Index Diachronica: involving /n/

535 results from /n/   362 results to /n/   199 results with context involving /n/   

plain n̩ː n̲ː ʼn

from /n/

535 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.2.2 Proto-Erythrean to Proto-North Erythreanin → ŋ / #_C
6.2.2.1.3 Ancient Egyptian to Copticn → l / #_Vb
n → l / #_(V){s,ʃ,h}V{m,b}#
n → l / #_V{m,b}{s,ʃ,h}
n → l / #_Vk
n → l / mV_C
n → l / CV_m
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabic{l,n}j → jː
nx → xː
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakinr → rː
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenakinθ nl → sː {sː,hl}
nj → i / #_
7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-Atsinaθ h {s,m,n,r} → ʃ ∅ ʔ / _C
7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapahon → ∅ / _j
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventren → ∅ / _j
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfootnr → s
nθ hs → sːt sː
nkw → ʔː
{n,s} → x / _t
ntʃ → ʔt
ns sk → {x,s} {x,sː}
{jiː,ja,ahi} {owaː,awa,awe} awi {iːwa,eːwa,aji,aje,ani} → i oː o(ji) iː / C_C
on → u / _iC
tem {k,p}en → mː nː
{me,ne} → ∅ / #_O “(followed by truncation of following x)”
7.6 Proto-Algonquian to Northern East Cree{n,q,h} → ∅ / _s
{n,q,h}ʃ {n,q,h}l → s {h,j,hj}
7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East Cree{n,q,h} → ∅ / _s
{n,q,h}ʃ {n,q,h}l → ʃ l
7.8 Proto-Algonquian to Plains Cree{n,q,h} → ∅ / _s
{n,q,h}ʃ {n,q,h}l → s {h,j,hj}
7.9 Proto-Algonquian to Swampy Cree{n,q,h} → ∅ / _s
{n,q,h}ʃ {n,q,h}l → ʃ l
7.10 Proto-Algonquian to Woods Cree{n,q,h} → ∅ / _s
{n,q,h}ʃ {n,q,h}l → s {h,j,hj}
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delaware{nθ,nl} → hl
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaqn{θ,l} h{θ,ʃ} → ∅ s
7.15 Proto-Algonquian to Ojibwe{n,r} → ∅ / _r
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonicn → m / #_
8.2 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Korean{nʲ,ŋ} → n / #_
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolicnʲ → dʒ / #_
nʲ → {j,n} / else
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkicm n(ʲ) → b j / #_
{d,n} → j / #_ (?) (marked as to Pre-Proto-Turkic)
{d,n}ʲ sʲ → j ʃ / #_
8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchaknʲ → j
b…n → m…n
8.5.1.2 Proto-Kypchak to Kyrgyznj → jn
9 Austroasiatic9.1.1 Proto-Vietic to Muong Khenm n → b d (Only seems to have occurred with first-register tones)
{n̥j,nj,ɲ̊j,ɲj} → ɲ j
9.1.2 Proto-Vietic to Middle Vietnamese{n̥j,nj,ɲ̊j,ɲj} → ɲ (Thompson appears to me to have hedged a bit on the last one; based on other evidence in the paper I’m sticking this one as a palatal nasal)
9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnamesec ɲ t n → t n k ŋ / a_ (short /a/ only)
10 Austronesian10.1.1.5 Proto-Polynesian to Luangiuan → ŋ
10.2.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Chamicl n → r l / #_ (sporadic)
10.2.3.1 Proto-Malayic to (Standard) Malayn → ɲ / “in the environment of i (sporadic)”
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauann dz → l r
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiputn → l / #_
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lóngh{p,t} n → c̚ ɲ / {i,ɛ}_#
{p,t} {m,n} → k ŋ / ɯ_#
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabaun → ɲ / “in the environment of i
10.3 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Oceanic{nts,ns,nz,nɡʲ} {ts,z,ɡʲ} → ɡʲ s
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerigndr *R → d r
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to Mwotlapndr → d
10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to CaaàcVnV → ṼlṼ
10.3.5.3 Proto-New Caledonia to Nemi-Pije-Fwain n̥ → ɲ ɲ̊ / _E
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-NêlêmwaVnV → ṼlṼ
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to NyelâyuVnV → ṼlṼ
10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to Tolomakom b → n̼ t̼ → n t / _{a,e,i}
10.3.11 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Southern Vanuatun → ŋ / qV[- stress]_
n → ŋ / _V[- stress]q
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejom{n,ŋ} → ɲ / _E
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Uranr → d
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’andr *R → d r
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Ongan{m,ɲ} n → {ɲ,∅} {ŋ,∅} / _# (first change marked “in progress?”)
10.5.1 Proto-Ongan to Jarawan → ŋ / _# (?)
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to Ongen → ŋ / _# (?)
13 Chumashan13.4 Proto-Chumash to Obispeño{ˀm,ˀn} → {∅,ʔ} (the former is more likely)
13.6 Proto-Chumash to Ventureñoˀm ˀn ˀl ˀj → m n l j
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.1 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Proto-Dravidiann nː rn → {n̲,r} n̲(ː) ɳ / V_V
nː → n̲(ː)
nr̀ → n̲r̲
14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamitenr̀ → nr
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamilam an {aːm,aːn} → õ æ̃ ã / _#
{om,on} {em,en} {oːm,oːn} {eːm,eːn} → ɔ̃ ɛ̃ õ ẽ
n → ŋ / _{k,ɡ}
tː nt → cː ɲc / {i,j}_
n tː → n̪ t̪ː
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Aleutn → t / #_ (except, maybe, “in exclamations”)
nV1nV2 → nV2nV2
15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow Iñupiaqm n ŋ → v t ɣ / _C[-nasal]
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic Iñupiaqm n ŋ t {{ɣ,ʁ} → {k,q}} → p t k n ŋ / _#
m n ŋ → v t ɣ / _C[-nasal]
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie Iñupiaqm n ŋ → v t ɣ / _C[-nasal]
15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales Iñupiaqm n ŋ → v t ɣ / _C[+nasal]
15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’ikin → dʒ / _u (possibly only word-initially?)
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’ikin → dʒ / _u (possibly only word-initially?)
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’ikin → dʒ / _u (possibly only word-initially?)
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’ikin → dʒ / _u (possibly only word-initially?)
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg AlbanianVn → V[+nasal] / _C?
n → ɲ (sometimes?)
{m̩,n̩} l̩ r̩ → e uj {ri,ir}
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albaniann → ∅ / V_C?
n → ɲ (sometimes?)
n → ɾ
{m̩,n̩} l̩ r̩ → e uj {ri,ir}
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to Lydian{m,n} → ʋ / _# “(that’s a Greek nu, I’m not sure what it’s supposed to represent)”
n → ∅ / _P “(leaves nasalization on the previous vowel)”
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenianm̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenianm̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenianm̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenianm̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenianm̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenianm̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenianm̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestan{n̩,m̩} → a
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishm̩ n̩ → am an / _{s,({m,j,w)V}
m̩ n̩ → em en / else
p t k kʷ b d ɡ m n l r s → f θ x xʷ v ð ɣ M N L R h / V(#)_{R,V} (“We don’t know the exact values of lenited /m n l r/. We can guess that lenited m became a nasalized labial continuant of some sort, but beyond that, we don’t know.”)
— n → ∅ / {i,o,u}_{p,t,k,s}
— {a,e}n → eː / _{p t k s}
— hn hm → nː mː / [anything]_ (“[t]his change is a bit speculative”)
— {l,h}l {l,h}r l{p,s,n} r{p,s} ln → lː rː lː rː (lː?) / [anything]_
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshmb nd ŋɡ → mː nː ŋː
mp nt ŋk → m̥ n̥ ŋ̊
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothicnː → n / _C ! _j
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle Englishm → n → ∅ / _# when unstressed
hn {wl,hl} hr → w l r
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle Englishm → n → ∅ / _# when unstressed
hn {wl,hl} hr → w l r
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle Englishn → ∅ / _# when unstressed (not clear as to whether m → n beforehand in this position or not)
hn {wl,hl} hr → w l r
17.7.2.1.11 Scots to Falkirk ScotspVn tVn kVn → ʔm̩ ʔn̩ ʔŋ̩ / _#
n → ∅ / V_C (in words of more than one syllable)
n → ∅ / V_V# “in some disyllabic words”
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle Englishm → n → ∅ / _# when unstressed
hn {wl,hl} hr → w l r
17.7.2.2 West Germanic to Old Low Franconianjan → en / CC_#
17.7.2.5 West Germanic to Old Low Germann → ŋ / _{k,ɡ}
17.7.3 Common Germanic to Proto-Norsen → ∅ / V{ː,V}_hV
Vn → Vː / _hV
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norseʀn → nː
waː naː → oː noː / %u in #U
n → ∅ / f_{d,s,t}
n → ∅ / l_b
n → ∅ / m_{s,b}
n → ∅ / ŋ_{s,w}
n → ∅ / r_{s,t,w}
n → ∅ / t_s
l(ː)ʀ n(ː)ʀ → lː nː / ”Vː_ (or all V_ ?)
