Index Diachronica: involving /s/

770 results from /s/   797 results to /s/   264 results with context involving /s/   

plain sʲʷ sʲʷː sʲʼ sʲː sʷʲ sʷʲʼ sʷʼ sʷː sʼʷ sːʼ sːː t͜s

from /s/

770 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1.1.1 North Omotic to Benchx2 s3 → ∅ ʃ / V_V
sx → ʃ
6.1.1.2 North Omotic to Dizintsʼ → ʒ / V_
ts → tʃ / _i
sx → tʃ
s1 → ʃ
6.1.1.3 North Omotic to Kafas → ʃ / !V_
tsʼ → tʃʼ
{s3,ʒ} → ʃ / #_
{ts,ʒ} → tʃ / V_
s3 → ʃ / V_V
s3 → s / V_$#
tsʼ → tʃʼ
6.1.1.4 North Omotic to Maalets tsː → s ts / V_
sx → ʃ
tsʼ → tʃʼ / #_
tsʼ → s / V_
6.1.1.5 North Omotic to Shekkachos → ʃ / ! V_
tsʼ → tʃʼ
{s3,ts,ʒ} → s / _$#
ts → ʃ / V_
s3 → ʃ / #_
s3 → s / V_$#
s2 → ʃ
s2 → {s,tʃː} / V_
6.1.1.6 North Omotic to Wolayttax2 s3 → k ʃ / V_$#
s → s3 / V_(V)
s1 → ʃ
s2 → s / V_
6.1.1.7 North Omotic to Yemsats → s / #_
sx → ʃ
6.1.1.8 North Omotic to Zayse-Zergullatsʼ → sʼ
tsː → ts / V_
{s1,s3} → ʃ
s2 → tʃ / V_
tsʼ → {tʃʼ,s}
6.1.2.1 South Omotic to Aaris1 s2 s3 → ʃ z tʃ
6.1.2.2 South Omotic to Dimets → ʃ / _i
s1 → ʃ
s2 s3 → tʃː tʃ / V_
6.2.1.1.2 Proto-Agaw to Blin{ts,tʃ} z dz → ʃ d dʒ
6.2.1.1.3 Proto-Agaw to Kemantney{ts,tʃ} dz → ʃ dʒ
6.2.1.1.4 Proto-Agaw to Xamtangats tʃ dz → sʼ tʃʼ z
6.2.2.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-Chadicts dz {t,ts}ʼ tʃʼ → s z sʼ ʃʼ
6.2.2.1.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-Boreafrasiansʼ → s
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berber{ʃ,ts,z} dz tʃ {tʼ,tʃʼ} dʒ → s z ts tsʼ dʒ
6.2.2.1.5 Proto-Semitic to Classical Arabics → {ʃ,h} / in “anaphora and certain derivational prefixes. . .[t]his is common to many other Semitic languages as well”
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabictˤ sˤ → s t
6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Egyptian Arabic{{s,z}(ˤ),ʒ}ʃ → ʃː
6.2.2.1.14 Classical Arabic to Moroccan Arabics → ʃ / if ʃ is somewhere in the stem after it
6.2.2.1.19 Biblical Hebrew to Modern Israeli Hebrewsˤ tˤ ħ q → s t χ k
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakisk → kː / ! _a
ʔs ʔts → sː tsː
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenakiʔs ʔts → sː tsː
sk → kː / ! _a
7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-Atsinaθ h {s,m,n,r} → ʃ ∅ ʔ / _C
s → n / #_
s → h / {V,C}_
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfootnθ hs → sːt sː
{n,s} → x / _t
ns sk → {x,s} {x,sː}
sːː → sː
{k(ʷ)es,keθ} → sː
tsi → ∅ / $_OO “(before a prefix; the first obstruent of the follow[ing] cluster then becomes ʔ)
7.5 Proto-Algonquian to Cheyennes → h
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawaret s → tʃ ʃ / in diminutives
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menominee{s,r} → h / _O
7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-Illinoiss → ʃ / _i (not universal)
s → ʃ / _iV
hs hʃ → sː ʃː / sporadic, usually {#,V[+front]}_
VNs VNʃ → V[+nas]z V[+nas]ʒ / not universal?
s ʃ → ⁿs ⁿʃ / U[-nas] (highly sporadic)
7.15 Proto-Algonquian to Ojibwe{θ,s,h,ʔ} → ∅ / _{p,t,tʃ,k}
{ʔ,h}{s,r} → s
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawnee{h,s,tʃ,θ} → ʔ / _O
s → θ
8 Altaic8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkic{d,n}ʲ sʲ → j ʃ / #_
8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchaks → tʃ / _Vtʃ
s → ç / _Vç
8.5.2 Proto-Turkic to Sakhad s {ʃ,z} → t ∅ s / V_V
s → ∅ / #_
9 Austroasiatic9.1.1 Proto-Vietic to Muong Khens → h
9.1.2 Proto-Vietic to Middle Vietnameses → t(ʰ?)
10 Austronesian10.1 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Malayo-Polynesians ts lʲ → h t n
10.1.2.4 Proto-Philippine to Ibanag{s,c} → t
10.1.2.5 Proto-Philippine to Ifugao{s,c} → h
10.1.2.7.1 Proto-Kalamian to Agutaynens → t / _V ! _E
s → t / _#
10.1.2.7.2 Proto-Kalamian to Karamiananens → ʔ / _C
s → t / _V ! _E
s → t / _#
s → c& _ (the paper doesn’t explain what this represents)
10.1.2.7.3 Proto-Kalamian to Kalamian Tagbanwa{t,k,q,s} → k / _C
10.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Batak{ts,ʈ} {ɟʝ͡,ɖ} {lʲ,ɲ} {ʔ,x,s,h} ʀ → t d n ∅ r (velar fricative is conjectured; changes → d “unsure”)
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauans → t
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiputs → ∅ / V_V (sporadic)
s → ∅ / _#
{s,c} → t / _V{s,c}V
10.2.6.2 Proto-North Sarawak to Proto-Kenyahs → h / _#
s → t / _VsVC
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabau— {p,t,k} s → ʔ h / _#
10.3 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Oceanic{nts,ns,nz,nɡʲ} {ts,z,ɡʲ} → ɡʲ s
10.3.1 Proto-Oceanic to Hawai’ian{s,f} → h
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiws → h → ∅ (sporadic)
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to Mwotlaps → h “(often)”
10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to Caaàcq {k,t} {s,ʈ} → k c t
10.3.5.2 Proto-New Caledonia to Jawéq k {ʈ,s} → k c t̪
10.3.5.3 Proto-New Caledonia to Nemi-Pije-Fwaiq k {ʈ,s} → k c t̪
10.3.5.4 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Northernq qː k kː s sː → k kː c cː t̪ t̪ː
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to Nyelâyuk t s → j c t̪
10.3.5.6 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwaameiq k t s → k j c t
s → h / _i
10.3.5.7 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwapwâq k {ʈ,s} → k c t̪
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Yunagaq k s → k c t̪
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bayɣ s d → ∅ {j dr} / _#
ɣ s d → ∅ {j dr} / “before a post-tonic vowel”
10.3.9.1 Proto-Utupua to Asuboadr s l → {d,ɟ} {∅,s} {n,∅}
10.3.9.3 Proto-Utupua to Tanibili{s,*R} → ∅
10.3.10 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Vanikoro{s,*R} → r / _#
10.3.10.2 Proto-Vanikoro to Tanemas → {s,d,c}
10.3.10.3 Proto-Vanikoro to Vanos → r / _#
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejoms → h / “rarely”
s → θ / ! _i, occasionally
10.3.11.2 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Erromangos {c,*j} → h s
10.3.11.2.1 Proto-Erromango to Syes → h “often”
s → ∅ / _C (occasionally blocked)
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Ura{s,t} → h / _{n,l,r}
10.3.11.3 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Tannas c *J → {h,z} {s,z} z
10.3.11.3.1 Proto-Tanna to Kwameras → h “irregularly”
10.3.11.3.2 Proto-Tanna to Lenakels → h “irregularly”
10.3.11.3.3 Proto-Tanna to North Tanna{s,c} → {h,s}
10.3.11.3.4 Proto-Tanna to Southwest Tannas → h “irregularly”
10.3.11.3.5 Proto-Tanna to Whitesandss → h “often”
10.4.1 Proto-Micronesian to Marshallesep {t,ts} c → pʲ tʲ rʲ
{ç,s} x → tᵚ ∅
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Ongan{c,*C,s,*S} → c (again, possibly a change from POn-PAn, if it existed)
10.6 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-PaiwanS1 s c → s t ts
10.7 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-RukaiS1 s d2 *C → s θ ð ts (not sure what *C stands for here)
11 Northeast Caucasian11.1.1 Proto-Avar-Andic to Akhvakh{ts,st} → tʃ
11.1.2 Proto-Avar-Andic to Andi{ts,st} dz → s {tsːʼ,z}
stː → sː
11.1.3 Proto-Avar-Andic to Avarts tsː tsʼ tsːʼ dz → sh ts tʃʼ ts(ː)ʼ tsʼ
st(ː) → ts
s sː ɬː x xː → {s,ʃ} x ɬ {x,h} x
11.2 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Dargi{tsː,st} tsːʼ dz stː → ts z tsː s
11.3 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Khinalug{tsː,st} {tsːʼ,dz} → ts tsʼ
sː ɬ(ː) xː → h xʲ x
11.4 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Lak{tsː,stː} dz st → sː {tsː,z} ts
11.5.1 Proto-Lezgic to Agul{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ stː dz → {s,ts} {ts,tʃ} tː s z
11.5.2 Proto-Lezgic to Archi{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ stː dz → s {s,ʃ} tsʼ sː ts
sː xː → {sː,h} x
11.5.3 Proto-Lezgic to Lezghi{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ dz → {ʃ,tʃ} tʃ(ʼ) {tʃː,dʒ}
11.5.4 Proto-Lezgic to Rutul{ts,st} tsːʼ dz → {s,ts} {d,t} z
sː ɬ(ː) xː → {ħ,xʲ} {sː,h} x
11.5.5 Proto-Lezgic to Tabassaran{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ → {s,ts} {ts,tʃ} tsː
11.5.6 Proto-Lezgic to Udits tsː tsʼ tsːʼ dz → {∅,s} tʃ {∅,tsʼ} {tsʼ,tʃʼ} z
11.6 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Nakhst stː → st(ʼ) st
tsː tʃː → ts tʃ / #_
tsːʼ → tsː
{tsː,tʃː,dz,dʒ} → tː / _#
11.7 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Proto-Tsezic{ts,st} {tsːʼ,dz} → s ts
s xː → z x
11.7.2 Proto-Tsezic to Tseztsː tɬː → z l / V_V
tsː tɬː → s ɬ
sː ʃ ʃː ɬ ɬː x → s ʒ ʃ l ɬ ɣ
12 Northwest Caucasian12.1 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Abazgitsʲː → dzʲ (marked as dubious in the source)
sʷʲ zʲ → sʲ z
tsʷː tsʷʲ → tsʷ (tʃ)
zʷʲ tsʷʲʼ dzʷʲ → dzʲ~zʲ tʃʼ dʒ~ʒ
12.2 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Circassiants tsː dz → {s,c} tsː dz~z
tsʲ tsʲː tsʲʼ dzʲ → (s) tsː tsʼ dz~z
sʲ zʲ → s z
tsʷ lʲ {qʲʷ,qˤʷ} → sʷ d qʷ / #_ (data not given for non-initial forms)
tsʲʷ tsʲʷ dzʲʷ → tsʲ tsʲʼ dzʲ
sʲʷ zʲʷ → sʲ zʲ
12.2.1 Proto-Circassian to Adyghetsʲ → tɕ
tsʷ → tsʲʷ
tsʲʼ → ɕʼ~ʃʼ
sʷ ɕ → ɕʷ~ʃʷ ɕ~ʃ
12.2.1.1 Adyghe to Abadzekh Adyghetsʲ(ː) → tɕ
tsʷ → tʃʷ
pː tː tsː tsʷ ʃː tʃː tɕː kʲː kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → p t ts tʃʷ ʃ ɕ tɕ tʃ kʷ qː qʷ
sʼ ʃʼ~ɕʼ → tsʼ ʃʼ
12.2.1.2 Adyghe to Bzhedug Adyghetsʲ tsʲː → tɕ tɕː
tsʷː → tsʲʷː
tsʷʼ~ʃʷʼ → ɕʷʼ~ʃʷʼ
sʼ ʃʼ~ɕʼ → tsʼ ʃʼ
12.2.1.3 Adyghe to Shapsug Adyghetsʲ(ː) tsʷ tʃ tɕ → tɕ tʃʷ ʃ ʂ
pː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː tsː tcː kʲː kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → p t ts tʃʷ ʃ tʃ tɕ kʲ kʷ χ~q χʷ~qʷ
p(ʷ)ʼ t(ʷ)ʼ tsʼ tsʷʼ~ʃʷʼ → pˤ tˤ tsˤ ʂʷ
sʼ ʃʼ~ɕʼ → sˤ ʂ
12.2.1.4 Adyghe to Temirgoy Adyghetsʲ(ː) tsʷ → tɕ tsʲʷ
pː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː tʃː tɕː → p t ts tsʷʲ ʃ tʃ tɕ
tsʲʼ tsʷʼ~ʃʷʼ → ɕʼ~ʃʼ ɕʷʼ~ʃʷʼ
sʼ ʃʼ~ɕʼ → tsʼ ʃʼ
12.2.2 Proto-Circassian to Kabardiantsʲ(ː) tsʷ {tʃ,tɕ} → ɕ f ʃ
pː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː {tʃː,tɕː} kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → b d dz v ɕ ʒ dʒ ɡʷ qʼ~qχ qʷʼ~qχʷ
tsʲʼ tʃʷʼ~ʃʷʼ tʃʼ tɕʼ tɬʼ kʲʼ → ɕʼ fʼ ɕʼ {ɕʼ,cçʼ} ɬʼ tʃʼ
sʷ zʷ {ʃ,ʂ} {ʑ,ʐ,ɣʲ} ʑ χʲ → f v ɕ ʑ ʑ~ʒ χ
sʼ(?) ʃʼ~ɕʼ → tsʼ ɕʼ
12.3 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Ubykhts(ʲ)ː tsʷː dzʲ → ts tsʷ dz
sʷʲ zʷʲ tsʷʲʼ dzʷʲ → tʃʷ ʒʷ tʃʲʼ dʒʲ
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.1 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Proto-Dravidians → t / #_VLV
s → j / V_{V,#}
s → ∅ / #V_{r̀,l}
s → ∅ / C_V
s → ∅ / V_C
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales Iñupiaqp k q s → v ɣ ʁ z / V_V
15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’iks → ts / in certain situations?
