Index Diachronica: involving /h/

395 results from /h/   387 results to /h/   103 results with context involving /h/   

plain h̃ʷ

from /h/

395 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1.1.1 North Omotic to Bench{ʔ,hx} → ∅
6.1.1.2 North Omotic to Dizin{h1,h2} → h
6.1.1.3 North Omotic to Kafah2 → w / #_
6.1.1.4 North Omotic to Maaleh2 → w / #_
6.1.1.5 North Omotic to Shekkachoh1 → {h,∅} / #_
h2 → w / #_
6.1.1.7 North Omotic to Yemsah1 → {h,∅} / #_
h2 → w / #_
6.1.2.1 South Omotic to Aarih1 → ∅
6.2.2.1.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-Boreafrasianh → ħ / #_Vs
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berberh → ħ / _Vz
{h,ħ,q} → ʕ / C[+voice]_V
{h,ħ} → ʔ / KV_
qh → ʕħ
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabicʔ h → ∅ x
6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Egyptian Arabich → ∅ / in coda
6.2.2.1.19 Biblical Hebrew to Modern Israeli Hebrewh → ∅ / _#
h → ∅ (colloquial)
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakihl → sː
{x,h}S → Sː
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenaki{R,h} → ∅ / V_V (sporadic?)
{x,h}S → Sː
7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-Atsinaθ h {s,m,n,r} → ʃ ∅ ʔ / _C
7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapahohʔ → ʔh
h → ∅ / _#
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventrehʔ → ʔh
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfooth → ∅ / ! _C
h → x / _{p,k}
hkw → ʔk
nθ hs → sːt sː
{jiː,ja,ahi} {owaː,awa,awe} awi {iːwa,eːwa,aji,aje,ani} → i oː o(ji) iː / C_C
hi → ∅ / aː_
ke(h) → tː ?
7.6 Proto-Algonquian to Northern East Cree{n,q,h} → ∅ / _s
{n,q,h}ʃ {n,q,h}l → s {h,j,hj}
7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East Cree{n,q,h} → ∅ / _s
{n,q,h}ʃ {n,q,h}l → ʃ l
7.8 Proto-Algonquian to Plains Cree{n,q,h} → ∅ / _s
{n,q,h}ʃ {n,q,h}l → s {h,j,hj}
7.9 Proto-Algonquian to Swampy Cree{n,q,h} → ∅ / _s
{n,q,h}ʃ {n,q,h}l → ʃ l
7.10 Proto-Algonquian to Woods Cree{n,q,h} → ∅ / _s
{n,q,h}ʃ {n,q,h}l → s {h,j,hj}
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawareh → ∅ / _{s,x}
7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-Illinois{ʔ,h}{ɬ,l} → hs
h → ʔ / _{s,ʃ}
hs hʃ → sː ʃː / sporadic, usually {#,V[+front]}_
{h,ʔ} → ∅ / _m
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaqn{θ,l} h{θ,ʃ} → ∅ s
{ʔ,h,N} → ∅ / _C
(aw)aha → aː
ehi → eː
{aja,iha,iji,ihi,ija} → iː
7.15 Proto-Algonquian to Ojibwe{θ,s,h,ʔ} → ∅ / _{p,t,tʃ,k}
{ʔ,h}{s,r} → s
{ʔ,h} → ∅ / _ʃ
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawnee{h,s,tʃ,θ} → ʔ / _O
8 Altaic8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchakh → ∅ (shared with Old Turkic)
8.5.1.2 Proto-Kypchak to Kyrgyzæ Vh {ʕ,h} → ɑː Vː ∅ (seems to have largely been confined to loanwords from Persian)
9 Austroasiatic9.1.1 Proto-Vietic to Muong Khen(h)ə{p,b} → t / _l
9.1.2 Proto-Vietic to Middle Vietnamese(h)ə{p,b} (h)ə{t,d} (h)ə{c,ɟ} (h)ə{k,ɡ} → β dʲ ɟ ɡ
((h)ə)p d → b t / _l
10 Austronesian10.1.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan{q,h} → ∅
10.1.1.1 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Balineser → {r,h} → {∅,h}
h → {∅,h}
10.1.1.2 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sasakh → q / _# (might’ve been a retention?)
h → ∅
V(h) → V(q) / _# (again, might’ve been a retention?)
10.1.1.3 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sumbawanh → q / _# (might’ve been a retention?)
h → ∅
V(h) → V(q) / _# (again, might’ve been a retention?)