{l(ː),n}{r,ʀ} → ∅ / V{ː,V}_
nː lː rː sː → n l r s / C_
lː nː → l n / C_#
ðl(ː) ðn(ː) → lː nː
lθ nθ → lː nː
nː → ð / _{r,ʀ}
lθ nθ → lː nː
n → θ / _{m,ŋ}
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandicn → ŋ / _{k,ɡ}
{n̥n,nn̥ → tn̥ / V_
nː → tn̥ / V_#
nː → tn / V_
nn̥,n̥n → n̥
nː → n
{r̥n,r̥n̥,rn̥ → tn̥
rn → tn̥ / _#
hr hn → r̥ n̥ / #_
n̥ → m̥ / p_#
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornny → in
n → ∅ / m_
ɡn ɡl → nj lj
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornnd ld (→ nː lː ?) → ɲ ʎ
n → ∅ / _m#
n l → ɲ ʎ / _C
nː → ɲ(d)
rn {lː,rl} → ɲ ʎ
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
Vns → Vːs
n → ∅ / _s
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
Vns → Vːs
n → ∅ / _s
n → ∅ / _#
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
Vns → Vːs
n → ∅ / _s
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
Vns → Vːs
n → ∅ / _s
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
Vns → Vːs
n → ∅ / _s
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
Vns → V(ː)s (Tucker says that “[i]n a few Doric dialects the lengthening did not occur”)
n → ∅ / _s
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
Vns → Vːs
n → ∅ / _s
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
Vns → Vːs
n → ∅ / _s
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
Vns → Vːs
n → ∅ / _s
17.8.10 Proto-Indo-European to Mycenaean Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittitem̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar al
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-Aryann → ɳ / R(V)_
t d(ʱ) n → ʈ ɖ(ʱ) ɳ / C̣_ ! _r
s t d(ʱ) n → ʂ ʈ ɖ(ʱ) ɳ / _C̣
ls lt ld(ʱ) ln → ʂ ʈ ɖ(ʱ) ɳ / “disputed”
n → ɲ / ɟ_
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-AryanCn → CC / V_V ! C = dʒ
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-AryanCn → CC / V_V ! C = dʒ
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-AryanCn → CC / V_V ! C = dʒ
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-AryanCn → CC / V_V ! C = dʒ
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavic{m̩,n̩} → {ẽ,õ} / _C$
m̩ n̩ → {ьm,ъm} {ьn,ъn}
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishtʲ dʲ sʲ zʲ nʲ rʲ l lʲ → tɕ dʒ ɕ ʑ ȵ r ɫ l (this last probably not before /i/)
n → ŋ / _S[+velar] (regional)
n → m / {b,p}{l,r,ʐ}V_
n → s → ɕ / k_ɛ̃ where the vowel was from Proto-Slavic
n → s / k_Vn
17.12.1 Proto-Italic to Proto-Latino-Falsicanm̥ n̥ → em en
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latinm̩ n̩ → em en
n̩ː → n
{d,n,r} → l / _l
n → r / _r
n → l / l_
{n,d}…r → r…r
n → ∅ / V[+nas]_
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalann → ∅ / _s
{m,n,t} → ∅ / _#
ndj → ɲ
mn → nː → ɲ
ɡn tj → ɲ ∅ / V_V
sj ssj jn → js jʃ ɲ / V_V
mnj → {mni,ɲ} / V_V
j ɡj ts z n → tʃ i w s ∅ / _#
n → r → br / m_
lː nː → ʎ ɲ
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— n → ∅ / _{f,v,s}
— {m,n} → ∅ / _# in polysyllables
{ɡn,nj} → ɲ
nk → ɲ / _t
n → r / {ɡ,p}_
{n,m} → ∅ / C_#
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to Italian{dj,ɡj} lj {nj,ɡn} → dʒ ʎ ɲ
{t,d,k,m,n,s} → ∅ / _#
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguesen → ∅ / _s
nɡi → ɲ
ks ɡn tj → ʃ ɲ {z,s} / V_V (tj → s is learned)
ndj → nts → ns → ɲ / V_V
sːj (m)nj lj rj → jʃ ɲʎ jr / V_V
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençaln → ∅ / V_# (did not occur in extreme western areas, some northern areas, the southeast, and the east)
n → ∅ / _s# (except for eastern and southeastern dialects)
n → ∅ / r_(s)#?
mn → mpn → nː (dialectal)
ms ns → mps nts (sporadic?)
{l,r}w {n,ŋk,ŋɡ}w → lɡʷ ŋɡʷ → lɡ ŋɡ
dVɡ (n)dVɡ → dʒ(?) ndʒ
lː{j,Vdʒ} lnj → ʎ ɲ
nj → ɲ
mnj → ɲ (Limousin, as well as extreme eastern and southwest dialects)
mnj → ndʒ (else)
{ntʃj,ndj} → nts → ns
{ndj,ndʒj} ndʒ → ɲ {ɲ,ndʒ}
ndt ndtʃ ntʃ nkt nf → n{d,t} {nts,ndz(→ nz),ndʒ} n(t)s {ɲ,(i)nt,ntʃ} {nf,fː(→ f)}
nt nd → {∅,n} ∅ / _# (in some Languedoc and Gascon areas)
nd → n / _# (in western areas and for some speakers of Limousin)
ɡn{d,t} → ŋn{d,t} → ɲ{d,t} → {(i)nd,ɲd,ndʒ} or t(ʃ)
ɡn → ŋn → ɲ
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romaniann → ∅ / _{f,v,s}
{m,n,s} → ∅ / _# in polysyllables
{n,l} → ∅ / _j
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardiniannd {lː,ld} → ɳɖ ɖː / V_V
n{i,j} t{i,j} → ndʒ ts / _V
ɡn → nː
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanishns → s (with a few exceptions)
mb mn → mː nː
{jl,lj} {jn,nj} {jɡ,ɡj} → ʎ ɲ ʝː
nː lː ɾɾ → ɲ ʎ r
— mn → ɲ (sometimes)
— ndzVɡ → nɡ
— n → {l,ɾ} / _m
— n → {ɾ,l} / nɡ_
— n → ɾ / nd_
— dn dl → nd ld
— ml nɾ → lm ɾn (sometimes)
— mn ml → mbɾ mbl
n → ŋ / _#
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tocharianp {ts,k(ʷ)} m n l r y → pj sʲ ʂ mj ɲ lj rj wj / _{E(:),y}
n̩ → ə → ∅ / C_#
R Hn̩ → ɛR ɨn / #_C
oː(s,y) oːn → u {u,õ}
17.13.1 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian An → j / V_sV ! E_
17.13.2 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian Bmn → nm / V_V
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makurápts (n)dz → t nd
ð nŋʷ → c β / #_V[-nas]
j ŋʷ m n → ɲ m {m,p} {∅,t} / _V[+nas]
18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekensts (n)dz → {s,ts} s
18.3.3 Proto-Tuparí to Tuparí{(n)dz,ts} → s / _i
{(n)dz,ts} → t / else
n → ∅ / ! #_V[-nas]
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayoróts (n)dz → t nd
18.4.4 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to GuaraníV{m,n} → V[+nas] / _#
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guarayo{Vm,Vŋ} Vn → V[+nas] {Vr,V[+nas]} / _#
18.4.7 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to ParintintínVn → V[+nas] (sometimes)
