Index Diachronica: involving /ː/

775 results from /ː/   811 results to /ː/   121 results with context involving /ː/   

Cʲː V̂ː Ṽː V̊ː ãː cʰː cʷː dʱː eːʲ ẽː kʲʷː kʲː kʷː kːʼ ḱː lːʲ l̩ː n̩ː n̲ː oːʷ õː pʲː pˤː qʲʷː qʲː qʲːʼ qʷː qʼː qːʼ qˤʲʷː qˤʲː qˤʷː qˤː rːʲ r̩ː sʲʷː sʲː sʷː sːʼ sːː tʷː t̪ː ũː xʲː æː ðː øː ŋː œː ɑː ɑ̃ː ɒː ɔː ɔ̃ː ɕʷː ɕː ɖː əː ə̃ː ɛː ɛ̃ː ɜː ɟː ɡː ɣː ɤː ɨː ɨ̃ː ɪː ɬʲʷː ɬʲʼː ɬʷʲː ɬʷː ɬː ɬːʼ ɭː ɯː ɲː ɳː ɵː ʁː ʂː ʃʷː ʃː ʃːʼ ʈː ʉː ʌ̃ː ʒː ʔː ʝː θː

from /ː/

775 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Omotica(ː) → e(ː) / _{ʕ,q}$
6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North Omotice(ː) → i(ː) / #C[+sibilant]_{d,n,r}
Vː → V / #K[-voice]_C
Vː → V / #C_C$ + $(V)C$ suffix
6.1.1.3 North Omotic to Kafaz zː → j dʒː
6.1.1.4 North Omotic to Maalets tsː → s ts / V_
6.1.1.5 North Omotic to Shekkachozː → dʒː
6.1.1.8 North Omotic to Zayse-Zergullatsː → ts / V_
6.2.2 Proto-Erythrean to Proto-North Erythreaneː oː → i u
6.2.2.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-Chadicaː → a
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabicwː → v
j(ː) → ∅ / V_E
uː iː → oː eː / _ʕ
uː iː → oː eː / ʕ_
uː iː → u i
aː → a / ! _#
aːʔ → e / E(C)(C)_#
aː → a / {Cˤ,w}_#
6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Egyptian ArabicVː → V / C_C{ː,C}V
a(ː) → ɑ(ː) / near emphatics
a(ː) → ɑ(ː) / if ɑ(ː) is elsewhere in the word
a(ː) → æ(ː) / else (sometimes it seems more like ɛ(ː) to me)
6.2.2.1.8 Classical Arabic to Coastal Hadhrami Arabicaː → eː / in Form VI (tafā‘ala) verbs, though these apparently coexist with forms having the original vowel as well, with semantic distinctions
aː → æː / when not near emphatics
6.2.2.1.9 Classical Arabic to Wādı̄ Hadhrami Arabicaː → eː / in Form VI (tafā‘ala) verbs, though these apparently coexist with forms having the original vowel as well, with semantic distinctions
aː → æː / when not near emphatics
6.2.2.1.10 Classical Arabic to Hassāniyya Arabicɣː → ʁː → qː
6.2.2.1.14 Classical Arabic to Moroccan Arabicaː iː uː → ɑː eː oː / near emphatics
aː → æː / else
6.2.2.1.16 Classical Arabic to Sudanese Arabicu(ː) → {ɵ,o}(ː)
6.2.2.1.17 Classical Arabic to Tunisian ArabicVː → V[-long] / _# (except as below)
V(ː) → Vː / in accented or stressed monosyllables
6.2.2.1.18 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrew— aː → oː / ! _#
— i iː u uː → eə iːə oə uːə / _R
— iː → eː / _#
— {o,u}(ː) → iː / _$%oː
— oː → uː
6.2.2.1.19 Biblical Hebrew to Modern Israeli Hebrew{e(ː),ɛ} → ɛ
Vː → V[-long]
Cː → C[-long]
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakiaː → a / _OO
oː aː eː iː → o ɔ̃ a i
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenakiaː → a / _OO
aː → ɔ̃
oː eː iː → o a i
7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-Atsinao(ː) → i(ː)
Vː → V[-long] / _CC
a(ː) → o(ː)
7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapahoi(ː) → u(ː) / o(ː)(C[-dental])(C[-dental])_
eː → ei / j_
o(ː) → e(ː) / Cj_ (sporadic)
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfootsːː → sː
{jiː,ja,ahi} {owaː,awa,awe} awi {iːwa,eːwa,aji,aje,ani} → i oː o(ji) iː / C_C
i(ː)wi → iː / medially
i(ː)wi → i / _#
{iː,ij,j} → j / C_B
ket → tː (→ sː?)
{we,wiː} → o / #_
aː → aa / W_ ! when _{C{C,ː},#}
aː → a / else
oː → o
{eː,iː} → i
7.6 Proto-Algonquian to Northern East Creee eː → i aː
ʃjeː → seː
7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East Creeʃjeː → ʃeː
7.8 Proto-Algonquian to Plains Creeʃjeː → seː
7.9 Proto-Algonquian to Swampy Creeʃjeː → ʃeː
7.10 Proto-Algonquian to Woods Creee(ː) → i(ː)
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee DelawareVː → V[-long] / _hC
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menomineewi(ː) → o(ː) / C_w
Vː → V[-long] / CC(G)_C{V,#} “[i.e., when following a cluster but not followed by a cluster. Only applies ‘after the first long vowel of a nonglottal word, and everywhere in a glottal word’]”
Vː → V[-long] / _C{V,#} in even syllables; “does not apply in the second syllable of a non-glottal word”
e(ː) i → æ(ː) e
iː oː oʔ → eː uː uʔ “[blocked when or a C+G sequence follows anywhere in the word, but does apply if æ(ː) intervenes before any following or C+G]”
{wiː,jiː,weː,jeː,wæː,jæː} {wi,ji,we,je,wæ,jæ} → iː i / C_
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaqeːk → oχ / _w
o(ː) waː eː iː → u o e i
aː → a
7.15 Proto-Algonquian to Ojibwejeː → iː / C_
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawneeiː → i / _j
Vː → V[-long] / _#
Vː → V[-long] / _{ʔC,ʃp,ʃk,hV}
8 Altaic8.1.1 Early Middle Japanese to Modern Japaneseɔː → oː
8.5.2 Proto-Turkic to Sakha{e,ɤ}ː → je (the second one is conjectured based on my admittedly sparse knowledge of Turkish; I can only guess that 〈ė〉 is some sort of back unrounded vowel)
iɡ̌ → ɯː → iː (but original ɯː unaffected?)
9 Austroasiatic9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnameseə(ː) ɛ → ɨ ɛə / _K
10 Austronesian10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North Sarawakɟ(ː) → d(ː)
bː dː dzː ɡː → bʱ dʱ dzʱ ɡʱ (Whimemsz says these become “voiced stops with voiceless releases. . .treated as unit phonemes, not clusters)”
pː tː cː kː → p t c k
10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to Caaàcpː pwː tː ʈː qː kː → pʰ pwʰ cʰ tʰ h jʰ
10.3.5.2 Proto-New Caledonia to Jawépː pwː t̪ː tː kː cː → pʰ hʷ t̪ʰ tʰ h jʰ
Cː → Cʰ
10.3.5.3 Proto-New Caledonia to Nemi-Pije-Fwaipː pwː tː t̪ː kː cː → f hʷ t̪ʰ tʰ h jʰ
Cː → Cʰ
10.3.5.4 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Northernq qː k kː s sː → k kː c cː t̪ t̪ː
Cː → Cʰ
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to Nyelâyupː pwː tː qː cː → pʰ pwʰ tʰ h cʰ
10.3.5.6 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwaameipː pwː tː ʈ kː cː → f hʷ tʰ lʰ h s
Cː → Cʰ
10.3.5.7 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwapwâpː pwː t̪ː tː kː cː → pʰ xʷ t̪ʰ tʰ x s
Cː → Cʰ
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Yunagapː pwː t̪ː tː ʈː cː kː → pʰ pwʰ t̪ʰ tʰ ʈʰ jʰ h
Cː → Cʰ
10.6 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-PaiwanVː → V[- long]
11 Northeast Caucasian11.1.1 Proto-Avar-Andic to Akhvakhtɬː dɮ → tɬ(ː) tɬː
kː ɢ → xʲ {qːʼ,ɣ}
11.1.2 Proto-Avar-Andic to Andistː → sː
tɬ tɬ(ː) tɬ(ː)(ʼ) dʒ → ɬ tɬ(ː) tɬ(ː)(ʼ) tɬː
11.1.3 Proto-Avar-Andic to Avarts tsː tsʼ tsːʼ dz → sh ts tʃʼ ts(ː)ʼ tsʼ
st(ː) → ts
tʃ tʃː tʃːʼ dʒ → ts(?) tʃ tʃ(ː)ʼ tsʼ
tɬ tɬʼ tɬː tɬːʼ → ɬ tʼ tɬ tɬ(ː)ʼ
q qːʼ ɢ → x {q(ː)ʼ,ɡh} qʼ (not sure if that last 〈gh〉 should be ɣ)
s sː ɬː x xː → {s,ʃ} x ɬ {x,h} x
11.2 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Dargi{tsː,st} tsːʼ dz stː → ts z tsː s
tʃ tʃː dʒ → {tsʼ,tʃʼ} ʒ ts
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ → k {xʲː,kː} kʰ {ɡ,q}(?)