10.1.1.5 Proto-Polynesian to Luangiua{q,h} → ∅
10.1.2.1 Proto-Philippine to Bicolh *j → ∅ d / _#
10.1.2.2 Proto-Philippine to Cebuanoh *j → ∅ d / _#
h → ∅ / _#
10.1.2.3 Proto-Philippine to Hiligaynonh → ∅ / _#
10.1.2.4 Proto-Philippine to Ibanag{q,h} → ∅
10.1.2.5 Proto-Philippine to Ifugao{q,h} → ∅
10.1.2.6 Proto-Philippine to Ilocano{q,h} → ∅
10.1.2.7 Proto-Philippine to Proto-Kalamian{h,ʔ} → ∅
10.1.2.8 Proto-Philippine to Kankanay{h,q} → ∅
10.1.2.9 Proto-Philippine to Tagalogh *j → ∅ d / _#
10.1.2.10 Proto-Philippine to Warayh → ∅ / _#
10.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Batak{ts,ʈ} {ɟʝ͡,ɖ} {lʲ,ɲ} {ʔ,x,s,h} ʀ → t d n ∅ r (velar fricative is conjectured; changes → d “unsure”)
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorroh → ∅
10.2.3 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Malayich → ʔ / _# (sometimes)
h → ∅ / else
10.2.3.1 Proto-Malayic to (Standard) Malayh → ∅ / ! _# (sporadic)
10.2.4 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Malayo-Javanicq h → h ∅
10.2.4.1 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Javaneseh → ∅ / #_
h → {o,h,w} / V_V
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Madureseh → ʔ / V0V0
h → ∅
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauanh → ∅
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North Sarawak{ʔ,h} → ∅ / #_
{ʔ,h} → ∅ / V1[+high]_V2
h → ∅ / _#
h → ʔ / V0_V0
h → ʔ / a_{i,u}
10.2.6.2 Proto-North Sarawak to Proto-Kenyahh → ∅ / _#
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lónghh → ∅ / V_V
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabauh → ∅ / ! _# (some exceptions)
10.3.1 Proto-Oceanic to Hawai’ian{h,ʔ} → ∅
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiws → h → ∅ (sporadic)
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejom{r,h} → ∅ / _#
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Urah → ∅
10.3.11.3.1 Proto-Tanna to Kwamera{p(ʷ),v}Vh → fV
10.3.11.3.2 Proto-Tanna to Lenakel{p(ʷ),v}Vh → fV
10.3.11.3.4 Proto-Tanna to Southwest Tanna{p(ʷ),v}Vh → fV
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Onganh → {h,j,∅} (Blevins has marked what apparently is *ɟ but I’m assuming it’s an error)
17 Indo-European17.2 Proto-Indo-European to Common Anatolianeh2 → æː / “tautosyllabic”
h1 → ∅
h3 → ∅ / “medially”
T h2 → D h3 / _#
T h2 → D h3 / V[-stress]_V[-stress]
T h2 → D h3 / ”Vː
T h2 → D h3 / ”W
{{h1,h3}s,s{h1,h3}} → sː (contested)
17.2.1 Common Anatolian to Hittiteh2 h3 → hh h
17.2.2 Common Anatolian to Luwianh2 h3 → hh h
hh h → h ∅ / ”Vː_u
hh h → h ∅ / u_”Vː
h → ∅ / _w ! at word boundaries
hh → ∅ / _{w,m,n,r,l} “medially, and sporadically”
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lycianh3 → ɡ / _B
h2 → k / E_E (probably a palatal stop)
h2 → q / _E (possibly plain velar stop)
h2 → x / else (possibly a uvular stop)
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to Lydian{h2,h3} → ∅
17.2.5 Common Anatolian to Palaich2 h3 → hh h
hhy → “something like /ʒ/”
h → ∅ / ”Vː_u
h → ∅ / u_”Vː
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestanh(j) → ŋh / a_a
hw → ŋʷh / a_a
h → ŋ / a_ra
hx → ∅
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— h1e h2e h3e → e a o
— eh1 eh2 eh3 → eː aː oː
— h → ∅ / C_
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irish— hn hm → nː mː / [anything]_ (“[t]his change is a bit speculative”)
— {l,h}l {l,h}r l{p,s,n} r{p,s} ln → lː rː lː rː (lː?) / [anything]_
17.7.2.1 West Germanic to Anglo-Frisianh → ∅ / V_V
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle English{eɑh,eɑç,eɑx,eɑʝ,eɑɣ} → ɑw
{o(ː)ht,ɑːht} → ow
hn {wl,hl} hr → w l r
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle English{eɑh,eɑç,eɑx,eɑʝ,eɑɣ} → ɑw
{ɑːht,o(ː)ht} → ow
hn {wl,hl} hr → w l r
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle English{eɑh,eɑç,eɑx,eɑʝ,eɑɣ} → ɑw
{ɑːht,o(ː)ht} → ow
hn {wl,hl} hr → w l r
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle English{eɑh,eɑç,eɑx,eɑʝ,eɑɣ} → ɑw
{ɑːht,o(ː)ht} → ow
hn {wl,hl} hr → w l r
17.7.2.1.14 Anglo-Frisian to Old Frisianh → ∅ / V_V
17.7.2.2 West Germanic to Old Low Franconianh → ∅ / #_C
h → ∅ / V_V
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard German{h,j} → ∅ / V_V
17.7.2.5 West Germanic to Old Low Germanvː ɣː hː → bː ɡː xː (perhaps not strictly a sound change, but worth noting)
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norse{a,æ,e}ːhiː → æː
ɒːh{u,a} aːh{u,a} → ɒː aː
h → ∅ / C_t
ht → tː
hw → ∅ / ! #_
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandichj → ç
h → k / #_{v,w}
hl → ɬ / #_
hr hn → r̥ n̥ / #_
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornh → ∅ / _{l,n,r}
hw hj → {w,ʍ} ʃ
h → x / _i
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornh → ∅ / _{V,w,j} (sporadic)
h → ∅ / _l
h → {∅,h,k} / _r
h → {∅,h,k,s} / _n
hv → {h,k,s}w
hj → ʃ
17.7.4 Common Germanic to Vandalich → ∅ / #_
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian Greekh → ∅
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekh → ∅
h → ∅
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greekh → ∅
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greekh → ∅
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan Greekh → ∅
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric Greekh → ∅
h → ∅ (in those “dialects of the western fringe of Asia Minor and the near-by islands”)
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian Greekh → ∅
h → ∅
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekh → ∅
h → ∅ (in Eastern Ionic)
h → ∅
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greekh → ∅
17.8.10 Proto-Indo-European to Mycenaean Greekh → ∅
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittiteh3 → ∅ / _o “(according to Kortlandt)”
h2 → x (or some sort of dorsal or laryngeal fricative?)