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to SirionóV{m,n} → V[+nas] / _#
18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to UrubuVn → V[+nas] / _# (sometimes)
20 Khoisan20.1.1 Proto-Khoe to ǁ̬Anaǀ̃(n) → ǂ̃n
!̃(n) → ŋ
20.1.2 Proto-Khoe to ǁAniǀ̃(n) → ǂ̃n
20.1.3 Proto-Khoe to Bugaǀ̃(n) → ǂ̃
!̃n → ŋɡj~!̃
20.1.4 Proto-Khoe to Kxoe!̃(n) → ǂ̃
!x !̃n → x ŋɡj~!̃
20.1.5 Proto-Khoe to Namaǀ̃(n) → {ǂ̃,ǂ}
! !ˀ !̃n → !ɡ ~ !̃
ǂ {ǂ̃n,ǂˀ,ǂxʼ} → ǂɡ ǂ
20.1.6 Proto-Khoe to Naroǀ̃(n) → ǂ̃
20.1.7 Proto-Khoe to !Oraǀ̃(n) → ǂ̃
! !̃n → ! !̃
ǂ̃n → ǂ
20.1.8 Proto-Khoe to Tetiǀ̃(n) → j
! !ˀ !̬ !̃(n) !x → k ∅ ɡ ŋ x
ǂ ǂ̃n ǂˀ → c ɲ ʔj
20.1.9 Proto-Khoe to Tsʔixaǀ̃(n) ǀxʼ → j ǀˀ
! !ˀ !̬ !̃(n) !x → k ∅ ɡ ŋɡ x
ǂ̃n ǂxʼ → ɲ ǂˀ
20.1.10 Proto-Khoe to ǀ̬Uiǀ̃(n) → ǂ̃n
20.2.1 Proto-Kx’a to ǂHoanVn ŋ → V[+nas] ∅ / _#
20.2.2 Proto-Kx’a to Northwestern !Xunn → ∅ / _#
20.2.3 Proto-Kx’a to Southeastern !Xunn → ∅ / _#
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to Chibchan → {n,∅}
23.1.1.1.3 Proto-Chibchan to KoginVs dVs → n(V(s)) ʒ(Vʒ)
n j → {n,∅} {j,∅}
23.1.1.1.6 Proto-Chibchan to Tunebo{d(V)s,n(V)j} n(V)s → r {VsV,r}
m n h j → b {n,r,∅} {h,∅} {j,∅}
25 Macro-Panoan25.1.2 Proto-Tacanan to Chaman → ɲ / i_{o,a} (the former is conjectured)
28 Muskogean28.1.4 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Korasatint → tː
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.3 Proto-Athabaskan to Beaver{n,ɲ} → d / $_V[-nas] (→ dʒ in the British Columbian dialect)
29.1.1.1.10 Proto-Athabaskan to Easter Gwich’in{n,ɲ} → ⁿdʒ / _E[-nas]
{n,ɲ} → ⁿd / _V[-nas]
29.1.1.1.11 Proto-Athabaskan to Hann → (ⁿ)d / $_V[-nas]
29.1.1.1.19 Proto-Athabaskan to Proto-Southern AthabaskanVnC → V[+ nas]C / _#, unless C = ʔ
t n x → d n h / in prefixes relating to word derivation
29.1.1.1.21 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Kiowa Apachen → d
Vnʔ VnC → V[+ nas] V[+ nas]C / _#
29.1.1.1.22 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Jicarillan → ⁿd
Vnʔ VnC → V[+ nas] V[+ nas]C / _#
29.1.1.1.23 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to LipanVnʔ VnC → V[+ nas] V[+ nas] / _#
n → ⁿd
29.1.1.1.25 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to ChiricahuaVnʔ → V[+ nas] / _#
n → ⁿd
29.1.1.1.26 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to MescaleroVnʔ → V[+ nas] / _#
n → ⁿd
29.1.1.1.28 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to San CarlosVnˀ → V[+ nas] / _#
n → ⁿd
29.1.1.1.37 Proto-Athabaskan to Tanacross{n,ɲ} → ⁿd
29.1.1.1.39 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Tanana{n,ɲ} → ⁿd
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1.2 Proto-Bantu to Tswana{p,t,tʃ,k} {mp,nt,ɲtʃ,nk} {(m)b,(n)d,(ɲ)dʒ,(n)ɡ} {m,n} → s tsʰ ts ɲ / _iV
{tʃ,k} {ntʃ,nk,r} {ɲdʒ,nɡ} mp mb p b {d,l} m n → s tsʰ ts tʃʰ(w) tʃ(w) ʃ(w) dʒ(w) dʒ ŋw ɲ / _{ɪ,e}V
{p,t,tʃ,k} {mp,nt,ɲtʃ,nk} {(m)b,(n)d,(ɲ)dʒ,(n)ɡ} {m,n,ɲ} → sw tsʰw tsw ɲw / _iV
{tʃ,k} {ɲtʃ,nk} {ndʒ,nɡ} → s tsʰ ts / _{i,ɪ,e}
nk k → kʰ h / _u
mp nt ɲtʃ nk mp nd ɲdʒ nɡ → pʰ tʰ tɬʰ qʰ p t tɬ k
30.1.1.3.1 Proto-Sam to Amuntç tç → (n̪)t̪ʰ t̪
{ndj,nz} → n̪d̪
30.1.1.3.2 Proto-Sam to Bajunintç tç → (n̪)t̪ʰ t̪
{ndj,nz} ɲz → n̪d̪ n̪ ð
30.1.1.3.3 Proto-Sam to Mwiinintç tç → (n̪)t̪ʰ t̪
ndj → n̪d̪
30.1.1.3.4 Proto-Sam to Siu-Patentç tç → (n̪)t̪ʰ t̪
{ndj,nz} z → n̪d̪ ð
30.1.1.3.5 Proto-Sam to Proto-Aweeranz z c → ɲd̪ ʃ
30.1.2 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-Manenguba’m m ’n n {’ɲ,ɲ} ŋ → m {ᵐb,m} n {ⁿd,n} ɲ {ᵑɡ,ŋ} / in C2 position
30.2.1.1 Proto-Akanic to Akann → ŋ / #(C)V_
30.3.1.1.13 Proto-Vhe to Tɔ̣wunn → ŋ / _ũ
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinon → nʲ
nʲ → l / #_i
32.1.2 Proto-Chatino to Tataltepec Chatinol n → lʲ nʲ / e_ in U[-long -stress]
et el en → itʲ elʲ enʲ
32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinonʲ → j / _ã (with some exceptions?)
nʲ → nj / else
32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to Tlapanecn → {n,ɲ} (the latter “under obscure conditions”)
Yt Ynt Ys → tʃ dʒ ʃ
{ns,nt} nkʷ nj nw → (n)d (m)b r m
nk → {ɡ,ŋ} (the latter “under obscure conditions”)
{in,en} an → a u
{iHn,eHn,aHn} uHn → ã ũ
35 Salishan35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack Halkomelemn → l
ʔn → ∅ / m_
lʔn → lː / V3_V
35.1.4 Proto-Central Salish to Musqueam Halkomelemʔn → ∅ / m_
35.1.5 Proto-Central Salish to Klallammʔn → nʔ
35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to Lushootseedmʔn → d
m n → b d
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to Nooksackn → ∅ / mʔ_
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern Straitsmʔn → nʔ
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern Straitsmʔn → nʔ
35.1.11 Proto-Central Salish to Sooke Northern Straitsmʔn → nʔ
35.1.14 Proto-Central Salish to Sqamishn → ∅ / mʔ_
35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to Twanam n → b d
35.2.1 Proto-Interior Salish to Columbian and Okanagan Nasal-to-Vowel Shiftsnˀ → aʔ / _# (all other Interior Salishan languages have /eʔ/ in this position)
35.2.2 Proto-Interior Salish to Thompson Nasal-to-Vowel Shiftsn̩ → e / n_ (this is admittedly a bit conjectural; the paper is not being very clear here)
35.3 Shuswap to Eastern Shuswap Nasal-to-Vowel Shiftsen enˀ → i iʔ / {ts(’),s,j(ˀ)}_ in U[- stressed]
en enˀ → a ʔ / in U[- stressed] ! {t(’),lʲ,{n,l}(ˀ)}_
35.4 Shuswap to Spokane-Kalispel Shuswap Nasal-to-Vowel Shiftsn nˀ → i iʔ / C_s
n nˀ → i iʔ / _{i,ʃ} (sporadic)
36 Sino-Tibetan36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàun → uɛn / ! {C[+dental],C[+sibilant]}_
uɛn → ɛn / ʋ_
yn → un / C̣_ (may have stayed yn or → ɥn in at least one area?)
