Index Diachronica: involving /d/

612 results from /d/   520 results to /d/   66 results with context involving /d/   

plain dʱː d͜z ʼd ⁿd

from /d/

612 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Omoticdz ʃ tʃ → ʒ s1 s2
dʒ → tʃ → ʃ
6.1.1.1 North Omotic to Benchdʼ → tʼ
6.1.1.2 North Omotic to Dizindʼ → tʼ
6.1.1.3 North Omotic to Kafadʼ → tʼ
6.1.1.5 North Omotic to Shekkachodʼ → tʼ
6.1.1.6 North Omotic to Wolayttadʼ → tʼ / #_
6.1.1.7 North Omotic to Yemsadʼ → t
6.2 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Erythreantʃ dʒ → ts dz
6.2.1.1.1 Proto-Agaw to Awngiz dz ɡ → ɡ {z,dz} ɡ(ʷ)
6.2.1.1.2 Proto-Agaw to Blin{ts,tʃ} z dz → ʃ d dʒ
6.2.1.1.3 Proto-Agaw to Kemantney{ts,tʃ} dz → ʃ dʒ
6.2.1.1.4 Proto-Agaw to Xamtangats tʃ dz → sʼ tʃʼ z
6.2.2.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-Chadicts dz {t,ts}ʼ tʃʼ → s z sʼ ʃʼ
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berber{ʃ,ts,z} dz tʃ {tʼ,tʃʼ} dʒ → s z ts tsʼ dʒ
6.2.2.1.5 Proto-Semitic to Classical Arabicɬˤ → dɬˤ → dˤ
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabic{ðˤ,dˤ} → ð
dʒ → z
6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Egyptian Arabicdˤ → zˤ (seems to be a sporadic change only affecting a few words, e.g. CA/MSA ˈdˤaːbitˤ → EA ˈzˤaːbitˤ)
dʒ → ɡ
6.2.2.1.8 Classical Arabic to Coastal Hadhrami Arabicdʒ → j, occasionally ɟ or dʒ in educated speech
6.2.2.1.9 Classical Arabic to Wādı̄ Hadhrami Arabicdʒ → j, occasionally ɟ or dʒ in educated speech
dˤ q → ðˤ ɡ
6.2.2.1.10 Classical Arabic to Hassāniyya Arabicdˤ q → ðˤ ɡ
6.2.2.1.12 Classical Arabic to Eastern Libyan Arabicdˤ dʒ q → ðˤ ʒ ɡ
6.2.2.1.13 Classical Arabic to Western Libyan Arabicq dʒ → ɡ ʒ
6.2.2.1.14 Classical Arabic to Moroccan Arabicdʒ → {d,ɡ} / if s or z occur somewhere else in the word
dʒ → ʒ / else
6.2.2.1.16 Classical Arabic to Sudanese Arabicdʒ q → ɡʲ ɢ
6.2.2.1.17 Classical Arabic to Tunisian Arabicdˤ q → ðˤ {ɡ,q}
dʒ x ɣ → ʒ χ ʁ
6.2.2.1.18 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrewp b t d k ɡ → b v θ ð x ɣ / non-intial singletons
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonictʃ dʒ → t d / #_
dʒ → j
8.2 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Korean{tʰ,d} {k,ɡ} → r {h,∅} / {C,V}_{C,V}
d → t
{tʃʰ,dʒ} → tʃ
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolict(ʰ) d → tʃ dʒ / _i
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkic{ʒ,dʒ} → j / #_ (marked as to Pre-Proto-Turkic)
{d,n} → j / #_ (?) (marked as to Pre-Proto-Turkic)
d ɡ → t k (may have been part of a more sweeping merger; Firespeaker calls it “lenis-fortis”)
{d,n}ʲ sʲ → j ʃ / #_
8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchakd ɣ → t x / _#
d → t / #_ (“kind of”, something about evidence from borrowings)
rd → dr (possibly sporadic and/or confined to Kazakh)
{d,ɡ} → j / ø_
d → ð → j / V_
8.5.1.1 Proto-Kypchak to Kazakhdʒ → ʒ (did not occur in Qara Nogay or Central Nogay)
8.5.2 Proto-Turkic to Sakhad s {ʃ,z} → t ∅ s / V_V
9 Austroasiatic9.1.1 Proto-Vietic to Muong Khen{pj,bj} {tj,dj} {cj,ɟj} → b d j
9.1.2 Proto-Vietic to Middle Vietnamesebʱ {tʰ,dʱ} {t*ʰ,d*ʱ} {kʰ,ɡʱ} → pʰ t tʰ kʰ (after *kʰ *ɡʱ, only first-register tones may occur)
(h)ə{p,b} (h)ə{t,d} (h)ə{c,ɟ} (h)ə{k,ɡ} → β dʲ ɟ ɡ
{pj,bj} {tj,dj} {cj,ɟj} → {β,w} dʲ ɟ
((h)ə)p d → b t / _l
t*ʰ d ɡ → tʰ t k / _w
9.1.2.1 Middle Vietnamese to Hanoi Vietnamese{β,w} {dʲ,ɟ} → v z
9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnamesedʲ ɟ → z j
10 Austronesian10.1.1.2 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sasakd → r / medial (Meno-mene and Mriak-mriku only)
10.1.2.2 Proto-Philippine to Cebuano*D d → l r / V_V
10.1.2.7 Proto-Philippine to Proto-Kalamiand → r / V_V
10.1.2.9 Proto-Philippine to Tagalog {*D,*j} {d,z} → l r / V_V
10.2.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Chamicd j → r ɭ (sporadic)
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorrob dz → p ts
d → ∅ / _#
10.2.4.1 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Javanese{l,d} z → r d
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Madurese{p,t,k} b d ɡ → ʔ p t k / _#
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauand → r
n dz → l r
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North Sarawakbː dː dzː ɡː → bʱ dʱ dzʱ ɡʱ (Whimemsz says these become “voiced stops with voiceless releases. . .treated as unit phonemes, not clusters)”
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiputbʱ {dʱ,dzʱ} ɡʱ → f s k
dz → d / #_ (though sometimes → {s,ɟ})
b d → p t / _#
10.2.6.2 Proto-North Sarawak to Proto-Kenyahd → l / #_ (sporadic)
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lónghbʱ dʱ dzʱ ɡʱ → p t c k
d → r / V_V “(irregular)”
dz → ɟ / V_V
b d dz ɡ → p t c k / N_
10.3 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Oceanicd → r
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwdr *r → d r
b d ɡ → p t k
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerigndr *R → d r
b bʷ d ɡ → p kpʷ t k
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to Mwotlapndr → d
d → r (sporadic)
b β d → m p n / _{C,#}
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bayɣ s d → ∅ {j dr} / _#
ɣ s d → ∅ {j dr} / “before a post-tonic vowel”
10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to Tolomakod ɡ → r k
{z,dr} → ts
10.3.9.1 Proto-Utupua to Asuboadr s l → {d,ɟ} {∅,s} {n,∅}
10.3.9.3 Proto-Utupua to Tanibilidr → ɟ / _i
d c ɲ → ɟ {s,∅} n
10.3.11 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Southern Vanuatudr → {d,r}
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejomd {c,*j} → tʃ s
10.3.11.2.1 Proto-Erromango to Syeb d ɡ → p t k / {#,C}_
b d ɡ → m n ŋ / _#
b d ɡ → mp nt ŋk
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Urab d ɡ → m n ŋ / _C
b d ɡ → p t k / _#
10.3.11.3.1 Proto-Tanna to Kwamerab(ʷ) d → p(ʷ) t
10.3.11.3.2 Proto-Tanna to Lenakelb(ʷ) d → p(ʷ) t
10.3.11.3.3 Proto-Tanna to North Tannad → t (often)
d → k / _ŋ
10.3.11.3.4 Proto-Tanna to Southwest Tannab(ʷ) d → p(ʷ) t
10.3.11.3.5 Proto-Tanna to Whitesandsd → r / _ŋ (occasionally elsewhere as well)
b(ʷ) d → p(ʷ) t
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’andr *R → d r
b d → m n / _{C,#}
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to Onged → r / V_{V,#}
ɡd ɡl → dː lː
10.6 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Paiwant1 d1 d3 Z → t d ɖ ɟ
b d2 → {v,b} z
10.7 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Rukai{t1,c} {d1,z} d3 → t d ɖ
S1 s d2 *C → s θ ð ts (not sure what *C stands for here)
10.8 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Tsouic{*C,d} j *R → c z r
11 Northeast Caucasian11.1.1 Proto-Avar-Andic to Akhvakhdz dʒ → {tsːʼ,z} {tsːʼ,dʒ}
tɬː dɮ → tɬ(ː) tɬː
11.1.2 Proto-Avar-Andic to Andi{ts,st} dz → s {tsːʼ,z}
dʒ → {tʃːʼ,dʒ}
tɬ tɬ(ː) tɬ(ː)(ʼ) dʒ → ɬ tɬ(ː) tɬ(ː)(ʼ) tɬː
11.1.3 Proto-Avar-Andic to Avarts tsː tsʼ tsːʼ dz → sh ts tʃʼ ts(ː)ʼ tsʼ
tʃ tʃː tʃːʼ dʒ → ts(?) tʃ tʃ(ː)ʼ tsʼ
11.2 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Dargi{tsː,st} tsːʼ dz stː → ts z tsː s
tʃ tʃː dʒ → {tsʼ,tʃʼ} ʒ ts
11.3 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Khinalugb d → {b,v} z
{tsː,st} {tsːʼ,dz} → ts tsʼ
{tʃ(ː),dʒ} → tʃʼ
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → k {k,xʲ} {kʼ,ɡ} {kʼ,kː} kʼ
11.4 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Lakb d → {pː,b} {tː,d} (but *b is “[p]rone to change to *m”)