17.10 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iranian{h1,h3} → *H
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-AryanSh2 → S[+ aspirated]
h2 → *H
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-Aryanah → o
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-Aryanah → e
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-Aryanah → o
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-Aryanah → o
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latinh → ∅ / b_
17.12.1.1.1 Classical Latin vs. Vulgar Latinh → ∅
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalanh → ∅
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— h → ∅
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portugueseh → ∅
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençalh → ∅
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanianh → ∅
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardinianh → ∅ / {#,C}_
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanishh → ∅ “(just a reminder: from the f → h change above)”
h → ∅ / _d
h → ∅ / _tʰ
h → ∅ / _$
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-TocharianCh → C / _(V)Ch
h2e → ə / _#
h2e a → a ɨ
{eh2,aH} aː → aː ɔ
h3e o → o ɛ
{eh3,oH} → oː
uh1 u{h2,h3} → uː → wə wɨ
ih1 i{h2,h3} → jə jɨ
(h1)e (h1)eː → jə jɛː / #_
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.2.1 Proto-Ofaié-Jê to Proto-Jêŋʷ {kʷ,hʷ} → m p
18.2.2 Proto-Ofaié-Jê to Ofaié-Xavanteŋʷ hʷ → j̃ h
18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makuráph → ∅ / V_C
18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekensh → ∅ / V_C
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayoróh → ∅ / V_C
18.4.9.1.1 Proto-Monde to Gaviãoh → ∅ / V_ (sporadic, likely an areal feature)
18.4.9.1.2 Proto-Monde to Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoróh → ∅ / V_
18.4.9.1.3 Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoró to Cinta LargaVh → Vː
18.4.9.1.4 Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoró to Suruíh → ∅ / V_
18.4.9.1.5 Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoró to Zoróh → ∅ / V_
20 Khoisan20.1.1 Proto-Khoe to ǁ̬Anah → j / _E
20.1.2 Proto-Khoe to ǁAnih → j~ʔ / _E
h → h~ʔ
20.1.3 Proto-Khoe to Bugah → j
20.1.4 Proto-Khoe to Kxoeh → j
20.1.8 Proto-Khoe to Tetih → j~ʔj / _E
h → h~ʔj
20.1.9 Proto-Khoe to Tsʔixah → j~ʔj / _E
h → h~j
20.1.10 Proto-Khoe to ǀ̬Uih → j / _E
h → ɦ
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.1 Proto-Chibchan to Arhuacots h → s ∅
23.1.1.1.3 Proto-Chibchan to Kogis h → {s,tʃ} {h,∅}
23.1.1.1.5 Proto-Chibchan to Motilónh → ∅
23.1.1.1.6 Proto-Chibchan to Tunebom n h j → b {n,r,∅} {h,∅} {j,∅}
23.1.2 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Lencan{ʔ,h} → ∅
23.1.3 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Misumalpan{ʔ,h} → ∅
27 Mayan27.3 Proto-Mayan to Huastecanh → w / _{o,u}
27.5 Proto-Mayan to Kaqchikel-Tz’utujilh → j / _#
28 Muskogean28.1.2 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Creekh → x / _%
28.2.1 Proto-Western Muskogean to Chickasawh → ∅ / _#
28.2.2 Proto-Western Muskogean to Choctawɬh → ɬː
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.13 Proto-Athabaskan to Hupah → {h,∅}
29.1.1.1.27 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Navajo{ɣ,h} → j / in prefixes related to word derivation
30 Niger-Congo30.2.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic to Proto-Akanich̃ hʷ → ɕ ɕʷ
h → ɲı̃ / #_ã
h → w / #_
30.3.1.1.1 Proto-Gbe to Ajáχʷ hʷ → w p
30.3.1.1.3 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Fonhʷ → ʁʷ
30.3.1.1.4 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Genhʷ → {w,ʁʷ}
30.3.1.1.5 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Phla-Pheráhʷ → ʁʷ
30.3.1.1.7 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Vhehʷ → w
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinoh → d / _a (…lolwut)
h → t / else (…again, lolwut)
32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinoh → ʔ / _ã
hʷ → ʍ
32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to Tlapanech → ʃ / _C[-voice] (? “both h and š occur before nasals, so it is possible that š has a separate source in Proto Otomanguean”)
h → CVʔV / _# (or possibly in just any final syllable?)
33 Penutian33.1.1.4 Proto-Costanoan to Rumsenh → {h,x,ʔ}
34 Quechumaran34.1 Proto-Quechumaran to Ayachucoh → ∅ / {p,t,k,q}_
ts(h) tʃh → tʃ s
34.2 Proto-Quechumaran to Boliviaqh → h / _r
ph th kh qh → pʰ tʰ kʰ qʰ
ts {tsh,tʃh} → tʃ tʃʰ
ɸ(ʼ) ɸh → p(ʼ) pʰ
34.3 Proto-Quechumaran to Cuzcoh → ∅ / nq_
h → ∅ / #q_{i,u}
ph → p / #_VA
ph → p / #_aC[+sibilant]
ph → p / a_ (?)
ph → pʰ
kh → k / r_
kh → k / #_a
kh → k / #_ “in a word with two back vowels”
kh qh → kʰ qʰ
ts tsh → tʃ tʃʰ
tʃh → s / _E
{tʃh,tʃʼ} → tʃ
ɸ(ʼ) ɸh → p(ʼ) pʰ
34.4 Proto-Quechumaran to Huarásh → ∅ / p_
ts(h) tʃ → tʃ ts
34.5 Proto-Quechumaran to Putamayoh → ∅ / ts_
h → ∅ / #_
34.6 Proto-Quechumaran to Quitoh → ∅ / ts_
tʃh → ʃ
{ɸʼ,ɸh} → ɸ
34.7 Proto-Quechumaran to Riobambaqh → kʰ / _i ! _i{ʃ,tʃ}
qh → k
kh → kʰ / #_{i,u}
kh → k
h → ∅ / ts_
tʃh → ʃ
34.8 Proto-Quechumaran to Santiagoh → ∅ / {p,t,k}_
ts(h) → tʃ
h → ∅ / #_
34.9 Proto-Quechumaran to Tenaq(h) → k
h → ∅ / ts_
tʃh → ʃ
h → ∅ / #_
35 Salishan35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack HalkomelemV3h → V3ː / _C
35.1.3 Proto-Central Salish to Cowichan HalkomelemV3h → V3ː / _C
35.1.4 Proto-Central Salish to Musqueam HalkomelemV3h → V3ː / _C
35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to LushootseedV3h → V3{ː,ʔ} / _C
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern StraitsV3h → V3(ː) / _C
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern StraitsV3h → V3ː / _C
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old Mandarin{o,a} {a(ta),a(ch)} → e a / _ŋ
{a(ta),a(ch)} → o / else
36.1.1.1 Old Mandarin to Modern Pekingesek(ʰ) h → ɕ͡(ʰ) ɕ / _j
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to Naxi{r,s}N → N̥ → hṼ → hV
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokee{Vh,Vʔ} → Vː / _#
nh → hn
37.1.2 Proto-Iroquoian to Proto-Northern Iroquoianh → ∅ / #_s
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayugah → ∅ / _nh
h → ∅ / s_w
Ch → ∅ / _s#
h → ∅ / Vː_#
ths → tsh
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huronn hn sC → t th Ch / s_
h → ∅ / #_w
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandot{ʔ,h} → ∅ / _nh
h → ∅ / {t,ts,s,k}_
Vh → Vː / _R
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagajh → hj
h → ∅ / w_j
hs → sh / C_
hts → tsh / C_V
h → ∅ / _sn
h → ∅ / _{k,t,ts,s}#
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneidah → ∅ / ”Vː[+falling tone]_R
h → ∅ / _#
h → ∅ / #_w
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Mohawkh → ∅ / w_j
jh → hj
— wh → f
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneidaths → tsh
hs → sh / _{n,w}
h → ∅ / _Ch
h → ∅ / k_{s,ts}
h → ∅ / _{sk,st}
h → ∅ / {st,tst}_
h → ∅ / ts_r ! “in pre-pausal forms, see also below”
{h,ʔ} → ∅ / _R “in post-tonic syllables”
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecah → ∅ / _{tk,nh,sC,C#}
h → ∅ / #_w
h → ∅ / w_j
hw → ∅ / õ_
Vh → Vː / _{n,w,j}
h → ∅ / V_V
{ths,tts} → tsh
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscaroraths → tʃ
h → ∅ / _nh
h → ∅ / #_w
h → ∅ / k_{s,ts,tʃ}
h → ∅ / Vː_#
37.2 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Siouan{t,h} → ∅ / s_
h → ∅ / V_C
37.2.2 Proto-Siouan to Dakotahk →tʃ
39 Tanoan39.1 Proto-Tanoan to Jimezh → ∅
40 Totozoquean40.2 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Totonacanh → ∅ / ! #_
41 Trans-New Guinea41.5.1.8 Proto-Gorokan to Moveʔv ʔm ʔɡ ʔr ʔh → p b k t {s,f}
41.5.1.10 Proto-Gorokan to Yagariaʔv ʔm ʔɡ ʔr ʔh → p b k t {s,f}
42 Uralic42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard FinnishVh → hV / {j,v,n,r,l}_# (also some double-metathesis triggered by the condition of being m_ ?)