s → dʒ / {i,u}_V
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’iks → ts / in certain situations?
s → dʒ / {i,u}_V
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’iks → ts → tʃ / in some dialects?
s → dʒ / {i,u}_V
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’iks → ts / in certain situations?
s → dʒ / {i,u}_V
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.4 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Western Sentanis → t / #_
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanians → ɟ / #_
s → ʃ / V{i̯,u̯,r,k}_V
sd → θ / medial
sḱ → h / medial
sp → f / medial
st → ʃt / medial
s → θ / sometimes, involving “[d]issimilation with following vowel”
s → h / V_V
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanians → ɟ / #_
s → ʃ / V{i̯,u̯,r,k}_V
sd → θ / medial
sḱ → h / medial
sp → f / medial
st → ʃt / medial
s → θ / sometimes, involving “[d]issimilation with following vowel”
s → h / V_V
17.2 Proto-Indo-European to Common Anatolian{{h1,h3}s,s{h1,h3}} → sː (contested)
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lycians → z / _{R,j,w} “(in Milyan, this happened after the change of ḱ to s)”
s → h
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to Lydians → ʃ / _{i,e}
s → ʃ / i_
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenian{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)
{sr,rs} → rː
Ns sN → s N
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenian{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)
{sr,rs} → rː
Ns sN → s N
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenian{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)
{sr,rs} → rː
Ns sN → s N
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenian{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)
{sr,rs} → rː
Ns sN → s N
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenian{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)
{sr,rs} → rː
Ns sN → s N
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenian{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)
{sr,rs} → rː
Ns sN → s N
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenian{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)
{sr,rs} → rː
Ns sN → s N
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestans → {s,h}
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irish“The PIE rules for the voicing of s → z, as in [nizdos] for *nisdos, are assumed to apply”
p t k kʷ b d ɡ m n l r s → f θ x xʷ v ð ɣ M N L R h / V(#)_{R,V} (“We don’t know the exact values of lenited /m n l r/. We can guess that lenited m became a nasalized labial continuant of some sort, but beyond that, we don’t know.”)
— s → ∅ / [anything]{l,r}_O
— st zd → sː dː / [anything]_
— {l,h}l {l,h}r l{p,s,n} r{p,s} ln → lː rː lː rː (lː?) / [anything]_
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshst → sː (with some exceptions)
s → ∅ / V_V
s → ∅ / x_
17.7 Proto-Indo-European to Common Germanicf θ s x → β ð z ɣ “(Except initially or following IE stress)”
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothics → ∅ / V[- long]r_#
s → r / in “[t]he prep[osition]. us…before r in compounds”
s → ∅ / in “[t]he prep[osition]. us…in compounds before st”, though this seems to have been less common
17.7.2.1.4 Midlands Middle English to Early Modern Englishtj sj dj zj → tʃ ʃ dʒ ʒ / ! _uː (perhaps only before stressed uː?)
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishsj zj lj → ʃ ʒ j~ɫj / else “(j~ɫj fluctuation is formality)”
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scotss → ʃ / _E (E_ also?)
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotss → ʂ / _{t,r}
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle Englishf θ s ɣ → v ð z ɡ / #_
17.7.2.2 West Germanic to Old Low Franconianxs → sː
17.7.2.2.1 Old Low Franconian to Middle Dutchf θ s → v ð z / syllable-initially (h → ɦ?)
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germans → ʃ / #_{l,m,n,w,p,t}
s → ʃ / r_
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlauts → ʃ / #_{p,t}
sk → ʃ / #_
17.7.2.5 West Germanic to Old Low Germanf θ s → v ð z / syllable-initially
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norse{s,z} → ∅ / {r,ʀ}_N
rː{r,ʀ} sʀ → rː sː
nː lː rː sː → n l r s / C_
ts → sː / V_V
s → ts / {l,n}ː_
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornsk → {sk,ʃ,ks}
s → ∅ / {t,k,r}_l
s → ʃ / _Vr ?
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Norns → ∅ / k_l
ms → ŋ(k)s
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian Greeks → h / #_
s → h / V_V
ts → s
Vns → Vːs
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greeks → h / #_
s → h / V_V
ts → s
Vns → Vːs
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greeks → h / #_
s → h / V_V
ts → s
Vns → Vːs
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greeks → h / #_
s → h / V_V
ts → s
Vns → Vːs
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan Greeks → h / #_
s → h / V_V
ts → s
Vns → Vːs
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric Greeks → h / #_
s → h / V_V
ts → s
Vns → V(ː)s (Tucker says that “[i]n a few Doric dialects the lengthening did not occur”)
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian Greeks → h / #_
s → h / V_V
ts → s
Vns → Vːs
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greeks → h / #_
s → h / V_V
ts → s
Vns → Vːs
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greeks → h / #_
s → h / V_V
ts → s
Vns → Vːs
17.8.10 Proto-Indo-European to Mycenaean Greeks → h / #_
s → h / V_V
ts → s
17.10 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iranians → ʃ / {u,i,l,r,K,Ḱ}
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-Aryans t d(ʱ) n → ʂ ʈ ɖ(ʱ) ɳ / _C̣
ls lt ld(ʱ) ln → ʂ ʈ ɖ(ʱ) ɳ / “disputed”
s → ʂ / _V{ʂ,ʈ,ɖ(ʱ)}
tst dzdʱ → tː dʱː
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-Aryanʂ s → s ç
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-AryansC → Ch
17.10.1.5 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Vedic Sanskrit{s,ʂ} → h / _#C[- voice]
{s,ʂ} → r / _#C[+ voice]
sɕ ɕʂ → ɕː ʂː
sː ʂː ɕː → t.s t.ʂ t.C
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavics → x / {i,u,r,k}_
sj zj → ʃ ʒ
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishsk x → ɕtɕ ɕ / _E
tsi ʐi → tɕ ʐ / V_
tʲ dʲ sʲ zʲ nʲ rʲ l lʲ → tɕ dʒ ɕ ʑ ȵ r ɫ l (this last probably not before /i/)
tɕts ʑr̝ → jts jr̝
ʈʂs → ts
{z,s,ʂ} → ∅ / _sC
st ʂʈʂ → z ʐ / _b
s → ∅ / _ɫza in “słza”
zdʲ stʲ → {ʑ,ɕ} {s,ɕ} / _n
stʲ → ɕ / _l
slʲ → ∅ / _s
stʲkl → ɕtɕkl → {ɕ,s}kɫ → ʂkɫ
dz ts → d͜z t͜s
n → s → ɕ / k_ɛ̃ where the vowel was from Proto-Slavic
17.12 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Italics → z / medial (I’m assuming between vowels or when *s voiced in PIE)
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latins → z → r / V_V
s → θ → f / #_r
s → θ → b / _r
s → z / _C[+voiced]
s → z / _{N,l,r}
s → z → l / l_
s → z → r / r_
{t,d}t → tst → sː
sː → s / _#
sː → s / {W,Vː}_
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalansk → ʃ / V_{i,e}
ks → ʃ / V_V
stj → ʃ
sj ssj jn → js jʃ ɲ / V_V
s → z / ”V%V_V
s → ∅ / V_V%”V
j ɡj ts z n → tʃ i w s ∅ / _#
k → ts → s / #_{i,e}
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French(t)s → (d)z / V_V
sːj zj rj → jsː jz jr
s → ∅ / _C
{t,s} → ∅ / _#
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to Italiansj → dʒ
{t,d,k,m,n,s} → ∅ / _#
{skj,stj,sːj → ʃ
tj ks w → ts sː ɡw
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguesers → sː
k → ts → s / #_{i,e}
{fl,skl} → ʃ
s → ʃ / V_C[-voiced]V
s → ʒ / V_C[+voiced]V
ks ɡn tj → ʃ ɲ {z,s} / V_V (tj → s is learned)
dj → dz → ts → s / r_V
ndj → nts → ns → ɲ / V_V
sj → jʒ / V_V
sːj (m)nj lj rj → jʃ ɲʎ jr / V_V
kj → ts → s / V_V
s l → z ∅ / V_V
sk k → jʃ z / V_{i,e}
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençalrs → sː
sː → s / Vː_
p t k s → b d ɡ z / V_V (this b → v?)
Original z (/ts/?) → dj → j
(s)k ɡ → (s)tʃ dʒ / #_a (in the north and northeast)
tʃ → ts → s / #_
tʃs → {ts,tʃ} (varies)
ms ns → mps nts (sporadic?)
ts → s / _# (Provence, Limousin, some Languedoc and Gascon)
s → r / _n (in a few dialects)
l{tj,tʃj} ldʒ → lts ldz → uts udz → us uz
{ntʃj,ndj} → nts → ns
ptj → ts → s
rtʃj → rts (→ rs ?)
