V_
x → ʔ / k_”V
37.2.7 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Ohio-Valleym → ∅ / {C,V}_n{C,V}
37.2.7.1 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Biloxip → w / V_V, apparently as a result of some dissimilation, as this appears to be an allophone of /p/ here, IIUC
k → ∅ / ”Vs_
k → ∅ / _x”V
kx → xk / ”V_
37.2.7.2 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Ofosk → f / ”V_
kx → sk / ”V_
37.2.7.3 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Tutelos → ʃ / ”V_k
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to LungchowV → Vː / _V
38.1.1.3.5 Central Tai to T’ien-Paoɣ → w / _V[+ round]
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Tail → j / p(ʰ),b_V
39 Tanoan39.1 Proto-Tanoan to Jimezd → n / _V[+nas]
39.3 Proto-Tanoan to Taosd → l / _V[-nas]
d → n / _V[+nas]
41 Trans-New Guinea41.1 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Apalɨp k ⁿd → β {h,k} nj / V_V
41.2 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Asmatᵐb ᵑɡ → p k / V_V
41.3 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Binanderet → {r,s} / V_i
ᵐb ⁿd ᵑɡ nj → {p,ᵐb} {ⁿd,z} k z / V_V
41.5.1.2 Proto-Gorokan to North ForeN → ŋk / _V
41.5.1.3 Proto-Gorokan to South ForeN → ʔ / _{V,S[- voice]}
C → ∅ / VN_V
41.5.1.8 Proto-Gorokan to MoveV[+ low tone] → ∅ / C_hV[+ high tone]
V[+ low tone] → ∅ / C_CV[+ high tone] if both vowels are the same
41.5.2.4 Proto-Kainantu to UsarufaN → n / _V
41.7 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kâteᵐb ⁿd → {ᵐb,p} s / V_V
41.8 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kiwait ᵐb ⁿd {k,ᵑɡ} nj → {r,t} p {d,t} ɡ r / V_V
41.9 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Selepett ᵐb nj s → r {b,p} ⁿd {s,d} / V_V
41.10 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Telefolᵐb ⁿd ᵑɡ → b n k / V_V
41.11 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Middle Wahgiᵑɡ → {ᵑɡ,ŋ} / V_V
42 Uralic42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnicŋi → @ / V_
nʲ → ni / #(C)i_V
nʲ → in / V_V
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishj w → i U / V_{C,#}
i → ∅ / {VC,ks}_ at the ends of a suffix
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnishið → j / ”V_V
ð → ∅ / ! ”V(X)_
ɣ → ʔ / VV0_V0 ! V0 = U
h → ∅ / V[-stress](X)_V
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livonianɑ → ə / VC(C)ɑC(C)_# when unstressed
LV → VL / {#,V,O}_
∅ → ʔ / (C)V_CV
ə → ∅ / VC_CV
C → Cː / ʔ_V
a → aː / VC_
43 Uto-Aztecan43.1 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Comanche∅ → h / Vu_k
s → ∅ / Vn_
43.2 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Hopip → v / Vn_
k → q / _V[+low]
w → l / {#,V[+low]}_V[+low]
43.3 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Luiseñop → v / {Vn,ɨ}_ (the latter “sometimes”)
k → q / #_V[+low]
43.4 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Nahuatlp → ∅ / {#,Vs}_
43.5.1.1 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Kawaiisuhkʷ hʔ (h)S Sː → w ʔ S[+ voiced] S[- voiced - long] / V_V
ts → z / V_V
hts → z / V_i
h → ∅ / V_tsV
k → ∅ / V_wV
43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhamp → w / {#,Vs}_
t → tʃ / _V[+high]
n → ɲ / _V[+high]
j → dʒ / _V[+high]
j → d / _V[+low]
44 Vasconic44.1 Proto-Vasconic to Aquitaniann[+ fortis] → n(ː) / V_V
44.2 Proto-Basque to BasqueVn → Ṽ / _V (?)
n →m / u_V
n → ɲ / {i,ɪ}_V
n → h̃ / V_V
b → m / _VN
l → ɾ / V_V
ɾ → ∅ / V_V (Souletin)
F[+ voiced] → ∅ / V_V (sometimes, usually involving “compound surnames”?)
Ṽ → Vɲ / _V (not Souletin)
e → a / {V,C}_r (“mainly in the western dialects”)
∅ → j / V_{N,s̺,s̻}S
∅ → j / u_V (eastern dialects)
∅ → m / o$_V (Orozko Biscayan)
∅ → V / Vk_# (Zeberio Biscayan)
e → j / #_V (at least a few times?)
a → ∅ / _V
V → ∅ / Vj_
a → ∅ / V_# (Guipuscoan; happens because of reanalysis of the definite article)
eð (→ e ?) → j / #_V
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.2 List 2: Conditional or complex consonant changes{t,k} → ∅ / V_V (Marathi) probably with voiced stops as intermediates, since they also became silent
p → w / V_V (Marathi)
b d ɡ → bː dː ɡː / V_V (some dialects of Italian; there may be more to it than this, since words like “repubblica” are in standard Italian and not just dialects)