h → ∅ / V[-stress](X)_V
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livonianh → ∅ / {#,C}_
Vh → Vːɦ / _C, except maybe ! _j and/or _ʋ
43 Uto-Aztecan43.2 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Hopil h → n ∅ / medially
43.4 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Nahuatl{ʔ,h} → ∅
43.5.1.1 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Kawaiisuhkʷ hʔ (h)S Sː → w ʔ S[+ voiced] S[- voiced - long] / V_V
hts → z / V_i
h → ∅ / V_tsV
h → ∅ / _{n,s,ʔ}
43.5.1.2 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Mono(h)k → (h)q / _{o,a} ! ɨ_
(h)kʷ → hq(ʷ) / _{o,a}
43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhamh → ʔ / #_
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to BasqueSʰ → F → h (→ ∅) / #_
h̃ → h (not Souletin)
h → ∅ (western dialects)
{w,β}h → f
h…h → ∅…h (“affect[s] both the oral /h/ and the nasalized aspiration”)
hu hi → ʊ ɪ / {o,e}_ (also happened with /a/ sometimes, but usually such sequences just dropped one vowel)
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.1 List 1: Simple Consonant Changesh → ŋ (Nyole)

to /h/

387 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Omoticq ʕ → ʔ h
6.1.1.2 North Omotic to Dizin{h1,h2} → h
6.1.1.4 North Omotic to Maalex2 → h / #_
6.1.1.5 North Omotic to Shekkachoh1 → {h,∅} / #_
6.1.1.7 North Omotic to Yemsah1 → {h,∅} / #_
6.1.1.8 North Omotic to Zayse-Zergullax2 → h / #_
6.2.2.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-Chadicħ ʕ → h ʔ
6.2.2.1.5 Proto-Semitic to Classical Arabics → {ʃ,h} / in “anaphora and certain derivational prefixes. . .[t]his is common to many other Semitic languages as well”
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakiʔ → h / _l
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenakinθ nl → sː {sː,hl}
ʔ → h / _l
7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-Atsinas → h / {V,C}_
r → h / C_
7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapahohʔ → ʔh
∅ → h / #_V
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventrehʔ → ʔh
7.5 Proto-Algonquian to Cheyennep t k → {hp,∅} ht {hk,∅}
s → h
7.6 Proto-Algonquian to Northern East Creeq → h / _tʃ
N → h / _S
l → h / _k
{n,q,h}ʃ {n,q,h}l → s {h,j,hj}
7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East Creeq → h / _tʃ
N → h / _S
l → h / _k
7.8 Proto-Algonquian to Plains Creeq → h / _tʃ
N → h / _S
l → h / _k
{n,q,h}ʃ {n,q,h}l → s {h,j,hj}
7.9 Proto-Algonquian to Swampy Creeq → h / _tʃ
N → h / _S
l → h / _k
7.10 Proto-Algonquian to Woods Creeq → h / _tʃ
N → h / _S
{n,q,h}ʃ {n,q,h}l → s {h,j,hj}
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawareʔ → h / _C ! C = l, or when reduplicated
{nθ,nl} → hl
θ ʃ x → x s h / _{p,k}
{tʃ,ç} → h / _k
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menominee∅ → h / V[-long]_#
{s,r} → h / _O
N → h / _{O,r}
7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-Illinois{ʔ,h}{ɬ,l} → hs
{θ,ʃ,tʃ,ç,x,ʔ} → h / _C
C[-nas] → h / _k
7.16 Proto-Algonquian to Piscatawayʔ → h / _C
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawnee∅ → h / #_V
8 Altaic8.1.1 Early Middle Japanese to Modern Japaneseɸ → h / ! _u
8.2 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Korean{tʰ,d} {k,ɡ} → r {h,∅} / {C,V}_{C,V}
pʰ tʰ kʰ → p t {k,h}
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolicb → h / medially, ! {r(ʲ),l(ʲ)}_ or _ɡ
pʰ → {h,j} / #_
pʰ → {b,h} / medially
p → h (sporadic)
ɡ → h / ! {C,V}_h
ŋ → {m,n,ŋ,h}
j → {j,h}
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkicp → ɸ → h / #_
8.5.2 Proto-Turkic to Sakha{z,ʃ} → h
9 Austroasiatic9.1.1 Proto-Vietic to Muong Khens → h
tʰ → h (Only seems to have occurred with first-register tones)
10 Austronesian10.1 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Malayo-Polynesians ts lʲ → h t n
10.1.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawanq → h / _#
HəS → (h)ə(N)S / #_
10.1.1.1 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Balineser → {r,h} → {∅,h}
h → {∅,h}
10.1.1.2 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sasakr → h / _# (Meno-mene and Mriak-mriku only)
10.1.1.5 Proto-Polynesian to Luangiuaf → h
10.1.2.5 Proto-Philippine to Ifugao{s,c} → h
10.1.2.7.2 Proto-Kalamian to Karamiananenɡ → h / V_V
10.2.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-ChamicR q → r h
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorrok → h / ! _#