{jem,jen} → iɛn / sometimes after C̣_ (but ! ʐ_) (only in one variety?)
yen → uɛn / C̣_
yen → yɛn
ɔn → an; “[t]his final occurs exclusively after SR gutturals”
wɔn ja wa → uɔn ia ua
{jam,jan} → iɛn
wan → an / C[+labiodental]_
wan → uan / else
əjʔ əw {əm,ən} → eʔ ɛu ɛn
36.3.1.1 Proto-Naish to Laze{r,s}l {r,s}n → l̥ N̥ / %_V
n̥ → l̥ / %_V
36.3.1.2 Proto-Naish to Mosuo (Na)n̥ → l̥ / %_V
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to Naxin̥ → l̥ → h / %_V
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Larnj → rɲ ?
n → ∅ / a_
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiarm rn → mj rw
Nn → m / _j
rnj → r.mj
36.3.2.1.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Hanniuan {at.is} → o ie
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Toŋ(w) N{ŋ,nj} → ȵ mɳ
an → ia
36.3.2.2.3 Proto-rGyalrongic to Patin → ∅ / a_
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Monj → ɲ / #(r)_
36.3.2.2.5 Proto-rGyalrongic to Trungun → ial
an → a(i)
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku NaoNnj → mɲ
nj rnj → nj rɲ
ut u{k,n} ur → ud uo uɛ
an → ɿɛ
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu TaNnj → mɲ ?
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to WassuNnj çnj → mn ʃn
an ap → ai ie
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeetsn → hst
n → h / _st
{n,r} → ∅ / _j
nh → hn
37.1.2 Proto-Iroquoian to Proto-Northern Iroquoiann → ∅ / _ti
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayugan → t / _k(ʷ)
ns → ts / _k(ʷ)
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huronn → ∅ / t(h)_
n → ∅ / _s
n → ∅ / _i “(in pronominal prefixes only)”
n hn sC → t th Ch / s_
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandotn → t / _h
n → ⁿd / _{V[-nas],r}
n → ŋ / _{j,w}
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagans → ts / _k(ʷ)
n → ∅ / _s
n → t / _k(ʷ)
n → ∅ / h_r
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneidans → ts / _{t,k(ʷ)}
n → ∅ / _s
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecan → ∅ / _s
n → t / _k(ʷ)
n → t / ʔ_#
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscaroran → t / ! _{h,kʷ,V[+nas]}
n → t / _kʷ
n r w j → n̥ r̥ w̥ j̊ / _{#,O}
37.2.2 Proto-Siouan to Dakotamn → mV0nV0 / #_
37.2.3 Proto-Siouan to Mandanmn → mV0nV0 / #_
mn → mV0nV0 / {C,V}_{C,V}
sn → {ʃV0nV0,sV0rV0}
37.2.4.2 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Winnebagopr {sr,xr} sn km → pV0rV0 ʃV0rV0 sV0nV0 kV0wV0
37.2.5.1 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Crown → r / ! at word boundaries
37.2.5.2 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Hidatsan → r
mn → w / {C,V}_{C,V}
sn → tsV0rV0
37.2.6.1 Proto-Dhegiha to Kansamn → bl / {C,V}_{C,V}
37.2.6.2 Proto-Dhegiha to Omaha-Poncan → θ / _{ã,ẽ,õ}
mn → mV0nV0 / #_
mn → bθ / {C,V}_{C,V}
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to Osagen → ð / _{ã,ẽ,õ}
mn → bð / {C,V}_{C,V}
sn mt → hn d
37.2.7.3 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Tutelomn → mV0nV0 / #_ (in morphemes)
sn → sV0nV0
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Taim̥ n̥ → m n
n → ∅ / _r
40 Totozoquean40.1 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Mixe-Zoqueannʲ tʲ tʃ kʲ → n t s ts k
40.2 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Totonacannʲ tʲ kʲ k → l tʃ k q
41 Trans-New Guinea41.2 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Asmatp t nj → {t,r} {r,s,t} s / _#
41.3 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Binanderenj → s / #_ (?)
ᵐb ⁿd ᵑɡ nj → {p,ᵐb} {ⁿd,z} k z / V_V
41.5.1.2 Proto-Gorokan to North ForeNw Nm N{n,j} → ŋk mp nt
41.5.1.3 Proto-Gorokan to South ForeNw Nm N{n,j} → ŋk mp nt
m n → mb nd / #_
41.5.2.1 Proto-Kainantu to AuyanaN{w,d,r} nj → ŋk nt (not sure if *nj is supposed to be *ɲɟ)
41.5.2.3 Proto-Kainantu to Gadsupnw nr → mb nd
41.8 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kiwait ᵐb ⁿd {k,ᵑɡ} nj → {r,t} p {d,t} ɡ r / V_V
41.9 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Selepett ᵐb nj s → r {b,p} ⁿd {s,d} / V_V
41.11 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Middle Wahgin ŋ → m n / #_
42 Uralic42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnicnʲ → ni / #(C)i_V
nʲ → in / V_V
nʲ → n / else
n → ∅ / _tː
n → ∅ / _{s,ts}
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnish(t(ː))sn kx(tx) rn ln → sː xː rː lː
{p,t,k}({p,t,k})n {p,t,k}({p,t,k})m → nː mː
{ks,nts} nt → s t / _#
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnishmb nd ŋɡ → mː nː ŋː
sn → ns
42.1.1.1.2 Standard Finnish to Modern Standard Finnishn → ∅ / _#
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livoniant ts s(C) n l r → tʲ tsʲ sʲ(C) nʲ lʲ rʲ / _i
Vn → Vː / _s
43 Uto-Aztecan43.5.1.2 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Mononː → h
43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhamn → ɲ / _V[+high]
44 Vasconic44.1 Proto-Vasconic to Aquitaniann[+ fortis] → n(ː) / V_V
n[- fortis] n[+ fortis] → {n,r}(?) n
44.2 Proto-Basque to BasqueVn → Ṽ / _# (seems to have been reverted in most dialects, except for Souletin)
Vn → Ṽ / _V (?)