{tsː,stː} dz st → sː {tsː,z} ts
tʃ tʃː dʒ → {ts,tʃ} {tsʼ,tʃʼ} tʃ(ː)ʼ
tɬ tɬː tɬ(ː)ʼ dɮ → xʲ xː kʼ {kː,l}
11.5.1 Proto-Lezgic to Agulb d → {b,w} {d,z}
{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ stː dz → {s,ts} {ts,tʃ} tː s z
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ x kʼ kː {,j,xʲ}
11.5.2 Proto-Lezgic to Archid → r / _#
d → {d,tː}
{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ stː dz → s {s,ʃ} tsʼ sː ts
tʃ(ː) dʒ → ʃ tʃ
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → ɬ ɬ(ː) kʼ tɬʼ tɬː
11.5.3 Proto-Lezgic to Lezghib d → {pː,b} {tː,d}
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ {ɣʲ,ɡ} qʼ k(ʼ) {kː,ɣʲ}
11.5.4 Proto-Lezgic to Rutulb d → {b,w} {d,z}
{ts,st} tsːʼ dz → {s,ts} {d,t} z
tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ qʼ q(ʼ) {w,xʲ,j}
11.5.5 Proto-Lezgic to Tabassaranb d → {b,w} {d,z}
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ {ɣʲ,ɡ} k kː ɣʲ
11.5.6 Proto-Lezgic to Udits tsː tsʼ tsːʼ dz → {∅,s} tʃ {∅,tsʼ} {tsʼ,tʃʼ} z
tʃ tʃː tʃʼ tʃːʼ dʒ → {∅,ʃ} tʃ ∅ tʃʼ {dʒ,tʃ}
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → {∅,x} q {∅,qʼ} qʼ {ɣ,l}
11.6 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Nakh{tsː,tʃː,dz,dʒ} → tː / _#
11.7 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Proto-Tsezic{ts,st} {tsːʼ,dz} → s ts
tʃ {tʃː,dʒ} → ʃ tʃ (the change of *tʃːʼ is conjectured for Bezhta, as the change is only listed in Tsez, but given the development of *tsːʼ I don’t find it unreasonable to put it here)
12 Northwest Caucasian12.1 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Abazgizʷʲ tsʷʲʼ dzʷʲ → dzʲ~zʲ tʃʼ dʒ~ʒ
tʃ(ʼ) dʒ → tsʲ(ʼ) dzʲ
tʃʷ(ʼ) tʃʷː dʒʷ → tʃ(ʼ) zʷ dzʷ~zʷ
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ dɮ → x ts {x,tsʼ} l
tɬʲ tɬʲʼ dɮʲ → xʲ ɕ ɣʲ
tɬʷ(ː) tɬʼ dɮʷ → tsʷ tsʼ(ʷ) l
tɬʷʲ tɬʷʲː tɬʷʲʼ dɮʷʲ → tʃʷ ʒʷ tʃʷʼ dʒʷ
12.1.1 Proto-Abazgi to Ashkharywa Abazatʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) v dz
tʷ(ʼ) dʷ → {tʷ(ʼ),p(ʼ)} {dʷ,b}
12.1.2 Proto-Abazgi to Tapanta Abaza{tʃʷ(ʼ),tɕ} {dʒʷ,dʑ} → ts(ʼ) dz
tɕʷ(ʼ) dʑʷ → {tɕ(ʷ)(ʼ),tʃʷ(ʼ)} {dʑ(ʷ),dʒʷ}
{tʷ(ʼ),dʷ} → {tɕ(ʷ)(ʼ),tʃ(ʷ)(ʼ)} {dʒ(ʷ),dʑ(ʷ)}
12.1.3 Proto-Abazgi to Ahchypsy Abkhaztʃʷ tʃʷʼ dʒʷ tɕ(ʼ) dʑ → f pʼ ts(ʼ) v dz
12.1.4 Proto-Abazgi to Bzyp Abkhaztʃʷ tʃʷʼ dʒʷ → pʼ f v
12.1.5 Proto-Abazgi to Abzhywa Propertʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑ
12.1.6 Proto-Abazgi to Tsabal Abzhywatʃʷ tʃʷʼ tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f pʼ ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑ
12.1.7 Proto-Abazgi to Khaltsys Sadztʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑʷ
12.1.8 Proto-Abazgi to Tswydzhy Sadztʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑʷ
12.2 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Circassiantʷ(ː) tʷʼ dʷ → t(ː) tʼ d
ts tsː dz → {s,c} tsː dz~z
tsʲ tsʲː tsʲʼ dzʲ → (s) tsː tsʼ dz~z
tsʲʷ tsʲʷ dzʲʷ → tsʲ tsʲʼ dzʲ
tʃ tʃʼ dʒ dʑ → s tsʲʼ(?) dz~z dʑ~ʑ
tʃʷ(ː) tʃʷʼ dʒʷ → tɕ(ː) tɕʼ dʑ~ʑ
ɬ(ː) tɬ(ː) tɬʼ dɮ → ɕ(ː) tɕ(ː) tɕʼ tħ
tɬʲ tɬʲʼ dɮʲ → tɕ tɬʼ ɣ
tɬʷ(ː) tɬʷʼ dɮʷ → tʃ(ː) tʃʼ ħ
tɬʲʷ tɬʲʷ tɬʲʷ dɮʲʷ → x tɕː tɕʼ ɮ
12.2.1 Proto-Circassian to Adyghedɮ → ɣ
dzʲ dzʷ → dʑ ʑʷ
12.2.2 Proto-Circassian to Kabardiandɮ dzʲ dzʷ dʑ ɡʲ → ʒ ʑ {v,w} ʒ dʒ
12.3 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Ubykhts(ʲ)ː tsʷː dzʲ → ts tsʷ dz
sʷʲ zʷʲ tsʷʲʼ dzʷʲ → tʃʷ ʒʷ tʃʲʼ dʒʲ
tʃ(ʼ) dʒ → ts(ʼ) dz
ʃʷ(ː) ʒʷ tʃʷ(ʼ) dʒ → ʃ ʒ tʃ(ʼ) dʒ
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ dɮ → ɕ (sʲ) tsʲʼ ɮ
tɬʲ tɬʲʼ dɮʲ → ɕ tɬʼ ɕ ʁ(~zʲ)
tɬʷ(ː) tɬʷʼ dɮʷ → tsʷ ts(ʷ)ʼ w
tɬʷʲ tɬʷʲː tɬʷʲʼ dɮʷʲ → f dʑ tsʼ dʒ
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Aleutdʒ → ð / i_ (in eastern and central dialects)
dʒ → ð / u_a (in eastern dialects)
15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow Iñupiaqdʒ → ʁ / i_u
ədʒ → i / _{a,u} (except in #U)
adʒ → i / _a (except in #U?)
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic Iñupiaqdʒ → tʃ → s / “in certain positions” (except for Thule Greenlandic, where dʒ → tʃ and stayed there, apparently)
dʒ → tʃ / i_{u,i}
ədʒ → i / _{a,u} (except in #U)
adʒ → i / _a (except in #U?)
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie Iñupiaqədʒ → i / _{a,u} (except in #U)
adʒ → i / _a (except in #U?)
15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales Iñupiaqdʒ → ʁ / i_u
ədʒ → i / _{a,u} (except in #U)
adʒ → i / _a (except in #U?)
15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’ikdʒ → ∅ / i_i
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’ikdʒ → ∅ / i_i
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’ikdʒ → ∅ / i_i
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’ikdʒ → ∅ / i_i
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central Sentanid → l / medially
16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern Sentanid → l / medially
16.1.5 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Tablad → r / medially
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albaniand dʱ → ð / V_V
d dʱ → ð / r_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́(ʱ) → b d dh
sd → θ / medial
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albaniand dʱ → ð / V_V
d dʱ → ð / r_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́(ʱ) → b d dh
sd → θ / medial
17.2.1 Common Anatolian to Hittited → s / #_{i,j}
17.2.2 Common Anatolian to Luwian{d,l} → r “in Hieroglyphic Luwian, occasionally”
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lyciand → k / _w
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to Lydiand → tʃ / _{i,u}
d → t / {#,N}_
p d D → f ð T
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenianb d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʷʱ → p t j k / #_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenianb d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenianb d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenianb d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡ(ʷ)ʱ → p t j k / #_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenianb d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ / ! _#
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenianb d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡ(ʷ)ʱ → p t j k / #_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenianb d ɡ(ʷ) → p t k
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestanbʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ → b d z
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishp t k kʷ b d ɡ m n l r s → f θ x xʷ v ð ɣ M N L R h / V(#)_{R,V} (“We don’t know the exact values of lenited /m n l r/. We can guess that lenited m became a nasalized labial continuant of some sort, but beyond that, we don’t know.”)
p t k kʷ b d ɡ ∅ → b d ɡ ɡʷ mb nd ŋɡ n / n#_”V
— st zd → sː dː / [anything]_
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshp t k {b,m} d ɡ → b d ɡ v ð ɣ / _V
mb nd ŋɡ → mː nː ŋː
17.6 Proto-Indo-European to Dacianbʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → b d ɡ́ ɡ ɡʷ
{kʷ,kw} {ɡʷ,ɡw} → tʃ dʒ (→ s~z z ?) / _E
17.7 Proto-Indo-European to Common Germanicbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → β ð ɣ
b d ɡ → p t k
17.7.2.1.4 Midlands Middle English to Early Modern Englishtj sj dj zj → tʃ ʃ dʒ ʒ / ! _uː (perhaps only before stressed uː?)