rtj → rts → rs
rtj → rts → rs
{sːj,stʃj,stj} → ʃ → is (except in the west or extreme east, where the outcome was some flavor of (i)(t)ʃ)
sj → ʒ → (i)(d)ʒ (in some northeastern, northern, and western dialects)
sj → ʒ → {r,z} (rare)
sj → ʒ → iz (the usual outcome)
tːj → ts → s
stʃ → s (in some northern and northeastern dialects)
stʃ → (i)(t)ʃ (for western and extreme eastern regions)
stʃ → is (otherwise)
stɡ → s{ɡ,dʒ}
βtʃ → u{ts,dz} → u{s,z}
ktʃ → its → is (else)
ksk → stʃ / _a (in the north and northeast)
ks → ʃ → s / _m
ksː → is
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanian{m,n,s} → ∅ / _# in polysyllables
m s → n i / _#
s → i / #(C…)V_#
{s,t} → ∅ / _#
t d s → ts dz ʃ / _i
{sc,st} → ʃt / _F
s → ʃ / _kl
{sj,stj,sːj} → ʃ
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardinian{p,k}s → sː
sk → sː
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanish{tj,kj} {tːj,kːj,ptj,ktj,skj} → ts tːs
pt {ɾs,ps} → tː sː
ns → s (with a few exceptions)
jt js → tʃ ʃ
p t k s ts → b d ɡ z dz / V_V
pː tː kː sː tːs ʝː → p t k s ts ʝ
sj → js / V_
— tst dzd → ts dz
— mpVt skVp spVt stVk → nt sp st sk
ts dz → s̪ z̪
{s̪,s} → /s/ [s̪] “(merged as)”
{s̪,s} → h / _$
{s̪,s} → h “(in all environments)”
s̪ → θ
{s̪,s} → θ [θ] “(merged as)”
s → ɾ / _θ
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tocharianp {ts,k(ʷ)} m n l r y → pj sʲ ʂ mj ɲ lj rj wj / _{E(:),y}
oː(s,y) oːn → u {u,õ}
s → sʲ / _tʲ
17.13.1 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian As → ʂ / _t
17.13.2 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian Bs → ∅ / n_#
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makurápts (n)dz → t nd
18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekensts (n)dz → {s,ts} s
18.3.3 Proto-Tuparí to Tuparí{(n)dz,ts} → s / _i
{(n)dz,ts} → t / else
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayoróts (n)dz → t nd
18.4.1 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Akwárats → {h,∅}
18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Cocamaʔ ts ŋ → ∅ {ts,tʃ} n
18.4.3 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guajajarats → {h,∅}
18.4.4 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guaraníts → {tʃ,∅}
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guarayoʔ ts → {ʔ,∅} {ts,tʃ}
18.4.6 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Kamayuráts → {h,j,∅}
18.4.7 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Parintintínts → {h,∅}
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Sirionóʔ ts → ∅ {s,ʃ}
18.4.9 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Classical Tupits → {s,ʃ}
18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Urubuts → {s,h}
20 Khoisan20.1.1 Proto-Khoe to ǁ̬Anats → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s}
20.1.2 Proto-Khoe to ǁAnits → {ts,s}
20.1.3 Proto-Khoe to Bugats → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s}
20.1.4 Proto-Khoe to Kxoets dz → {ç,tç} dʒ
20.1.5 Proto-Khoe to Namats dz kxʼ → {ts,s} d ∅
20.1.6 Proto-Khoe to Narots dz → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s} dz~ts
20.1.7 Proto-Khoe to !Orats → {ts,s}
20.1.8 Proto-Khoe to Tetits dz kxʼ → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s} z kʼ
20.1.9 Proto-Khoe to Tsʔixats dz kxʼ → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s} z kʼ
20.1.10 Proto-Khoe to ǀ̬Uits → {ts~tsɦ,s}
20.2.1 Proto-Kx’a to ǂHoant d s → {c,tʃ} ɟ ʃ
20.2.2 Proto-Kx’a to Northwestern !Xunts(ʼ) s → tʃ(ʼ) ʃ
20.2.3 Proto-Kx’a to Southeastern !Xunts(ʼ) s → tʃ(ʼ) ʃ
21 Lakes Plain21.2.1.1 Proto-Central Tariku to Edopis → s~t
22 Macro-Arawakan22.1 Proto-Arawá to Arawátsʰ → s
22.2 Proto-Arawá to Banawá-Jamamadi{ts(ʰ),tʃ} dz → s ɟ
22.4 Proto-Arawá to Jarawara{ts(ʰ),tʃ} → s
22.6 Proto-Arawá to Sorowaháts(ʰ) → s
22.7 Proto-Arawá to Paumaríts(ʰ) → s
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.1 Proto-Chibchan to Arhuacos → kh / _(V)k
s d → z r / _(V)j
ts h → s ∅
23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to ChibchaVs → h / n_
s → h / V_V
ts → {s,z}
23.1.1.1.3 Proto-Chibchan to Kogis → ∅ / #_
s → {ʃ,tʃ} / _i
s → h / _Vn
nVs dVs → n(V(s)) ʒ(Vʒ)
s h → {s,tʃ} {h,∅}
23.1.1.1.4 Proto-Chibchan to Marocaceros → {ts,ʃ} / _i
s → {s,ts}
d(V)j s(V)j → lʲ dʒ
23.1.1.1.5 Proto-Chibchan to Motilóns → {s,x,tʃ~ʃ}
s → {ʃ,tʃ} / _i
s → x / i_
s(V)d → dʲ
23.1.1.1.6 Proto-Chibchan to Tunebo{d(V)s,n(V)j} n(V)s → r {VsV,r}
s → h / _(V)C
ts tʃ → tʃ s
23.1.2 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Lencan{s,ts} → tsʼ
23.1.3 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Misumalpants → s
25 Macro-Panoan25.1.2 Proto-Tacanan to Chamas ɕ → ð h
25.1.3 Proto-Tacanan to Reyesanots → tʃ / #_
28 Muskogean28.1.1 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Alabamats x → s h / _C
28.1.4 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Korasatits → s / _C
28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western Muskogeants tʃ → s ts
s → ʃ
tl st → lː tː
29 Na-Dene29.1 Proto-Na-Dene to Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak{s,ʃ} → ∅ / _x
29.1.1 Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak to Proto-Athabaskan{s,dz} → {s,z}
29.1.1.1.9 Proto-Athabaskan to Dogribts tsʰ tsʼ s z → kʷ kʷʰ kʷʼ ʍ w
29.1.1.1.20 Proto-Southern Athabaskan to Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan{s,z}(ʔ) {ʃ,ʒ}(ʔ) {ɬ,ɮ}(ʔ) → s ʃ ɬ / _#
29.1.1.1.25 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Chiricahua{s,z}(ʔ) {ʃ,ʒ}(ʔ) {ɬ,ɮ}(ʔ) → s ʃ ɬ / _#
29.1.1.1.27 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Navajo{s,z}(ʔ) {ʃ,ʒ}(ʔ) {ɬ,ɮ}(ʔ) → s ʃ ɬ / _#
29.1.1.1.28 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to San Carlos{s,z}(ʔ) {ʃ,ʒ}(ʔ) {ɬ,ɮ}(ʔ) → s ʃ ɬ / _#
29.1.1.1.29 Proto-Athabaskan to Bearlake Slavey-Harets tsʰ tsʼ s z → kʷ kʷʰ kʷʼ ʍ w
29.1.1.1.30 Proto-Athabaskan to Hare Slavey-Harets tsʰ tsʼ {s,z} → {kʷ,p} f wˀ w
29.1.1.1.31 Proto-Athabaskan to Mountain Slavey-Harets tsʰ tsʼ s z → p pʰ pʼ f v
29.1.2 Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak to Eyaks → ∅ / _x
29.2 Proto-Na-Dene to Tlingits → s : ɬ
ts → ts : tɬ
tsʼ → {sʼ,tsʼ} : {ɬ,tɬʼ}
30 Niger-Congo30.3.1.1.3 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Fon{ts,tʰ} {dz,dʱ} → s z
30.3.1.1.4 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Gents dz → s z
30.3.1.1.5 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Phla-Pherá{ts,tʰ} {dz,dʱ} → s z
30.3.1.1.8 Proto-Vhe to Adángbets dz → s z
30.3.1.1.9 Proto-Vhe to Avénok ɡ s → ts dz ʃ / _i
30.3.1.1.10 Proto-Vhe to Awalans {k,ts} {ɡ,dz} → ʃ tʃ dʒ / _i
30.3.1.1.12 Proto-Vhe to Pecı́{k,ts} {ɡ,dz} → tʃ dʒ / _i
30.3.1.1.14 Proto-Vhe to Wacı́{k,ts} {ɡ,dz} → tʃ dʒ / _i
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinos → tʃ (in certain cases? Not a lot of data available on this one)
32.1.2 Proto-Chatino to Tataltepec Chatinos → ʃ / E_ (? Not a lot of data available on this one)
32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinots → tʃ / #_{a,õ}ʔ
ts → tʃ / V[+high]_
ts → ʃ / #_ẽ
s → ʃ / V_V
s → ʃ / if /l/ is present in the same syllable
s → tʃ / #_a
32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to TlapanecYt Ynt Ys → tʃ dʒ ʃ
{ns,nt} nkʷ nj nw → (n)d (m)b r m
33 Penutian33.1.1.2.1 Proto-Miwok to Proto-Western Miwoks̪ → ʂ
33.3.2 Buena Vista Yokuts to Proto-Nim-Yokutss → ʃ
ts tsʰ tsʼ → tʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ
33.3.3 Proto-Yokuts to Palewyamis → ʃ / _i
ts tsʰ tsʼ → tʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ / _i
34 Quechumaran34.1 Proto-Quechumaran to Ayachucots(h) tʃh → tʃ s
34.2 Proto-Quechumaran to Boliviats {tsh,tʃh} → tʃ tʃʰ
34.3 Proto-Quechumaran to Cuzcots tsh → tʃ tʃʰ
34.4 Proto-Quechumaran to Huarásts(h) tʃ → tʃ ts
34.6 Proto-Quechumaran to Quitots → dz / ! #_
34.7 Proto-Quechumaran to Riobambak ts → ɡ dz / n_
s → ʃ / _C[+alveolar]
34.8 Proto-Quechumaran to Santiagots(h) → tʃ
35 Salishan35.1.1 Proto-Central Salish to Comoxts(ʼ) → θ(ʼ)
s → ∅ / #_C
s → ∅ / #_{wa,wi}
35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack Halkomelemts(ʼ) tʃ(ʼ) → θ(ʼ) ts(ʼ)
35.1.3 Proto-Central Salish to Cowichan Halkomelemts(ʼ) tʃ(ʼ) → θ(ʼ) ts(ʼ)
s → ʃ / _xʷ
35.1.4 Proto-Central Salish to Musqueam Halkomelemts(ʼ) tʃ(ʼ) → θ(ʼ) ts(ʼ)
35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to Lushootseeds → {ʃ,s} / _xʷ
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to Nooksacks → {s,ʃ} / _xʷ
s → ʃ / #_{xʲ,w{i,a},qʷa}
35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straitsts → s
s → ʃ / _xʷ
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern Straitsts ts’ → {θ,s} θ’
s → {ʃ,s} / _xʷ
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern Straitsts → s
s → {ʃ,s} / _xʷ
35.1.11 Proto-Central Salish to Sooke Northern Straitsts → s
35.1.12 Proto-Central Salish to Pentlatchts ts’ → s ts’
35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to Twanas → {ʃ,s} / _xʷ
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1 Proto-Sino-Tibetan to Middle Chineses(-)r → ʂ-
s-l- → {tʰ,z}-
36.3.1.1 Proto-Naish to Laze{r,s}p(ʰ) {r,s}{Np,(m)b} → f v / _V (the paper implies similar developments occurred at other POAs)
{r,s}k {r,s}Nk → f w / _V
{r,s}l {r,s}n → l̥ N̥ / %_V
36.3.1.2 Proto-Naish to Mosuo (Na){r,s}pʰ {r,s}{(N)p,(m)b} → pʰ p b / _V (the paper implies similar developments occurred with stops at other POAs)
{r,s}k {r,s}Nk → k ʁ / _V
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to Naxi{r,s}pʰ {r,s}(N)p {r,s}b {r,s}mb → pʰ p b mb / _V (the paper implies similar developments occurred with stops at other POAs)
{r,s}(N)k → k / _V
{r,s} → ∅ / %_V
{r,s}N → N̥ → hṼ → hV
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Lap b çp çb sP rP Np Nb pr {br,pj} bj → pʰ p ʝb çp sp rpʰ mpʰ mb br pʰj pj
t d Nt Nd st sd çT tr (ç)dr KT → tʰ t Ntʰ md zd st çtj trh (ç)tr kt
k sk kr ɡ Pɡ sɡ Nɡ (s)ɡr çK rK Kç → kʰ zɡw dr Nɡ pk sk mk (s)kr çk rɡj ɡçkr
(ʔ)kj (s)ɡj Nkj → (k)tç (s)kj Ndʒ
NTS PTS KTS sTS çTS → {Ndz,mts} kts(ʰ) ptsʰ sts {sts,rj}
(r)ts (r)dz → (r)tsʰ (r)ts
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiat st tr d sd (ç)dr Nt çT KT → t. s.d tr. t s.t (ç.)tr m.t. n.dr ɡ.t
sk rK → j sɡ
kj Nkj ʔkj ɡj sɡj → kj. nj ɡ.tsʰ kj skj.
kr (s)ɡr → n.br (s)kr
Kts → ɡ.tsʰ.
ts (r)dz dʒ PTS KTS sTS çTS → {tsʰ,s} (r)ts tsʰ ɡ.ts s.{ts,pj} {s.ts,br}
s → ∅ / u_
36.3.2.1.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Hanniup k ts → p. k. tʃ.
an {at.is} → o ie
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham ToNkj ɡj sɡj → mj ts stʃj
sɡr → skr
ts {dz,KTS} NTS rdz dzl dʒ → s ts {dz,mtʃ.} rts tsl tʃ.
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtse(N)p Nb sP çp çb pr br {p,b}j → (m)pʰ (m)p sp ʝb çp br pʰj pʰj
(N)t (N)d st sd KT çT tr dr çtr → (N)tʰ mt zd st kt çt(j) trh tr çtr
(P)ɡ sɡ çK Nɡ k sk rk (s)ɡj (ʔ)kj → (p)k sk çk mk kʰ zɡ Nɡ (s)kj (ʔ)kʰj
Nkj (s)ɡr Kç kr skr ɡr → mɡj (s)kr ɡçkr kʰr zɡr Nɡr
ts (r)dz dzl dʒ NTS PTS Kts KTS sTS çTS → tsʰ (r)ts Ndz tsl ts ptç ktç kts sts {s,ç}ts
36.3.2.2.3 Proto-rGyalrongic to Patits dʒ NTS → {s,tʃ.} tʃ. m
s → ʃ / _n
im it ik is ij → em u e es e
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Mo{p,b} Np pr {s,r}P çb Nb → p mp mbr sp ʃp p.s
rs → sr
lts rts NTS PTS STS → lɖʐ rts. {mdzr,mtʃ} nt. sts
ts dʒ → tʃ. tʃ
es er → or ər
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Naok {sɡ,çK} Nɡ rK → k. sk mɡ nk
ts dz NTS KTS sTS → tʃ ts {ts,m} ɡts sp
s → ʂ / _n
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu Ta{d,KT} st → tʃ zdʒ
ts dz rdz dʒ → {ʈʂ,ʒ} tsj rtsʰ ʈʂ
s → ∅ / u_
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassuts dzl NTS → {tʃ.,j} tsl m
s → ʃ / _n
is → eu
36.3.3.1 Old Tibetan to Amdo dialects{d,ɡ,s,l,r} → {h,r} / #_
sr → ʂ / #_
s → either i or a diphthong ending in i? / _#
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeetsn → hst
s → ∅ / #h_V
ts → s / h_
ks → ts / _V
t ts k kʷ → d dz ɡ ɡʷ / _V
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayugats → hs / V_ ! _{h,i,j,r}
ts → s / ! _{h,i,j,r}
ns → ts / _k(ʷ)
ths → tsh
37.1.2.1.1 Cayuga to Upper Cayugas → f / h_r
ts → s / _(h)r
s → ʃ / _{r,j}
37.1.2.1.2 Cayuga to Lower Cayugats → t / _(h)r
tʔ tsʔ kʔ kʷʔ → tʼ tsʼ kʼ kʷʼ
s → ʃ / _{r,j}
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Hurons → ʃ / ! _{n,t,k(ʷ),w} “or when part of the affricate /ts/”
ts → ʃ / _r
ts → s / ! _{i,j}
n hn sC → t th Ch / s_
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagas → ʃ / ! n_ “or when part of the unit affricate /ts/”
ts → hs / V_V ! _i
ts → s / ! _{h,i,j}
ns → ts / _k(ʷ)
hs → sh / C_
hts → tsh / C_V
ts → tʃ / _{(h)i,(h)j}
s → ʃ / _{hi,hj}
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneidats → hs / V_{t,k(ʷ)}
ts → s / ! _{h,i,j}
ns → ts / _{t,k(ʷ)}
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Mohawk— ts → tʃ / _{(h)i,(h)j}
— s → ʃ / _(h)j
— s → z / {#,V}_{V,R} ! R = j
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneidaths → tsh
hs → sh / _{n,w}
ts → tʃ / _{(h)i,(h)j}
s → ʃ / _(h)j
s → z / {#,V}_{V,R}
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecats → s / ! _{i,j}
{ths,tts} → tsh
— s → ʃ / _j
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscarorats → tʃ / _{h,i,j}
ths → tʃ
ts → θ
37.2 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Siouans → ∅ / h_
37.2.2 Proto-Siouan to Dakotas → z / in U[-stress]
s → z / V_V
37.2.3 Proto-Siouan to Mandans → ʃ
sn → {ʃV0nV0,sV0rV0}
sk → ʃ / _”V
37.2.4 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Čiwere-Winnebagotʲ s → ʒ z / in U[-stress]
37.2.4.1 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Čiweres z → θ ð (sporadic)
sr → {θl,ʃl}
37.2.4.2 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Winnebagopr {sr,xr} sn km → pV0rV0 ʃV0rV0 sV0nV0 kV0wV0
37.2.5 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Crow-Hidatsas ç {tʲ,x} → ts x ʃ
37.2.5.1 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Crowsk → tsk / _”V
37.2.5.2 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Hidatsasn → tsV0rV0
sk → tsuk / _”u
sk kx → tsk hk / _”V
sk → hts / ”V_
37.2.6 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Dhegihat tʲ s → d ʒ z / in U[-stress]
s → z / V_V
37.2.6.2 Proto-Dhegiha to Omaha-Poncapr sr tʲr kr → bθ sn ʃn ɡθ
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to Osages → θ
pr sr tʲr kr → bð sts ʃd ɡð
sn mt → hn d
37.2.7.2 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Ofos {ç,x} → f s
sr kr → ft kV0lV0
sk → f / ”V_
37.2.7.3 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Tutelosn → sV0nV0
s → ʃ / ”V_k
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchow{r,s,z} tʃʰ dʒ → ɬ ʃ tʃ
38.1.1.3.3 Central Tai to Tay{s,z} → {x,tʰ}
38.1.1.3.5 Central Tai to T’ien-Pao{s,z} → t
38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-Ais → ɬ
38.1.1.4.3 North Tai to Wu-Mings → θ
38.1.1.5.3 Southwest Tai to Shants → sʲ
39 Tanoan39.1 Proto-Tanoan to Jimezts dz → s z
{tʰ,tsʰ} → ʃ
s → c
tsʼ → tʼ
39.2 Proto-Tanoan to Kiowats tsʰ tsʼ dz → t tʰ tʼ d
39.3 Proto-Tanoan to Taoss → ɬ
ts tsʰ tsʼ dz → tʃ s tʃʼ j
39.4 Proto-Tanoan to Tewapʰ tʰ tsʰ → f θ s
41 Trans-New Guinea41.2 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Asmatk s → ∅ {t,s} / #_
41.8 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kiwais → {s,t} / #_ (?)