qːʼ → ʕ
ʃ ʃː ɬ ɬː → {s,ʃ} ʃ xʲ {xʲ,ʃ}
11.3 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Khinalug{tsː,st} {tsːʼ,dz} → ts tsʼ
{tʃ(ː),dʒ} → tʃʼ
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → k {k,xʲ} {kʼ,ɡ} {kʼ,kː} kʼ
kː kʼ ɡ → k {kʼ,ɡ} {kʼ,kː}
{qːʼ,ɢ} → qʼ
sː ɬ(ː) xː → h xʲ x
11.4 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Lak{tsː,stː} dz st → sː {tsː,z} ts
tʃ tʃː dʒ → {ts,tʃ} {tsʼ,tʃʼ} tʃ(ː)ʼ
tɬ tɬː tɬ(ː)ʼ dɮ → xʲ xː kʼ {kː,l}
qʼ qʼː ɡ → {qʼ,j} qʼ {qː,ɣ}
ʃ ɬ ɬː → s {xʲ,ʃ} xː
11.5.1 Proto-Lezgic to Agul{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ stː dz → {s,ts} {ts,tʃ} tː s z
tʃːʼ → tʃː
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ x kʼ kː {,j,xʲ}
qːʼ → qː
ɬ(ː) xː → xʲ x
11.5.2 Proto-Lezgic to Archi{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ stː dz → s {s,ʃ} tsʼ sː ts
tʃ(ː) dʒ → ʃ tʃ
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → ɬ ɬ(ː) kʼ tɬʼ tɬː
kː ɡ → x {kː,ɡ}
q qːʼ → x q(ː)ʼ
sː xː → {sː,h} x
11.5.3 Proto-Lezgic to Lezghi{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ dz → {ʃ,tʃ} tʃ(ʼ) {tʃː,dʒ}
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ {ɣʲ,ɡ} qʼ k(ʼ) {kː,ɣʲ}
kː ɡ → ɣ kː
qːʼ → q(ʼ)
ʃː ɬ ɬː x xː → ɣʲ j ʃ ɣ x
11.5.4 Proto-Lezgic to Rutul{ts,st} tsːʼ dz → {s,ts} {d,t} z
tʃ tʃː tʃːʼ → {ʃ,tʃ} ʃ tʃ
tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ qʼ q(ʼ) {w,xʲ,j}
kː → x
qːʼ → q(ʼ)
sː ɬ(ː) xː → {ħ,xʲ} {sː,h} x
11.5.5 Proto-Lezgic to Tabassaran{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ → {s,ts} {ts,tʃ} tsː
tʃ tʃː tʃːʼ → {ʃ,tʃ} {tʃ,dʒ} {tʃː,tʃʼ}(?)
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ {ɣʲ,ɡ} k kː ɣʲ
kː → q
ɬ {ʃː,ɬː} xː → xʲ ʃ x
11.5.6 Proto-Lezgic to Udits tsː tsʼ tsːʼ dz → {∅,s} tʃ {∅,tsʼ} {tsʼ,tʃʼ} z
tʃ tʃː tʃʼ tʃːʼ dʒ → {∅,ʃ} tʃ ∅ tʃʼ {dʒ,tʃ}
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → {∅,x} q {∅,qʼ} qʼ {ɣ,l}
kː → q
q qʼ qːʼ ɢ → ∅(?) ∅ qʼ ɣ
{ɬ(ː),xː} → x
11.6 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Nakhst stː → st(ʼ) st
tsː tʃː → ts tʃ / #_
tsːʼ → tsː
{tsː,tʃː,dz,dʒ} → tː / _#
tɬ(ː) tɬʼ tɬːʼ → x qʼ ʕ
kː qːʼ → xk(?) qʼ
ʃː ɬː xː → ʃ ɬ x
11.7 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Proto-Tsezic{ts,st} {tsːʼ,dz} → s ts
tʃ {tʃː,dʒ} → ʃ tʃ (the change of *tʃːʼ is conjectured for Bezhta, as the change is only listed in Tsez, but given the development of *tsːʼ I don’t find it unreasonable to put it here)
tɬ tɬːʼ → ɬ tɬ
s xː → z x
11.7.2 Proto-Tsezic to Tseztsː tɬː → z l / V_V
tsː tɬː → s ɬ
kːʼ ɡ → k kʼ
q qːʼ → x(?) q
sː ʃ ʃː ɬ ɬː x → s ʒ ʃ l ɬ ɣ
12 Northwest Caucasian12.1 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Abazgi{pʷ,pʲ} {p(ʲ)ː,bˤ} bʷ pʷʲ bʷʲ → p b f tsʲ dzʲ
tʷː tʷʲ(ʼ) → d(w) tʷ(ʼ)
tsʲː → dzʲ (marked as dubious in the source)
tsʷː tsʷʲ → tsʷ (tʃ)
ʃ(~ʃː) ʒ → sʲ sʲ
tɕː → dzʲ(~tɕ)
ɕ(ː) ʑ → ʃ ʒ (the change of singleton *ɕ to ʃ is marked as dubious)
tʃʷ(ʼ) tʃʷː dʒʷ → tʃ(ʼ) zʷ dzʷ~zʷ
ʃʷ ʃʷː ʒʷ → sʷ ʃ zʲ (this final change is marked as dubious)
tɕʷ(ʼ) tɕʷː → tʃ(ʼ) dʒ~ʒ
ɕʷ ɕʷː ʑʷ → ʃʷ ʃ ʒʷ
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ dɮ → x ts {x,tsʼ} l
ɬː → x
ɬʲ(~ɬʲʷː) ɮʲ → ɕ ʑ
tɬʷ(ː) tɬʼ dɮʷ → tsʷ tsʼ(ʷ) l
ɬʷ(ː) → ʃ
tɬʷʲ tɬʷʲː tɬʷʲʼ dɮʷʲ → tʃʷ ʒʷ tʃʷʼ dʒʷ
ɬʷʲ(~ɬʷː) → ʃ
kʷː → ɡʷ
q qː ɢ → (ħ) q ɣ (*ɢ is marked as *G in the document)
qʲː ɢʲ → q ɣʲ
qʷ qʷː ɢʷ → ħʷ qʷ ɣʷ
qˤː qˤʼ → ʕ ħ (this latter is marked as dubious)
qˤʲ qˤʲː qˤʲʼ → q ʔ ħ(?)
qˤʷ qˤʷː qˤʷʼ χˤʷ ʁˤʷ → ħʷ ʕʷ qʷ(ʼ) ħʷ (ħʷ?)