17.7.2.1.5 Early Modern English to American English{t,d} → ɾ / V_V[-stress]
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishtj dj → tʃ dʒ
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scotsd → ∅ / n_
d → ∅ / l_#
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsd~ð → d / V_u
d~ð → ð / V_V
dʒ → tʃ / _#
17.7.2.1.13 Middle English to Yolat d → θ ð (conditioning unclear)
17.7.2.1.15 North Frisian Lenitionp t k → b d ɡ → v r ɣ / Vː_{V,#}
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlautb d ɡ → p t k
17.7.2.5 West Germanic to Old Low Germanb d → p t / _C[-voice]
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norseb {w,v} d ð ɡ → p f t θ k / _#
d → ∅ / {l,m}_{b,ɡ,k,l,m,n,s}
{t,θ,d,ð} → ∅ / n_l
{t,θ,d,ð} → ∅ / l_n
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandicb d {ɡ,ɣ} → p t k / _S
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Norn{t,d}j → tʃ
d → ∅ / n_# (sometimes)
b d ɡ → p t k / #_
fd → dː
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornb d → p t / N_
nd ld (→ nː lː ?) → ɲ ʎ
dj → dʒ
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
b d ɡ → v ð ɣ / V_V
dz → z
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
17.8.10 Proto-Indo-European to Mycenaean Greekbʱ dʱ ɡʱ → pʰ tʰ kʰ
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittitebʱ dʱ ɡʱ → p t k
17.10 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iranianttʃ ddʒʱ → t.ʃ d.ʒʱ
d → ∅ / _ʒdʱ
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-Aryant d(ʱ) n → ʈ ɖ(ʱ) ɳ / C̣_ ! _r
s t d(ʱ) n → ʂ ʈ ɖ(ʱ) ɳ / _C̣
ls lt ld(ʱ) ln → ʂ ʈ ɖ(ʱ) ɳ / “disputed”
tʃ dʒ(ʱ) → tɕ dʑ(ʱ) → ɕ ɟ(ʱ)
tst dzdʱ → tː dʱː
dʱ → ɦ / (unclear environment)
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-Aryan{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʱ} {j,v} → h ∅ / V_V
dʒɲ → ɳː / V_V
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-Aryan{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʱ} {j,v} → h ∅ / V_V
b {d,dʒ,ɡ} → v j / V_V
dʒɲ → ɲː / V_V
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-Aryan{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʱ} {j,v} → h ∅ / V_V
dʒɲ → ɳː / V_V
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-Aryan{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʱ} {j,v} → h ∅ / V_V
tv dv → p b
dʒɲ → ɳː / V_V
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavicbʱ dʱ {ɡʱ,ɡ́ʱ} ɡʷʱ → b d ɡ ɡʷ
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishtʲ dʲ sʲ zʲ nʲ rʲ l lʲ → tɕ dʒ ɕ ʑ ȵ r ɫ l (this last probably not before /i/)
ʃi ʒi tʃi dʒi ɕi ʑi → ʂɨ ʐɨ ʈʂɨ ɖʐɨ tsɨ ʒɨ
ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ ɕ ʑ → ʂ ʐ ʈʂ ɖʐ ts ʒ
d → ∅ / ɫ_ɲ
d → ∅ / r_ts
d → ∅ / _n “in arch. ‘jeno’”
zdʲ stʲ → {ʑ,ɕ} {s,ɕ} / _n
dʲ → ∅ / r_n
dz ts → d͜z t͜s
d → ɡ / _n
tʲ dʲ → t d / _{l,n,ɲ,r,ʐ}
17.11.2 Proto-Slavic to Old Russian{t,d} → ∅ / V_lV
tj dj → tʃ, ʒ
17.12 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Italicbʰ dʰ gʰ → pʰ tʰ dʰ → ɸ θ x
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latin{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʷʱ} → f / #_
dw → b
d → ∅ / Vː_#
d → ∅ / C_
d → l “in many dialects”
dʱ → b / rV_
dʱ → b / _Vr
dʱ → b / _l
dʱ → b / uː_
dʱ → d
{t,d} → s / _s
{p,b} {t,d} → m n / _{m,n}
{d,n,r} → l / _l
{t,d}t → tst → sː
{n,d}…r → r…r
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalanndj → ɲ
dj → dʒ → ʒ
p b t d k ɡ → β {β,w} ∅ {j,w} ɣ {j,∅,ɡ} / V_rV
— d → z → ∅ / V_V
— d → w / _V#
d → t / _#
j → dʒ → ʒ / #_
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to Frenchdj → dʒ / r_
d → ∅ / _j
{p,b} {t,d} → v ð / V_{V,r}
d → ∅ / _{z,ʒ}
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to Italian{dj,ɡj} lj {nj,ɡn} → dʒ ʎ ɲ
{t,d,k,m,n,s} → ∅ / _#
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portugueseɡ → ɡʲ → dʲ → dʒ → ʒ / #_{i,e}
j → dʒ → ʒ / #_
d → ∅ / V_V
dj → dʒ → ʒ / V_V
dj → dz → ts → s / r_V
ndj → nts → ns → ɲ / V_V
d → ∅ / V_V (in Portugal)
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençald → ∅ / V_V (seems to have happened in the north and northeast at some point)
b d ɡ → β ð ɣ / V_V
{d,ɡ} → ∅ / _j
Original z (/ts/?) → dj → j
b {d,dz,dʒ} z ʒ ɡ → p {t,ts,tʃ} s ʃ k / _(s)#
tʃ → jdz → jz / V_V (in the south and northwest)
tʃ → dz → z / V_V (otherwise)
dʒ → j
{t,d}l {k,ɡ}l → lː ʎ
{t,d} → ð → i / _r
βw tw → wː dw → ɡʷ ɡʷ → ɡ ɡ
{d,k}w → ɡʷ → ɡ
dVɡ (n)dVɡ → dʒ(?) ndʒ
l{tj,tʃj} ldʒ → lts ldz → uts udz → us uz
lː{j,Vdʒ} lnj → ʎ ɲ
{ntʃj,ndj} → nts → ns
{ndj,ndʒj} ndʒ → ɲ {ɲ,ndʒ}
rdj rVɡ → rdz rdʒ
rdʒ → {rdʒ,rdz(→ rz)}
tj → tʃ → dj → djʒ (?) → dz (in the north and west) or idz (in the south and east)—medial (i)dz became (i)z; i-less forms “prevail in the literary language” and seem to have become common if the dz follows the stress
ndt ndtʃ ntʃ nkt nf → n{d,t} {nts,ndz(→ nz),ndʒ} n(t)s {ɲ,(i)nt,ntʃ} {nf,fː(→ f)}
nt nd → {∅,n} ∅ / _# (in some Languedoc and Gascon areas)
nd → n / _# (in western areas and for some speakers of Limousin)
d → t / n_#
rtʃ rdtʃ → r(t)s {rdz(→ rz),rts,rdʒ}
rdɡ → r{ɡ,dʒ} / _a
βtʃ → u{ts,dz} → u{s,z}
βt βd → pt bd (in the west)
βt βd → ut ud (else)
kt ɡd → it id (in the north, northeast, and southwest)
{tʃ,k}t ɡd → tʃ dʒ (else)
dtʃ → ts (in Auvergne and some western areas)
dtʃ → dʒ (for some southeastern and southwestern speakers)
dtʃ → dz → z (else)
ɡn{d,t} → ŋn{d,t} → ɲ{d,t} → {(i)nd,ɲd,ndʒ} or t(ʃ)
td → tː → t
jd → {dʒ,id}
{d,l} → ∅ / _#
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romaniant d s → ts dz ʃ / _i
dj → ʒ / _”B
dj → z / V_V
d → ∅ / _z
{t,d} → ∅ / n_#
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardiniannd {lː,ld} → ɳɖ ɖː / V_V
d → ∅ / V_{i,j}
d → r / V_V (“[s]ome Campidanese”)
b d ɡ → β ð ɣ / “except in Nuorese”
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanishk ɡ → tʃ dʒ → ts dz / _{j,i,e,ɛ}
d → {∅,ð} / V_V
d ɡ → ð ɣ / V_V
— d → ∅ / _n (sometimes)
— tst dzd → ts dz
— Vdz → ∅ / {nts,ndz,rdz_
— ndzVɡ → nɡ
— dn dl → nd ld
ts dz → s̪ z̪
/dɾ/ [ðɾ] → ɾ / V_V
d → ð / ɾ_
17.12.2.2 Proto-Sibellian to Umbriand → rs / V_V
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tochariand → ∅ / _N
dz → ∅ / B_
dz → ts
{t,dʱ} → tʲ / _E(ː)
{t,dʱ} → ts / _y
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makurápts (n)dz → t nd
ⁿd ŋ → t {ɡ,k} / _V[-nas]
18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekensts (n)dz → {s,ts} s
{ᵐb,ⁿd,ð} → t / _V[+nas]
18.3.3 Proto-Tuparí to Tuparí{(n)dz,ts} → s / _i
{(n)dz,ts} → t / else
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayoróts (n)dz → t nd
19 Kartvelian19.2 Proto-Kartvellian to Svandz dʒ ɖʐ → {dz,z} {dʒɡ,sɡ} {dʒ,ʒ}
19.3 Proto-Kartvelian to Zandʒ ɖʐ → {dʒɡ,dzɡ} dʒ
20 Khoisan20.1.4 Proto-Khoe to Kxoets dz → {ç,tç} dʒ
20.1.5 Proto-Khoe to Namats dz kxʼ → {ts,s} d ∅
20.1.6 Proto-Khoe to Narots dz → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s} dz~ts
20.1.8 Proto-Khoe to Tetits dz kxʼ → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s} z kʼ
20.1.9 Proto-Khoe to Tsʔixats dz kxʼ → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s} z kʼ
20.2.1 Proto-Kx’a to ǂHoant d s → {c,tʃ} ɟ ʃ
21 Lakes Plain21.1 Proto-Lakes Plain to Proto-Far Westd → ɾ / V_V
21.1.1 Proto-Far West to Awerab d ɡ → β~w ɾ~∅ ɣ / V_V
t d → t~ɾ~n n / #_
iiɛ Vdiɛ → ijɛ βe
21.1.2 Proto-Far West to Saponip d → p~f n / #_
p b d k → p~f w ɾ ɡ~ɣ / V_V
iiɛ Vdiɛ → dzɛ ɾɛ
21.1.3 Proto-Far West to Rasawap b d k → ɸ β ɾ x~k / V_V
iiɛ Vdiɛ → ijɛ βie
21.2 Proto-Lakes Plain to Proto-Tarikup d → ɸ ɾ / V_V
21.2.1 Proto-Tariku to Proto-Central Tarikud → ɾ~d / V_V
21.2.1.1 Proto-Central Tariku to Edopid → d~n~l / #_a
d → dz / _i