41.9 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Selepetᵐb ⁿd s → b {s,t} {t,s} / #_
t ᵐb nj s → r {b,p} ⁿd {s,d} / V_V
41.10 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Telefols → s / #_ (?)
42 Uralic42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnictʃ tsʲ → ʃ sʲ / #_
ðʲ sʲ tsʲ(ː) lʲ → ð s ts(ː) l
s → x / _l
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishpː tː tsː kː → pˑ tˑ tsˑ kˑ
p t ts s k → b d s z ɡ
{kt,pt} {kts,pts} → tː tːs
(t(ː))sn kx(tx) rn ln → sː xː rː lː
{ks,nts} nt → s t / _#
ts tsˑ tsː → s θˑ θː
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnishsn → ns
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livoniant ts s(C) n l r → tʲ tsʲ sʲ(C) nʲ lʲ rʲ / _i
ts(ʲ) → s(ʲ) / ! n_
p t(ʲ) s(ʲ) k → b d(ʲ) z(ʲ) ɡ / ! #_ or adjacent to C[-voice]
sʲ tsʲ zʲ dzʲ → ʃʲ tʃʲ ʒʲ dʒʲ
43 Uto-Aztecan43.1 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Comanchep t ts s → v r ∅ h
s → ∅ / Vn_
43.3 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Luiseñots → tʃ
s → ʃ
43.4 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Nahuatls ts → ʃ tʃ / _i
43.5.1.1 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Kawaiisuts → z / V_V
hts → z / V_i
43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhamts → s / _i
s ŋ → h n
44 Vasconic44.1 Proto-Vasconic to Aquitanianś → {s(ː),ʃ} / _#
ś → s
s → ʃ / i_#
44.2 Proto-Basque to Basques̻ ts̻ → ʃ tʃ / {E,j}_ (mostly Biscayan)
s̻ ts̺ → s̺ ts̻ (Biscayan, partially in Guipuscoan, Donostia, San Sebastián, though these latter two may be varieties of Guipuscoan)
s̻ → s̺ / _{C,#} (sometimes)
its̺ → tʃ / _# (Biscayan)
s̺ → tʃ / #_ (Guipuscoan)
s̺ → ʃ̺ “for most French Basque speakers (Trask 1997:84), due to French influence” according to Campbell
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.1 Proto-Pai to Chapais → ʂ
46 Vowel Shifts46.10 Late Proto-Finnic to Savonian Vowel Shiftli ni ri si → lʲi nʲi rʲi sʲi
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.1 List 1: Simple Consonant Changesś → k (Possibly unconditional; some Samoyedic langs)
ts → t (unconditional; some Samoyedic langs)
tš → t (general Baltic-Finnic; may not be unconditional but was certainly the most common outcome)

to /s/

797 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Omoticdz ʃ tʃ → ʒ s1 s2
ʃ → s2 / {i,j}_
6.1.1.1 North Omotic to Benchtʃ → ts
6.1.1.2 North Omotic to Dizinʒ → {tʃ,ts}
6.1.1.3 North Omotic to Kafas3 → s / V_$#
6.1.1.4 North Omotic to Maalez → ts / Vj_
ts tsː → s ts / V_
tsʼ → s / V_
6.1.1.5 North Omotic to Shekkacho{s3,ts,ʒ} → s / _$#
s3 → s / V_$#
s2 → {s,tʃː} / V_
6.1.1.6 North Omotic to Wolayttas → s3 / V_(V)
s2 → s / V_
6.1.1.7 North Omotic to Yemsatʃ ʒ → ʔj s
ts → s / #_
6.1.1.8 North Omotic to Zayse-Zergullaz → ts / Vj_
tsʼ → sʼ
tsː → ts / V_
tsʼ → {tʃʼ,s}
6.1.2.1 South Omotic to Aaritʃ → ts
6.1.2.2 South Omotic to Dimetʃ → ts
6.2 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Erythreantʃ dʒ → ts dz
6.2.1.1.4 Proto-Agaw to Xamtangats tʃ dz → sʼ tʃʼ z
6.2.2.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-Chadicts dz {t,ts}ʼ tʃʼ → s z sʼ ʃʼ
6.2.2.1.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-Boreafrasiansʼ → s
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berberɬ → s / #_VC
{ʃ,ts,z} dz tʃ {tʼ,tʃʼ} dʒ → s z ts tsʼ dʒ
6.2.2.1.5 Proto-Semitic to Classical Arabicʃ → s
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabictˤ sˤ → s t
6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Egyptian Arabicθ ð → s z
6.2.2.1.14 Classical Arabic to Moroccan Arabict → t͜s / plain t only, distinguishable from the sequence ts
6.2.2.1.18 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrewθ θˤ ð ɬ ɬˤ → ʃ ʃˤ z s sˤ
6.2.2.1.19 Biblical Hebrew to Modern Israeli Hebrewsˤ tˤ ħ q → s t χ k
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakihl → sː
θ → s / _k
ʃ tʃ → s ts
ʔs ʔts → sː tsː
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenakinθ nl → sː {sː,hl}
θ → s / _k
ʃ tʃ → s ts
ʔs ʔts → sː tsː
7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapahoʃ k m → s tʃ b / _{E,j}
ʃ k m → s tʃ b / E_#
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventreʃ {θ,t} m k → s ts tʲ bʲ / _{i(ː),j,#}
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfootj → s / ! C_
{ʃ,tʃ} → s / #_
nr → s
nθ hs → sːt sː
ns sk → {x,s} {x,sː}
θp tʃp ʃp → {x,sː} ʔp sːp
x → sː / {i,#e,ja,ke}_
x → sː / e(ː)_s
∅ → s / {i(ː),#e}_t
t → ts / _{i,e(ː),a}
∅ → s / k_i(ː)
sːː → sː
j → s
ket → tː (→ sː?)
{k(ʷ)es,keθ} → sː
7.5 Proto-Algonquian to Cheyenneʃ tʃ → {ʃ,x} s
7.6 Proto-Algonquian to Northern East Creeʃjeː → seː
(t)ʃp → sp
{q,ʃ} → s / _t
θ → s / _k
{n,q,h}ʃ {n,q,h}l → s {h,j,hj}
7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East Cree(t)ʃp → sp
{q,ʃ} → s / _t
θ → s / _k
ʃ → {ʃ,s} / in inland varieties; remains /ʃ/ in coastal varieties
tʃ → ts
7.8 Proto-Algonquian to Plains Creeʃjeː → seː
(t)ʃp → sp
{q,ʃ} → s / _t
θ → s / _k
{n,q,h}ʃ {n,q,h}l → s {h,j,hj}
ʃ tʃ → s ts
7.9 Proto-Algonquian to Swampy Cree(t)ʃp → sp
{q,ʃ} → s / _t
θ → s / _k
ʃ → s / in West Swampy Cree (remains /ʃ/ in East Swampy Cree)
tʃ → ts
7.10 Proto-Algonquian to Woods Cree(t)ʃp → sp
{q,ʃ} → s / _t
θ → s / _k
l → s / _k
{n,q,h}ʃ {n,q,h}l → s {h,j,hj}
ʃ tʃ → s ts
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawareθ ʃ x → x s h / _{p,k}
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menomineeθ → s / _O
ʃ tʃ → s ts
7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-Illinois{ʔ,h}{ɬ,l} → hs
hs hʃ → sː ʃː / sporadic, usually {#,V[+front]}_
s ʃ → ⁿs ⁿʃ / U[-nas] (highly sporadic)
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaqn{θ,l} h{θ,ʃ} → ∅ s
ʔ{θ,ʃ} ʔl → s ∅
ʃ → s
7.15 Proto-Algonquian to Ojibwe{ʔ,h}{s,r} → s
r → s / _k
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawneer → s / H_
ʃ → s “(for many speakers)”
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonictʃ → s / maybe ! _#?
{ʃ,z} → s
l lʲ → r s / else
8.2 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Korean{ʃ,z} → s
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolicz → s
ʃ → s / else
8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusicz → s
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkicʃ → s
8.5.2 Proto-Turkic to Sakhad s {ʃ,z} → t ∅ s / V_V
j → s (possibly only initially?)