n →m / u_V
n → ɲ / {i,ɪ}_V
n → h̃ / V_V
nb → mː → m
l n →ʎ ɲ / E_
n[+ fortis] → n
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.2 Proto-Pai to Paipain → ∅ / _t
46 Vowel Shifts46.10 Late Proto-Finnic to Savonian Vowel Shiftli ni ri si → lʲi nʲi rʲi sʲi
46.14 Pre-Slavic Vowel Changesen an → ẽ ã
46.16 Development of Proto-Lolo-Burmese -i(C)# and -u(C)# to Lahu-i -i{p,k} -it -i{m,ŋ} -in → -i -ɨʔ -iʔ -ɛ -ɨ
-u -up -ut -uk -um -un -uŋ → -u -ɔʔ -əʔ -uʔ -ɔ -ə -ɛ
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.1 List 1: Simple Consonant Changesn → ŋ (Samoan, but only in colloquial speech)
mb nd → ʙ dr (Nias)
47.2 List 2: Conditional or complex consonant changesn → i / _s and sometimes other fricatives (Montana Salish)

to /n/

362 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1.1.1 North Omotic to Benchl → n / #_VN
6.1.1.3 North Omotic to Kafaɲ → n
l → n / #_Vb
6.1.1.4 North Omotic to Maaleɲ → n
6.1.1.5 North Omotic to Shekkachol → n / #_Vb
6.1.1.6 North Omotic to Wolayttaɲ → n
l → n / #_VN
6.1.1.7 North Omotic to Yemsaɲ → n
l → n / #_VC
6.1.1.8 North Omotic to Zayse-Zergullaɲ → n
l → n / #_VN
6.2.2.1.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-Boreafrasian{ɲ,ŋw} → n
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berberl → n
6.2.2.1.5 Proto-Semitic to Classical Arabicm → n / “in certain contexts, notably in the nunation”
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakil → n / #_
θ → n / #_
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenakiθ → n / #_
7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-AtsinaW → n / {#,V}_
s → n / #_
r → n / {#,V}_
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfoottem {k,p}en → mː nː
7.9 Proto-Algonquian to Swampy Creel → n
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menomineer → n
7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-Illinois{θ,l} → r → n / #_ (and possibly in other places as well)
7.15 Proto-Algonquian to Ojibwer → n
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonicŋ → {∅,n} #_ else
N → {m,n}
l(ʲ) → n / #_
8.2 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Korean{nʲ,ŋ} → n / #_
l(ʲ) → n / #_
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolicnʲ → {j,n} / else
ŋ → n / #_{a,o,e}
ŋ → {m,n,ŋ,h}
l → {n,l} / #_
8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchakb…n → m…n
8.5.1.2 Proto-Kypchak to Kyrgyznj → jn
9 Austroasiatic9.1.2 Proto-Vietic to Middle Vietnameseɓ ɗ → m n (For some reason it seems that only first-register tones can occur in this environment)
c ɲ → t n / ! E_ (apparently the precursor to Vietnamese short *a was treated as a short vowel here)
9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnamesec ɲ t n → t n k ŋ / a_ (short /a/ only)
c ɲ → t n / {i,e}_
10 Austronesian10.1 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Malayo-Polynesians ts lʲ → h t n
10.1.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Philippineɲ → n
10.1.2.7 Proto-Philippine to Proto-Kalamian*R ɲ → l n
10.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Batak{ts,ʈ} {ɟʝ͡,ɖ} {lʲ,ɲ} {ʔ,x,s,h} ʀ → t d n ∅ r (velar fricative is conjectured; changes → d “unsure”)
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauanɲ → n (except possibly to n when #_)
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiput{l,ɾ} → n / _#
10.2.6.2 Proto-North Sarawak to Proto-Kenyahl → n / _#
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabau— m p → n t / {u,i}_
10.3.1 Proto-Oceanic to Hawai’ianŋ r v → n l w
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwɲ → n
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerig{c,*j} ɲ → s n
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to Mwotlapmʷ ɲ → ŋmʷ n
b β d → m p n / _{C,#}
10.3.5 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-New Caledonia{l,ɲ} → n
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-Nêlêmwaŋ → n
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to Nyelâyuŋ → n
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Yunagaŋ → n
10.3.6.2 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Naguŋ → n / _i
10.3.6.3 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Natüguŋ → n / _i
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bayɲ c *j → n s z
v t l r → p dr n w / _#
p v m → t θ n / _{a,e,i}
10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to Tolomakoɲ c *j → n s z
m b → n̼ t̼ → n t / _{a,e,i}
10.3.9.1 Proto-Utupua to Asuboadr s l → {d,ɟ} {∅,s} {n,∅}
r → {l,n,∅}
10.3.9.2 Proto-Utupua to Nebaoc ɲ → ∅ n
ŋ → n / _i
10.3.9.3 Proto-Utupua to Tanibilid c ɲ → ɟ {s,∅} n
10.3.11.2.1 Proto-Erromango to Syeb d ɡ → m n ŋ / _#
b d ɡ → mp nt ŋk
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Urab d ɡ → m n ŋ / _C
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’a{c,*j} ɲ → s n
b d → m n / _{C,#}
10.4.1 Proto-Micronesian to Marshallesem ɲ → mʲ nʲ
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to OngeN → n / _{d,l}
11 Northeast Caucasian11.1.3 Proto-Avar-Andic to Avarm → {m,n}
11.3 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Khinalugr → n / _C
11.4 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Lakm l → {m,n} {l,∅}
13 Chumashan13.6 Proto-Chumash to Ventureñoˀm ˀn ˀl ˀj → m n l j
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.1 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Proto-Dravidiann nː rn → {n̲,r} n̲(ː) ɳ / V_V
nː → n̲(ː)
nr̀ → n̲r̲
14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamiteɲc → ns / V_V
nr̀ → nr
l → n / V_#
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamiln tː → n̪ t̪ː
ɳ → n “(sporadic and dialect development)”
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Aleut{t,ð} → n / _#
nV1nV2 → nV2nV2
15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow Iñupiaq{p,v} t {k,ɣ} → m n ŋ / _N
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic Iñupiaqm n ŋ t {{ɣ,ʁ} → {k,q}} → p t k n ŋ / _#
{p,v} t {k,ɣ} → m n ŋ / _N
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie Iñupiaq{p,v} t {k,ɣ} → m n ŋ / _N
15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales Iñupiaq{p,v} t {k,ɣ} → m n ŋ / _N
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’ik∅→ n / #_iN (This one is sort of a guess, given a singular example in the text that isn’t really commented upon)
17 Indo-European17.2.3 Common Anatolian to LycianN{F[+voice],T} → nD
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh ArmenianN → n / _#, in monosyllables
N̩ → n / _#
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan ArmenianN → n / _#, in monosyllables
N̩ → n / _#
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul ArmenianN → n / _#, in monosyllables
N̩ → n / _#
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert ArmenianN → n / _#, in monosyllables
N̩ → n / _#
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia ArmenianN → n / _#, in monosyllables
N̩ → n / _#
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast ArmenianN → n / _#, in monosyllables
N̩ → n / _#
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest ArmenianN → n / _#, in monosyllables
N̩ → n / _#
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishm̩ n̩ → am an / _{s,({m,j,w)V}
m̩ n̩ → em en / else
m → n / V_#; “[i]t is thought that the vowel needs to be unstressed, but this is not certain”
p t k kʷ b d ɡ ∅ → b d ɡ ɡʷ mb nd ŋɡ n / n#_”V
— hn hm → nː mː / [anything]_ (“[t]his change is a bit speculative”)
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshmb nd ŋɡ → mː nː ŋː
mp nt ŋk → m̥ n̥ ŋ̊
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothicnː → n / _C ! _j
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle Englishm → n → ∅ / _# when unstressed
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle Englishm → n → ∅ / _# when unstressed
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsm → n / _f
m → n / _f
17.7.2.1.11 Scots to Falkirk ScotspVn tVn kVn → ʔm̩ ʔn̩ ʔŋ̩ / _#
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle Englishm → n → ∅ / _# when unstressed
17.7.2.2 West Germanic to Old Low Franconianjan → en / CC_#
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norseʀ → r_n
ʀn → nː
waː naː → oː noː / %u in #U
l(ː)ʀ n(ː)ʀ → lː nː / ”Vː_ (or all V_ ?)
nː lː rː sː → n l r s / C_
lː nː → l n / C_#
ðl(ː) ðn(ː) → lː nː
lθ nθ → lː nː
lθ nθ → lː nː
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandic{n̥n,nn̥ → tn̥ / V_
nː → tn̥ / V_#
nː → tn / V_
nn̥,n̥n → n̥
nː → n
{r̥n,r̥n̥,rn̥ → tn̥
rn → tn̥ / _#
hr hn → r̥ n̥ / #_
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornny → in
ɡn ɡl → nj lj
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornnd ld (→ nː lː ?) → ɲ ʎ
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittitem̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar al
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavicm̩ n̩ → {ьm,ъm} {ьn,ъn}
17.12.1 Proto-Italic to Proto-Latino-Falsicanm̥ n̥ → em en
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latinm̩ n̩ → em en
n̩ː → n
{p,b} {t,d} → m n / _{m,n}
mː → n / {W,Vː}_
17.12.1.1.1 Classical Latin vs. Vulgar Latinm → n / _# “(in certain common monosyllabic words, as well as some common compounds of them)”
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalanmn → nː → ɲ
mnj → {mni,ɲ} / V_V
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— m → n / _#
— m{ɲ,j} → ndʒ
ɲ → in / _{C,#}
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguesendj → nts → ns → ɲ / V_V
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençalmn → mpn → nː (dialectal)
ms ns → mps nts (sporadic?)