21.2.1.2 Proto-Central Tariku to Iaud → d~l~n / #_a
21.2.2.2 Proto-East Tariku to Doutaidi → dz / _V
21.2.2.3 Proto-East Tariku to EritaidiV → dz
∅ → dz → î_V
21.2.2.6 Proto-East Tariku to SikaritaidiV → dz
21.2.2.7 Proto-East Tariku to Waritaip d → p~ɸs d~t
21.2.3.1 Proto-West Tariku to Deirateb d k → b~β ɾ~l~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
ti di → s dz / _V
21.2.3.2 Proto-West Tariku to Faiab d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
b d → m n / #_a
21.2.3.3 Proto-West Tariku to Fayub d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
b d → m n / #_a
b d → b~ᵐb d~ⁿd
ti di → s dz / _V
21.2.3.4 Proto-West Tariku to Kirikirib d k → b~β ɾ~l~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
b d → m n / #_a
b d → b~ᵐb d~ⁿd
21.2.3.5 Proto-West Tariku to Sehudateb d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
ti di → s dz / _V
21.2.3.6 Proto-West Tariku to Tauseb d k → b~β ɾ~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
b d → b~ᵐb d~ⁿd
ti di → s j / _V
21.2.3.7 Proto-West Tariku to Weirateb d k → b~β ɾ~l~∅ k~x~ɡ~ɣ / V_V
b d → m n / #_a
b d → b~ᵐb d~ⁿd
ti di → s dz / _V
22 Macro-Arawakan22.1 Proto-Arawá to Arawádz → s / medially
22.2 Proto-Arawá to Banawá-Jamamadi{ts(ʰ),tʃ} dz → s ɟ
22.3 Proto-Arawá to Hypothetical Arawán Substratedz → s
22.4 Proto-Arawá to Jarawarap(ʰ) {tʰ,d} → ɸ t
dz → ɟ
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.1 Proto-Chibchan to Arhuacos d → z r / _(V)j
23.1.1.1.3 Proto-Chibchan to KoginVs dVs → n(V(s)) ʒ(Vʒ)
23.1.1.1.4 Proto-Chibchan to Marocacerod(V)j s(V)j → lʲ dʒ
d → l
23.1.1.1.5 Proto-Chibchan to Motilóns(V)d → dʲ
d → ∅ / V_s
23.1.1.1.6 Proto-Chibchan to Tunebo{d(V)s,n(V)j} n(V)s → r {VsV,r}
d(V)j → r(V)
d → r
23.1.2 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Lencanb d → m n / _V[+ nasal] (I’m inferring this from the statement that “[t]here are also a series…of nasal vowels”)
b d → p l
23.1.3 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Misumalpanb d → m n / _V[+ nasal] (I’m inferring this from the statement that “[t]here are also a series…of nasal vowels”)
b d → {b,p} l
25 Macro-Panoan25.1.2 Proto-Tacanan to Chamab d → ɓ ɗ
25.1.3 Proto-Tacanan to Reyesanob d → ᵐb ⁿdz
26 Mande26.2 Proto-Mande to Busad → l
26.3 Proto-Mande to Dand → l
26.4 Proto-Mande to Gurod → l
26.6 Proto-Mande to Southwest Mande{tʼ,d} {kʼ,ɡ} → l k
26.8 Proto-Mande to Manod → l
26.9 Proto-Mande to Mwad → l
26.10 Proto-Mande to Sand → l
29 Na-Dene29.1.1 Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak to Proto-Athabaskan{s,dz} → {s,z}
29.1.1.1.21 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Kiowa Apached → ∅ / _#
{d,j} → j / ∅ / _#
29.1.1.1.22 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Jicarillad → ʔ / _#
29.1.1.1.23 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Lipand → ∅ / _#
29.1.1.1.25 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Chiricahuad → ∅ / _#
29.1.1.1.26 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Mescalerod → ∅
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-Bantud2 → d / in C2 position
30.1.1.1 Proto-Bantu to Sebirwat d l → {ʈ,tʲ} {ɖ,dʲ} {ɭ,lʲ,ʎ} (The paper is a bit unclear as to which is meant, as the transcription and the textual aspects of the paper seem to disagree here)
p t d c ɟ k ɡ → ɸ ɹ {d,l} tʰ ∅ h {∅,ɡ}
30.1.1.2 Proto-Bantu to Tswana{p,t,tʃ,k} {mp,nt,ɲtʃ,nk} {(m)b,(n)d,(ɲ)dʒ,(n)ɡ} {m,n} → s tsʰ ts ɲ / _iV
{tʃ,k} {ntʃ,nk,r} {ɲdʒ,nɡ} mp mb p b {d,l} m n → s tsʰ ts tʃʰ(w) tʃ(w) ʃ(w) dʒ(w) dʒ ŋw ɲ / _{ɪ,e}V
{p,t,tʃ,k} {mp,nt,ɲtʃ,nk} {(m)b,(n)d,(ɲ)dʒ,(n)ɡ} {m,n,ɲ} → sw tsʰw tsw ɲw / _iV
{tʃ,k} {ɲtʃ,nk} {ndʒ,nɡ} → s tsʰ ts / _{i,ɪ,e}
mp nt ɲtʃ nk mp nd ɲdʒ nɡ → pʰ tʰ tɬʰ qʰ p t tɬ k
p t tʃ k {dʒ,ɡ} ɲ → h r tɬʰ χ ∅ n
30.1.1.3.1 Proto-Sam to Amu{ndj,nz} → n̪d̪
30.1.1.3.2 Proto-Sam to Bajuni{ndj,nz} ɲz → n̪d̪ n̪ ð
30.1.1.3.3 Proto-Sam to Mwiinindj → n̪d̪
30.1.1.3.4 Proto-Sam to Siu-Pate{ndj,nz} z → n̪d̪ ð
30.1.2 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-Manenguba’p ’t ’d/d2 c {’ɟ} ’k ɡ → f l ɟ s ∅ {w,∅} {k,w} / in C1 position
p t ’t {’d,d2} c k ’k → b d l {l,∅} ɟ ɡ ∅ / in C2 position
30.3.1.1.2 Proto-Ajá to Hwet d → tʃ dʒ / _{u,i}
30.3.1.1.3 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Fon{ts,tʰ} {dz,dʱ} → s z
{t,k}j {d,ɡ}j → tʃ dʒ
30.3.1.1.4 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Gents dz → s z
{t,k}j {d,ɡ}j → tʃ dʒ
tʰ dʱ → t d
30.3.1.1.5 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Phla-Pherá{ts,tʰ} {dz,dʱ} → s z
30.3.1.1.6 Proto-Phla-Pherá to Aladat d → ʃ ʒ / _j
30.3.1.1.8 Proto-Vhe to Adángbets dz → s z
30.3.1.1.9 Proto-Vhe to Avénot d → tʃ dʒ / _{u,i}
t d → ts dz / _j
30.3.1.1.10 Proto-Vhe to Awalant d → tʃ dʒ / _{u,i}
s {k,ts} {ɡ,dz} → ʃ tʃ dʒ / _i
30.3.1.1.11 Proto-Vhe to Kpándo{t,k} {d,ɡ} → ts dz / _i
t d → tʃ dʒ / _j
30.3.1.1.12 Proto-Vhe to Pecı́{k,ts} {ɡ,dz} → tʃ dʒ / _i
30.3.1.1.14 Proto-Vhe to Wacı́{k,ts} {ɡ,dz} → tʃ dʒ / _i
36 Sino-Tibetan36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàb d dz ɡ → {p,pʼ} {t,tʼ} {ts,tsʼ} {k,kʼ}
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Lat d Nt Nd st sd çT tr (ç)dr KT → tʰ t Ntʰ md zd st çtj trh (ç)tr kt
(r)ts (r)dz → (r)tsʰ (r)ts
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiat st tr d sd (ç)dr Nt çT KT → t. s.d tr. t s.t (ç.)tr m.t. n.dr ɡ.t
ts (r)dz dʒ PTS KTS sTS çTS → {tsʰ,s} (r)ts tsʰ ɡ.ts s.{ts,pj} {s.ts,br}
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Tod(r) → t
ts {dz,KTS} NTS rdz dzl dʒ → s ts {dz,mtʃ.} rts tsl tʃ.
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtse(N)t (N)d st sd KT çT tr dr çtr → (N)tʰ mt zd st kt çt(j) trh tr çtr
ts (r)dz dzl dʒ NTS PTS Kts KTS sTS çTS → tsʰ (r)ts Ndz tsl ts ptç ktç kts sts {s,ç}ts
36.3.2.2.3 Proto-rGyalrongic to Patid → l
ts dʒ NTS → {s,tʃ.} tʃ. m
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo MoNt tr d KT çT → mt. tʂ t kt ʃt
ts dʒ → tʃ. tʃ
36.3.2.2.5 Proto-rGyalrongic to Trungdʒ → tsh
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Naod(r) çT → t ʃt
ts dz NTS KTS sTS → tʃ ts {ts,m} ɡts sp
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu Ta{d,KT} st → tʃ zdʒ
dr çdr → ʈ ʂʈdz
ts dz rdz dʒ → {ʈʂ,ʒ} tsj rtsʰ ʈʂ
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassud KT → l kt
ts dzl NTS → {tʃ.,j} tsl m
36.3.3.1 Old Tibetan to Amdo dialects{d,ɡ,s,l,r} → {h,r} / #_
d → l / _# (some dialects)
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.2.6.2 Proto-Dhegiha to Omaha-Poncad → n / ”V_
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.1 Proto-Tai to Ahomd ɗ → t d
38.1.1.2 Proto-Tai to Saekd ɗ → t d
d → t / _{l,r}
38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Taid → ∅ / _{l,r}
38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchow{r,s,z} tʃʰ dʒ → ɬ ʃ tʃ
38.1.1.3.2 Central Tai to Nungtʃ tʃʰ dʒ → ʃ tsʰ {ʃ,tʃ}
38.1.1.3.3 Central Tai to Taytʃ dʒ → {x,t} tʃ
38.1.1.3.4 Central Tai to Thodʒ → tʃ
38.1.1.3.5 Central Tai to T’ien-Paodʒ → tʃ
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Tai{pʰ,b} ɓ {tʰ,d} ɗ {kʰ,ɡ} {kʷʰ,ɡ} → p b t d k kʷ
{tʃ(ʰ),dʒ} → ʃ
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Taid → ∅ / _{l,r}
38.1.1.5.1 Southwest Tai to Laodʒ → s
38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lüdʒ → s
38.1.1.5.3 Southwest Tai to Shandʒ → s
39 Tanoan39.1 Proto-Tanoan to Jimezts dz → s z
d → n / _V[+nas]
39.2 Proto-Tanoan to Kiowats tsʰ tsʼ dz → t tʰ tʼ d
39.3 Proto-Tanoan to Taosts tsʰ tsʼ dz → tʃ s tʃʼ j
d → l / _V[-nas]
d → n / _V[+nas]
39.4 Proto-Tanoan to Tewadz → {j,dʒ}
41 Trans-New Guinea41.1 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Apalɨp k ⁿd → β {h,k} nj / V_V