12.2 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Circassianpʲ(ː) pʲʼ bʲ → t(ː) tʼ d
pˤ(ː) pˤ bˤ → p(ː) pʼ b
tʷ(ː) tʷʼ dʷ → t(ː) tʼ d
ts tsː dz → {s,c} tsː dz~z
tsʲ tsʲː tsʲʼ dzʲ → (s) tsː tsʼ dz~z
ʃ(~ʃː) → s
ɕ(ː) ʑ → ʃ(ː) ʒ
tʃʷ(ː) tʃʷʼ dʒʷ → tɕ(ː) tɕʼ dʑ~ʑ
ʃʷ(ː) ʒʷ → ʃ(ː) ʒ
tcʷ(ː) tɕʷʼ → tʃ(ː) tʃʼ
ɬ(ː) tɬ(ː) tɬʼ dɮ → ɕ(ː) tɕ(ː) tɕʼ tħ
tɬʷ(ː) tɬʷʼ dɮʷ → tʃ(ː) tʃʼ ħ
ɬʷ ɬʷː → x(ʷ) ɕː
ɬʲʷ(~ɬʷː) ɮʲʷ → x(ʷ) ɣʲ
qʲʷː qʲʷ ɢʲʷ,ʁʲʷ} χʲʷ → qʷː ʔʷ ʁʷ χʷ
{qˤː,qˤʼ} χˤ ʁˤ → qː χ ʁ
{qˤʷː,qˤʷʼ} χˤʷ ʁˤʷ → qʷː χʷ ʁʷ
qˤʲʷ {qˤʲʷː,qˤʲʷ} ʁˤʲʷ → ħ ʔʷ w~ʁʷ
12.2.1.1 Adyghe to Abadzekh Adyghetsʲ(ː) → tɕ
pː tː tsː tsʷ ʃː tʃː tɕː kʲː kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → p t ts tʃʷ ʃ ɕ tɕ tʃ kʷ qː qʷ
ʂː ʃː → ʂ ʃ
12.2.1.2 Adyghe to Bzhedug Adyghetsʲ tsʲː → tɕ tɕː
kʲ(ː) kʲʼ ɡʲ → tʃ(ː) tʃʼ dʑ
tsʷː → tsʲʷː
qː~χ qʷː~qχʷ → qː qʷː
12.2.1.3 Adyghe to Shapsug Adyghetsʲ(ː) tsʷ tʃ tɕ → tɕ tʃʷ ʃ ʂ
pː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː tsː tcː kʲː kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → p t ts tʃʷ ʃ tʃ tɕ kʲ kʷ χ~q χʷ~qʷ
ʂː ʃː → ʂ ʃ
12.2.1.4 Adyghe to Temirgoy Adyghetsʲ(ː) tsʷ → tɕ tsʲʷ
kʲ(ː) kʲʼ kʷː ɡʲ → tʃ tʃʼ kʷ dʑ
pː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː tʃː tɕː → p t ts tsʷʲ ʃ tʃ tɕ
qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → qː qʷː
ʂː ʃː → ʂ ʃ
12.2.2 Proto-Circassian to Kabardiantsʲ(ː) tsʷ {tʃ,tɕ} → ɕ f ʃ
pː tː tsː tsʷː ʃː {tʃː,tɕː} kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → b d dz v ɕ ʒ dʒ ɡʷ qʼ~qχ qʷʼ~qχʷ
ʂː ʃː → ɕ ʒ
12.3 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Ubykhpʲ(ː) bʲ → t(ː) d
pʲː → tʷ~dʷ
pʷʲʼ pˤ pˤː pˤʼ bˤ → tʷʼ vˤ bˤ pˤʼ bˤ
t(ʷ)ː tʷʲʼ → t(ʷ) tʷʼ
ts(ʲ)ː tsʷː dzʲ → ts tsʷ dz
ʃ(~ʃː) ʒ → s z
ɕː tɕː → ɕ tɕ
ʃʷ(ː) ʒʷ tʃʷ(ʼ) dʒ → ʃ ʒ tʃ(ʼ) dʒ
tɕʷ(ː) tɕʷʼ → tɕ tɕʼ
ɕʷ ɕʷː ʑʷ → ʃʷ sʷ ʒʷ
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ dɮ → ɕ (sʲ) tsʲʼ ɮ
ɬ(ː) → sʲ
ɬʲ(~ɬʲʼː) → ɬ
tɬʷ(ː) tɬʷʼ dɮʷ → tsʷ ts(ʷ)ʼ w
ɬʷ ɬʷː → sʷ s(ʷ)
tɬʷʲ tɬʷʲː tɬʷʲʼ dɮʷʲ → f dʑ tsʼ dʒ
ɬʷʲ(~ɬʷː) ɮʷʲ → ʃʷ ʒʷ
kʷː xʷ → ɡʷ x
kʲʷː xʲʷ ɣʲʷ(?) → ɡʲ kʲʼ xʲ ʁʲ
qʲː(ʼ) ɢʲ χʲ → qʲ(ʼ) ʁʲ xʲ
qʷː ɢʷ → qʷ ʁʷ
qʲʷ qʲʷː qʲʷʼ ɢʲʷ χʲʷ ʁʲʷ → xʲ qʲ qʲʼ ʁʲ χʲ ʁʲ
qˤʲʷ {qˤʲʷː,qˤʲʷ} ʁˤʲʷ → χʷ qʷʼ w
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.1 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Proto-Dravidiann nː rn → {n̲,r} n̲(ː) ɳ / V_V
nː → n̲(ː)
l lː → {l,ɭ} ɭ(ː) / V_V
14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamitek ŋk ŋkː → ∅ k kː / V_V
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamilaː eː iː oː uː → a ɛ i o u / _#
am an {aːm,aːn} → õ æ̃ ã / _#
{om,on} {em,en} {oːm,oːn} {eːm,eːn} → ɔ̃ ɛ̃ õ ẽ
i(ː) e(ː) → u(ː) o(ː) / {m,v,p}_C̣
tː nt → cː ɲc / {i,j}_
n tː → n̪ t̪ː
cː → tʃː “(most dialects)”
— i(ː) e(ː) → u(ː) o(ː) / _ɭ
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic IñupiaqCː → C / except when CV_V in U1U2
15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’ikCː → C
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’ikCː → C
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’ikCː → C
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’ikCː → C
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanianeː iː oː uː → o i e {y,i}
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanianeː iː oː uː → o i e {y,i}
17.2.1 Common Anatolian to Hittiteo(ː) æː → a(ː) eː
17.2.2 Common Anatolian to Luwianḱː → z
o(ː) → a(ː)
{ɛ,e}ː æː → iː aː
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lycian{ɛ,e}ː o æː → iː e aː
Vː → V[-long]
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to Lydiano(ː) eː æː → a(ː) iː aː
Vː → V[-long]
17.2.5 Common Anatolian to Palaico(ː) → a(ː)
æː → eː
ɛː → iː
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
aː → a
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
aː → a
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
aː → a
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
aː → a
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
aː → a
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
aː → a
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
aː → a
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestane eː → a aː
o oː → {a,aː} aː
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— eː → iː
— oː → uː / in U#
— Vː → V[-long] / _RC
— oː ej → aː eː
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irisheː → iː / ! _{i,u}
tː → sː
Vː → V / _N#; “[i]t is thought that the long vowel probably needed to be unstressed- again, this is uncertain”
oː → uː / _(C…)#
oːi → uː / _#
oː → aː / else
Vː → V[-long] / _H (includes diphthongs)
— Cː → C[-long]
oː → ua / _[anything], when stressed
eː → ia / _{#,Cʲ} when stressed; “ai and oi remain, but are written as <ae ai oe oi> seemingly randomly”
— Vː → V[-long]
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle WelshVː → V / _#
uː {oi,ɔː} → yː uː
yː → ɨ
aː → ɔː
pː tː kː → f θ x
ɛː → ui
ɔː → au / when stressed
17.6 Proto-Indo-European to Dacianeː → aː
17.7 Proto-Indo-European to Common Germanicaː → oː
eː → æː
eːi {oːi,aːi} → eː oː (?)