10.2.3 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-MalayicH → {∅,h} / _əNS / #_
10.2.4 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Malayo-Javanicq h → h ∅
10.2.4.1 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Javaneseh → {o,h,w} / V_V
HəS → (h)əNS
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to MadureseHəS → (h)əNS / #_
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiput∅ → h / a_#
10.2.6.2 Proto-North Sarawak to Proto-Kenyahʀ →h / V_V(C)#
ʀ → h / _#
s → h / _#
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabau— {p,t,k} s → ʔ h / _#
10.3.1 Proto-Oceanic to Hawai’ian{s,f} → h
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiws → h → ∅ (sporadic)
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to Mwotlaps → h “(often)”
10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to Caaàcpː pwː tː ʈː qː kː → pʰ pwʰ cʰ tʰ h jʰ
jʰ → h / _i
10.3.5.2 Proto-New Caledonia to Jawépː pwː t̪ː tː kː cː → pʰ hʷ t̪ʰ tʰ h jʰ
jʰ → h / _i
10.3.5.3 Proto-New Caledonia to Nemi-Pije-Fwaipː pwː tː t̪ː kː cː → f hʷ t̪ʰ tʰ h jʰ
t tʰ → c h / _E
jʰ → h / _i
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-Nêlêmwakʰ → h / _a
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to Nyelâyupː pwː tː qː cː → pʰ pwʰ tʰ h cʰ
jʰ j → h ∅ / _i
10.3.5.6 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwaameipː pwː tː ʈ kː cː → f hʷ tʰ lʰ h s
s → h / _i
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Yunagapː pwː t̪ː tː ʈː cː kː → pʰ pwʰ t̪ʰ tʰ ʈʰ jʰ h
jʰ → h / _i
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bay∅ → h / #_V (“it isn’t clear if this happens unconditionally”)
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejomv(ʷ) → h
s → h / “rarely”
10.3.11.2 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Erromangos {c,*j} → h s
10.3.11.2.1 Proto-Erromango to Syes → h “often”
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Ura{s,t} → h / _{n,l,r}
10.3.11.3 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Tannas c *J → {h,z} {s,z} z
10.3.11.3.1 Proto-Tanna to Kwameras → h “irregularly”
10.3.11.3.2 Proto-Tanna to Lenakels → h “irregularly”
10.3.11.3.3 Proto-Tanna to North Tanna{s,c} → {h,s}
10.3.11.3.4 Proto-Tanna to Southwest Tannas → h “irregularly”
10.3.11.3.5 Proto-Tanna to Whitesandss → h “often”
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Onganh → {h,j,∅} (Blevins has marked what apparently is *ɟ but I’m assuming it’s an error)
10.5.1 Proto-Ongan to Jarawak(ʷ) → h(ʷ)
11 Northeast Caucasian11.1.1 Proto-Avar-Andic to Akhvakhp → h
11.1.3 Proto-Avar-Andic to Avarts tsː tsʼ tsːʼ dz → sh ts tʃʼ ts(ː)ʼ tsʼ
q qːʼ ɢ → x {q(ː)ʼ,ɡh} qʼ (not sure if that last 〈gh〉 should be ɣ)
s sː ɬː x xː → {s,ʃ} x ɬ {x,h} x
11.3 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Khinalugsː ɬ(ː) xː → h xʲ x
11.5.2 Proto-Lezgic to Archisː xː → {sː,h} x
11.5.4 Proto-Lezgic to Rutulsː ɬ(ː) xː → {ħ,xʲ} {sː,h} x
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Aleutp → h / #_
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.1 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Nafrip t → f {s,h} / #_
16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central Sentanip b t → f p {s,h} / #_
16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern Sentanip t → f {s,h} / #_
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanianbʱ dʱ ɡ́(ʱ) → b d dh
sḱ → h / medial
s → h / V_V
i̯ → h / V_
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanianbʱ dʱ ɡ́(ʱ) → b d dh
sḱ → h / medial
s → h / V_V
i̯ → h / V_
17.2 Proto-Indo-European to Common AnatolianT h2 → D h3 / _#
T h2 → D h3 / V[-stress]_V[-stress]
T h2 → D h3 / ”Vː
T h2 → D h3 / ”W
17.2.1 Common Anatolian to Hittiteh2 h3 → hh h
17.2.2 Common Anatolian to Luwianh2 h3 → hh h
hh h → h ∅ / ”Vː_u
hh h → h ∅ / u_”Vː
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lycians → h
17.2.5 Common Anatolian to Palaich2 h3 → hh h
ɡʷ → hʷ / medially
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenianp t → h tʰ / #_ (?)
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestans → {s,h}
h(j) → ŋh / a_a
hw → ŋʷh / a_a
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishp t k kʷ b d ɡ m n l r s → f θ x xʷ v ð ɣ M N L R h / V(#)_{R,V} (“We don’t know the exact values of lenited /m n l r/. We can guess that lenited m became a nasalized labial continuant of some sort, but beyond that, we don’t know.”)