41.3 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Binandereᵐb ⁿd ᵑɡ nj → {p,ᵐb} {ⁿd,z} k z / V_V
41.4 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kaetiⁿd ᵑɡ → d k
41.5.1.1 Proto-Gorokan to Asaroʔ{l,d} ʔɡ → t k
41.5.1.9 Proto-Gorokan to Sianeʔŋɡ ʔd → ŋk t
41.5.2.1 Proto-Kainantu to AuyanaN{w,d,r} nj → ŋk nt (not sure if *nj is supposed to be *ɲɟ)
41.5.2.2 Proto-Kainantu to AwaNd → n
ʔw ʔb ʔd ʔɡ → m p t k
41.7 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kâtek ᵐb ⁿd → {k,h} b {s,t} / #_
ᵐb ⁿd → {ᵐb,p} s / V_V
41.8 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kiwait ᵐb ⁿd {k,ᵑɡ} nj → {r,t} p {d,t} ɡ r / V_V
41.9 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Selepetᵐb ⁿd s → b {s,t} {t,s} / #_
41.10 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Telefolᵐb ⁿd ᵑɡ → b n k / V_V
42 Uralic42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishb d ɡ → β ð ɣ / ! N_
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnishmb nd ŋɡ → mː nː ŋː
42.1.1.1.2 Standard Finnish to Modern Standard Finnishd → ∅ / _r “in inherited vocabulary”
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livoniandj lj rj ɡj → dʲ lːʲ rːʲ jɡ
sʲ tsʲ zʲ dzʲ → ʃʲ tʃʲ ʒʲ dʒʲ
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basqued → l / #_ (except verbs)
d ð → ɟ ʝ / {E,j}_ ? (“some dialects”)
d ð → ɟ ʝ / {ʎ,ɲ}_ (Guipuscoan, High Navarrese)
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.1 List 1: Simple Consonant Changesmb nd → ʙ dr (Nias)
47.2 List 2: Conditional or complex consonant changesb d ɡ → bː dː ɡː / V_V (some dialects of Italian; there may be more to it than this, since words like “repubblica” are in standard Italian and not just dialects)

to /d/

520 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1.1.1 North Omotic to Benchl → d / #_VC
6.1.1.2 North Omotic to Dizinz → d / Vj_
6.1.1.3 North Omotic to Kafaz zː → j dʒː
l → d / #_VC
6.1.1.4 North Omotic to Maalez → d / V_
6.1.1.5 North Omotic to Shekkachoz → dʒː / Vj_
zː → dʒː
l → d / #_VC
6.1.1.7 North Omotic to Yemsaz → d / V_
6.1.2.1 South Omotic to Aariz → {d,z} / V_
6.1.2.2 South Omotic to Dimez → {d,z} / V_
6.2 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Erythreantʃ dʒ → ts dz
6.2.1.1.1 Proto-Agaw to Awngiz dz ɡ → ɡ {z,dz} ɡ(ʷ)
6.2.1.1.2 Proto-Agaw to Blin{ts,tʃ} z dz → ʃ d dʒ
6.2.1.1.3 Proto-Agaw to Kemantney{ts,tʃ} dz → ʃ dʒ
6.2.2.1.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-Boreafrasianz → d / “when another sibilant is in the word nearby” and (word-finally?) when “noun-stem final”
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berber{ʃ,ts,z} dz tʃ {tʼ,tʃʼ} dʒ → s z ts tsʼ dʒ
ɡ(w) → dʒ / #_Vd
tlʼ → dl / #_Vħr
6.2.2.1.5 Proto-Semitic to Classical Arabicɡ → ɡʲ → dʒ
ɬˤ → dɬˤ → dˤ
6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Egyptian Arabicθ ð → t d / “usually in numbers or cases where a short vowel has been deleted and it’s in contact with another stop, e.g. CA/MSA kaˈθiːr → EA ktiːr
6.2.2.1.8 Classical Arabic to Coastal Hadhrami Arabicθ ð ðˤ → t d dˤ
6.2.2.1.9 Classical Arabic to Wādı̄ Hadhrami Arabicθ ð ðˤ → t d dˤ
6.2.2.1.13 Classical Arabic to Western Libyan Arabicθ ð(ˤ) → t d(ˤ)
6.2.2.1.14 Classical Arabic to Moroccan Arabicdʒ → {d,ɡ} / if s or z occur somewhere else in the word
6.2.2.1.19 Biblical Hebrew to Modern Israeli Hebreww θ ð ɣ → v t d ɡ (sometimes)
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonictʃ dʒ → t d / #_
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolictʰ → d / _#
t(ʰ) d → tʃ dʒ / _i
tʃ → dʒ / #_i
tʃ → d / #
nʲ → dʒ / #_
lʲ → dʒ / #_i
lʲ → d / #_
8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusict → dʒ / #_{æ,ø,y}
t → d / #_
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkictʰ → d / #_(V){lʲ,r(ʲ)}
{t,tʃ} → d / #_
8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchakrd → dr (possibly sporadic and/or confined to Kazakh)
8.5.1.1 Proto-Kypchak to Kazakhj → dʒ / #_ (did not occur in Qara Nogay)
8.5.1.2 Proto-Kypchak to Kyrgyzj → dʒ / #_
9 Austroasiatic9.1.1 Proto-Vietic to Muong Khenm n → b d (Only seems to have occurred with first-register tones)
{pj,bj} {tj,dj} {cj,ɟj} → b d j
ɓ ɗ → b d (Only seems to have occurred with first-register tones)
9.1.2 Proto-Vietic to Middle Vietnamese(h)ə{p,b} (h)ə{t,d} (h)ə{c,ɟ} (h)ə{k,ɡ} → β dʲ ɟ ɡ
{pj,bj} {tj,dj} {cj,ɟj} → {β,w} dʲ ɟ
10 Austronesian10.1.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawanj → {d,t} / #_
j z → d j
10.1.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Philippine{*D,*Z,z} → d / #_
*D → d / _#
10.1.2.1 Proto-Philippine to Bicol*j {*D,z} → r d / V_V
h *j → ∅ d / _#
10.1.2.2 Proto-Philippine to Cebuano*j → d / #_
h *j → ∅ d / _#
10.1.2.3 Proto-Philippine to Hiligaynon*j → d / #_
*j → d / _#
10.1.2.4 Proto-Philippine to Ibanagr → d / #_ (?)
10.1.2.5 Proto-Philippine to Ifugao{z,*Z,*D,*j} → d
10.1.2.6 Proto-Philippine to Ilocano*D → d
{z,*Z,*j} → d / V_V
10.1.2.7 Proto-Philippine to Proto-Kalamian{z,j} → d
10.1.2.8 Proto-Philippine to Kankanay{*D,*Z} → d
{z,*j} → d / V_V
10.1.2.9 Proto-Philippine to Tagalog*j → d / #_
h *j → ∅ d / _#
10.1.2.10 Proto-Philippine to Waray{*D,*Z,z} → d
*j → d
10.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Batak{ts,ʈ} {ɟʝ͡,ɖ} {lʲ,ɲ} {ʔ,x,s,h} ʀ → t d n ∅ r (velar fricative is conjectured; changes → d “unsure”)
10.2.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Chamicz j → j d
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorrol → d / _{C,#}
j w → dz ɡʷ
10.2.3 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Malayicj → d
10.2.4.1 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Javanese{l,d} z → r d
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North Sarawakɟ(ː) → d(ː)
bː dː dzː ɡː → bʱ dʱ dzʱ ɡʱ (Whimemsz says these become “voiced stops with voiceless releases. . .treated as unit phonemes, not clusters)”
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiputdz → d / #_ (though sometimes → {s,ɟ})
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwdr *r → d r
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerigndr *R → d r
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to Mwotlapndr → d
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bayv t l r → p dr n w / _#
ɣ s d → ∅ {j dr} / _#
ɣ s d → ∅ {j dr} / “before a post-tonic vowel”
10.3.9.1 Proto-Utupua to Asuboadr s l → {d,ɟ} {∅,s} {n,∅}
10.3.10.2 Proto-Vanikoro to Tanemas → {s,d,c}
10.3.11 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Southern Vanuatudr → {d,r}
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Uranr → d
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’andr *R → d r
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to Ongeɡd ɡl → dː lː
10.6 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Paiwant1 d1 d3 Z → t d ɖ ɟ
10.6.1 Proto-Paiwan to Northern Paiwanc ɟ q ɭ → t d ʔ l
10.7 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Rukai{t1,c} {d1,z} d3 → t d ɖ
11 Northeast Caucasian11.1.1 Proto-Avar-Andic to Akhvakhdz dʒ → {tsːʼ,z} {tsːʼ,dʒ}
11.1.2 Proto-Avar-Andic to Andidʒ → {tʃːʼ,dʒ}
11.4 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Lakb d → {pː,b} {tː,d} (but *b is “[p]rone to change to *m”)
11.5.1 Proto-Lezgic to Agulb d → {b,w} {d,z}
11.5.2 Proto-Lezgic to Archid → {d,tː}
11.5.3 Proto-Lezgic to Lezghib d → {pː,b} {tː,d}
{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ dz → {ʃ,tʃ} tʃ(ʼ) {tʃː,dʒ}
11.5.4 Proto-Lezgic to Rutulb d → {b,w} {d,z}
{ts,st} tsːʼ dz → {s,ts} {d,t} z
11.5.5 Proto-Lezgic to Tabassaranb d → {b,w} {d,z}
tʃ tʃː tʃːʼ → {ʃ,tʃ} {tʃ,dʒ} {tʃː,tʃʼ}(?)