9 Austroasiatic9.1.1 Proto-Vietic to Muong Khencʰ → s
9.1.2.1 Middle Vietnamese to Hanoi VietnameseΩ cʰ → s tɕ
10 Austronesian10.1.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Philippinec → s
10.1.2.7.1 Proto-Kalamian to Agutaynent → s / _i
10.1.2.7.2 Proto-Kalamian to Karamiananent → s / _i
10.1.2.8 Proto-Philippine to Kankanayc → s
10.1.2.10 Proto-Philippine to Waray*c → s
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorrop c q → f s ʔ
b dz → p ts
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauanʀ → s
ɟ → s
t → {s,ð} / “unpredictably, to eliminate sV(C)t and tV(C)s sequences”
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North Sarawakc → s
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiputbʱ {dʱ,dzʱ} ɡʱ → f s k
f → s
10.3 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Oceanic{nts,ns,nz,nɡʲ} {ts,z,ɡʲ} → ɡʲ s
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwp pʷ {c,*j} k q → β βʷ s ɣ ∅
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerig{c,*j} ɲ → s n
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to Mwotlap{c,*j} → s
10.3.5 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-New Caledoniac → s
10.3.5.2 Proto-New Caledonia to Jawét̪ t̪ʰ t tʰ → t tʰ c s
10.3.5.6 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwaameipː pwː tː ʈ kː cː → f hʷ tʰ lʰ h s
jʰ j → s z
10.3.5.7 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwapwâpː pwː t̪ː tː kː cː → pʰ xʷ t̪ʰ tʰ x s
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bayɲ c *j → n s z
t → ts / _V[+ high]
z → s
10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to Tolomakoɲ c *j → n s z
{z,dr} → ts
10.3.9.1 Proto-Utupua to Asuboadr s l → {d,ɟ} {∅,s} {n,∅}
t r l → {j,s} {j,∅} j / _u
t → s / _i
k → {∅,s} / _#
10.3.9.3 Proto-Utupua to Tanibilip t {r,l} → ∅ s j / _u
d c ɲ → ɟ {s,∅} n
10.3.10.1 Proto-Vanikoro to Bumap t → ∅ {s,k} / _u
10.3.10.2 Proto-Vanikoro to Tanemat → s / _u
s → {s,d,c}
10.3.10.3 Proto-Vanikoro to Vanot → s / _{u,i}
10.3.11 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Southern Vanuatuc → s
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejomt → s / _#
d {c,*j} → tʃ s
10.3.11.2 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Erromangos {c,*j} → h s
10.3.11.3 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Tannas c *J → {h,z} {s,z} z
10.3.11.3.2 Proto-Tanna to Lenakelc *j → s {z,s}
10.3.11.3.3 Proto-Tanna to North Tanna{s,c} → {h,s}
10.3.11.3.4 Proto-Tanna to Southwest Tanna{c,*j} → s
10.3.11.3.5 Proto-Tanna to Whitesandsc *j → s {z,s}
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’a{c,*j} ɲ → s n
10.6 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-PaiwanS1 s c → s t ts
10.7 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-RukaiS1 s d2 *C → s θ ð ts (not sure what *C stands for here)
11 Northeast Caucasian11.1.1 Proto-Avar-Andic to Akhvakhdz dʒ → {tsːʼ,z} {tsːʼ,dʒ}
11.1.2 Proto-Avar-Andic to Andi{ts,st} dz → s {tsːʼ,z}
stː → sː
11.1.3 Proto-Avar-Andic to Avarts tsː tsʼ tsːʼ dz → sh ts tʃʼ ts(ː)ʼ tsʼ
st(ː) → ts
tʃ tʃː tʃːʼ dʒ → ts(?) tʃ tʃ(ː)ʼ tsʼ
s sː ɬː x xː → {s,ʃ} x ɬ {x,h} x
11.2 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Dargi{tsː,st} tsːʼ dz stː → ts z tsː s
tʃ tʃː dʒ → {tsʼ,tʃʼ} ʒ ts
ʃ ʃː ɬ ɬː → {s,ʃ} ʃ xʲ {xʲ,ʃ}
11.3 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Khinalug{tsː,st} {tsːʼ,dz} → ts tsʼ
11.4 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Lak{tsː,stː} dz st → sː {tsː,z} ts
tʃ tʃː dʒ → {ts,tʃ} {tsʼ,tʃʼ} tʃ(ː)ʼ
ʃ ɬ ɬː → s {xʲ,ʃ} xː
11.5.1 Proto-Lezgic to Agul{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ stː dz → {s,ts} {ts,tʃ} tː s z
11.5.2 Proto-Lezgic to Archi{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ stː dz → s {s,ʃ} tsʼ sː ts
sː xː → {sː,h} x
11.5.4 Proto-Lezgic to Rutul{ts,st} tsːʼ dz → {s,ts} {d,t} z
sː ɬ(ː) xː → {ħ,xʲ} {sː,h} x
11.5.5 Proto-Lezgic to Tabassaran{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ → {s,ts} {ts,tʃ} tsː
11.5.6 Proto-Lezgic to Udits tsː tsʼ tsːʼ dz → {∅,s} tʃ {∅,tsʼ} {tsʼ,tʃʼ} z
11.6 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Nakhst stː → st(ʼ) st
tsː tʃː → ts tʃ / #_
tsːʼ → tsː
11.7 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Proto-Tsezic{ts,st} {tsːʼ,dz} → s ts
11.7.2 Proto-Tsezic to Tseztsː tɬː → s ɬ
sː ʃ ʃː ɬ ɬː x → s ʒ ʃ l ɬ ɣ
12 Northwest Caucasian12.1 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Abazgi{pʷ,pʲ} {p(ʲ)ː,bˤ} bʷ pʷʲ bʷʲ → p b f tsʲ dzʲ
sʷʲ zʲ → sʲ z
tsʷː tsʷʲ → tsʷ (tʃ)
tʃ(ʼ) dʒ → tsʲ(ʼ) dzʲ
ʃ(~ʃː) ʒ → sʲ sʲ
ʃʷ ʃʷː ʒʷ → sʷ ʃ zʲ (this final change is marked as dubious)
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ dɮ → x ts {x,tsʼ} l
tɬʷ(ː) tɬʼ dɮʷ → tsʷ tsʼ(ʷ) l
xʷʲ ɣʷʲ → sʷ zʷ (*ɣʷʲ is marked as dubious)
12.1.1 Proto-Abazgi to Ashkharywa Abazatʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) v dz
ɕ ʑ → s z
12.1.2 Proto-Abazgi to Tapanta Abaza{tʃʷ(ʼ),tɕ} {dʒʷ,dʑ} → ts(ʼ) dz
ɕ ʑ → s z
12.1.3 Proto-Abazgi to Ahchypsy Abkhaztʃʷ tʃʷʼ dʒʷ tɕ(ʼ) dʑ → f pʼ ts(ʼ) v dz
ɕ ʑ → s z
12.1.5 Proto-Abazgi to Abzhywa Propertʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑ
ɕ ɕʷ ʑ ʑʷ → s ʃʷ z ʒʷ
12.1.6 Proto-Abazgi to Tsabal Abzhywatʃʷ tʃʷʼ tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f pʼ ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑ
ɕ ɕʷ ʑ ʑʷ → s ʃʷ z ʒʷ
12.1.7 Proto-Abazgi to Khaltsys Sadztʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑʷ
ɕ ɕʷ ʑ ʑʷ → s {ʃʷ,ɕʷ} z {ʒʷ,ʑʷ}
12.1.8 Proto-Abazgi to Tswydzhy Sadztʃʷ(ʼ) tɕ(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) dʒʷ dʑ dʑʷ → f(ʼ) ts(ʼ) tɕʷ(ʼ) v dz dʑʷ
ɕ ʑ → s z
12.2 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Circassiantʷʲ tʷʲʼ → ts tsʼ
ts tsː dz → {s,c} tsː dz~z
tsʲ tsʲː tsʲʼ dzʲ → (s) tsː tsʼ dz~z
sʲ zʲ → s z
tsʷ lʲ {qʲʷ,qˤʷ} → sʷ d qʷ / #_ (data not given for non-initial forms)
tsʲʷ tsʲʷ dzʲʷ → tsʲ tsʲʼ dzʲ
sʲʷ zʲʷ → sʲ zʲ
tʃ tʃʼ dʒ dʑ → s tsʲʼ(?) dz~z dʑ~ʑ
ʃ(~ʃː) → s
ɕʷ ɕʷ ʑʷ → sʲ ʃː zʲ
12.2.1 Proto-Circassian to Adyghetsʷ → tsʲʷ
12.2.1.1 Adyghe to Abadzekh Adyghepː tː tsː tsʷ ʃː tʃː tɕː kʲː kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → p t ts tʃʷ ʃ ɕ tɕ tʃ kʷ qː qʷ
sʼ ʃʼ~ɕʼ → tsʼ ʃʼ
12.2.1.2 Adyghe to Bzhedug Adyghetsʷː → tsʲʷː
sʼ ʃʼ~ɕʼ → tsʼ ʃʼ
12.2.1.3 Adyghe to Shapsug Adyghepː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː tsː tcː kʲː kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → p t ts tʃʷ ʃ tʃ tɕ kʲ kʷ χ~q χʷ~qʷ
p(ʷ)ʼ t(ʷ)ʼ tsʼ tsʷʼ~ʃʷʼ → pˤ tˤ tsˤ ʂʷ
sʼ ʃʼ~ɕʼ → sˤ ʂ
12.2.1.4 Adyghe to Temirgoy Adyghetsʲ(ː) tsʷ → tɕ tsʲʷ
pː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː tʃː tɕː → p t ts tsʷʲ ʃ tʃ tɕ
sʼ ʃʼ~ɕʼ → tsʼ ʃʼ
12.2.2 Proto-Circassian to Kabardiansʼ(?) ʃʼ~ɕʼ → tsʼ ɕʼ
12.3 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Ubykhts(ʲ)ː tsʷː dzʲ → ts tsʷ dz
tʃ(ʼ) dʒ → ts(ʼ) dz
ʃ(~ʃː) ʒ → s z
ɕʷ ɕʷː ʑʷ → ʃʷ sʷ ʒʷ
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ dɮ → ɕ (sʲ) tsʲʼ ɮ
ɬ(ː) → sʲ
tɬʼ → tsʲʼ
tɬʷ(ː) tɬʷʼ dɮʷ → tsʷ ts(ʷ)ʼ w
ɬʷ ɬʷː → sʷ s(ʷ)
tɬʷʲ tɬʷʲː tɬʷʲʼ dɮʷʲ → f dʑ tsʼ dʒ
xʲ ɣʲ → sʲ zʲ
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamitec → s / #_{a,u}
ɲc → ns / V_V
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamilc → s / _{a,o,u,e}
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Aleutz → s / #_
15.2 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Eskimoð z → t s
15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow Iñupiaqt → s / i_
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic Iñupiaqt → s / i_
dʒ → tʃ → s / “in certain positions” (except for Thule Greenlandic, where dʒ → tʃ and stayed there, apparently)
15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’iks → ts / in certain situations?
t → s / _{k,q}
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’iks → ts / in certain situations?
t → s / _{k,q}
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’iks → ts → tʃ / in some dialects?
t → s / _{k,q}
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’iks → ts / in certain situations?
t → s / _{k,q}
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.1 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Nafrip t → f {s,h} / #_
16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central Sentanip b t → f p {s,h} / #_
16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern Sentanip t → f {s,h} / #_
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanianḱ → s / _{u̯,u,i̯,i}
ḱ → {ts,tʃ} (“[a]rchaic relic”)
kʷ → s / _”E?
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanianḱ → s / _{u̯,u,i̯,i}
ḱ → {ts,tʃ} (“[a]rchaic relic”)
kʷ → s / _”E?
17.2 Proto-Indo-European to Common Anatolian{{h1,h3}s,s{h1,h3}} → sː (contested)
17.2.1 Common Anatolian to Hittitet → ts / _i ! s_
d → s / #_{i,j}
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lycianḱ → s
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to Lydianʃ → s
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenianp ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
ɡ́ → ts (?)
{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)
Ns sN → s N
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenianp ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
ɡ́ → ts (?)
{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)
Ns sN → s N
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenianp ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
ɡ́ → ts (?)
{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)
Ns sN → s N
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenianp ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
ɡ́ → ts (?)
{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)
Ns sN → s N
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenianp ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
ɡ́ → ts (?)
{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)
Ns sN → s N
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenianp ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
ɡ́ → ts (?)
{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)
Ns sN → s N
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenianp ḱ k(ʷ) → {w,v} s kʰ
ɡ́ → ts (?)
{sk,ks} kj → tsʰ tʃʰ (?)
Ns sN → s N
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestanḱ ɡ́ → s z
rt → š (Alex Fink says that the realization of /š/ “is unclear”)
s → {s,h}
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— SS → sː
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishtː → sː
— st zd → sː dː / [anything]_
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshst → sː (with some exceptions)
17.6 Proto-Indo-European to Dacianḱ ɡ́ → ts dz
{kʷ,kw} {ɡʷ,ɡw} → tʃ dʒ (→ s~z z ?) / _E
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothicz → s / _#, though “[t]his s was dropped when it came to stand after an original s through the loss of a vowel”, though it “remained when protected by a particle”
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle Englishʃ → s / in unstressed syllables
17.7.2.2 West Germanic to Old Low Franconianxs → sː
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germant → {ts,k} / _w
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlautp t k → pf ts kx / #_
p t k → pf ts kx / {L,N}_
pː tː kː → pf ts kx
17.7.2.5 West Germanic to Old Low Germank → ts / _E (ɡ → dz here?)
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norserː{r,ʀ} sʀ → rː sː
nː lː rː sː → n l r s / C_
ts → sː / V_V
s → ts / {l,n}ː_
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornk → s / _n
sk → {sk,ʃ,ks}
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornh → {∅,h,k,s} / _n
hv → {h,k,s}w
ms → ŋ(k)s
17.7.4 Common Germanic to Vandalictj → tsj
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian Greekt → ts / _i
ts → s
Vns → Vːs
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekt → ts / _i
ts → s
Vns → Vːs
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greekt → ts / _i
ts → s
Vns → Vːs
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greekt → ts / _i
ts → s
Vns → Vːs
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan Greekt → ts / _i
ts → s
Vns → Vːs
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric Greekt → ts / _i
ts → s
Vns → V(ː)s (Tucker says that “[i]n a few Doric dialects the lengthening did not occur”)
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian Greekt → ts / _i
ts → s
Vns → Vːs
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekt → ts / _i
ts → s
Vns → Vːs
tʃ → s / #_
tʃ → sː / medial
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greekt → ts / _i
ts → s
Vns → Vːs
17.8.10 Proto-Indo-European to Mycenaean Greekt → ts / _i
ts → s
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittitet → ts / _{i,e}
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-Aryan{ʂ,ç} → s
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-Aryanʂ s → s ç
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-Aryan{ʂ,ç} → s
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-Aryan{ʂ,ç} → s
17.10.1.5 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Vedic Sanskritsː ʂː ɕː → t.s t.ʂ t.C
bzʱ → ps
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-SlavicKʷ ḱ ɡ́ → K s z
k ɡ x → ts dz s / _{æː,i}
k ɡ x → ts dz s / “After some syllables with front vowels”
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishʃi ʒi tʃi dʒi ɕi ʑi → ʂɨ ʐɨ ʈʂɨ ɖʐɨ tsɨ ʒɨ
ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ ɕ ʑ → ʂ ʐ ʈʂ ɖʐ ts ʒ
tɕts ʑr̝ → jts jr̝
ɕtɕ → js / _{t͜s,s}
ʈʂs → ts
zdʲ stʲ → {ʑ,ɕ} {s,ɕ} / _n
stʲkl → ɕtɕkl → {ɕ,s}kɫ → ʂkɫ
dz ts → d͜z t͜s
n → s → ɕ / k_ɛ̃ where the vowel was from Proto-Slavic
n → s / k_Vn
ɕ ʑ → s z / _C (sometimes)
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latin{t,d} → s / _s
{t,d}t → tst → sː
sː → s / _#
sː → s / {W,Vː}_
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalantj → s / C_
sj ssj jn → js jʃ ɲ / V_V
lj rj kj ɡj → ʎ jr ts ʒ / V_V
j ɡj ts z n → tʃ i w s ∅ / _#
k → ts → s / #_{i,e}
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— r → s / _s
j tj → dʒ ts / #_
∅ → s / t_j
t → s / s_j
t → s / _{n,m}
k → js / V_sV
— (k)kj → ts
sːj zj rj → jsː jz jr
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to Italiantj ks w → ts sː ɡw
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguesers → sː
k → ts → s / #_{i,e}
ks ɡn tj → ʃ ɲ {z,s} / V_V (tj → s is learned)
tj → s / C_V
dj → dz → ts → s / r_V
ndj → nts → ns → ɲ / V_V
kj → ts → s / V_V
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençaltʃ → ts (sometimes)
rs → sː
sː → s / Vː_
(s)k ɡ → (s)tʃ dʒ / #_a (in the north and northeast)
tʃ → ts → s / #_
b {d,dz,dʒ} z ʒ ɡ → p {t,ts,tʃ} s ʃ k / _(s)#
tʃs → {ts,tʃ} (varies)
ms ns → mps nts (sporadic?)