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothic— æː → eː
oːw æːj → ɔː ɛː / _V
nː → n / _C ! _j
17.7.2 Common Germanic to West Germanicoː → uː / _#
17.7.2.1 West Germanic to Anglo-Frisianæː → aː “under to [sic] the influence of neighboring consonants”, but the article doesn’t elaborate
æː → eː
aː → æː / ! _N or if nasalized
17.7.2.1.1 Anglo-Frisian to Old Englishɑ̃ː → õː
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
eɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː
{æːj,e(ː)j} → ej
eːɑw iːw → ew ju
{ɑːw,ɑːɣ,oːw} → ɔːw
{o(ː)ht,ɑːht} → ow
ɑː y(ː) → ɔː e(ː)
Vː → V[-long] / in #U before a U with /iː/
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
eɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː
{æːj,e(ː)j} → ej
eːɑw iːw → ew ju
{ɑːw,ɑːɣ,oːw} → ɔːw
{ɑːht,o(ː)ht} → ow
ɑː y(ː) → ɔː i(ː)
Vː → V[-long] / in #U before a U with /iː/
17.7.2.1.4 Midlands Middle English to Early Modern Englisheː oː → eɪ oʊ / ! _ɹ
17.7.2.1.5 Early Modern English to American Englishɒ → ɒː → ɔː / _F[-voiced]
æː ɑː ɔː → æə~eə ɑ ɔ
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishɜːɹ ɑːɹ ɔːɹ eːɹ oːɹ iːɹ uːɹ → ɜː ɑː ɔː ɛə ɔə ɪə ʊə / syllable-finally
æ → æː → ɑː / _{F[-voiced],N[-voiced]}
ɒ → ɒː → ɔː / _F[-voiced]
oʊ iː → ɔʊ ɪə / _ɫ
oʊ iː → əʊ ɪi / else
uː → ʊə → uː / _ɫ ! in Queensland and New South Wales
uː → ʊʉ → ʉː / else
ɔː → ɔ / _ɹV[-stress]
ɔː → ɔ / _F[-voiced]
17.7.2.1.7 Early Modern English to British Englishɜːɹ ɑːɹ ɔːɹ eːɹ oːɹ iːɹ uːɹ → ɜː ɑː ɔː ɛə ɔə ɪə ʊə / syllable-finally
æ → æː → ɑː / _{F[-voiced],N[-voiced]}
ɒ → ɒː → ɔː / _F[-voiced]
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
eɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː
{æːj,e(ː)j} → ej
eːɑw iːw → ew ju
{ɑːw,ɑːɣ,oːw} → ɔːw
{ɑːht,o(ː)ht} → ow
y(ː) → i(ː)
Vː → V[-long] / in #U before a U with /iː/
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scotsol al → ou ɑː → ʌu {ɑ,ɔ}
— uː → ʌu / when-stem final, in northern varieties
— øː → wi / {k,ɡ}_ (in Mid Northern dialects)
— øː → i (in northern dialects)
— øː → (j){u,ʌ} / _{k,x} (outcome varies depending upon dialect)
— ɛː → ɛi (→ əi?) / in some northern varieties
— iː eː ɛː aː oː uː {øː,yː} → əi i {i,e} e o u ø
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsæː → ɛː
oː → ju / {n,x}_
oː → iu / _K
oː → ø
øː → eː “(not a thorough change)”
æː(ɑ) eː(o) → ɛ iː
uː → u
ɑː → e / ! _{ŋ,n}
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
eɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː
{æːj,e(ː)j} → ej
eːɑw iːw → ew ju
{ɑːw,ɑːɣ,oːw} → ɔːw
{ɑːht,o(ː)ht} → ow
ɑː → ɔː
y(ː) → i(ː)
Vː → V[-long] / in #U before a U with /iː/
17.7.2.2 West Germanic to Old Low Franconianeː oː → ie uo
uː → ʉw / _V (probably, in most areas)
uː → ʊw / _V (probably, in areas that did not undergo the above change, such as Limburg)
uː → ʉː (probably, in areas with uː → ʉw / _V)
17.7.2.2.1 Old Low Franconian to Middle Dutchuː → yː
{uː,uw} u → ɔw o (except in the southeast)
17.7.2.2.2 Middle Dutch to Modern Dutchiː yː → ɛi œy
uː → ʌu (? conjectured based on the above diphthongization and on developments in Polder Dutch vowels)
17.7.2.2.3 Modern Dutch to Polder Dutch Vowel Shifteː øː oː → ɛi œy ɔu
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germanaː → oː / _{N,C[+ dental],P,h} (sporadic?)
aː → oː / {N,C[+ dental],P,h}_ (sporadic?)
e(ː) i → ø(ː) y / _C[+ affricate]
e(ː) i → ø(ː) y / _{P,l,ʃ} (sporadic?)
e(ː) i → ø(ː) y / {P,l,ʃ}_ (sporadic?)
y(ː) yə ø(ː) øy → i(ː) iə e(ː) ei (intermittent)
uː yː iː → ou øy ei, except in certain unstressed endings and monosyllables, _C{C,V,#} (“especially before /xt/”), and Low German borrowings
aːw → au
Vː → V[- long] / _CC (some exceptions; the change was more common around _xt and _rC)
Vː → V[- long] / _%Cə{r,l,n}# (some exceptions)
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlautpː tː kː → pf ts kx
17.7.2.5 West Germanic to Old Low Germanvː ɣː hː → bː ɡː xː (perhaps not strictly a sound change, but worth noting)
17.7.3 Common Germanic to Proto-Norse{æ,e}ː(w(a)) → aː
oː → a / _n%
(w)u(ː) i(ː) → (w)o(ː) e(ː) / _(C)(C)a ! CC = NC or one C = {ʀ,j}
{æ,e}ːuː {æ,e}ːiː → eu ai
w{o,u}ːwuː j{e,i}ːjiː → uː iː
Vː → V[- long] / ! #U, U#
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old NorseEːBː Eːaː → joː jaː / {v,w}_
BːB aː{o,a,æ,e} {æ,e}ː{æ,e}ː {æ,e}ːi iːEː → oː aː eː eː iː
u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ y yː / _(C)(C)(C)j
oː → u / _#
waː naː → oː noː / %u in #U
a(ː) ae → o(ː) ɒø / #(C)(C)(C)_(C)(C)(C)u
{(j)u,we}ː {o,ɒ}ː aː au → yː øː æː æy
u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / _(C)(C)(C)i
{a,æ,e}ːhiː → æː
ɒːh{u,a} aːh{u,a} → ɒː aː
Vː → V[- long] / ! in #U
{u,we,wi} {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / _(C)(C)(C)i
au {ai,ey,ei} æ{y,i} øy Vː → o e æ ø V / #(C)(C)(C)_CC
u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / _(C)(C)(C)j
u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / #(C)(C)_ʀ
rː{r,ʀ} sʀ → rː sː
l(ː)ʀ n(ː)ʀ → lː nː / ”Vː_ (or all V_ ?)
{l(ː),n}{r,ʀ} → ∅ / V{ː,V}_
nː lː rː sː → n l r s / C_
lː nː → l n / C_#
{æ,e}i ai au w{ɪ,i} wy wV iu Vː → eː aː oː weː woː wVː eː oː V
ðl(ː) ðn(ː) → lː nː
(Vː)θt → (V)tː
Eː{u,o}ː Eːaː → joː jaː / {v,w}_
θː ðː → tː dː
nː → ð / _{r,ʀ}
woː wøː jæː Vː → wo wøje V[- long] / _%
{t(ː),ɡː}k → kː
Sː → S[- long] / U[- stress]_
Sː → S[- long] / _{r}ː
rː lː → r l / {p,t,k,f,s}_
ø øː → e æː
e(ː){B,i(ː)} → e(ː)u / {v,w}_
eː{Bː,i(ː)} → joː / _C[+ alveolar]#
eː{Bː,i(ː)} → juː
N(ː) k k(ː) N(ː)ɡ ɡ(ː) ɣ → ɲc(ː) c(ː) ɲɟ(ː) ɟ(ː) ʝ / _{i,j}
N(ː) k k(ː) N(ː)ɡ ɡ(ː) ɣ → ɲc(ː) c(ː) ɲɟ(ː) ɟ(ː) ɟ / _{i,j}
eː → e / Ḱ_
eː j → e ∅ / Cw_
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandicwaː → wo
ɒ ɒː → ø aː
øː → æ
u o a øː eː y i → ʏɪ oi ai øi ei yː iː / _j
aː → ai / _j
{l(ː),rl} → ɬ / v_#
{l(ː),rl} C → ɬ C[- voice] / _{S[- voice],s}
{l(ː),rl} C → ɬ C[- voice] / S_ ! Sː_
{l(ː),rl} rː → dɬ r̥ / _#
S[- voice]ː S[+ voice]ː → ʰS S[- voice]ː
u oː aː ʏɪ {y,i} {y,i}ː æː eː ey → ʏ ou au ai y ɪ i je ei
nː → tn̥ / V_#
nː → tn / V_
nː → n
{ɬl,ɬː → tɬ
{lː,rl} → tɬ / _#
{lː,rl} → tl
Cː → C[- long]
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornp(ː) t(ː) k(ː) → b(ː) d(ː) ɡ(ː) / {V,R}_{V,R}
lː → ʎ
u a e eː → ʌ ɑ ɪ ɛ / _Cː
uː → øː / _CC
oː → øː / _(C)(C)#
oː → u(ː)
joː → {u,o,ø} (looks like being in the ultima or the penult may have had something to do with it, but it isn’t clear to me)
a aː → ɛ øː / _r
yː → ø / _j
yː → i
e iː → ɛ i(ː)
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornnd ld (→ nː lː ?) → ɲ ʎ
ɡ(ː) → dʒ / _iV
pː tː kː → b d {ɡ,ɣ} / V_V
tː → {tʲ,dʲ}
nː → ɲ(d)
rn {lː,rl} → ɲ ʎ
{u,o}(ː) a aː {ɒ,œ,y} e i(ː) → {o,ɔ}(i) æ(i) {ɔ,ɒ}(i) {o,ɔ}(i) {æ,e} / _{Ḱ,Cʲ}
uː → {u,o,ɒ,ø} (conditioning unclear; it seems the presence of a velar consonant may have helped to retain the quality of /u/)
oː → u
{ɒ,ey} j{u,o,a}ː yː → o ø u / Ḱ_
j{u,o,a}ː → ø
aː → wo (dialectal)
aː → ɔ(u) / _{l,r}
yː → ø / _O[+ dental/alveolar]
eː → {ɒ,ə} / w_
e eː → {æ,ɛ,e} {(j)ɛ,je}
17.7.4 Common Germanic to Vandaliceː → i / unstressed
oː → u
wː → ɡ
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekɑː → æː
u(ː)(j) → y(ː)(j)
æː → ɛː (includes diphthongs)
eː → iː / _C
eː → iː / _V
ɛː → eː
Vː → V[-long]
Cː → C[-long]
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greek{eː,ej} ɛː ɑ(ː)j {oj,ɔːj} → iː eː ɛː {y,ø}
oː → uː
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greekæː → ɛː
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekɑː → æː
æː → ɛː
u(ː)(j) → y(ː)(j)
oː → uː (?)