11.5.6 Proto-Lezgic to Uditʃ tʃː tʃʼ tʃːʼ dʒ → {∅,ʃ} tʃ ∅ tʃʼ {dʒ,tʃ}
11.6 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Nakhr → d / #_
12 Northwest Caucasian12.1 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Abazgi{pʷ,pʲ} {p(ʲ)ː,bˤ} bʷ pʷʲ bʷʲ → p b f tsʲ dzʲ
tʷː tʷʲ(ʼ) → d(w) tʷ(ʼ)
tsʲː → dzʲ (marked as dubious in the source)
zʷʲ tsʷʲʼ dzʷʲ → dzʲ~zʲ tʃʼ dʒ~ʒ
tʃ(ʼ) dʒ → tsʲ(ʼ) dzʲ
tɕː → dzʲ(~tɕ)
tʃʷ(ʼ) tʃʷː dʒʷ → tʃ(ʼ) zʷ dzʷ~zʷ
tɕʷ(ʼ) tɕʷː → tʃ(ʼ) dʒ~ʒ
tɬʷʲ tɬʷʲː tɬʷʲʼ dɮʷʲ → tʃʷ ʒʷ tʃʷʼ dʒʷ
12.1.1 Proto-Abazgi to Ashkharywa Abazatʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) v dz
tʷ(ʼ) dʷ → {tʷ(ʼ),p(ʼ)} {dʷ,b}
12.1.2 Proto-Abazgi to Tapanta Abaza{tʃʷ(ʼ),tɕ} {dʒʷ,dʑ} → ts(ʼ) dz
tɕʷ(ʼ) dʑʷ → {tɕ(ʷ)(ʼ),tʃʷ(ʼ)} {dʑ(ʷ),dʒʷ}
12.1.3 Proto-Abazgi to Ahchypsy Abkhaztʃʷ tʃʷʼ dʒʷ tɕ(ʼ) dʑ → f pʼ ts(ʼ) v dz
12.1.5 Proto-Abazgi to Abzhywa Propertʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑ
12.1.6 Proto-Abazgi to Tsabal Abzhywatʃʷ tʃʷʼ tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f pʼ ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑ
12.1.7 Proto-Abazgi to Khaltsys Sadztʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑʷ
12.1.8 Proto-Abazgi to Tswydzhy Sadztʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑʷ
12.2 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Circassianpʲ(ː) pʲʼ bʲ → t(ː) tʼ d
pʷ pʷʲ pʷʲʼ bʷ bʷʲ → p tʷ tʷʼ b d
tʷ(ː) tʷʼ dʷ → t(ː) tʼ d
ts tsː dz → {s,c} tsː dz~z
tsʲ tsʲː tsʲʼ dzʲ → (s) tsː tsʼ dz~z
tsʷ lʲ {qʲʷ,qˤʷ} → sʷ d qʷ / #_ (data not given for non-initial forms)
tsʲʷ tsʲʷ dzʲʷ → tsʲ tsʲʼ dzʲ
tʃ tʃʼ dʒ dʑ → s tsʲʼ(?) dz~z dʑ~ʑ
tʃʷ(ː) tʃʷʼ dʒʷ → tɕ(ː) tɕʼ dʑ~ʑ
12.2.1 Proto-Circassian to Adyghedzʲ dzʷ → dʑ ʑʷ
12.2.1.2 Adyghe to Bzhedug Adyghekʲ(ː) kʲʼ ɡʲ → tʃ(ː) tʃʼ dʑ
12.2.1.4 Adyghe to Temirgoy Adyghekʲ(ː) kʲʼ kʷː ɡʲ → tʃ tʃʼ kʷ dʑ
12.2.2 Proto-Circassian to Kabardianpː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː {tʃː,tɕː} kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → b d dz v ɕ ʒ dʒ ɡʷ qʼ~qχ qʷʼ~qχʷ
dɮ dzʲ dzʷ dʑ ɡʲ → ʒ ʑ {v,w} ʒ dʒ
12.3 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Ubykhpʲ(ː) bʲ → t(ː) d
pʲː → tʷ~dʷ
pʷʲ bʷʲ → tʷ dʷ
{r,l} lʲ → d r / #_
ts(ʲ)ː tsʷː dzʲ → ts tsʷ dz
z(ʲ) zʷ → dz(ʲ)~z(ʲ) dzʷ~zʷ
sʷʲ zʷʲ tsʷʲʼ dzʷʲ → tʃʷ ʒʷ tʃʲʼ dʒʲ
tʃ(ʼ) dʒ → ts(ʼ) dz
ʃʷ(ː) ʒʷ tʃʷ(ʼ) dʒ → ʃ ʒ tʃ(ʼ) dʒ
tɬʷʲ tɬʷʲː tɬʷʲʼ dɮʷʲ → f dʑ tsʼ dʒ
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’iks → dʒ / {i,u}_V
in → dʒ / _u (possibly only word-initially?)
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’iks → dʒ / {i,u}_V
in → dʒ / _u (possibly only word-initially?)
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’iks → dʒ / {i,u}_V
in → dʒ / _u (possibly only word-initially?)
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’iks → dʒ / {i,u}_V
in → dʒ / _u (possibly only word-initially?)
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanianɡ́(ʱ) → d / %_C[+sibilant]
bʱ dʱ ɡ́(ʱ) → b d dh
c ɟ → tʃ dʒ (for most speakers)
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanianɡ́(ʱ) → d / %_C[+sibilant]
bʱ dʱ ɡ́(ʱ) → b d dh
c ɟ → tʃ dʒ (much less widespread than in Gheg)
17.2.2 Common Anatolian to Luwianɡ → dʒ (sporadic)
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lycianɡ → dʒ (sporadic)
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armeniant k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armeniant k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armeniant k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
ɡʷʱ → dʒ / #_{e,i}
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armeniant k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armeniant k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ / ! _#
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armeniant k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
ɡʷʱ → dʒ / #_{e,i}
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armeniant k(ʷ) → d ɡ / {N,L}_
ɡʷʱ → dʒ / #_{e,i}
bʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → {w,v} d z ɡ ʒ
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestanbʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ → b d z
k(ʷ) ɡ(ʷ)(ʱ) → tʃ dʒ / _E
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishp t k kʷ b d ɡ ∅ → b d ɡ ɡʷ mb nd ŋɡ n / n#_”V
— st zd → sː dː / [anything]_
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshp t k {b,m} d ɡ → b d ɡ v ð ɣ / _V
17.6 Proto-Indo-European to Dacianbʱ dʱ ɡ́ʱ ɡʱ ɡʷʱ → b d ɡ́ ɡ ɡʷ
ḱ ɡ́ → ts dz
{kʷ,kw} {ɡʷ,ɡw} → tʃ dʒ (→ s~z z ?) / _E
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothicð → d / C[+ voiced]_
17.7.2 Common Germanic to West Germanicβ ð ɣ → b d ɡ / {#,”V}_
17.7.2.1.1 Anglo-Frisian to Old Englishk ɣ ɡ → tʃ ʝ dʒ / “in certain complex circumstances”
17.7.2.1.4 Midlands Middle English to Early Modern Englishtj sj dj zj → tʃ ʃ dʒ ʒ / ! _uː (perhaps only before stressed uː?)
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishtj dj → tʃ dʒ
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsd~ð → d / V_u
t → d / r_
17.7.2.1.15 North Frisian Lenitionp t k → b d ɡ → v r ɣ / Vː_{V,#}
17.7.2.2.1 Old Low Franconian to Middle Dutchθ ð → t d
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlaut{θ,ð} → d
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norseβ ð ɣ → b d ɡ / #_
β ð ɣ → b d ɡ / {m,n,ŋ,l}_
θː ðː → tː dː
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandic{l(ː),rl} rː → dɬ r̥ / _#
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornp(ː) t(ː) k(ː) → b(ː) d(ː) ɡ(ː) / {V,R}_{V,R}
fd → dː
ð → d / ! V_V
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornp t k → b d ɡ / V_V (the second V at least can be a syllabic consonant)
dj → dʒ
ɡ(ː) → dʒ / _iV
tr → rd
pː tː kː → b d {ɡ,ɣ} / V_V
tː → {tʲ,dʲ}
θ → {t,d}
ð → d
nː → ɲ(d)
17.7.4 Common Germanic to Vandalicθ ð → t d (not a complete change; apparently due to Latin)
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
p t k → b d ɡ / N_
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
17.8.10 Proto-Indo-European to Mycenaean Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → t tʰ d / _E
17.10 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iranianttʃ ddʒʱ → t.ʃ d.ʒʱ
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-Aryantʃ dʒ(ʱ) → tɕ dʑ(ʱ) → ɕ ɟ(ʱ)
tst dzdʱ → tː dʱː
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-Aryanj w → dʒ b / V_V
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-Aryanj w → dʒ b / V_V
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-Aryanj w → dʒ b / V_V
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-Aryanj w → dʒ b / V_V
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavicbʱ dʱ {ɡʱ,ɡ́ʱ} ɡʷʱ → b d ɡ ɡʷ
k ɡ x → ts dz s / _{æː,i}
k ɡ x → ts dz s / “After some syllables with front vowels”
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishtʲ dʲ sʲ zʲ nʲ rʲ l lʲ → tɕ dʒ ɕ ʑ ȵ r ɫ l (this last probably not before /i/)
ʑ z → dʑ dz / _v
∅ → d / r_z
dz ts → d͜z t͜s
tʲ dʲ → t d / _{l,n,ɲ,r,ʐ}
17.12 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Italicbʰ dʰ gʰ → pʰ tʰ dʰ → ɸ θ x
17.12.1 Proto-Italic to Proto-Latino-Falsicanɡʰ → {d,h,ɡ}
ɸ θ → b {d,b} / V_V
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latint → d / V_
dʱ → d
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalandj → dʒ → ʒ
p t → b d / V_V
j → dʒ → ʒ / #_
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to Frenchk ɡ → tj dj / _E
dj → dʒ / r_
j tj → dʒ ts / #_
j → dʒ / V_V (rare)
∅ → d / {n,l,ɲ,z_r
k ɡ → t d / {n,r}_r
(t)s → (d)z / V_V
— {b,v}j → dʒ
— m{ɲ,j} → ndʒ
k ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _a
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to ItaliantVk → dʒ / unstressed
k ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _E
j → dʒ / #_
j → dʒ / V_V
{dj,ɡj} lj {nj,ɡn} → dʒ ʎ ɲ
sj → dʒ
t k → d ɡ / V_r
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portugueseɡ → ɡʲ → dʲ → dʒ → ʒ / #_{i,e}
j → dʒ → ʒ / #_
pl bl p t → br {br,l} b d / V_V (bl → l is learned)
p t k → b d ɡ / V_r
dj → dʒ → ʒ / V_V
dj → dz → ts → s / r_V
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençalk ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _E
p t k s → b d ɡ z / V_V (this b → v?)