ts → s / _# (Provence, Limousin, some Languedoc and Gascon)
ktj klj → is ʎ
{tʃ(ː),kʷ}j → ts
l{tj,tʃj} ldʒ → lts ldz → uts udz → us uz
{ntʃj,ndj} → nts → ns
ptj → ts → s
rtʃj → rts (→ rs ?)
rtj → rts → rs
rtVɡ → {rdʒ,rts(→ rs)}
rtj → rts → rs
{sːj,stʃj,stj} → ʃ → is (except in the west or extreme east, where the outcome was some flavor of (i)(t)ʃ)
tːj → ts → s
ndt ndtʃ ntʃ nkt nf → n{d,t} {nts,ndz(→ nz),ndʒ} n(t)s {ɲ,(i)nt,ntʃ} {nf,fː(→ f)}
rtʃ rdtʃ → r(t)s {rdz(→ rz),rts,rdʒ}
stʃ → s (in some northern and northeastern dialects)
stʃ → is (otherwise)
stɡ → s{ɡ,dʒ}
bk → pts / _a
βtʃ → u{ts,dz} → u{s,z}
ktʃ → its → is (else)
tʃ k → {i,s} {∅,k} / _m
dtʃ → ts (in Auvergne and some western areas)
ksk → stʃ / _a (in the north and northeast)
ks → ʃ → s / _m
ksː → is
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanianr → s / _s
t d s → ts dz ʃ / _i
j → s / t_
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardiniank → ts / _i
{p,k}s → sː
l{i,j} → lː → {ts,dz,ldz,dʒ,lː} (“varies”)
sk → sː
n{i,j} t{i,j} → ndʒ ts / _V
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanish{tj,kj} {tːj,kːj,ptj,ktj,skj} → ts tːs
k ɡ → tʃ dʒ → ts dz / _{j,i,e,ɛ}
pt {ɾs,ps} → tː sː
ns → s (with a few exceptions)
pː tː kː sː tːs ʝː → p t k s ts ʝ
sj → js / V_
— tst dzd → ts dz
— mpVt skVp spVt stVk → nt sp st sk
ts dz → s̪ z̪
z̪ z ʒ → s̪ s ʃ
{s̪,s} → /s/ [s̪] “(merged as)”
17.12.2.2 Proto-Sibellian to Umbriand → rs / V_V
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tochariandz → ts
p {ts,k(ʷ)} m n l r y → pj sʲ ʂ mj ɲ lj rj wj / _{E(:),y}
{t,dʱ} → ts / _y
s → sʲ / _tʲ
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekensts (n)dz → {s,ts} s
ð → s / _i
18.3.3 Proto-Tuparí to Tuparí{(n)dz,ts} → s / _i
β ð → ∅ {s,h} / _i
18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Cocamaʔ ts ŋ → ∅ {ts,tʃ} n
18.4.3 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guajajarat → ts / _{i,ı̃}
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guarayoʔ ts → {ʔ,∅} {ts,tʃ}
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Sirionót → {ts,tʃ} / _{i,ı̃}
ʔ ts → ∅ {s,ʃ}
18.4.9 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Classical Tupits → {s,ʃ}
18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Urubuts → {s,h}
19 Kartvelian19.1 Proto-Kartvelian to Georgian{ɬ,ʂ} → s
ʈʂ {ʈʂʼ,tɬʼ} → ts tsʼ
19.2 Proto-Kartvellian to Svanɬ ʃ ʂ → l {sɡ,ʃɡ} ʃ
dz dʒ ɖʐ → {dz,z} {dʒɡ,sɡ} {dʒ,ʒ}
19.3 Proto-Kartvelian to Zanɬ ʃ ʂ → ∅ {sk,ʃk} ʃ
tʃ ʈʂ {tɬʼ,ʈʂʼ} tʃʼʼ → tʃk tʃ tʃʼ {tsʼkʼ,tʃʼkʼ}
20 Khoisan20.1.1 Proto-Khoe to ǁ̬Anats → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s}
20.1.2 Proto-Khoe to ǁAnits → {ts,s}
20.1.3 Proto-Khoe to Bugats → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s}
20.1.5 Proto-Khoe to Namats dz kxʼ → {ts,s} d ∅
20.1.6 Proto-Khoe to Narots dz → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s} dz~ts
20.1.7 Proto-Khoe to !Orats → {ts,s}
20.1.8 Proto-Khoe to Tetits dz kxʼ → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s} z kʼ
20.1.9 Proto-Khoe to Tsʔixats dz kxʼ → {ts~tsʰ,ts,s} z kʼ
20.1.10 Proto-Khoe to ǀ̬Uits → {ts~tsɦ,s}
21 Lakes Plain21.1.1 Proto-Far West to Awerati → s / #_V
21.1.2 Proto-Far West to Saponiti → s / #_V
21.1.3 Proto-Far West to Rasawati → s / #_V
21.2.1 Proto-Tariku to Proto-Central Tarikuti → s~ti / _V
21.2.1.1 Proto-Central Tariku to Edopis → s~t
21.2.2 Proto-Tariku to Proto-East Tarikuti → s~ti / _V
21.2.2.7 Proto-East Tariku to Waritaip d → p~ɸs d~t
21.2.3.1 Proto-West Tariku to Deirateti di → s dz / _V
21.2.3.2 Proto-West Tariku to Faiati → s / _V
21.2.3.3 Proto-West Tariku to Fayuti di → s dz / _V
21.2.3.4 Proto-West Tariku to Kirikiriti → s / _V
21.2.3.5 Proto-West Tariku to Sehudateti di → s dz / _V
21.2.3.6 Proto-West Tariku to Tauseti di → s j / _V
21.2.3.7 Proto-West Tariku to Weirateti di → s dz / _V
22 Macro-Arawakan22.1 Proto-Arawá to Arawádz → s / medially
tsʰ → s
22.2 Proto-Arawá to Banawá-Jamamadi{ts(ʰ),tʃ} dz → s ɟ
22.3 Proto-Arawá to Hypothetical Arawán Substratedz → s
22.4 Proto-Arawá to Jarawara{ts(ʰ),tʃ} → s
22.6 Proto-Arawá to Sorowaháts(ʰ) → s
22.7 Proto-Arawá to Paumaríts(ʰ) → s
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.1 Proto-Chibchan to Arhuacots h → s ∅
23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to Chibchats → {s,z}
23.1.1.1.3 Proto-Chibchan to KoginVs dVs → n(V(s)) ʒ(Vʒ)
s h → {s,tʃ} {h,∅}
23.1.1.1.4 Proto-Chibchan to Marocaceros → {ts,ʃ} / _i
s → {s,ts}
23.1.1.1.5 Proto-Chibchan to Motilóns → {s,x,tʃ~ʃ}
23.1.1.1.6 Proto-Chibchan to Tunebo{d(V)s,n(V)j} n(V)s → r {VsV,r}
ts tʃ → tʃ s
23.1.2 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Lencan{s,ts} → tsʼ
23.1.3 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Misumalpants → s
25 Macro-Panoan25.1.2 Proto-Tacanan to Chamatʃ → s / _i
25.1.3 Proto-Tacanan to Reyesanotʃ ɕ → ts ʃ
25.1.4 Proto-Tacanan to Tacanatʃ → ts / _E
ɕ → s
26 Mande26.1 Proto-Mande to Boboz → {s,j}
26.5 Proto-Mande to Kono-Vaiz → s
26.6 Proto-Mande to Southwest Mandez → s
26.7 Proto-Mande to Mandekanz → s
{k,ɡ,kp} {kpʼ,ɡb} → s b
26.11 Proto-Mande to Semblaz → s
26.13 Proto-Mande to Susuz → s
27 Mayan27.7 Proto-Mayan to Mameantʲ(ʼ) → ts(ʼ)
28 Muskogean28.1.1 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Alabamaʃ → ts
ts x → s h / _C
28.1.2 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Creekʃ → ts
28.1.3 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Hitchitiʃ → ts
28.1.4 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Korasatiʃ → ts
ts → s / _C
28.1.5 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Mikasuritʃ → s / _C ! _k
ʃ x → ts h
28.1.6 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Seminoleʃ x → ts h
28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western Muskogeants tʃ → s ts
29 Na-Dene29.1 Proto-Na-Dene to Proto-Athabaskan-Eyakkʲ kʲʼ ɡʲ xʲ → ts tsʼ dz s
29.1.1 Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak to Proto-Athabaskan{s,dz} → {s,z}
29.1.1.1.1 Proto-Athabaskan to Ahtna{ʃ(ʷ),x} → s
29.1.1.1.8 Proto-Athabaskan to Dena’ina{ʃ(ʷ),x {z,ʒ(ʷ),ɣ} → s j
29.1.1.1.13 Proto-Athabaskan to Hupaz → s
29.1.1.1.20 Proto-Southern Athabaskan to Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan{s,z}(ʔ) {ʃ,ʒ}(ʔ) {ɬ,ɮ}(ʔ) → s ʃ ɬ / _#
29.1.1.1.22 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Jicarillaxʲ → s
29.1.1.1.23 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Lipanxʲ → s
29.1.1.1.25 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Chiricahua{s,z}(ʔ) {ʃ,ʒ}(ʔ) {ɬ,ɮ}(ʔ) → s ʃ ɬ / _#
29.1.1.1.27 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Navajoxʲ → s
{s,z}(ʔ) {ʃ,ʒ}(ʔ) {ɬ,ɮ}(ʔ) → s ʃ ɬ / _#
29.1.1.1.28 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to San Carlos{s,z}(ʔ) {ʃ,ʒ}(ʔ) {ɬ,ɮ}(ʔ) → s ʃ ɬ / _#
29.1.1.1.30 Proto-Athabaskan to Hare Slavey-Haretɬʰ tʃ(ʷ)ʰ kʰ → ɬ s ʃ
29.1.2 Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak to Eyakkʲ kʲʼ ɡʲ xʲ → ts tsʼ dz {s,ʃ}
$ → xʷ → {x,s}
29.2 Proto-Na-Dene to Tlingits → s : ɬ
ts → ts : tɬ
tsʼ → {sʼ,tsʼ} : {ɬ,tɬʼ}
ʃ → {ʃ,s} : ɬ
tʃ → {tʃ,ts} : tɬ
tʃʼ → {sʼ,tʃʼ} : tɬʼ
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1.2 Proto-Bantu to Tswana{p,t,tʃ,k} {mp,nt,ɲtʃ,nk} {(m)b,(n)d,(ɲ)dʒ,(n)ɡ} {m,n} → s tsʰ ts ɲ / _iV
{tʃ,k} {ntʃ,nk,r} {ɲdʒ,nɡ} mp mb p b {d,l} m n → s tsʰ ts tʃʰ(w) tʃ(w) ʃ(w) dʒ(w) dʒ ŋw ɲ / _{ɪ,e}V
{p,t,tʃ,k} {mp,nt,ɲtʃ,nk} {(m)b,(n)d,(ɲ)dʒ,(n)ɡ} {m,n,ɲ} → sw tsʰw tsw ɲw / _iV
{tʃ,k} {ɲtʃ,nk} {ndʒ,nɡ} → s tsʰ ts / _{i,ɪ,e}
30.1.2 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-Manenguba’p ’t ’d/d2 c {’ɟ} ’k ɡ → f l ɟ s ∅ {w,∅} {k,w} / in C1 position
30.2.1.1 Proto-Akanic to Akan{p,ʋ̃} c k͜p → f s p / #_
30.3.1.1.1 Proto-Gbe to Ajáχ ʁ → s z / _{i,j}
30.3.1.1.3 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Fon{ts,tʰ} {dz,dʱ} → s z
30.3.1.1.4 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Gents dz → s z
30.3.1.1.5 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Phla-Pherá{ts,tʰ} {dz,dʱ} → s z
30.3.1.1.8 Proto-Vhe to Adángbets dz → s z
30.3.1.1.9 Proto-Vhe to Avénok ɡ s → ts dz ʃ / _i
t d → ts dz / _j
30.3.1.1.11 Proto-Vhe to Kpándo{t,k} {d,ɡ} → ts dz / _i
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinot → s / ! “in cluster with š” (presumably [ʃ])
tʲ → s / _u
32.1.2 Proto-Chatino to Tataltepec Chatinoʃ → s
32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinoc → ts
tʃ → ts / a_
ʃ → s / _{ik,e,ı̃,ẽ}
ʃ → ts / _i, in monosyllables
33 Penutian33.1.1 Proto-Utian to Proto-Costanoan (Ohlone)k → s̪ / _{ɨ,u}
k → s̪ / {ɨ,u}_
33.1.1.3 Proto-Costanoan to Mutsunʂ → s̪
ʈ → {ʈ,ts,tʃ} / _{j,ɾ}
33.2.2 Proto-Wintuan to Patwinx χ → s h
33.2.3 Proto-Wintuan to South Patwinx → s
33.3.1.1 General Yokuts to Buena Vista Yokutst tʰ tʼ → ts tsʰ tsʼ / #_ “(in some words, conditioning factors unclear)”
tʰ → s / #_u
33.3.2.1.1 Proto-Tule-Kaweah to Wikchamniʂ → s “(sometimes remains allophonically in word-initial position before back vowels, but not consistently)”
33.3.2.2.4 Valley Yokuts to Chukchansitʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ → ts tsʰ tsʼ
33.3.2.2.6 Valley Yokuts to Yawelmaniʃ → s
tʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ → ts tsʰ tsʼ (except in “lexicalized diminutives”, where these go to ʈʂ ʈʂʰ ʈʂʼ)
33.3.3 Proto-Yokuts to Palewyamit tʰ tʼ → ts tsʰ tsʼ / #_ “(in some words; conditioning factors unclear)”
34 Quechumaran34.1 Proto-Quechumaran to Ayachucots(h) tʃh → tʃ s
ʈʂ → s / _K
ʃ ʂ → s h
34.2 Proto-Quechumaran to Boliviaʈʂ → s / _K
ʃ → s
34.3 Proto-Quechumaran to Cuzcotʃ → s / _q
tʃh → s / _E
ʈʂ → s / _K
ʃ ʂ → s h
34.4 Proto-Quechumaran to Huaráspʼ tʼ tʃʼ kʼ qʼ → p t ts k q
ts(h) tʃ → tʃ ts
tʃ → ts / _q
ʈʂ → s / _K
34.5 Proto-Quechumaran to Putamayoʂ → s
34.7 Proto-Quechumaran to Riobambaʈʂ → s / _K
ʈʂʼ → ts
34.8 Proto-Quechumaran to Santiagoʃ → s / ! i_i or _S
35 Salishan35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack Halkomelemts(ʼ) tʃ(ʼ) → θ(ʼ) ts(ʼ)
35.1.3 Proto-Central Salish to Cowichan Halkomelemts(ʼ) tʃ(ʼ) → θ(ʼ) ts(ʼ)
35.1.4 Proto-Central Salish to Musqueam Halkomelemts(ʼ) tʃ(ʼ) → θ(ʼ) ts(ʼ)
35.1.5 Proto-Central Salish to Klallamp(ʼ) m → ts(ʼ) ŋ / ! _u
xʲ → {s,ʃ} (the latter mainly from borrowings?)