eː → iː / _V
ɛː → eː
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittitee(ː) → a(ː) / _h2
e(ː) → a(ː) / h2_
e(ː) → o(ː) / _h3
e(ː) → o(ː) / h3_
o(ː) → a(ː)
{uː,eu,au} → u
— e(ː) → a(ː) / _R “sometimes??”
— e(ː) → a(ː) / “when unstressed?”
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-Aryanəː → oː / w_
əː → eː
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-AryanVː → V[-long] / _#
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-AryanVː → V[-long] / _#
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-AryanVː → V[-long] / _#
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-AryanVː → V[-long] / _#
17.10.1.5 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Vedic Sanskritsː ʂː ɕː → t.s t.ʂ t.C
cʰː → cʰ / C_
17.10.1.5.1 Vedic Sanskrit to Classical Sanskritau aːu ai aːi → au oː ai eː / ! _V
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slaviciː uː → i ɨ
e(ː)i → i
{aːi,oːi} → {æː,a} (the former seems to be more common)
{a(ː)u,o(ː)u} e(ː)u → u ju
æː → a / “After palatal fricatives and affricates”
{e(ː),i(ː)} {a(ː),o(ː),u(ː)} → ẽ õ / _N$
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishɛ ɛ̃ ɛː → ɔ ɔ̃ a / _C[-palatalized +dental] (also sporadically before plain non-dentals)
ɛː → ɛ
ьr → i(ː)ʐ → {ɛ(ː)r,ɛ(ː)ʐ} → {ɛr,ɛʐ}
{ɛ(ː)jɛ,ьjɛ,ɔjɛ,ujɛ,ɨjɛ} → ɛː
iː uː ɨː → i u ɨ
ãː → ã → ɔ̃
aː ɔː ɛː → ɒ o e
Vː → V in certain frequently-used words
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latinoː → uː / _r
Vː → V[-long] / _{m,(n)t,l,r}#
Vː → V[-long] / _#
n̩ː → n
l̩ l̩ː r̩ r̩ː → ol l or r
mː → n / {W,Vː}_
sː → s / _#
sː → s / {W,Vː}_
Vː → V / _C(C)# “(irregular: often before -m, -t, -nt, but never before ?s)”
17.12.1.1.1 Classical Latin vs. Vulgar Latin{i,eː,oi} → e
iː → i
{u,oː} → o
uː → u
aː → a
“In contrast, Romanian exhibits u, uː → u (and ultimately also ɔ, oː → o); and Sardinian and African Latin underwent a straight merger of the vowels by length without considering quality (e, eː → e; i, iː → i; u, uː → u; etc.)”
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalaniː → i / stressed
iː → i / _%”V
{i,eː} e → {e,ɛ} {ɛ,e} / stressed
{i,eː,e} → e / _%”V
uː → u / stressed
uː → u / _%”V
{u,oː} o → o ɔ / stressed
{u,o(ː)} → u / _%”V in East Catalan
{u,o(ː)} → o / _%”V else
aː → a
mn → nː → ɲ
iː → ∅ / _#
{i,e(ː),ae} → ∅ / _(C)#
{u(ː),o(ː)} → ∅ / _#
lː nː → ʎ ɲ
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— aː → a
— {eː,i,oe} → é
— iː oː → i ó
— uː → u
— aː → a
— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e
— iː → i
— {o(ː),u} → o
— aː → a
— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e
— iː oː → i o
— u(ː) → o / except _V (?)
sːj zj rj → jsː jz jr
{lːe,lːo} → u / {e,o}_# “[this is actually an analogical development, but it applies as regularly as a sound law]”
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to Italiantaːte → ”ta / _#
{skj,stj,sːj → ʃ
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portugueseiː {i,eː} e → i e ɛ / stressed
iː {i,e(ː)} → i e / _%”V
iː → ∅ / {k,s}_#
{i(ː),e(ː),ae} → e / _#
uː → u
uiː → ui / _#
{u,oː} o → o ɔ / stressed
{u,o(ː)} → o / _%”V
{u(ː),o(ː)} → o → u / _#
aː oe → a e
sːj (m)nj lj rj → jʃ ɲʎ jr / V_V
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençalsː → s / Vː_
kː → tʃ / _a (in the east and northeast)
lː → l (in the south)
Cː → C
βw tw → wː dw → ɡʷ ɡʷ → ɡ ɡ
{tʃ(ː),kʷ}j → ts
lː{j,Vdʒ} lnj → ʎ ɲ
rːVɡ rːj → rdʒ ir
{sːj,stʃj,stj} → ʃ → is (except in the west or extreme east, where the outcome was some flavor of (i)(t)ʃ)
tːj → ts → s
ksː → is
td → tː → t
17.12.1.1.7 Vulgar Latin to Rhaeto-Romanceuː → y (→ i in most descendants, with the exception of Engadine)
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanian— aː → a
— eː,i,oe → e
— iː o(ː) u(ː) → i o u
— aː → a
— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e
— iː → i
— {o(ː),u} → o
— aː → a
— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e / _#
— iː → i
— {o(ː),uː} → o
lː → ∅ / _i
”elːa → e”a / _#
{sj,stj,sːj} → ʃ
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to SardinianVː → V[- long]
nd {lː,ld} → ɳɖ ɖː / V_V
l{i,j} → lː → {ts,dz,ldz,dʒ,lː} (“varies”)
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanish{tj,kj} {tːj,kːj,ptj,ktj,skj} → ts tːs
ʝː → ∅ / E_
pː tː kː sː tːs ʝː → p t k s ts ʝ
nː lː ɾɾ → ɲ ʎ r
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tocharian{eh2,aH} aː → aː ɔ
oː(s,y) oːn → u {u,õ}
õ oː → o a
uh1 u{h2,h3} → uː → wə wɨ
(h1)e (h1)eː → jə jɛː / #_
Ce Ceː → Cʲə Cʲɛ
24 Macro-Pama-Nyungan24.1.1 Proto-Paman to AritinŋitiÉ£Vː → V[-long] / in #U
24.1.2 Proto-Paman to AwŋtimVː → ə / in #U
24.1.3 Proto-Paman to LinŋitiÉ£Vː V[-long] → V[-long] ∅ / in #U
24.1.4 Proto-Paman to MbiywomVː → V[-long] / in #U
24.1.5 Proto-Paman to MpalicanVː → V[-long] / in #U
24.1.6 Proto-Paman to UraðiVː → V[-long] / in #U
24.1.7 Proto-Paman to YinwumVː → V[-long] / in #U
27 Mayan27.1 Proto-Mayan to Ch’olanaː eː oː → ɨ i u
Vː → V[-long]
27.2 Proto-Mayan to ChujeanVː → V[-long]
27.5 Proto-Mayan to Kaqchikel-Tz’utujilVː → V[-long]
27.8 Proto-Mayan to Q’anjob’alanVː → V[-long]
27.9 Proto-Mayan to Tzeltalanaː eː oː → ɨ i u
27.10 Proto-Mayan to Yucatecanaː → ɨ
28 Muskogean28.1.2 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to CreekCː → C[- long]
31 Nyulnyulan31.1 Proto-Nyulnyulan to Bardii(ː)b ik → iw ij / _a
33 Penutian33.3.1 Proto-Yokuts to General Yokutsiː ɨː uː → eː əː oː (this change sometimes did not occur)
eː əː → e ə (as a result of ablaut)
33.3.1.3 Buena Vista Yokuts to Tulamniɨ(ː) ə(ː) → i(ː) e(ː)