dVɡ (n)dVɡ → dʒ(?) ndʒ
mbj → {mbj,mdʒ,ndʒ}
mnj → ndʒ (else)
{ntʃj,ndj} → nts → ns
{ndj,ndʒj} ndʒ → ɲ {ɲ,ndʒ}
ndt ndtʃ ntʃ nkt nf → n{d,t} {nts,ndz(→ nz),ndʒ} n(t)s {ɲ,(i)nt,ntʃ} {nf,fː(→ f)}
nt nd → {∅,n} ∅ / _# (in some Languedoc and Gascon areas)
nd → n / _# (in western areas and for some speakers of Limousin)
ɡn{d,t} → ŋn{d,t} → ɲ{d,t} → {(i)nd,ɲd,ndʒ} or t(ʃ)
ɡn → ŋn → ɲ
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanianm s → n i / _#
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardiniann{i,j} t{i,j} → ndʒ ts / _V
ɡn → nː
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanishmb mn → mː nː
— ndzVɡ → nɡ
— mpVt skVp spVt stVk → nt sp st sk
— dn dl → nd ld
— ml nɾ → lm ɾn (sometimes)
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-TocharianR Hn̩ → ɛR ɨn / #_C
17.13.2 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian Bmn → nm / V_V
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.2.2 Proto-Ofaié-Jê to Ofaié-Xavanteŋ → n / V_V
18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makurápts (n)dz → t nd
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayoróts (n)dz → t nd
r ŋʷ → n β / V[+nas]_V[+nas]
ð → (n)d
18.4.1 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Akwárak b r → {ŋ,∅} {w,m} {n,r,t} / _#
18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Cocamaʔ ts ŋ → ∅ {ts,tʃ} n
20 Khoisan20.1.1 Proto-Khoe to ǁ̬Anaǀ̃(n) → ǂ̃n
20.1.2 Proto-Khoe to ǁAniǀ̃(n) → ǂ̃n
! !̬ !̃ → !~k !̬~ɡ !̃(n)~ŋɡ
20.1.10 Proto-Khoe to ǀ̬Uiǀ̃(n) → ǂ̃n
!̃ !x → !̃(n) !x~x
21 Lakes Plain21.1.1 Proto-Far West to Awerat d → t~ɾ~n n / #_
21.1.2 Proto-Far West to Saponip d → p~f n / #_
21.2.1.1 Proto-Central Tariku to Edopid → d~n~l / #_a
21.2.1.2 Proto-Central Tariku to Iaud → d~l~n / #_a
21.2.3.2 Proto-West Tariku to Faiab d → m n / #_a
21.2.3.3 Proto-West Tariku to Fayub d → m n / #_a
21.2.3.4 Proto-West Tariku to Kirikirib d → m n / #_a
21.2.3.7 Proto-West Tariku to Weirateb d → m n / #_a
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to Chibchan → {n,∅}
23.1.1.1.3 Proto-Chibchan to KoginVs dVs → n(V(s)) ʒ(Vʒ)
n j → {n,∅} {j,∅}
23.1.1.1.6 Proto-Chibchan to Tunebom n h j → b {n,r,∅} {h,∅} {j,∅}
23.1.2 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Lencanb d → m n / _V[+ nasal] (I’m inferring this from the statement that “[t]here are also a series…of nasal vowels”)
23.1.3 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Misumalpanb d → m n / _V[+ nasal] (I’m inferring this from the statement that “[t]here are also a series…of nasal vowels”)
27 Mayan27.1 Proto-Mayan to Ch’olanŋ → n
27.2 Proto-Mayan to Chujeanŋ → n
27.8 Proto-Mayan to Q’anjob’alanŋ → n
27.9 Proto-Mayan to Tzeltalanŋ → n
27.10 Proto-Mayan to Yucatecanŋ → n
28 Muskogean28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western Muskogeanθ → n
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.19 Proto-Athabaskan to Proto-Southern Athabaskant n x → d n h / in prefixes relating to word derivation
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1.2 Proto-Bantu to Tswanap t tʃ k {dʒ,ɡ} ɲ → h r tɬʰ χ ∅ n
30.1.1.3.1 Proto-Sam to Amuntç tç → (n̪)t̪ʰ t̪
{ndj,nz} → n̪d̪
30.1.1.3.2 Proto-Sam to Bajunintç tç → (n̪)t̪ʰ t̪
{ndj,nz} ɲz → n̪d̪ n̪ ð
30.1.1.3.3 Proto-Sam to Mwiinintç tç → (n̪)t̪ʰ t̪
ndj → n̪d̪
ɲ → {ɲ,n̪}
30.1.1.3.4 Proto-Sam to Siu-Patentç tç → (n̪)t̪ʰ t̪
{ndj,nz} z → n̪d̪ ð
30.1.2 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-Manenguba’m m ’n n {’ɲ,ɲ} ŋ → m {ᵐb,m} n {ⁿd,n} ɲ {ᵑɡ,ŋ} / in C2 position
30.2 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Potou-Akanic(N)V1[+mid +nas](l̃) → CV[-nas]n
V[+nas](ʋ̃,l̃) → V[-nas](m,n) / #J[+voiced]_
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinol → {lʲ,n} “under obscure conditions”
n → nʲ
j → nʲ “under obscure conditions (PC morphophonemics?)”
32.1.2 Proto-Chatino to Tataltepec Chatinol n → lʲ nʲ / e_ in U[-long -stress]
et el en → itʲ elʲ enʲ
32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinonʲ → nj / else
32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to Tlapanecn → {n,ɲ} (the latter “under obscure conditions”)
{ns,nt} nkʷ nj nw → (n)d (m)b r m
33 Penutian33.3.2.2 Proto-Nim-Yokuts to Northern Yokutsŋ → n
34 Quechumaran34.4 Proto-Quechumaran to Huarásɲ → n
34.7 Proto-Quechumaran to Riobambaɲ → n / ! h_i
34.9 Proto-Quechumaran to Tenaɲ → n / _i
35 Salishan35.1.5 Proto-Central Salish to Klallammʔn → nʔ
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern Straitsmʔn → nʔ
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern Straitsmʔn → nʔ
35.1.11 Proto-Central Salish to Sooke Northern Straitsmʔn → nʔ
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old Mandarinŋ → n / n_Cʲa(ta)
36.1.1.1 Old Mandarin to Modern Pekingesem → n / V_
36.2 Sin Sukchu to GuānhuàThere seems to ahve been some stuff going on with palatalized [ŋ] → {ɲ,n} but it seems highly dialectal and I’m not entirely sure just what exactly was going on here
m → n
un → uɛn / ! {C[+dental],C[+sibilant]}_
uɛn → ɛn / ʋ_
yn → un / C̣_ (may have stayed yn or → ɥn in at least one area?)
{jem,jen} → iɛn / sometimes after C̣_ (but ! ʐ_) (only in one variety?)
yen → uɛn / C̣_
yen → yɛn
ɔn → an; “[t]his final occurs exclusively after SR gutturals”
wɔn ja wa → uɔn ia ua
am → an
{jam,jan} → iɛn
wan → an / C[+labiodental]_
wan → uan / else
əjʔ əw {əm,ən} → eʔ ɛu ɛn
əjŋ → ɛn (varies with ɛn?)
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiap çp (ç)b rP Np Nb pr {br,pj} → p. ç.w (ç)p rp. kj m.p n.br p.j
t st tr d sd (ç)dr Nt çT KT → t. s.d tr. t s.t (ç.)tr m.t. n.dr ɡ.t
kj Nkj ʔkj ɡj sɡj → kj. nj ɡ.tsʰ kj skj.
kr (s)ɡr → n.br (s)kr
Nç → n.pj.