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welsh$ → h / V_ (what $ is is unclear)
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsθ → h / _ɪ
17.7.3 Common Germanic to Proto-Norsez x → ʀ h
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norseβ ɣ → f h / _%
β ð ɣ → v θ h
k → h / #_{v,n}
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornθ → h / #_B
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Norn∅ → h / #_V
h → {∅,h,k} / _r
h → {∅,h,k,s} / _n
hv → {h,k,s}w
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian Greeks → h / #_
s → h / V_V
j → h
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greeks → h / #_
s → h / V_V
j → h
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greeks → h / #_
s → h / V_V
j → h
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greeks → h / #_
s → h / V_V
j → h
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan Greeks → h / #_
s → h / V_V
j → h
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric Greeks → h / #_
s → h / V_V
j → h
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian Greeks → h / #_
s → h / V_V
j → h
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greeks → h / #_
s → h / V_V
j → h
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greeks → h / #_
s → h / V_V
j → h
17.8.10 Proto-Indo-European to Mycenaean Greeks → h / #_
s → h / V_V
j → h
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-Aryan{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʱ} {j,v} → h ∅ / V_V
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-Aryan{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʱ} {j,v} → h ∅ / V_V
kʂ → hk
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-Aryan{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʱ} {j,v} → h ∅ / V_V
sC → Ch
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-Aryan{bʱ,dʱ,ɡʱ} {j,v} → h ∅ / V_V
17.10.1.5 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Vedic Sanskrit{s,ʂ} → h / _#C[- voice]
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polish∅ → h / _ъ
17.12.1 Proto-Italic to Proto-Latino-Falsicanx → h
ɡʰ → {d,h,ɡ}
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latinbʱ → h / #_ (in rustic dialects)
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençalf → h (in Béarn and Gascon)
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanishf → h / ! _{ue,L}
x → h
{s̪,s} → h / _$
{s̪,s} → h “(in all environments)”
17.12.2 Proto-Italic to Proto-Sibellian{ɡ́ʰ,x} {ɸ,θ,ɡʷʰ} → h f
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.1.2 Pre-Bakairi to Western Bakairiz → h / V_a
18.2.2 Proto-Ofaié-Jê to Ofaié-Xavanteŋʷ hʷ → j̃ h
18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekensð → h / else
18.3.3 Proto-Tuparí to Tuparíβ ð → ∅ {s,h} / _i
ð → h
18.4.1 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Akwárats → {h,∅}
18.4.3 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guajajarats → {h,∅}
18.4.6 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Kamayuráp → h / _{o,u,w}
ts → {h,j,∅}
18.4.7 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Parintintínts → {h,∅}
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Sirionóp → {h,∅} / _{u,o}
p → h / else
18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Urubuts → {s,h}
19 Kartvelian19.2 Proto-Kartvellian to Svantʃ ʈʂ tɬʼ tʃʼ ʈʂʼ → {tʃk,ʃɡ} tʃ h {ʃkʼ,tʃʼkʼ} tʃʼ
20 Khoisan20.1.2 Proto-Khoe to ǁAnih → h~ʔ
20.1.8 Proto-Khoe to Tetih → h~ʔj
20.1.9 Proto-Khoe to Tsʔixah → h~j
21 Lakes Plain21.2.1.1 Proto-Central Tariku to Edopiɸ → h
21.2.1.2 Proto-Central Tariku to Iauɸ → ɸ~h
21.2.2.1 Proto-East Tariku to Biritaip → h~ɸ
21.2.2.3 Proto-East Tariku to Eritaip → p~h
21.2.2.5 Proto-East Tariku to Obokuitaip → ɸ~h
21.2.2.6 Proto-East Tariku to Sikaritaip → p~h
21.2.3.1 Proto-West Tariku to Deiratep → ɸ~h
21.2.3.2 Proto-West Tariku to Faiap → ɸ~h
21.2.3.3 Proto-West Tariku to Fayup → ɸ~h
21.2.3.4 Proto-West Tariku to Kirikirip → ɸ~h
21.2.3.5 Proto-West Tariku to Sehudatep → ɸ~h
21.2.3.6 Proto-West Tariku to Tausep → ɸ~h
21.2.3.7 Proto-West Tariku to Weiratep → ɸ~h
22 Macro-Arawakan22.3 Proto-Arawá to Hypothetical Arawán Substratepʰ → h / medially
22.6 Proto-Arawá to Sorowahá{p(ʰ),ɓ} → h
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.1 Proto-Chibchan to Arhuacos → kh / _(V)k
23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to ChibchaVs → h / n_
s → h / V_V
23.1.1.1.3 Proto-Chibchan to Kogis → h / _Vn
s h → {s,tʃ} {h,∅}
23.1.1.1.6 Proto-Chibchan to Tunebos → h / _(V)C
m n h j → b {n,r,∅} {h,∅} {j,∅}
25 Macro-Panoan25.1.1 Proto-Tacanan to Cavineña{ɕ,tɕ} → h
25.1.2 Proto-Tacanan to Chamas ɕ → ð h
25.1.3 Proto-Tacanan to Reyesanoɕ x → ð h
25.1.4 Proto-Tacanan to Tacanax → h / #_
x → {h,∅}
27 Mayan27.3 Proto-Mayan to Huastecanŋ → h
28 Muskogean28.1.1 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Alabamats x → s h / _C
28.1.2 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Creekx → h
28.1.3 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Hitchitix → h
28.1.4 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Korasatix → h
28.1.5 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Mikasuriʃ x → ts h
28.1.6 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Seminoleʃ x → ts h
28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western Muskogeanx → h
C1[+ weak] C2[+ weak] → ʔ h / V_V#
xʷ → h / %_{o,i}(C)#
28.2.2 Proto-Western Muskogean to Choctawxʷ → h / V_V
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.9 Proto-Athabaskan to DogribC → h / _$
29.1.1.1.13 Proto-Athabaskan to Hupah → {h,∅}
29.1.1.1.19 Proto-Athabaskan to Proto-Southern Athabaskanɣ → h / in prefixes relating to word derivation
t n x → d n h / in prefixes relating to word derivation
29.1.1.1.21 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Kiowa Apache{xʲ,j}ʔ {x,ɣ}ʔ → ∅ h(ʔ) / _#
x ɣ → h ∅ / _#
29.1.1.1.22 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Jicarillaxʲ xʔ j ɣʔ → h ʔ ∅ ʔ / E_#
xʲ xʔ j ɡʔ → ih iʔ i iʔ / _#
xʲʔ jʔ → h ʔ / _#
29.1.1.1.27 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Navajoxʲ(ʔ) j(ʔ) → h ʔ / _#
x ɣ → h ʔ / _#
29.1.1.1.28 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to San Carlosx(ʲ) {j,ɣ} → h ∅ / _#
xʲʔ jʔ → h ʔ / _#
29.1.1.1.29 Proto-Athabaskan to Bearlake Slavey-HareC → {h,ʔ} / _#
29.1.1.1.31 Proto-Athabaskan to Mountain Slavey-HareC → {h,ʔ} / _#
29.1.1.1.32 Proto-Athabaskan to Slavey Slavey-HareC → {h,ʔ} / _#
29.1.1.1.37 Proto-Athabaskan to Tanacrossʃ → h / in the “1sg subject prefix”
ɬ → h / in the grammatical classifier
29.1.1.1.39 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Tananaʃ → h / in the “1sg subject prefix”
ɬ → h / in the grammatical classifier
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1.1 Proto-Bantu to Sebirwap t d c ɟ k ɡ → ɸ ɹ {d,l} tʰ ∅ h {∅,ɡ}
30.1.1.2 Proto-Bantu to Tswanank k → kʰ h / _u
p t tʃ k {dʒ,ɡ} ɲ → h r tɬʰ χ ∅ n
30.1.2 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-Manengubaf → h (perhaps not in all languages?)