33.3.2.2 Proto-Nim-Yokuts to Northern Yokutsɨ(ː) ə(ː) → i(ː) e(ː)
33.3.3 Proto-Yokuts to Palewyamiɨ(ː) → i(ː)
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeea(ː)wẽ(ː) → a(ː)ma(ː)
ẽ(ː) õ(ː) → o(ː) ʌ̃(ː)
37.1.2 Proto-Iroquoian to Proto-Northern Iroquoiano(ː) u(ː) → a(ː) o(ː)
iji(ː) → hi(ː) / {k,s}_ “(possibly after all non-glottal obstruents)”
Vː → V[-long] / ! in U#
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to CayugaV1”V2 ”V1ːV2 → ”V1V2 ”V1[-long]V2
e(ː) → ẽ / _ẽ(ː)
o(ː) → õ / _õ(ː)
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to WyandotVː → ”V / in U#; “this change may have been present in Huron already”
ẽ(ː) õ(ː) o(ː) → ɛ̃(ː) ɔ̃(ː) u(ː)
ɛ̃(ː) → ã(ː) / w_
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondaga”V(ː)(C)(C)Vː → V[-long](C)”(C)CV[-long] / _#
a(ː) o(ː) õ(ː) → æ(ː) e(ː) ẽ(ː) / r_
õ(ː) → ũ(ː)
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneidaẽ(ː) õ(ː) → ʌ̃(ː) ũ(ː)
Vː → V / _(C)(C)(C)#
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneida”Vː[-falling tone]CV → Vː”CV
”Vː[+falling tone] → ”V[-long -falling tone]
Vː → V[-long] _”C(C)(C)V (“this change happens only in the Ontario dialect”)
— Vː[+falling tone]C(C)V(H) → V̊ː[+falling tone]C̊(C̊)V̊(H̊) / _#
— CVː[+falling tone] → C̊V̊ː[+falling tone] / _#
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecaa(ː) → æ(ː) / r_
Vː → V / V_
a(ː) → ẽ(ː) / adjacent to a nasal vowel
ẽ(ː) → e(ː) / _{e(ː),o(ː)
a(ː) æ(ː) → õ(ː) ẽ(ː) / n_
a(ː) → õ(ː) / V[+nas]H_
a(ː) → õ(ː) / V[+nas]({ʔ,s})w_
ẽ(ː) õ(ː) → ɛ̃(ː) ɔ̃(ː)
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscarora{ẽ(ː),õ(ː)} → ə̃(ː)
e(ː) → ɛ(ː)
ə̃(ː) → ɨ̃(ː) / ! “when both short and stressed”
a(ː) o(ː) → ɔ(ː) u(ː) / ! “when both short and unstressed”
37.1.2.6.2 Tuscarora to Eastern Tuscaroraə̃(ː) a(ː) o(ː) → ɨ̃(ː) ɔ(ː) u(ː) (“in all positions”)
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.3.5 Central Tai to T’ien-Paoi iː u → ə ei oʊ̯
38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-Aiɔː → oː
42 Uralic42.1 Proto-Uralic to Pre-Finnicɤ(ː?) ɑː æː → ɑ(ː?) oː eː / stressed
42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnicyje → øː → jø (?)
ðʲ sʲ tsʲ(ː) lʲ → ð s ts(ː) l
tʃ tʃː → t tʃ
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishpː tː tsː kː → pˑ tˑ tsˑ kˑ
Vː → V[-long] / _i
(t(ː))sn kx(tx) rn ln → sː xː rː lː
ts tsˑ tsː → s θˑ θː
{z,x(ː)} → h
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnisheː øː oː → ie yø uo
θ(ː) ð → ts d (this latter does have some highly sporadic exceptions; additionally, in some dialects these may become {t(ː),h~t} and {r,∅}, respectively)
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to LivonianVCːɑ → VːCɑ
Cː → C[- long] / ! in verbal forms when V_ə
ɑː au → ɔː ɔu (though sometimes ɑː develops, apparently at least partially due to metathesis?)
eː øː oː ɤ(ː) → iːe yːø uːo ɨ(ː)
eː oː → je wo
ɔ(ː) → o(ː)
43 Uto-Aztecan43.5.1.1 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Kawaiisuhkʷ hʔ (h)S Sː → w ʔ S[+ voiced] S[- voiced - long] / V_V
jː → j
uV Vː → uː Vː (not sure if this occurs before or after the previous change)
43.5.1.2 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Mononː → h
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basquenb → mː → m
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.1 Proto-Pai to ChapaiVː → V ?
45.1.3 Proto-Pai to TipaiVː → V (sporadic? conditioned?)
46 Vowel Shifts46.4 Polder Dutch Vowel Shifteː øː oː → ɛi œy ɔu
46.5 Old English-to-Scots Vowel Shiftsuː → ʌu / when-stem final, in northern varieties
øː → wi / {k,ɡ}_ (in Mid Northern dialects)
øː → i (in northern dialects)
øː → (j){u,ʌ} / _{k,x} (outcome varies depending upon dialect)
ɛː → ɛi (→ əi?) / in some northern varieties
iː eː ɛː aː oː uː {øː,yː} → əi i {i,e} e o u ø
46.7 Great Vowel Shift (English)iː uː → əj əw → ɑj ɑw
eː oː → iː uː
ɛː → eː → iː
aː ɔː → ɛː oː → eː ow → ej (əw)
46.8 Greek Vowel Shiftu(ː) → y(ː)
oː → uː
eː ɛː → iː eː
eː → iː
y(ː) ɔː → i(ː) ɔ
46.10 Late Proto-Finnic to Savonian Vowel Shifteː øː oː → ie yø uo
ɑː æː ɑi æi → uɑ iæ ɑe æe
46.13 Old Norse to Faroese Vowel Shift{a,æː} → ɛa / a
aː → ɔa “(except NE of the Faroes → aː)” / ɔ
eː → ɛa “(except Suðuroy → eː)” / a “(except Suðuroy → ɛ)”
{iː,yː} → ʊi / ʊ(i)
oː → {ɔu,ɛu,œu} / œ “(except Suðuroy → ɔ)”
uː → ʉu / ʏ
46.14 Pre-Slavic Vowel Changeseː → æ
iː → i
a aː → o a
uː → ɨ
46.19 Southern [United States] Shift (English)æ/ɑː → æɪ

to /ː/

811 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Omotica(ː) → e(ː) / _{ʕ,q}$
VNC → VːC[+voiced]
6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North Omotice(ː) → i(ː) / #C[+sibilant]_{d,n,r}
u → uː / #S[+voice]_P[-voice]
6.1.1.3 North Omotic to Kafaz zː → j dʒː
6.1.1.5 North Omotic to Shekkachoz → dʒː / Vj_
zː → dʒː
s2 → {s,tʃː} / V_
6.1.1.7 North Omotic to Yemsar → {r,lː} / V_
6.1.2.2 South Omotic to Dimes2 s3 → tʃː tʃ / V_
6.2.2 Proto-Erythrean to Proto-North ErythreanV{j,w} → Vː / C_C
6.2.2.1.5 Proto-Semitic to Classical ArabicV{j,w}V → aː / some sequences
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabic{l,n}j → jː
nx → xː
uː iː → oː eː / _ʕ
uː iː → oː eː / ʕ_
6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Egyptian Arabicaj aw → eː oː / in U[+closed]
V → Vː / C_CV in U[-stress]
V → Vː / _# + suffix
a(ː) → ɑ(ː) / near emphatics
a(ː) → ɑ(ː) / if ɑ(ː) is elsewhere in the word
a(ː) → æ(ː) / else (sometimes it seems more like ɛ(ː) to me)
{{s,z}(ˤ),ʒ}ʃ → ʃː