çm çnj → ç.n
36.3.2.1.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to HanniuNTS → mnj
36.3.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Japhugʑ j → ndʑ ʑ
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Molts rts NTS PTS STS → lɖʐ rts. {mdzr,mtʃ} nt. sts
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Nao∅ → n / _pr
k {sɡ,çK} Nɡ rK → k. sk mɡ nk
(P)ç Nç çl → (b)ɕ np.j ʂl
nj rnj → nj rɲ
om → {on,am}
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu TaNp Nb Nt Nɡ Nç → sts mp mtʰ mk ntsʰdz
k rk kr kj Nkj ɡr → kʰdz nɡ kʰr tʃh dʒ nkʰr
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to WassuPç çl → ʃ ʃn
Nnj çnj → mn ʃn
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoiantʰ → n / else
m → n
37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeenh → hn
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayugar → n / _(h)j
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecar → n / _(h)j
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscaroraˀt → ʔn / V_{V,w,j}
ˀt → n / {#,C}_{V,w,j}
n r w j → n̥ r̥ w̥ j̊ / _{#,O}
37.2.1 Proto-Siouan to Catawba”V[+nas] → Vn (*)
37.2.2 Proto-Siouan to Dakotamn → mV0nV0 / #_
37.2.3 Proto-Siouan to MandanLʲ → n / _V[+nas]
mn → mV0nV0 / #_
mn → mV0nV0 / {C,V}_{C,V}
sn → {ʃV0nV0,sV0rV0}
37.2.4.1 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to ČiwereLʲ → n / _V[+nas]
37.2.4.2 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to WinnebagoLʲ → n / _V[+nas]
pr {sr,xr} sn km → pV0rV0 ʃV0rV0 sV0nV0 kV0wV0
37.2.6.1 Proto-Dhegiha to KansaV[+nas] → V[-nas]n
37.2.6.2 Proto-Dhegiha to Omaha-Poncad → n / ”V_
Lʲ → {θ,n} / _V[+nas -stress]
pr sr tʲr kr → bθ sn ʃn ɡθ
mn → mV0nV0 / #_
mt → n
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to Osagesn mt → hn d
37.2.7.1 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Biloxiã → an (sporadic)
r → {d,n}
37.2.7.2 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Ofoã → {an,õ}
37.2.7.3 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Tutelomn → mV0nV0 / #_ (in morphemes)
sn → sV0nV0
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Taim̥ n̥ → m n
38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-Aiɗ → n
39 Tanoan39.1 Proto-Tanoan to Jimezd → n / _V[+nas]
39.3 Proto-Tanoan to Taosd → n / _V[+nas]
40 Totozoquean40.1 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Mixe-Zoqueannʲ tʲ tʃ kʲ → n t s ts k
41 Trans-New Guinea41.1 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Apalɨt k ŋ → {l,t} {h,k} n / #_
p k ⁿd → β {h,k} nj / V_V
41.5.1.1 Proto-Gorokan to AsaroNl → nd
41.5.1.2 Proto-Gorokan to North Foreʔ → n / before modal suffixes
Nw Nm N{n,j} → ŋk mp nt
41.5.1.3 Proto-Gorokan to South Foreʔ → n / before modal suffixes
Nw Nm N{n,j} → ŋk mp nt
m n → mb nd / #_
41.5.2.1 Proto-Kainantu to AuyanaN{w,d,r} nj → ŋk nt (not sure if *nj is supposed to be *ɲɟ)
41.5.2.2 Proto-Kainantu to AwaN → n / _{v,k,s}
Nd → n
41.5.2.3 Proto-Kainantu to Gadsupnw nr → mb nd
DO[+ voice] DO[- voice] → nd nt
41.5.2.4 Proto-Kainantu to UsarufaN → n / _V
41.10 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Telefolᵐb ⁿd ᵑɡ → b n k / V_V
41.11 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Middle Wahgin ŋ → m n / #_
42 Uralic42.1 Proto-Uralic to Pre-Finnicŋ → n / _# else
m → n / _{t,tsʲ,#}
42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnicŋ → n / _t (?)
nʲ → ni / #(C)i_V
nʲ → in / V_V
nʲ → n / else
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnish{p,t,k}({p,t,k})n {p,t,k}({p,t,k})m → nː mː
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnishmb nd ŋɡ → mː nː ŋː
sn → ns
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livoniant ts s(C) n l r → tʲ tsʲ sʲ(C) nʲ lʲ rʲ / _i
43 Uto-Aztecan43.1 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Comanche{ŋ,l} → n
43.2 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Hopil h → n ∅ / medially
43.3 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Luiseñol → n / medially
43.4 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Nahuatlŋ → n
m → n / _#
l → n / #_
43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhams ŋ → h n
44 Vasconic44.1 Proto-Vasconic to Aquitaniann[+ fortis] → n(ː) / V_V
n[- fortis] n[+ fortis] → {n,r}(?) n
44.2 Proto-Basque to BasqueṼ → Vn or a diphthong (not Souletin)
ʎ ɲ → jl jn (“common in Low Navarrese, Labourdin, and is even regular in the High Navarrese of Sakana”)
n[+ fortis] → n
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.3 Proto-Pai to Tipaiɲj → n ∅ / ʔ_
46 Vowel Shifts46.10 Late Proto-Finnic to Savonian Vowel Shiftli ni ri si → lʲi nʲi rʲi sʲi
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.2 List 2: Conditional or complex consonant changesm → n / _i (Tsakonian)

with context involving /n/

199 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North Omotice(ː) → i(ː) / #C[+sibilant]_{d,n,r}
6.1.1.8 North Omotic to Zayse-Zergullax2 → ɡ / n_
6.2.1 Proto-Erythrean to Proto-Cushiticb → m / #_Vn
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berberʔ → ʕ / _V{n,r,ɡ}
l → r / #nV_C
7 Algonquian7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-Illinois{θ,l} → t / n_
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawneer → ∅ / n_
10 Austronesian10.1.1.3 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sumbawanu → i / _{s,t,r,n,l} (blocked in Pusu)
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lóngha → ɛ / {t,n}_#
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Ura{s,t} → h / _{n,l,r}
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamite{i,e,u} → ∅ / #_{t,n}a
17 Indo-European17.2.1 Common Anatolian to Hittitee → a / _n in U[+open +posttonic]
aj aw → ɛː uː / !_{s,n,r,l}
17.2.2 Common Anatolian to Luwianhh → ∅ / _{w,m,n,r,l} “medially, and sporadically”
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishp t k kʷ b d ɡ ∅ → b d ɡ ɡʷ mb nd ŋɡ n / n#_”V
17.7.2.1.5 Early Modern English to American Englishj → ∅ / {θ,s,z,l,n,t,d}_ when in onset position
æ → ɛə / _{n,m} “and others depending on dialect”
t → ∅ / f_n̩
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishæ → æː / _{n,m,ɡ,ɫ% ! _n,m,ɡ,ɫ}%{j,w} or a form of a strong verb
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scotsd → ∅ / n_
— a → i / _n (in northern varieties)
— a → e / _n (otherwise)
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsoː → ju / {n,x}_
e → ɛ / _nt
ɑː → e / ! _{ŋ,n}
∅ → ə̆ / _{n,r}
k → ∅ / n_t (sporadic)
m → ∅ / _n
{w,k} → ∅ / _{n,r}
17.7.2.1.11 Scots to Falkirk ScotsV → Ṽː / _nC “(works across word boundaries)”
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germans → ʃ / #_{l,m,n,w,p,t}
Vː → V[- long] / _%Cə{r,l,n}# (some exceptions)
17.7.3 Common Germanic to Proto-Norseoː → a / _n%
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norsee → ja / ! {{h,k,ŋ}n,w,v,l,r}_, _{u,o,i}
ʀ → r / C_n
e → jɒ / _(C)(C)(C)u ! {{h,k,ŋ}n,w,v,l,r}_
e → ja / _(C)(C)(C)u ! {{h,k,ŋ}n,w,v,l,r}_
d → ∅ / {l,m}_{b,ɡ,k,l,m,n,s}
ð → ∅ / n_ ! ɡ_
ð → ∅ / r_{m,l,ɡ,n}
{f,β,p} → ∅ / r_n
{f,β,p} → ∅ / l_{d,ɡ,n,ð,t}
{ɡ,ɣ} → ∅ / r_{d,n,t}
r → ∅ / k_{n,s}
t → ∅ / p_{ɡ,ɣ,n}
t → ∅ / s_{k,l,n,s}
{t,θ,d,ð} → ∅ / n_l
{t,θ,d,ð} → ∅ / l_n
ɒ → oː / n_h
β ð ɣ → b d ɡ / {m,n,ŋ,l}_
m → f / _{n,ŋ}
ŋ → x / _{m,n}
s → ts / {l,n}ː_