30.2.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic to Proto-Akanicɰ ɰ̃ w̃ → h h̃ h̃ʷ / #_
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinoç → hj
33 Penutian33.1.1 Proto-Utian to Proto-Costanoan (Ohlone)ʃ → h
33.1.1.4 Proto-Costanoan to Rumsenh → {h,x,ʔ}
33.2.2 Proto-Wintuan to Patwink(ʰ) kʼ q(ʰ) qʼ → tʃ(h) tʃʼ kʰ kʼ
x χ → s h
33.3.1.2 Buena Vista Yokuts to Hometwoli∅ → h / V(ː)_, when stressed (only sometimes, “particularly before consonants”)
34 Quechumaran34.1 Proto-Quechumaran to Ayachucoʃ ʂ → s h
34.2 Proto-Quechumaran to Boliviaqh → h / _r
{k,q} → h / _{C,#}
ʂ → h / _{a,i}
34.3 Proto-Quechumaran to Cuzcoʃ ʂ → s h
34.4 Proto-Quechumaran to Huarásʂ → h / _{i,u}
34.6 Proto-Quechumaran to Quitoq → h / {r,s}_
kʼ → h / j_
χ → h #_
34.7 Proto-Quechumaran to Riobambak → h / _#
34.8 Proto-Quechumaran to Santiago{k,q} → h / _{C,#}
ʂ → h / _u
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old Mandarinɦ → h / S_V2
36.3.1.1 Proto-Naish to LazeS{b,ɡ} Sk → v h / _V
N̥V → hṼ
36.3.1.2 Proto-Naish to Mosuo (Na)S{b,ɡ} Sk → ∅ h
N̥V → hṼ
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to Naxin̥ → l̥ → h / %_V
{r,s}N → N̥ → hṼ → hV
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Lat d Nt Nd st sd çT tr (ç)dr KT → tʰ t Ntʰ md zd st çtj trh (ç)tr kt
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtse(N)t (N)d st sd KT çT tr dr çtr → (N)tʰ mt zd st kt çt(j) trh tr çtr
36.3.2.2.5 Proto-rGyalrongic to Trungdʒ → tsh
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu Tak rk kr kj Nkj ɡr → kʰdz nɡ kʰr tʃh dʒ nkʰr
36.3.3.1 Old Tibetan to Amdo dialects{d,ɡ,s,l,r} → {h,r} / #_
pʰ b → h w
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoianx → h / _C ! C_C
37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeetsn → hst
n → h / _st
nh → hn
37.1.2 Proto-Iroquoian to Proto-Northern Iroquoianiji(ː) → hi(ː) / {k,s}_ “(possibly after all non-glottal obstruents)”
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayugats → hs / V_ ! _{h,i,j,r}
t → h / _t
ths → tsh
∅ → h / {t,k}_n
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huronn hn sC → t th Ch / s_
k → h / _{t,ts,s,ʃ}
r → h / ʃ_
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagats → hs / V_V ! _i
jh → hj
hs → sh / C_
hts → tsh / C_V
k → h / _k
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneidats → hs / V_{t,k(ʷ)}
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Mohawkjh → hj
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneidaths → tsh
hs → sh / _{n,w}
ʔ → h / _C “in post-tonic syllables”
— ʔ → h / _C#
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecar → h / s_
t → h / _{n,t}
{ths,tts} → tsh
∅ → h / k_n
37.2.2.1 Dakota to Santee Dakotakr → hd / #_
37.2.4.1 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Čiwerek → h / _m
37.2.5.2 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Hidatsakm → hp
sk kx → tsk hk / _”V
sk → hts / ”V_
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to Osagesn mt → hn d
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.1 Proto-Tai to Ahomŋ̊ → h
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Taimw f → f {f,v,w,h}
xr x {x,ɣ}ʷ → r̥ h {w,v,h}
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Taixr → h
38.1.1.5.1 Southwest Tai to Laor̥ → h
38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lür̥ → h
38.1.1.5.3 Southwest Tai to Shanr̥ → h
38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siameser̥ → h
ŋ ɡ ɣ → {h,ʃ} kʰ ɡ
38.1.1.5.5 Southwest Tai to Black Tair̥ → h
38.1.1.5.6 Southwest Tai to White Tair̥ → h
39 Tanoan39.1 Proto-Tanoan to Jimezk(ʷ)ʰ kʷ(ʼ) ɡ ɡʷ → h ɡ k kʷ
40 Totozoquean40.1 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Mixe-Zoqueanx {ɬ,tɬ} → h j
41 Trans-New Guinea41.1 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Apalɨt k ŋ → {l,t} {h,k} n / #_
p k ⁿd → β {h,k} nj / V_V
41.7 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kâtek ᵐb ⁿd → {k,h} b {s,t} / #_
42 Uralic42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnish{z,x(ː)} → h
{p,k} → h / _t
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard FinnishVh → hV / {j,v,n,r,l}_# (also some double-metathesis triggered by the condition of being m_ ?)