6.2.2.1.8 Classical Arabic to Coastal Hadhrami Arabicaː → eː / in Form VI (tafā‘ala) verbs, though these apparently coexist with forms having the original vowel as well, with semantic distinctions
aː → æː / when not near emphatics
6.2.2.1.9 Classical Arabic to Wādı̄ Hadhrami Arabicaː → eː / in Form VI (tafā‘ala) verbs, though these apparently coexist with forms having the original vowel as well, with semantic distinctions
aː → æː / when not near emphatics
6.2.2.1.10 Classical Arabic to Hassāniyya Arabicɣː → ʁː → qː
aj aw → eː(ʲ) oː(ʷ) (sometimes, the article is unclear)
— j w → iː uː / #_CC
6.2.2.1.11 Classical Arabic to Iraqi Arabicaj aw → eː oː
6.2.2.1.12 Classical Arabic to Eastern Libyan Arabicaj aw → e(ː,j) o(ː,w)
6.2.2.1.13 Classical Arabic to Western Libyan Arabicaj aw → eː oː
6.2.2.1.14 Classical Arabic to Moroccan Arabicaː iː uː → ɑː eː oː / near emphatics
aː → æː / else
6.2.2.1.16 Classical Arabic to Sudanese Arabicu(ː) → {ɵ,o}(ː)
6.2.2.1.17 Classical Arabic to Tunisian Arabicaj aw → {aj,eː,iː aw,oː,uː}
V(ː) → Vː / in accented or stressed monosyllables
6.2.2.1.18 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrew— aː → oː / ! _#
— i iː u uː → eə iːə oə uːə / _R
— iː → eː / _#
— a → aː / _$
— i → eː oː / else
— aw → aːw
— aj → eː / _$
— aj → ɛː / _#
— {o,u}(ː) → iː / _$%oː
— oː → uː
— a i → aː eː / _%”
— aj aw → eː oː
at → aː / _# (in feminine noun endings)
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakihl → sː
nr → rː
{x,h}S → Sː
sk → kː / ! _a
ʔs ʔts → sː tsː
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenakinθ nl → sː {sː,hl}
{x,h}S → Sː
ʔs ʔts → sː tsː
sk → kː / ! _a
7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-Atsinao(ː) → i(ː)
a(ː) → o(ː)
7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapaho({C,#}V)ʔ → ({C,#}Vː)∅ / _C
i(ː) → u(ː) / o(ː)(C[-dental])(C[-dental])_
o(ː) → e(ː) / Cj_ (sporadic)
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventre({C,#}V[-long])ʔ → ({C,#}Vː[+falling tone])∅ / _C
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfootnθ hs → sːt sː
nkw → ʔː
ns sk → {x,s} {x,sː}
θp tʃp ʃp → {x,sː} ʔp sːp
x → sː / {i,#e,ja,ke}_
x → sː / e(ː)_s
sːː → sː
{jiː,ja,ahi} {owaː,awa,awe} awi {iːwa,eːwa,aji,aje,ani} → i oː o(ji) iː / C_C
eLwi → iː
i(ː)wi → iː / medially
iji → iː
tem {k,p}en → mː nː
ket → tː (→ sː?)
ke(h) → tː ?
{k(ʷ)es,keθ} → sː
7.6 Proto-Algonquian to Northern East Creee eː → i aː
ja → aː / C_
ʃjeː → seː
7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East Creeja → aː / C_
ʃjeː → ʃeː
7.8 Proto-Algonquian to Plains Creeja → aː / C_
ʃjeː → seː
7.9 Proto-Algonquian to Swampy Creeja → aː / C_
ʃjeː → ʃeː
7.10 Proto-Algonquian to Woods Creee(ː) → i(ː)
ja → aː / C_
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawarewe → wə → oː / ! adjacent to {p,m,k}
i o → iː oː
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to MenomineeV → Vː “when V is the second vowel of a word and follows a short-vowel syllable. Does not apply in glottal words”
wi(ː) → o(ː) / C_w
V → Vː / _CC in even syllables
e(ː) i → æ(ː) e
iː oː oʔ → eː uː uʔ “[blocked when or a C+G sequence follows anywhere in the word, but does apply if æ(ː) intervenes before any following or C+G]”
{wiː,jiː,weː,jeː,wæː,jæː} {wi,ji,we,je,wæ,jæ} → iː i / C_
7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-Illinoishs hʃ → sː ʃː / sporadic, usually {#,V[+front]}_
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaq(aw)aha → aː
{awa,iwa,iwi} → uː
{o,a}wi → oː
ehi → eː
{aja,iha,iji,ihi,ija} → iː
7.15 Proto-Algonquian to Ojibwejeː → iː / C_
ja → iː / C_C
8 Altaic8.1.1 Early Middle Japanese to Modern Japaneseau iu uu eu ou → ɔː juː uː joː oː
ɔː → oː
8.5.1.2 Proto-Kypchak to Kyrgyz{u,ɯ}w {i,y}w aw {æ,e}w → uː yː oː øː
æ Vh {ʕ,h} → ɑː Vː ∅ (seems to have largely been confined to loanwords from Persian)
8.5.2 Proto-Turkic to Sakhao oɡ ø øɡ iɡ → wo ɥø oː øː iː
a{ɡ̌(ɯ),b} {o{ɡ̌,b},aɡ̌u} u{ɡ̌,b} → ɰa wo uː
iɡ̌ → ɯː → iː (but original ɯː unaffected?)
eɡ → {je,iː,ji}
9 Austroasiatic9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnamesea → aː / _{w,j}
10 Austronesian10.2.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Chamica → aː / _C# (sometimes)
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to MadureseV → Vː / ə(C…?)_
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauanrl → lː
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North SarawakC → Cː / ə_V (?)
ɟ(ː) → d(ː)
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiputai au → ɛː ɔː / _…#
V[+stress] → Vː / _C# ! V = ə and/or C = h “(applies to diphthongal nuclei as well a[s] monophthongs)”
NS[-voice] → Sː
10.3.5 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-New CaledoniaCC → Cː (fortis)
10.3.5.4 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Northernq qː k kː s sː → k kː c cː t̪ t̪ː
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-Nêlêmwa”V → Vː (usually)
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to Ongeɡd ɡl → dː lː
11 Northeast Caucasian11.1.1 Proto-Avar-Andic to Akhvakhdz dʒ → {tsːʼ,z} {tsːʼ,dʒ}
tɬː dɮ → tɬ(ː) tɬː
kː ɢ → xʲ {qːʼ,ɣ}
11.1.2 Proto-Avar-Andic to Andi{ts,st} dz → s {tsːʼ,z}
stː → sː
dʒ → {tʃːʼ,dʒ}
tɬ tɬ(ː) tɬ(ː)(ʼ) dʒ → ɬ tɬ(ː) tɬ(ː)(ʼ) tɬː
q ɢ → x {qːʼ,ɣ}
11.1.3 Proto-Avar-Andic to Avarts tsː tsʼ tsːʼ dz → sh ts tʃʼ ts(ː)ʼ tsʼ
tʃ tʃː tʃːʼ dʒ → ts(?) tʃ tʃ(ː)ʼ tsʼ
tɬ tɬʼ tɬː tɬːʼ → ɬ tʼ tɬ tɬ(ː)ʼ
q qːʼ ɢ → x {q(ː)ʼ,ɡh} qʼ (not sure if that last 〈gh〉 should be ɣ)
11.2 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Dargi{tsː,st} tsːʼ dz stː → ts z tsː s
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ → k {xʲː,kː} kʰ {ɡ,q}(?)