ɡ → ∅ / #_n
k → h / #_{v,n}
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early IcelandicS[- voice] → ʰS / _{l,ɬ,m,n}
r → t / _n
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornf → m / _n
d → ∅ / n_# (sometimes)
k → s / _n
f → ∅ / _{l,b,v,n,#}
h → ∅ / _{l,n,r}
a → ɔ / _{l,nd}C
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornf → m / _n
h → {∅,h,k,s} / _n
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishьl → ɛɫ / P_C[+dental -palatalized]
ь → aː / r_C[+dental -palatalized]
d → ∅ / _n “in arch. ‘jeno’”
{b,p} → ∅ / _n “in verbs in -nąć”
zdʲ stʲ → {ʑ,ɕ} {s,ɕ} / _n
dʲ → ∅ / r_n
n → s / k_Vn
d → ɡ / _n
rʲ → r / _{s,t͜s,l,w,n,ɲ}
tʲ dʲ → t d / _{l,n,ɲ,r,ʐ}
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to LatinVː → V[-long] / _{m,(n)t,l,r}#
{p,b} {t,d} → m n / _{m,n}
{k,ɡ} → ŋ / _n
V → {Vː,V[+nas]} / _n{f,s}
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalank → ∅ / Vn_tV
o → u / _{ɲ,nk,ŋ} when stressed
e → i / _{nk,ŋ} when stressed (irregular)
ɛ → e / ! _{rː,l,rC[-labial],nr} or _ ? w#
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French∅ → d / {n,l,ɲ,z_r
k ɡ → t d / {n,r}_r
t → s / _{n,m}
V → ə / _{CC,tʃ,dʒ} ! _{nt,nɡ,mp,rt,rd}
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to PortugueseV → a / _{n,r}(C)V(C)# (irregular)
e → ∅ / {l,n,r,s,k}_#
k → ∅ / Vn_tV
m → ∅ / _n
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— e u → e o / _nt#
s → r / _n (in a few dialects)
j → ∅ / n_# (in many dialects)
d → t / n_#
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanianɡ → m / _n
m → u / a_nV
c → ∅ / n_t
e → i / #(C…)V…_n…”U
e → ə / #(C…)V…{t,d,n}_…”U
{t,d} → ∅ / n_#
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanish{k,ɡ} → x → j / _{t,s,n,l}
e → ∅ / V{d,s,n,l,ɾ}_#
— d → ∅ / _n (sometimes)
— Vdz → ∅ / {nts,ndz,rdz_
— n → {ɾ,l} / nɡ_
— n → ɾ / nd_
— ∅ → d / n_ɾ
17.13.1 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian AV → j / V_nʲtʲ ! V = E
17.13.2 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian Bs → ∅ / n_#
20 Khoisan20.2.3 Proto-Kx’a to Southeastern !Xunʔ → ∅ / _nQ
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to ChibchaVs → h / n_
23.1.1.1.3 Proto-Chibchan to Kogis → h / _Vn
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.15 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Koyukonw → m / _Vn (sporadic)
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1.1 Proto-Bantu to Sebirwa∅ → ɡ / #n_V (in verbs)
l → d / n_
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinoe → a / _{l,ʔn} when unstressed
e → i / {kʲ,nt}_ when stressed
32.1.2 Proto-Chatino to Tataltepec Chatinotʲ → tʃ / _i[-long -stress]
ɛ → i / n_#
34 Quechumaran34.1 Proto-Quechumaran to Ayachucoχ → q / n_
34.3 Proto-Quechumaran to Cuzcoh → ∅ / nq_
ʈʂʼ → tʃ / n_
34.5 Proto-Quechumaran to Putamayot(ʰ) → d / n_
k → ɡ / n_
34.6 Proto-Quechumaran to Quitot(ʰ) → d / n_
k → ɡ / n_
34.7 Proto-Quechumaran to Riobambat(ʰ) → d / n_
k ts → ɡ dz / n_
34.9 Proto-Quechumaran to Tenat(ʰ) → d / n_
k → ɡ / n_
35 Salishan35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straitsmʔ → ∅ / _n
ʔ → ∅ / V3l_nV
35.1.13 Proto-Central Salish to Secheltʔ → ∅ / m_n
35.2.2 Proto-Interior Salish to Thompson Nasal-to-Vowel Shiftsn̩ → e / n_ (this is admittedly a bit conjectural; the paper is not being very clear here)
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old Mandarinŋ → n / n_Cʲa(ta)
36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàjuŋ → iuŋ / _ɡ[+píng tone]
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan LaN → m / _{ŋ.nj}
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiaj → ∅ / n_
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Toj → ∅ / {ʃ,r}n_
36.3.2.2.3 Proto-rGyalrongic to Patis → ʃ / _n
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Naos → ʂ / _n
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassus → ʃ / _n
o → ə / _n
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeet → ∅ / _{k,n}
t → ∅ / n_
37.1.2 Proto-Iroquoian to Proto-Northern Iroquoiant → ∅ / n_V
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayugah → ∅ / _nh
ʔ → ∅ / _nk(ʷ)
∅ → h / {t,k}_n
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Hurons → ʃ / ! _{n,t,k(ʷ),w} “or when part of the affricate /ts/”
k → i / #_n
k → ∅ / _n
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandot{ʔ,h} → ∅ / _nh
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagas → ʃ / ! n_ “or when part of the unit affricate /ts/”
h → ∅ / _sn
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Mohawk∅ → e / {tsh,s,n}_r
∅ → e / n_k(ʷ)
∅ → e / {t,k}_{r,n}
∅ → e / {#,V}s_n
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneida∅ → i / {V,t}n_k(ʷ)V
hs → sh / _{n,w}
— ∅ → e / C_{n,l}V(H)#
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to SenecaV → Vː / _{t,k(ʷ),s,n,r,j,w} “in even penultimate syllables”
h → ∅ / _{tk,nh,sC,C#}
Vh → Vː / _{n,w,j}
ʔ → ∅ / _nk(ʷ)
t → h / _{n,t}
a(ː) æ(ː) → õ(ː) ẽ(ː) / n_
∅ → h / k_n
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscarora”V → ”Vː / _n in “penultimate syllables only”
h → ∅ / _nh
37.2.4 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Čiwere-Winnebagom → ∅ / _n ! _n#
37.2.6.2 Proto-Dhegiha to Omaha-PoncaLʲ → {θ,n} / _V[+nas -stress]
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to OsageLʲ → ð / _V[+nas -stress]
m → ∅ / #_n
37.2.6.4 Proto-Dhegiha to Quapawm → ∅ / #_n (in morphemes) (*)
37.2.7 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Ohio-Valleym → ∅ / {C,V}_n{C,V}
37.2.7.1 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Biloxim → ∅ / #_n
37.2.7.2 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Ofom → ∅ / #_n
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.2 Proto-Tai to Saek{l,r} → ∅ / {n,ɗ}_
38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Tai{l,r} → ∅ / n,ɗ_
41 Trans-New Guinea41.5.2.3 Proto-Kainantu to Gadsup{D,Y} → ∅ / _n
42 Uralic42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard FinnishVh → hV / {j,v,n,r,l}_# (also some double-metathesis triggered by the condition of being m_ ?)
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livoniants(ʲ) → s(ʲ) / ! n_
43 Uto-Aztecan43.1 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Comanches → ∅ / Vn_
43.2 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Hopip → v / Vn_
w → ŋʷ / ɨn_
43.3 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Luiseñop → v / {Vn,ɨ}_ (the latter “sometimes”)
k → q / an_
43.5.1.1 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Kawaiisuh → ∅ / _{n,s,ʔ}
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basqueo → u / _n{C,#} (Souletin; some raising occurred elsewhere)
e → i / _{n,C[+ sibilant]} (sporadic)
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.1 Proto-Pai to Chapait → tʃ / ! n_
45.1.3 Proto-Pai to Tipait → ∅ / n_
46 Vowel Shifts46.5 Old English-to-Scots Vowel Shiftsa → i / _n (in northern varieties)
a → e / _n (otherwise)
46.11 Middle Chinese to Cantonese Vowel Shift (“The Inner-Outer Flip”)uə yə → ɔ œ / _{n,t}
46.19 Southern [United States] Shift (English)z → d / _n (not strictly a vowel shift but included here anyway because it’s cool, and also because it doesn’t occur in 〈hasn’t〉 because of the influence of 〈hadn’t〉)