Original z (/ts/?) → dj → j
(s)k ɡ → (s)tʃ dʒ / #_a (in the north and northeast)
j → dʒ / #_ (but not in Béarn)
tʃ → jdz → jz / V_V (in the south and northwest)
tʃ → dz → z / V_V (otherwise)
ɡ → j → dʒ / “[b]etween the last two vowels of a proparoxytone”, though it dropped early in some dialects
j → dʒ / _”E (in the west)
j → dʒ / V_V (did not occur in the northeast and some northern dialects)
∅ → d / z_r
βw tw → wː dw → ɡʷ ɡʷ → ɡ ɡ
βj → {udʒ,uj} (in northern dialects)
dVɡ (n)dVɡ → dʒ(?) ndʒ
l{tj,tʃj} ldʒ → lts ldz → uts udz → us uz
mbj → {mbj,mdʒ,ndʒ}
mnj → ndʒ (else)
{ndj,ndʒj} ndʒ → ɲ {ɲ,ndʒ}
rdj rVɡ → rdz rdʒ
rdʒ → {rdʒ,rdz(→ rz)}
rːVɡ rːj → rdʒ ir
rtVɡ → {rdʒ,rts(→ rs)}
sj → ʒ → (i)(d)ʒ (in some northeastern, northern, and western dialects)
tVɡ trj → dʒ ir
tj → tʃ → dj → djʒ (?) → dz (in the north and west) or idz (in the south and east)—medial (i)dz became (i)z; i-less forms “prevail in the literary language” and seem to have become common if the dz follows the stress
ndt ndtʃ ntʃ nkt nf → n{d,t} {nts,ndz(→ nz),ndʒ} n(t)s {ɲ,(i)nt,ntʃ} {nf,fː(→ f)}
rtʃ rdtʃ → r(t)s {rdz(→ rz),rts,rdʒ}
rdɡ → r{ɡ,dʒ} / _a
stɡ → s{ɡ,dʒ}
βtʃ → u{ts,dz} → u{s,z}
βt βd → pt bd (in the west)
βt βd → ut ud (else)
kt ɡd → it id (in the north, northeast, and southwest)
{tʃ,k}t ɡd → tʃ dʒ (else)
dtʃ → dʒ (for some southeastern and southwestern speakers)
dtʃ → dz → z (else)
ɡn{d,t} → ŋn{d,t} → ɲ{d,t} → {(i)nd,ɲd,ndʒ} or t(ʃ)
jd → {dʒ,id}
17.12.1.1.7 Vulgar Latin to Rhaeto-Romancek ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _a (note the similarity with some varieties of Old Provençal)
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romaniank ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _E
t d s → ts dz ʃ / _i
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardinian{i,j} → dʒ / Vr_V (“dialectal”)
l{i,j} → lː → {ts,dz,ldz,dʒ,lː} (“varies”)
t → d / V_rV
n{i,j} t{i,j} → ndʒ ts / _V
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanishk ɡ → tʃ dʒ → ts dz / _{j,i,e,ɛ}
p t k s ts → b d ɡ z dz / V_V
— tst dzd → ts dz
— dn dl → nd ld
— ∅ → d / n_ɾ
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makurápts (n)dz → t nd
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayoróts (n)dz → t nd
ð → (n)d
19 Kartvelian19.1 Proto-Kartvelian to Georgianɖʐ → dz
19.2 Proto-Kartvellian to Svanɡ → {ɡ,dʒ}
dz dʒ ɖʐ → {dz,z} {dʒɡ,sɡ} {dʒ,ʒ}
19.3 Proto-Kartvelian to Zandʒ ɖʐ → {dʒɡ,dzɡ} dʒ
20 Khoisan20.1.4 Proto-Khoe to Kxoets dz → {ç,tç} dʒ
20.1.5 Proto-Khoe to Namats dz kxʼ → {ts,s} d ∅
20.1.6 Proto-Khoe to Narots dz → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s} dz~ts
21 Lakes Plain21.1.2 Proto-Far West to Saponiiiɛ Vdiɛ → dzɛ ɾɛ
21.2.1 Proto-Tariku to Proto-Central Tarikud → ɾ~d / V_V
21.2.1.1 Proto-Central Tariku to Edopid → d~n~l / #_a
d → dz / _i
∅ → dz / _î
21.2.1.2 Proto-Central Tariku to Iaud → d~l~n / #_a
21.2.2.1 Proto-East Tariku to Biritai∅ → dz / î_V
21.2.2.2 Proto-East Tariku to Doutaidi → dz / _V
V → dz / _V̂
21.2.2.3 Proto-East Tariku to Eritaib C → ∅ d / _#
diV → dz
∅ → dz → î_V
21.2.2.4 Proto-East Tariku to Kai∅ → dz / î_V
21.2.2.5 Proto-East Tariku to Obokuitai∅ → dz / îV
21.2.2.6 Proto-East Tariku to Sikaritaib C → b~∅ {d,ɡ} / _#
diV → dz
∅ → dz / î_V
21.2.2.7 Proto-East Tariku to Waritaip d → p~ɸs d~t
∅ → dz / î_V
21.2.3.1 Proto-West Tariku to Deirateti di → s dz / _V
21.2.3.3 Proto-West Tariku to Fayub d → b~ᵐb d~ⁿd
ti di → s dz / _V
21.2.3.4 Proto-West Tariku to Kirikirib d → b~ᵐb d~ⁿd
21.2.3.5 Proto-West Tariku to Sehudateti di → s dz / _V
21.2.3.6 Proto-West Tariku to Tauseb d → b~ᵐb d~ⁿd
21.2.3.7 Proto-West Tariku to Weirateb d → b~ᵐb d~ⁿd
ti di → s dz / _V
22 Macro-Arawakan22.6 Proto-Arawá to Sorowaháɗ → d / #_
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.4 Proto-Chibchan to Marocacerod(V)j s(V)j → lʲ dʒ
23.1.1.1.5 Proto-Chibchan to Motilóns(V)d → dʲ
25 Macro-Panoan25.1.3 Proto-Tacanan to Reyesanob d → ᵐb ⁿdz
25.1.4 Proto-Tacanan to Tacanatɕ → dʑ
26 Mande26.1 Proto-Mande to Bobol → d
26.5 Proto-Mande to Kono-Vail → d
26.7 Proto-Mande to Mandekanl → d
w j → k dʒ
26.11 Proto-Mande to Semblaf → d (yes, really)
tʼ {kʼ,ɡ,w} → {t,d} k
l → d
j → dʒ
26.12 Proto-Mande to Soninkatʼ {kʼ,ɡ} → {t,d} k
26.13 Proto-Mande to Susul → d
29 Na-Dene29.1 Proto-Na-Dene to Proto-Athabaskan-Eyakkʲ kʲʼ ɡʲ xʲ → ts tsʼ dz s
29.1.1.1.3 Proto-Athabaskan to Beaver{n,ɲ} → d / $_V[-nas] (→ dʒ in the British Columbian dialect)
29.1.1.1.10 Proto-Athabaskan to Easter Gwich’in{n,ɲ} → ⁿdʒ / _E[-nas]
{n,ɲ} → ⁿd / _V[-nas]
29.1.1.1.11 Proto-Athabaskan to Hann → (ⁿ)d / $_V[-nas]
29.1.1.1.19 Proto-Athabaskan to Proto-Southern Athabaskant n x → d n h / in prefixes relating to word derivation
29.1.1.1.21 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Kiowa Apachen → d
29.1.1.1.22 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Jicarillan → ⁿd
29.1.1.1.23 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Lipann → ⁿd
29.1.1.1.25 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Chiricahuan → ⁿd
29.1.1.1.26 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Mescaleron → ⁿd
z(ʔ) ʒ(ʔ) ɮ(ʔ) → dz dʒ dɮ / _#
29.1.1.1.28 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to San Carlosn → ⁿd
29.1.1.1.37 Proto-Athabaskan to Tanacross{n,ɲ} → ⁿd
29.1.1.1.39 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Tanana{n,ɲ} → ⁿd
29.1.2 Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak to Eyakkʲ kʲʼ ɡʲ xʲ → ts tsʼ dz {s,ʃ}
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-Bantud2 → d / in C2 position
30.1.1.1 Proto-Bantu to Sebirwat d l → {ʈ,tʲ} {ɖ,dʲ} {ɭ,lʲ,ʎ} (The paper is a bit unclear as to which is meant, as the transcription and the textual aspects of the paper seem to disagree here)
p t d c ɟ k ɡ → ɸ ɹ {d,l} tʰ ∅ h {∅,ɡ}
l → d / n_
30.1.1.2 Proto-Bantu to Tswana{tʃ,k} {ntʃ,nk,r} {ɲdʒ,nɡ} mp mb p b {d,l} m n → s tsʰ ts tʃʰ(w) tʃ(w) ʃ(w) dʒ(w) dʒ ŋw ɲ / _{ɪ,e}V
mp mb p b m → tʃʰ(w) tʃ(w) ʃ(w) dʒ(w) ŋw / _{ʊ,o}V
30.1.1.3.1 Proto-Sam to Amu{ndj,nz} → n̪d̪
30.1.1.3.2 Proto-Sam to Bajuni{ndj,nz} ɲz → n̪d̪ n̪ ð
30.1.1.3.3 Proto-Sam to Mwiinindj → n̪d̪
30.1.1.3.4 Proto-Sam to Siu-Pate{ndj,nz} z → n̪d̪ ð
30.1.1.3.5 Proto-Sam to Proto-Aweeranz z c → ɲd̪ ʃ
30.1.1.3.6 Proto-Sam to Lower Pokomol → d̪
30.1.2 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-Manengubap t ’t {’d,d2} c k ’k → b d l {l,∅} ɟ ɡ ∅ / in C2 position
’m m ’n n {’ɲ,ɲ} ŋ → m {ᵐb,m} n {ⁿd,n} ɲ {ᵑɡ,ŋ} / in C2 position
30.3.1.1.2 Proto-Ajá to Hwet d → tʃ dʒ / _{u,i}
30.3.1.1.3 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Fon{t,k}j {d,ɡ}j → tʃ dʒ
30.3.1.1.4 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Gen{t,k}j {d,ɡ}j → tʃ dʒ
tʰ dʱ → t d
30.3.1.1.8 Proto-Vhe to Adángbek ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _i
30.3.1.1.9 Proto-Vhe to Avénot d → tʃ dʒ / _{u,i}
k ɡ s → ts dz ʃ / _i
t d → ts dz / _j
30.3.1.1.10 Proto-Vhe to Awalant d → tʃ dʒ / _{u,i}
s {k,ts} {ɡ,dz} → ʃ tʃ dʒ / _i
30.3.1.1.11 Proto-Vhe to Kpándo{t,k} {d,ɡ} → ts dz / _i
t d → tʃ dʒ / _j
30.3.1.1.12 Proto-Vhe to Pecı́{k,ts} {ɡ,dz} → tʃ dʒ / _i
30.3.1.1.13 Proto-Vhe to Tɔ̣wunk ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _i
30.3.1.1.14 Proto-Vhe to Wacı́{k,ts} {ɡ,dz} → tʃ dʒ / _i
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinoh → d / _a (…lolwut)
32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to TlapanecYt Ynt Ys → tʃ dʒ ʃ
{ns,nt} nkʷ nj nw → (n)d (m)b r m
33 Penutian33.3.2.2.1 Northern Yokuts to Gashowup t ʈ k → b d ɖ ɡ
34 Quechumaran34.5 Proto-Quechumaran to Putamayot(ʰ) → d / n_
34.6 Proto-Quechumaran to Quitot(ʰ) → d / n_
ts → dz / ! #_
34.7 Proto-Quechumaran to Riobambat(ʰ) → d / n_
k ts → ɡ dz / n_
34.9 Proto-Quechumaran to Tenat(ʰ) → d / n_
35 Salishan35.1.1 Proto-Central Salish to Comoxw j → ɡ dʒ / _V
35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to Lushootseedmʔn → d
m n → b d
w j → ɡʷ dz / _V
35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to Twanam n → b d
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1 Proto-Sino-Tibetan to Middle Chinese(C-)l- → {d,ji}-
{m,ŋ}l- → dʑ-
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Lat d Nt Nd st sd çT tr (ç)dr KT → tʰ t Ntʰ md zd st çtj trh (ç)tr kt
k sk kr ɡ Pɡ sɡ Nɡ (s)ɡr çK rK Kç → kʰ zɡw dr Nɡ pk sk mk (s)kr çk rɡj ɡçkr
(ʔ)kj (s)ɡj Nkj → (k)tç (s)kj Ndʒ
çr Nç → dr mkʰj
TS → dʒ / l_
NTS PTS KTS sTS çTS → {Ndz,mts} kts(ʰ) ptsʰ sts {sts,rj}
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiat st tr d sd (ç)dr Nt çT KT → t. s.d tr. t s.t (ç.)tr m.t. n.dr ɡ.t
lTS → l.dz
ut uk → ud oɡ
a ap at ar am aj → e eb e(d) er om e.i
36.3.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Japhugʑ j → ndʑ ʑ
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Tots {dz,KTS} NTS rdz dzl dʒ → s ts {dz,mtʃ.} rts tsl tʃ.