43 Uto-Aztecan43.1 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Comanchep t ts s → v r ∅ h
∅ → h / Vu_k
43.5.1.2 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Mono(h)k → (h)q / _{o,a} ! ɨ_
(h)kʷ → hq(ʷ) / _{o,a}
m → h / _p
nː → h
43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhams ŋ → h n
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to BasqueSʰ → F → h (→ ∅) / #_
n → h̃ / V_V
h̃ → h (not Souletin)
h…h → ∅…h (“affect[s] both the oral /h/ and the nasalized aspiration”)
*-ɾ → -h stuff in compounds
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.1 List 1: Simple Consonant Changesŋ → {x,h} (various Mayan languages)

with context involving /h/

103 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-BerberxV → k / _h
q → ʔ / h_
6.2.2.1.3 Ancient Egyptian to Copticn → l / #_(V){s,ʃ,h}V{m,b}#
n → l / #_V{m,b}{s,ʃ,h}
6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Egyptian Arabicʕ → {ʕ̞,ħ} / _h
7 Algonquian7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawarek → ∅ / h_ (sometimes restored via analogy, e.g., in verbs)
Vː → V[-long] / _hC
{a,ə} → ∅ / _{x,h} “in the odd-numbered of any sequence of one or more short-vowel open syllables”; such vowels are considered “weak”
ə → o / _h{p,kʷ,w,m}
ə → i / _hC
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menomineew → ∅ / h_V
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to ShawneeV[-long] → ∅ / _hV
Vː → V[-long] / _{ʔC,ʃp,ʃk,hV}
∅ → ʔ / C{v,d}_{ʃp,ʃk,hV}
8 Altaic8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolicpʰ → b / #_U[+high pitch]
ɡ → h / ! {C,V}_h
kʰ → ɡ / {C,V}_h
10 Austronesian10.2.4.1 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Javaneseə → u / _h#
10.2.6.2 Proto-North Sarawak to Proto-Kenyahi u → e o / _h#
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabau— u i → uə iə / _{k,ŋ,h,l,r}#
10.5.1 Proto-Ongan to Jarawa∅ → a / h#_ (that’s not a typo; this happens across the word boundary)
17 Indo-European17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothic— u → ɔ / _{r,h} (unless this r “arose from older s by assimilation”)
— i → ɛ / _{r,h,ʍ}
17.7.3 Common Germanic to Proto-Norsen → ∅ / V{ː,V}_hV
Vn → Vː / _hV
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norsee → ja / ! {{h,k,ŋ}n,w,v,l,r}_, _{u,o,i}
a(i) {e,w{æ,i}} {we,ei} (w)ɪ → ey ø y ʏ / w_ ! hw_
e → jɒ / _(C)(C)(C)u ! {{h,k,ŋ}n,w,v,l,r}_
e → ja / _(C)(C)(C)u ! {{h,k,ŋ}n,w,v,l,r}_
ai wi (w)V → eː weː (w)Vː / _h#
ɒ → oː / n_h
ai → aː / _h{C,V}
F[- voice] → ∅ / {s,f,x,h,t}_{p,t,k}
17.7.4 Common Germanic to Vandalice → i / ! {w,r,h}_
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittitee(ː) → a(ː) / _h2
e(ː) → a(ː) / h2_
e(ː) → o(ː) / _h3
e(ː) → o(ː) / h3_
17.10 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iraniane → a / _{h2,h3}
e → a / {h2,h3}_
p → b / _h3
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latinɡ → ∅ / _h
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-TocharianCh → C / _(V)Ch
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.4.9.1.2 Proto-Monde to Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-ZoróV → Ṽ / _h
28 Muskogean28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western MuskogeanV → ∅ / V{k,ʔ,h}_#
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1.1 Proto-Bantu to Sebirwai u VS → j w A / _V[+high +ATR]
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinoẽ → i / h_
32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinoẽ → ı̃ / {t,h}_#
34 Quechumaran34.7 Proto-Quechumaran to Riobambaɲ → n / ! h_i
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old MandarinC → Cʲ / {K,C[+pharyngeal]}_{a,a(ch)}
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeew → ∅ / h_i
w → ∅ / t(h)_
V → ∅ / C_hC
s → ∅ / #h_V
ts → s / h_
37.1.2 Proto-Iroquoian to Proto-Northern Iroquoiani → e / ! _hCC (“short only”)
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayugah → ∅ / _nh
ts → hs / V_ ! _{h,i,j,r}
ts → s / ! _{h,i,j,r}
r → n / _(h)j
37.1.2.1.1 Cayuga to Upper Cayugas → f / h_r
ts → s / _(h)r
37.1.2.1.2 Cayuga to Lower Cayugats → t / _(h)r
V → V[-voiced] / _h “(odd syllables only)”
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huronn → ∅ / t(h)_
t → k / _(h)w
∅ → k / s_(h)w
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandot{ʔ,h} → ∅ / _nh
n → t / _h
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagats → s / ! _{h,i,j}
n → ∅ / h_r
ts → tʃ / _{(h)i,(h)j}
s → ʃ / _{hi,hj}
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneidats → s / ! _{h,i,j}
”V → ”Vː[+falling tone] / _{ʔ,hR}
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Mohawk∅ → e / {tsh,s,n}_r
w → ∅ / _jh
— wə̃ → ũ / {h,s}_
— t → tʃ / _(h)j
— ts → tʃ / _{(h)i,(h)j}
— s → ʃ / _(h)j
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneidah → ∅ / _Ch
ts → tʃ / _{(h)i,(h)j}
s → ʃ / _(h)j
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecah → ∅ / _{tk,nh,sC,C#}
r → n / _(h)j
r → ∅ / Vh_
r → j / C[-glottal](h)_{o(ː),õ(ː)
R → ∅ / _h
k → ∅ / _hts
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscarorats → tʃ / _{h,i,j}
n → t / ! _{h,kʷ,V[+nas]}
h → ∅ / _nh
w → ∅ / _jh
∅ → t / hs_r
37.2 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Siouans → ∅ / h_
41 Trans-New Guinea41.5.1.8 Proto-Gorokan to MoveV[+ low tone] → ∅ / C_hV[+ high tone]
42 Uralic42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishe → @ / h_ (suffixal)
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard FinnishV → Vː / h_hC
V → Vː / _hC (sporadic)
43 Uto-Aztecan43.2 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Hopii → j / h_ ! _#
43.5.1.2 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Monoɨ → i / _h
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basqueu ũ → y ỹ / _r(p(ʰ),β,k(ʰ),ɣ,l,s̺,s̻,ʃ,h) (Souletin)