tʃ → ts
tʃʼ → tsʼ / medially
35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to Lushootseeds → {ʃ,s} / _xʷ
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to Nooksacks → {s,ʃ} / _xʷ
35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straitsts → s
tʃ → s
tʃ’ → ts’ / medially
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern Straitsts ts’ → {θ,s} θ’
s → {ʃ,s} / _xʷ
xʲ → s
tʃ → s
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern Straitsts → s
s → {ʃ,s} / _xʷ
xʲ → {s,ʃ} (the latter mainly from borrowings?)
tʃ’ → ts’ / medially
35.1.11 Proto-Central Salish to Sooke Northern Straitsts → s
xʲ → {s,ʃ} (the latter mainly from borrowings?)
tʃ → s
tʃ’ → ts’ / medially
35.1.12 Proto-Central Salish to Pentlatchts ts’ → s ts’
35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to Twanas → {ʃ,s} / _xʷ
36 Sino-Tibetan36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàb d dz ɡ → {p,pʼ} {t,tʼ} {ts,tsʼ} {k,kʼ}
z → {s,tsʼ} (the former “without exception” “in oblique tone words”)
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Lap b çp çb sP rP Np Nb pr {br,pj} bj → pʰ p ʝb çp sp rpʰ mpʰ mb br pʰj pj
t d Nt Nd st sd çT tr (ç)dr KT → tʰ t Ntʰ md zd st çtj trh (ç)tr kt
k sk kr ɡ Pɡ sɡ Nɡ (s)ɡr çK rK Kç → kʰ zɡw dr Nɡ pk sk mk (s)kr çk rɡj ɡçkr
(ʔ)kj (s)ɡj Nkj → (k)tç (s)kj Ndʒ
C[+ sibilant] → s / _w
NTS PTS KTS sTS çTS → {Ndz,mts} kts(ʰ) ptsʰ sts {sts,rj}
(r)ts (r)dz → (r)tsʰ (r)ts
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiat st tr d sd (ç)dr Nt çT KT → t. s.d tr. t s.t (ç.)tr m.t. n.dr ɡ.t
sk rK → j sɡ
kj Nkj ʔkj ɡj sɡj → kj. nj ɡ.tsʰ kj skj.
kr (s)ɡr → n.br (s)kr
C[+ sibilant] → s / _w
çl → sj
Kts → ɡ.tsʰ.
ts (r)dz dʒ PTS KTS sTS çTS → {tsʰ,s} (r)ts tsʰ ɡ.ts s.{ts,pj} {s.ts,br}
36.3.2.1.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to HanniuC[+ sibilant]w → s
çl → rts
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Tor → s / _k
Nkj ɡj sɡj → mj ts stʃj
sɡr → skr
C[+ sibilant]w ç Pç Nç çl → s ʂ ʃ mʃ ʃl
ts {dz,KTS} NTS rdz dzl dʒ → s ts {dz,mtʃ.} rts tsl tʃ.
uj → os
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtse(N)p Nb sP çp çb pr br {p,b}j → (m)pʰ (m)p sp ʝb çp br pʰj pʰj
(N)t (N)d st sd KT çT tr dr çtr → (N)tʰ mt zd st kt çt(j) trh tr çtr
(P)ɡ sɡ çK Nɡ k sk rk (s)ɡj (ʔ)kj → (p)k sk çk mk kʰ zɡ Nɡ (s)kj (ʔ)kʰj
Nkj (s)ɡr Kç kr skr ɡr → mɡj (s)kr ɡçkr kʰr zɡr Nɡr
C[+ sibilant] → s / _w
ts (r)dz dzl dʒ NTS PTS Kts KTS sTS çTS → tsʰ (r)ts Ndz tsl ts ptç ktç kts sts {s,ç}ts
36.3.2.2.3 Proto-rGyalrongic to Patits dʒ NTS → {s,tʃ.} tʃ. m
im it ik is ij → em u e es e
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Mo{p,b} Np pr {s,r}P çb Nb → p mp mbr sp ʃp p.s
kr rk {rK,Pɡ} ɡ Pɡ sɡ → k.r rk. pk k sk
ɡj → cç ? (might be → tsç?)
rs → sr
C[+ sibilant] → s / _#
lts rts NTS PTS STS → lɖʐ rts. {mdzr,mtʃ} nt. sts
36.3.2.2.5 Proto-rGyalrongic to TrungC[+ sibilant]w → s
dʒ → tsh
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Naok {sɡ,çK} Nɡ rK → k. sk mɡ nk
z → ts / r_
C[+ sibilant]w → sj
ts dz NTS KTS sTS → tʃ ts {ts,m} ɡts sp
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu TaNp Nb Nt Nɡ Nç → sts mp mtʰ mk ntsʰdz
çl → sɬ
C[+ sibilant]w ç → swdz sdz
NTS KTS lTS → mʈʂ {kts,ʈʂʰ} bɖʐ
ts dz rdz dʒ → {ʈʂ,ʒ} tsj rtsʰ ʈʂ
j → s / #_
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassuk kr kj ɡ → k. k.r ts. ɡ
ts dzl NTS → {tʃ.,j} tsl m
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoiant → ts / _{i,ı̃}
tʰ → ts / _i
r → ts / _i
ʃ θ → s t
37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeek kʷ → ts k / _i
tsn → hst
ts → s / h_
ks → ts / _V
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayugats → hs / V_ ! _{h,i,j,r}
ts → s / ! _{h,i,j,r}
ns → ts / _k(ʷ)
ths → tsh
37.1.2.1.1 Cayuga to Upper Cayugats → s / _(h)r
37.1.2.1.2 Cayuga to Lower Cayugatʔ tsʔ kʔ kʷʔ → tʼ tsʼ kʼ kʷʼ
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huronts → s / ! _{i,j}
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagats → hs / V_V ! _i
ts → s / ! _{h,i,j}
ns → ts / _k(ʷ)
ʃ → s
hs → sh / C_
hts → tsh / C_V
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneidats → hs / V_{t,k(ʷ)}
ts → s / ! _{h,i,j}
ns → ts / _{t,k(ʷ)}
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneidaths → tsh
hs → sh / _{n,w}
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecats → s / ! _{i,j}
{ths,tts} → tsh
37.1.2.6.1 Tuscarora to Western Tuscaroraθ → s
r̥ w̥ j̊ → s f ʃ
37.2.2 Proto-Siouan to Dakotatʲr → {st,ʃt}
37.2.3 Proto-Siouan to Mandantʲ → s / _ʔV
tʲr → sV0rV0
sn → {ʃV0nV0,sV0rV0}
37.2.4.2 Proto-Čiwere-Winnebago to Winnebagopr {sr,xr} sn km → pV0rV0 ʃV0rV0 sV0nV0 kV0wV0
37.2.5 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Crow-Hidatsas ç {tʲ,x} → ts x ʃ
37.2.5.1 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Crowt → s / _V
k → ts / _i
sk → tsk / _”V
37.2.5.2 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Hidatsasn → tsV0rV0
sk → tsuk / _”u
sk kx → tsk hk / _”V
sk → hts / ”V_
37.2.6.1 Proto-Dhegiha to Kansat → ts / _ʔ
37.2.6.2 Proto-Dhegiha to Omaha-Poncapr sr tʲr kr → bθ sn ʃn ɡθ
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to Osaget → ts / _E
t → ts / _ʔ
pr sr tʲr kr → bð sts ʃd ɡð
ʃ → s / ”V_k
37.2.7.2 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Ofos {ç,x} → f s
x → s / _k
kx → sk / ”V_
kx → s
37.2.7.3 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Tutelosn → sV0nV0
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.3.2 Central Tai to Nungtʃ tʃʰ dʒ → ʃ tsʰ {ʃ,tʃ}
38.1.1.3.4 Central Tai to Thoz → {r,s}
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Taiz → s
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Taiz r → s r̥
38.1.1.5.1 Southwest Tai to Laodʒ → s
38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lüdʒ → s
38.1.1.5.3 Southwest Tai to Shants → sʲ
dʒ → s
39 Tanoan39.1 Proto-Tanoan to Jimezts dz → s z
39.3 Proto-Tanoan to Taosts tsʰ tsʼ dz → tʃ s tʃʼ j
39.4 Proto-Tanoan to Tewapʰ tʰ tsʰ → f θ s
40 Totozoquean40.1 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Mixe-Zoqueannʲ tʲ tʃ kʲ → n t s ts k
41 Trans-New Guinea41.2 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Asmatt → s / #_i
k s → ∅ {t,s} / #_
p t nj → {t,r} {r,s,t} s / _#
41.3 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Binanderenj → s / #_ (?)
t → {r,s} / V_i
41.5.1.8 Proto-Gorokan to Moveʔv ʔm ʔɡ ʔr ʔh → p b k t {s,f}
41.5.1.10 Proto-Gorokan to Yagariaʔv ʔm ʔɡ ʔr ʔh → p b k t {s,f}
41.7 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kâtek ᵐb ⁿd → {k,h} b {s,t} / #_
ᵐb ⁿd → {ᵐb,p} s / V_V
41.8 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kiwait k ᵐb → {s,t} {ɡ,∅} {b,p} / #_
s → {s,t} / #_ (?)
41.9 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Selepetᵐb ⁿd s → b {s,t} {t,s} / #_
t ᵐb nj s → r {b,p} ⁿd {s,d} / V_V
41.10 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Telefols → s / #_ (?)