at → {at,ɛ,ed}
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtse(N)t (N)d st sd KT çT tr dr çtr → (N)tʰ mt zd st kt çt(j) trh tr çtr
ts (r)dz dzl dʒ NTS PTS Kts KTS sTS çTS → tsʰ (r)ts Ndz tsl ts ptç ktç kts sts {s,ç}ts
LTS → ldʒ
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Molts rts NTS PTS STS → lɖʐ rts. {mdzr,mtʃ} nt. sts
j → dz / #_
36.3.2.2.5 Proto-rGyalrongic to Trungkr → dz
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Nao∅ → dz / #_j
ut u{k,n} ur → ud uo uɛ
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu TaP t → pdz tʃ / r_
Np Nb Nt Nɡ Nç → sts mp mtʰ mk ntsʰdz
{d,KT} st → tʃ zdʒ
dr çdr → ʈ ʂʈdz
k rk kr kj Nkj ɡr → kʰdz nɡ kʰr tʃh dʒ nkʰr
C[+ sibilant]w ç → swdz sdz
36.3.3.1 Old Tibetan to Amdo dialectsk(ʰ){r,j} ɡ{r,j} → tɕ(ʰ) dʑ
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeet ts k kʷ → d dz ɡ ɡʷ / _V
37.1.2.1.1 Cayuga to Upper Cayugat k kʷ → d ɡ ɡʷ / _{V,R}
37.1.2.1.2 Cayuga to Lower Cayugat k kʷ → d ɡ ɡʷ / _{V,R} ! _V[-voiced]
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandotn → ⁿd / _{V[-nas],r}
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagat tʃ k(ʷ) → d dʒ ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Mohawk— t tʃ k(ʷ) → d dʒ ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneidat tʃ k(ʷ) → d dʒ ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Seneca— t k(ʷ) → d ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscarorat k(ʷ) → d ɡ(ʷ) / _{V,R}
37.2.2 Proto-Siouan to Dakotar → d / s_
r → d / x_
37.2.2.1 Dakota to Santee Dakota{pr,mt} → md
kr → hd / #_
37.2.2.3 Dakota to Yankton Dakotar → d / k_
37.2.4 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Čiwere-Winnebagot → dʒ / _E[-stress]
37.2.4.2 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Winnebagot → {tʃ,dʒ}
37.2.6 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Dhegihat tʲ s → d ʒ z / in U[-stress]
L → d / ”V_
37.2.6.1 Proto-Dhegiha to Kansar L(ʲ) → d j / #_ (*)
mt → d
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to Osagepr sr tʲr kr → bð sts ʃd ɡð
sn mt → hn d
37.2.6.4 Proto-Dhegiha to QuapawL → d / #_
37.2.7.1 Proto-Ohio-Valley to BiloxiL → d
r → {d,n}
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.1 Proto-Tai to Ahomd ɗ → t d
38.1.1.2 Proto-Tai to Saekpr b{l,r} vr → v bj d
d ɗ → t d
38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Taiɓ ɗ → b d / ! _{l,r}
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Tai{pʰ,b} ɓ {tʰ,d} ɗ {kʰ,ɡ} {kʷʰ,ɡ} → p b t d k kʷ
38.1.1.5.1 Southwest Tai to Laoɓ ɗ → b d
38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lüɓ ɗ → b d
38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siameseɓ ɗ → m d
38.1.1.5.6 Southwest Tai to White Taiɓ ɗ → b d
39 Tanoan39.2 Proto-Tanoan to Kiowats tsʰ tsʼ dz → t tʰ tʼ d
39.4 Proto-Tanoan to Tewadz → {j,dʒ}
41 Trans-New Guinea41.3 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Binandereᵐb ⁿd ᵑɡ nj → {p,ᵐb} {ⁿd,z} k z / V_V
41.4 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kaetiⁿd ᵑɡ → d k
41.5.1.1 Proto-Gorokan to AsaroNl → nd
41.5.1.3 Proto-Gorokan to South Forem n → mb nd / #_
41.5.2.3 Proto-Kainantu to Gadsupnw nr → mb nd
DO[+ voice] DO[- voice] → nd nt
41.8 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kiwait ᵐb ⁿd {k,ᵑɡ} nj → {r,t} p {d,t} ɡ r / V_V
41.9 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Selepett ᵐb nj s → r {b,p} ⁿd {s,d} / V_V
42 Uralic42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishp t ts s k → b d s z ɡ
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnishθ(ː) ð → ts d (this latter does have some highly sporadic exceptions; additionally, in some dialects these may become {t(ː),h~t} and {r,∅}, respectively)
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livonianp t(ʲ) s(ʲ) k → b d(ʲ) z(ʲ) ɡ / ! #_ or adjacent to C[-voice]
dj lj rj ɡj → dʲ lːʲ rːʲ jɡ
sʲ tsʲ zʲ dzʲ → ʃʲ tʃʲ ʒʲ dʒʲ
43 Uto-Aztecan43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhamj → dʒ / _V[+high]
j → d / _V[+low]
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basqueɡ → dʒ / {E,j}_ (“in some Biscayan areas”)
j → ʝ → ʒ → dʒ (northwestern Biscayan)
46 Vowel Shifts46.19 Southern [United States] Shift (English)z → d / _n (not strictly a vowel shift but included here anyway because it’s cool, and also because it doesn’t occur in 〈hasn’t〉 because of the influence of 〈hadn’t〉)
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.1 List 1: Simple Consonant Changesmb nd → ʙ dr (Nias)
47.2 List 2: Conditional or complex consonant changesb d ɡ → bː dː ɡː / V_V (some dialects of Italian; there may be more to it than this, since words like “repubblica” are in standard Italian and not just dialects)

with context involving /d/

66 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Omotica → o / #Cw_{(d)l,s3}
6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North Omotica → o / #{z,dʒ}_P
e(ː) → i(ː) / #C[+sibilant]_{d,n,r}
6.2.1 Proto-Erythrean to Proto-Cushiticɡ → k / #{d,w}V_
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berberl → ∅ / #{d,tʼ}_VC
p → b / #dlV_
ɡ(w) → dʒ / #_Vd
6.2.2.1.4 Proto-Boreafrasian to Proto-Semitickʼ(w) → k / #dlV_
7 Algonquian7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawnee∅ → ʔ / C{v,d}_{ʃp,ʃk,hV}
10 Austronesian10.3.6 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruzr → ∅ / d_
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark BayV[+ high] → ∅ / _# ! {p,z,d(r)}_
10.3.10 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Vanikoror → ∅ / d_
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to OngeN → n / _{d,l}
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Aleuti →∅ / #_{z,dʒ}
15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’ikə → ∅ / _dʒ{a,u}, except in #U
a → ∅ / _dʒa, except in #U
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’ikə → ∅ / _dʒ{a,u} except in #U
a → ∅ / _dʒa (except in #U?)
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’ikə → ∅ / _dʒ{a,u} except in #U
a → ∅ / _dʒa (except in #U?)
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’ikə → ∅ / _dʒ{a,u} except in #U
a → ∅ / _dʒa (except in #U?)
17 Indo-European17.7.2.1.5 Early Modern English to American Englishj → ∅ / {θ,s,z,l,n,t,d}_ when in onset position
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishə → ɪ / _{k,ɡ,tʃ,dʒ,ʃ,ʒ,v}
ʊə → oː / ! {j,dʒ}_
æ → æː / _d (rare) ! form of a strong verb
17.7.2.1.13 Middle English to Yola∅ → ɛ / uː_d
17.7.2.2.2 Middle Dutch to Modern Dutchl → u / o_{t,d}#
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard GermanV → Vː / _r{t,d,s,ts} (except /ə/)
17.7.2.5 West Germanic to Old Low Germanv → f / _C ! _d
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norse{f,β,p} → ∅ / l_{d,ɡ,n,ð,t}
{ɡ,ɣ} → ∅ / r_{d,n,t}
n → ∅ / f_{d,s,t}
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Norna → ɔ / _{l,nd}C
17.10 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iraniand → ∅ / _ʒdʱ
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-Aryanv → ∅ / {t,d}_
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-Aryanv → ∅ / {t,d}_
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-Aryanv → ∅ / {t,d}_
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishɛ ɛ̃ ɛː → ɔ ɔ̃ a / _C[-palatalized +dental] (also sporadically before plain non-dentals)
ьl → ɛɫ / P_C[+dental -palatalized]
ь → aː / r_C[+dental -palatalized]
ɡ → ∅ / _d
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to LatinV → Vː / _{t,d}t
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalanɡ → ∅ / V_dV
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to Frencha → ə / #{tʃ,dʒ}_(%…)” in U[+open]
V → ə / _{CC,tʃ,dʒ} ! _{nt,nɡ,mp,rt,rd}
{p,b} → ∅ / _{t,d}
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— ɛ → jɛ / _{u,i,ʎ,rʲ,ʃ,ʒ,j,tʃ,dʒ} (except in some northern and western dialects, or if this u ← l or if this i ← ð)
— o → y / _{tʃ,dʒ,it,id} (did not occur in Dauphiné)
l → u / _{d,s} (Rouergue)
l → u / _{t,d,s} (else)
t → ∅ / rd_
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romaniani → ∅ / {ts,dz,S}_V
j → z / rd_
e → ə / #(C…)V…{t,d,n}_…”U
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanishe → ∅ / V{d,s,n,l,ɾ}_#
— Vdz → ∅ / {nts,ndz,rdz_
— n → ɾ / nd_
h → ∅ / _d
21 Lakes Plain21.2.2.1 Proto-East Tariku to BiritaiV → ∅ / di_
21.2.2.4 Proto-East Tariku to KaiV → ∅ / di_
21.2.2.5 Proto-East Tariku to ObokuitaiV → ∅ / di_
21.2.2.7 Proto-East Tariku to WaritaiV → ∅ / di_
30 Niger-Congo30.3.1.1.11 Proto-Vhe to Kpándoj → ∅ / {ts,dz}_
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.1 Proto-Tai to Ahom{l,r} → ∅ / {d,ɗ}_
42 Uralic42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livonianʋ → ∅ / {d,z}_