42 Uralic42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnictʃ tsʲ → ʃ sʲ / #_
ðʲ sʲ tsʲ(ː) lʲ → ð s ts(ː) l
tʃ → ts / _k, in South Estonian
t → ts / _i ! following a coronal obstruent or “before a derivational suffix”
tj → ts / ! following a coronal obstruent or “before a derivational suffix”
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishpː tː tsː kː → pˑ tˑ tsˑ kˑ
p t ts s k → b d s z ɡ
{kt,pt} {kts,pts} → tː tːs
(t(ː))sn kx(tx) rn ln → sː xː rː lː
{ks,nts} nt → s t / _#
ts tsˑ tsː → s θˑ θː
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnishsn → ns
θ(ː) ð → ts d (this latter does have some highly sporadic exceptions; additionally, in some dialects these may become {t(ː),h~t} and {r,∅}, respectively)
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livoniant ts s(C) n l r → tʲ tsʲ sʲ(C) nʲ lʲ rʲ / _i
ts(ʲ) → s(ʲ) / ! n_
43 Uto-Aztecan43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhamts → s / _i
44 Vasconic44.1 Proto-Vasconic to Aquitanianś → {s(ː),ʃ} / _#
ś → s
44.2 Proto-Basque to Basques̻ ts̺ → s̺ ts̻ (Biscayan, partially in Guipuscoan, Donostia, San Sebastián, though these latter two may be varieties of Guipuscoan)
s̻ → s̺ / _{C,#} (sometimes)
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.1 Proto-Pai to Chapaitʃ → s
46 Vowel Shifts46.10 Late Proto-Finnic to Savonian Vowel Shiftli ni ri si → lʲi nʲi rʲi sʲi
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.3 List 3: Vowelsi u → s̩ f̩ (Ōgami) (http://amritas.com/101023.htm#10192359)

with context involving /s/

264 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Omotict → ∅ / _s#
a → o / #Cw_{(d)l,s3}
6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North Omotice → i / #{s,ʃ,tsʼ}_{k(w),ʔ}
e o → i u / #{k(ʼ),x}_{t(ʼ),tsʼ}
e o → i u / #P_{tsʼ,tʃʼ}
6.2.2.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-Chadicŋ → ∅ / V_{ts,q}
6.2.2.1.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-Boreafrasianh → ħ / #_Vs
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berberqu → w / _{f,s} (sporadic)
6.2.2.1.3 Ancient Egyptian to Copticn → l / #_(V){s,ʃ,h}V{m,b}#
n → l / #_V{m,b}{s,ʃ,h}
7 Algonquian7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfoot∅ → x / _s ! _C{C,#}
x → sː / e(ː)_s
7.6 Proto-Algonquian to Northern East Cree{n,q,h} → ∅ / _s
7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East Cree{n,q,h} → ∅ / _s
7.8 Proto-Algonquian to Plains Cree{n,q,h} → ∅ / _s
7.9 Proto-Algonquian to Swampy Cree{n,q,h} → ∅ / _s
7.10 Proto-Algonquian to Woods Cree{n,q,h} → ∅ / _s
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawareh → ∅ / _{s,x}
7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-IllinoismV[-long] → ∅ / #_{ʰC,s,ʃ} (allophonic, “optional”)
h → ʔ / _{s,ʃ}
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawneeʔ → ∅ / C{v,l,s}_C
8 Altaic8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusicæ → i / {s,ʃ,x}_Ca
æ → i / {s,ʃ,x}_Ci
ø → i / {s,ʃ,x}_Cu
10 Austronesian10.1 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Malayo-Polynesiane → a / _s
10.1.1.3 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sumbawanu → i / _{s,t,r,n,l} (blocked in Pusu)
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiput{s,c} → t / _V{s,c}V
10.2.6.2 Proto-North Sarawak to Proto-Kenyahs → t / _VsVC
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabau— a u → e uj / _{t,s}#
10.3.5.4 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-NorthernC → ∅ / _$(possessive suffix)#
11 Northeast Caucasian11.5.6 Proto-Lezgic to Udit → ∅ / s_
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Aleut∅ → t / #_s
15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow Iñupiaqv → p / _s
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie Iñupiaqv → p / _s
15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales Iñupiaqv → p / _s
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’ikv → ft / _s
17 Indo-European17.2.1 Common Anatolian to Hittitet → ts / _i ! s_
aj aw → ɛː uː / !_{s,n,r,l}
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lycianj → ∅ / ts_
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to Lydianw (→ v?) → f / s_
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishr̩ l̩ → {ra,ar} {la,al} / _{s,CC,V,#} (the results are unpredictable)
m̩ n̩ → am an / _{s,({m,j,w)V}
— n → ∅ / {i,o,u}_{p,t,k,s}
— {p,t} → ∅ / #s_r
— {p,t} → ∅ / #s_ “(although it says that occasionally st > t / #_)”
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshɔ → ə / #_sC
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothicij → iː / _s “after the loss of a vowel in final syllables”
Vw → u / _s (to wit, the vowel is deleted and the *w syllabifies)
β ð ɣ → ɸ θ x / V_(s)#
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
17.7.2.1.5 Early Modern English to American Englishj → ∅ / {θ,s,z,l,n,t,d}_ when in onset position
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishj → ∅ / %{θ,s,z,l}_”V
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germanx → k / _s
V → Vː / _r{t,d,s,ts} (except /ə/)
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norsea → ∅ / C(C)_{ʀ,s,t,θ}#
a → ∅ / _{ʀ,s,t,θ}#
{B,E} → ∅ / CC_{ʀ,s,t,θ}# ! B = ɒ
E → ∅ / _{ʀ,s,t,θ}
u → ∅ / _({ʀ,s,t,θ})#
b → ∅ / m_s
d → ∅ / {l,m}_{b,ɡ,k,l,m,n,s}
k → ∅ / l_s
k → ∅ / r_{m,s,t}
k → ∅ / s_l,t
l → ∅ / ŋ_s
l → ∅ / r_{m,s}
l → ∅ / s_t
n → ∅ / f_{d,s,t}
n → ∅ / m_{s,b}
n → ∅ / ŋ_{s,w}
n → ∅ / r_{s,t,w}
n → ∅ / t_s
r → ∅ / k_{n,s}
r → ∅ / t_{k,s}
t → ∅ / {ɡ,ɣ}_s
t → ∅ / s_{k,l,n,s}
β ð ɣ → f θ k / _{p,t,k,s}
F[- voice] → ∅ / {s,f,x,h,t}_{p,t,k}
uN yN iN VN → o øː eː Vː / _{s,f}
∅ → t / s_r
rː lː → r l / {p,t,k,f,s}_
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornl → ∅ / _{m,s,k}
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian Greekn → ∅ / _s
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekn → ∅ / _s
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greekn → ∅ / _s
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greekn → ∅ / _s
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan Greekn → ∅ / _s
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric Greekn → ∅ / _s
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian Greekn → ∅ / _s
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekn → ∅ / _s
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greekn → ∅ / _s
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-Aryanp → ∅ / #_st
Vm → Ṽ / _(#){s,ɕ}
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polisha ɛ i ɔ u ɨ ã → aː ɛː iː ɔː uː ɨː ãː / _{C/U}[+voiced][lost yer] (i.e., a voiced consonant or a cluster with one)
ɕtɕ → js / _{t͜s,s}
{z,s,ʂ} → ∅ / _sC
t → ∅ / s_{ɫ,w}
d → ∅ / r_ts
∅ → t / s_r “in ‘stręczyć’”
v → ∅ / _stv
slʲ → ∅ / _s
rʲ → r / _{s,t͜s,l,w,n,ɲ}
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latino → e / w_{r,s,t}
e → i / _{s,t}#
w → ∅ / s_o
{t,d} → s / _s
∅ → t / sː_r
∅ → p / m_{s,t,l}
V → {Vː,V[+nas]} / _n{f,s}
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalann → ∅ / _s
V → ∅ / ”V%s_t(C)V(C)# (irregular)
∅ → e / #_sC
k → j / _s#
t → ∅ / V_sV
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— n → ∅ / _{f,v,s}
— r → s / _s
t → s / s_j
∅ → t / s_r
k → js / V_sV
k → j / _s#
∅ → e / #_sC
∅ → j / {ʃ,ʒ,sj,zj}”{a,é}_ in U[+open]
j → ∅ / s_ (sː_?)
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguesen → ∅ / _s
iː → ∅ / {k,s}_#
e → ∅ / {l,n,r,s,k}_#
p → ∅ / V_{t,s}V
k → j / _s#
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal∅ → i / #_sC
k → ∅ / _s{C,#} (the latter in polysyllables only)
∅ → k / #s_l
i → e / #_sC
b {d,dz,dʒ} z ʒ ɡ → p {t,ts,tʃ} s ʃ k / _(s)#
j → i / _(s)#
ð → t / _s#
β → u / V_(s)#
β → {∅,f} / C_(s)# (the latter is rare)
n → ∅ / _s# (except for eastern and southeastern dialects)
n → ∅ / r_(s)#?
l → w / V_s
{p,b} → ∅ / R_s# (unless blocked by analogy)
ð → i / _C ! _s#
l → u / _s# (in many dialects)
∅ → t / s_r
w → ∅ / s_ ?
l → u / _{t,s} (Languedoc)
l → u / _{d,s} (Rouergue)
l → u / _{t,d,s} (else)
k → ∅ / s_b (sporadic?)
{p,t} → ∅ / s_m (sporadic?)
p → ∅ / s_t
b → ∅ / _s{t,k}
b → ∅ / _ts
k → ∅ / _sk (else)
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romaniann → ∅ / _{f,v,s}
r → s / _s
k → ∅ / _s#
i → ∅ / {ts,dz,S}_V
p → ∅ / _s
c → p / _{s,t}
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardinian∅ → i / _s (“[m]ainly Logudorese”)
t → k / s_l (sporadic)
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to SpanishV → ∅ / C_s when unstressed and not at a word boundary (sporadic)
V → ∅ / s_C when unstressed and not at a word boundary (sporadic)
{k,ɡ} → x → j / _{t,s,n,l}
e → ∅ / V{d,s,n,l,ɾ}_#
— Vdz → ∅ / {nts,ndz,rdz_
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tochariani → ə / {P,K(ʷ),s}_
17.13.1 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian Ak → p / _{s,ʂ}
n → j / V_sV ! E_
21 Lakes Plain21.2.2.6 Proto-East Tariku to Sikaritaiik → ɡ / {s,k,p}_ ?
21.2.2.7 Proto-East Tariku to Waritaiik → ɡ / {s,p}_ ?
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to ChibchaV → ∅ / s_j (sometimes)
23.1.1.1.5 Proto-Chibchan to Motilónd → ∅ / V_s
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.26 Proto-Western Southern Athabaskan to Mescaleroʔ → ∅ / {s,ʃ,ɬ}_#
29.2 Proto-Na-Dene to Tlingitx → ∅ / {s,ʃ}_
30 Niger-Congo30.3.1.1.11 Proto-Vhe to Kpándoj → ∅ / {ts,dz}_
34 Quechumaran34.5 Proto-Quechumaran to Putamayoh → ∅ / ts_
34.6 Proto-Quechumaran to Quitoq → h / {r,s}_
h → ∅ / ts_
34.7 Proto-Quechumaran to Riobambah → ∅ / ts_
34.9 Proto-Quechumaran to Tenah → ∅ / ts_
35 Salishan35.3 Shuswap to Eastern Shuswap Nasal-to-Vowel Shiftsen enˀ → i iʔ / {ts(’),s,j(ˀ)}_ in U[- stressed]
35.4 Shuswap to Spokane-Kalispel Shuswap Nasal-to-Vowel Shiftsn nˀ → i iʔ / C_s
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1 Proto-Sino-Tibetan to Middle Chinesel → ∅ / s_-
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan LaK → ʔ / _s
u → i / _{r,s}
o → e / _s
i → e / _s
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Toe → i / _{s,#}
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog RtseK → ʔ / _s
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Moi → iɛ / _s
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu TaP → p / s_
o → e / _s
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoianp → ∅ / C_ ! s_
37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeen → h / _st
j → ∅ / ts_
37.1.2 Proto-Iroquoian to Proto-Northern Iroquoianiji(ː) → hi(ː) / {k,s}_ “(possibly after all non-glottal obstruents)”
h → ∅ / #_s
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayugaj → ∅ / ts_
h → ∅ / s_w
C → ∅ / {s,k}_#
Ch → ∅ / _s#
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huronn → ∅ / _s
n hn sC → t th Ch / s_
k → h / _{t,ts,s,ʃ}
j → ∅ / ts_
∅ → k / s_(h)w
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandoth → ∅ / {t,ts,s,k}_
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagan → ∅ / _s
h → ∅ / _sn
h → ∅ / _{k,t,ts,s}#
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneidan → ∅ / _s
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Mohawk∅ → e / {tsh,s,n}_r
∅ → e / {#,V}s_n
∅ → e / {#,V}s_w
— wə̃ → ũ / {h,s}_
— j → ∅ / ts_
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneidah → ∅ / k_{s,ts}
h → ∅ / _{sk,st}
h → ∅ / {st,tst}_
h → ∅ / ts_r ! “in pre-pausal forms, see also below”
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecan → ∅ / _s
j → ∅ / _ts
V → Vː / _{t,k(ʷ),s,n,r,j,w} “in even penultimate syllables”
h → ∅ / _{tk,nh,sC,C#}
r → h / s_
C → ∅ / s_#
C[-glottal] → ∅ / _s#
k → ∅ / _hts
a(ː) → õ(ː) / V[+nas]({ʔ,s})w_
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscarora”V → ”Vː / _{k(ʷ),(ˀ)t}{s,R,H} (“penultimate syllables only”)
h → ∅ / k_{s,ts,tʃ}
∅ → t / hs_r
37.1.2.6.2 Tuscarora to Eastern Tuscarorar → ∅ / st_
37.2 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Siouan{t,h} → ∅ / s_
37.2.2 Proto-Siouan to Dakotar → d / s_
37.2.3 Proto-Siouan to Mandant → ∅ / _s
37.2.6.2 Proto-Dhegiha to Omaha-PoncaLʲ → {θ,n} / _V[+nas -stress]
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to OsageLʲ → ð / _V[+nas -stress]
37.2.7.1 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Biloxik → ∅ / ”Vs_
41 Trans-New Guinea41.5.2.2 Proto-Kainantu to AwaN → n / _{v,k,s}
42 Uralic42.1 Proto-Uralic to Pre-Finnicm → n / _{t,tsʲ,#}
42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnicw → ∅ / o_st (*)
n → ∅ / _{s,ts}
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishi → ∅ / {VC,ks}_ at the ends of a suffix
{p,t,k} → ∅ / _st
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnisht → ∅ / s_r
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to LivonianVn → Vː / _s
43 Uto-Aztecan43.4 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Nahuatlp → ∅ / {#,Vs}_
43.5.1.1 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Kawaiisuh → ∅ / V_tsV
h → ∅ / _{n,s,ʔ}
43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhamp → w / {#,Vs}_
i → ∅ / ts_#
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basqueu ũ → y ỹ / _r(p(ʰ),β,k(ʰ),ɣ,l,s̺,s̻,ʃ,h) (Souletin)
u ũ → y ỹ / _{s̻,ts̺,ts̻} (but not _s̺) (Souletin)
∅ → e / #_{s̺,s̻}C
∅ → j / V_{N,s̺,s̻}S
aʊ → aɪ / !_{ɾ,r,s̺,s̻} (Souletin, Roncalese)
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.2 List 2: Conditional or complex consonant changest → k / _s̩ (Ōgami) (NB: The article doesn’t have an underscore indicating whether this occurs before or after the /s̩/, but the linked page indicates where this change occurred) (http://amritas.com/101023.htm#10192359)
n → i / _s and sometimes other fricatives (Montana Salish)