11.3 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Khinalugtɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → k {k,xʲ} {kʼ,ɡ} {kʼ,kː} kʼ
kː kʼ ɡ → k {kʼ,ɡ} {kʼ,kː}
11.4 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Lakb d → {pː,b} {tː,d} (but *b is “[p]rone to change to *m”)
{tsː,stː} dz st → sː {tsː,z} ts
tʃ tʃː dʒ → {ts,tʃ} {tsʼ,tʃʼ} tʃ(ː)ʼ
tɬ tɬː tɬ(ː)ʼ dɮ → xʲ xː kʼ {kː,l}
ɡ → kː
qʼ qʼː ɡ → {qʼ,j} qʼ {qː,ɣ}
ʃ ɬ ɬː → s {xʲ,ʃ} xː
11.5.1 Proto-Lezgic to Agul{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ stː dz → {s,ts} {ts,tʃ} tː s z
tʃːʼ → tʃː
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ x kʼ kː {,j,xʲ}
qːʼ → qː
11.5.2 Proto-Lezgic to Archid → {d,tː}
{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ stː dz → s {s,ʃ} tsʼ sː ts
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → ɬ ɬ(ː) kʼ tɬʼ tɬː
kː ɡ → x {kː,ɡ}
q qːʼ → x q(ː)ʼ
sː xː → {sː,h} x
11.5.3 Proto-Lezgic to Lezghib d → {pː,b} {tː,d}
{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ dz → {ʃ,tʃ} tʃ(ʼ) {tʃː,dʒ}
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ {ɣʲ,ɡ} qʼ k(ʼ) {kː,ɣʲ}
kː ɡ → ɣ kː
ɣ → {qː,ɣ} (again, probably a difference in the development of *ɢ than this strict sound change)
11.5.4 Proto-Lezgic to Rutulsː ɬ(ː) xː → {ħ,xʲ} {sː,h} x
11.5.5 Proto-Lezgic to Tabassaran{ts,st} tsː tsːʼ → {s,ts} {ts,tʃ} tsː
tʃ tʃː tʃːʼ → {ʃ,tʃ} {tʃ,dʒ} {tʃː,tʃʼ}(?)
tɬ tɬː tɬʼ tɬːʼ dɮ → xʲ {ɣʲ,ɡ} k kː ɣʲ
11.6 Proto-Northeast Caucasian to Nakhtsːʼ → tsː
{tsː,tʃː,dz,dʒ} → tː / _#
12 Northwest Caucasian12.1.3 Proto-Abazgi to Ahchypsy Abkhazʕ ʕʷ → aː ɥ
12.1.5 Proto-Abazgi to Abzhywa Properʕ ʕʷ → aː ɥ
12.1.6 Proto-Abazgi to Tsabal Abzhywaʕ ʕʷ → aː ɥ
12.2 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Proto-Circassianpʲ(ː) pʲʼ bʲ → t(ː) tʼ d
pˤ(ː) pˤ bˤ → p(ː) pʼ b
r l → tː tħ / #_
tʷ(ː) tʷʼ dʷ → t(ː) tʼ d
ts tsː dz → {s,c} tsː dz~z
tsʲ tsʲː tsʲʼ dzʲ → (s) tsː tsʼ dz~z
ɕ(ː) ʑ → ʃ(ː) ʒ
tʃʷ(ː) tʃʷʼ dʒʷ → tɕ(ː) tɕʼ dʑ~ʑ
ʃʷ(ː) ʒʷ → ʃ(ː) ʒ
tcʷ(ː) tɕʷʼ → tʃ(ː) tʃʼ
ɕʷ ɕʷ ʑʷ → sʲ ʃː zʲ
ɬ(ː) tɬ(ː) tɬʼ dɮ → ɕ(ː) tɕ(ː) tɕʼ tħ
tɬʷ(ː) tɬʷʼ dɮʷ → tʃ(ː) tʃʼ ħ
ɬʷ ɬʷː → x(ʷ) ɕː
tɬʲʷ tɬʲʷ tɬʲʷ dɮʲʷ → x tɕː tɕʼ ɮ
qʷ → qʷː / !_
qʷʼ ɢʷ → qʷː ʁʷ
qʲʷː qʲʷ ɢʲʷ,ʁʲʷ} χʲʷ → qʷː ʔʷ ʁʷ χʷ
{qˤː,qˤʼ} χˤ ʁˤ → qː χ ʁ
{qˤʷː,qˤʷʼ} χˤʷ ʁˤʷ → qʷː χʷ ʁʷ
12.2.1.1 Adyghe to Abadzekh Adyghepː tː tsː tsʷ ʃː tʃː tɕː kʲː kʷː qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → p t ts tʃʷ ʃ ɕ tɕ tʃ kʷ qː qʷ
12.2.1.2 Adyghe to Bzhedug Adyghetsʲ tsʲː → tɕ tɕː
kʲ(ː) kʲʼ ɡʲ → tʃ(ː) tʃʼ dʑ
tsʷː → tsʲʷː
qː~χ qʷː~qχʷ → qː qʷː
12.2.1.4 Adyghe to Temirgoy Adygheq qʷ → qː qʷː / ! #_
qː~qχ qʷː~qχʷ → qː qʷː
12.3 Proto-Northwest Caucasian to Ubykhpʲ(ː) bʲ → t(ː) d
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.1 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Proto-Dravidiank ʃk → k* kː / V_V (the asterisk-marked k is what McAlpin terms “weak k”, which tends to drop out in morphology)
n nː rn → {n̲,r} n̲(ː) ɳ / V_V
nː → n̲(ː)
l lː → {l,ɭ} ɭ(ː) / V_V
14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamitek ŋk ŋkː → ∅ k kː / V_V
mp → p(ː) / V_V
ŕ → rː / V_V
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamilaj → eː “(exception: never finally in monosyllables, never initially in multisyllabic words)”
l ɭ → lːʉ ɭːʉ / _#(C)V[-long]
i(ː) e(ː) → u(ː) o(ː) / {m,v,p}_C̣
j → jːi / E_#
tː nt → cː ɲc / {i,j}_
ʈk → kː
n tː → n̪ t̪ː
cː → tʃː “(most dialects)”
— i(ː) e(ː) → u(ː) o(ː) / _ɭ
— eCə oCə → Ceː Coː / #_
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow IñupiaqC0VC0 → C0ː
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie IñupiaqC0VC0 → Cː
15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’ikC → Cː / _V(…V) except in #U
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’ikC → Cː / _V(…V) except in #U
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’ikC → Cː / _V(…V), after #U
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanianl r → l(ː) r(ː)
17.2 Proto-Indo-European to Common Anatolianeh2 → æː / “tautosyllabic”
ei eu → ɛː uː
{{h1,h3}s,s{h1,h3}} → sː (contested)
17.2.1 Common Anatolian to HittiteV → Vː / in ”U[+open]
e o → eː oː / in ”U[+stress]
o(ː) æː → a(ː) eː
aj aw → ɛː uː / !_{s,n,r,l}
17.2.2 Common Anatolian to LuwianV → Vː / in ”U[+open]
V → Vː / in #”U
o(ː) → a(ː)
D R → Dː Rː / ”e_ in U[+open]
{ɛ,e}ː æː → iː aː
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lycian{ɛ,e}ː o æː → iː e aː
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to Lydiano(ː) eː æː → a(ː) iː aː
17.2.5 Common Anatolian to PalaicV → Vː / ”U[+open]
o(ː) → a(ː)
a e → aː eː / in ”U[+closed]
æː → eː
ɛː → iː
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenian{sr,rs} → rː
r → rː / _N
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenian{sr,rs} → rː
r → rː / _N
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenian{sr,rs} → rː
r → rː / _N
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenian{sr,rs} → rː
r → rː / _N
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenian{sr,rs} → rː
r → rː / _N
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenian{sr,rs} → rː
r → rː / _N
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenian{sr,rs} → rː
r → rː / _N
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestane eː → a aː
o oː → {a,aː} aː
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— eh1 eh2 eh3 → eː aː oː
— SS → sː
— eː → iː
— oː → uː / in U#
— oː ej → aː eː
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irisheː → iː / ! _{i,u}
tː → sː
oː → uː / _(C…)#
oːi → uː / _#
oː → aː / else
— {ai,oi} → iː / _#
— {a,e}n → eː / _{p t k s}
— hn hm → nː mː / [anything]_ (“[t]his change is a bit speculative”)
— st zd → sː dː / [anything]_
— {l,h}l {l,h}r l{p,s,n} r{p,s} ln → lː rː lː rː (lː?) / [anything]_
{au,eu,ou} → oː
ei → eː
V → Vː / _#, when stressed; “[t]his remained as a phonologically conditioned rule in OIr”
VOR → VːR; “this is a tad unclear, because in some instances it didn’t seem to apply”
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshei → eː
st → sː (with some exceptions)
uː {oi,ɔː} → yː uː
aː → ɔː
mb nd ŋɡ → mː nː ŋː
17.6 Proto-Indo-European to Dacianeː → aː
17.7 Proto-Indo-European to Common Germanicaː → oː
eː → æː
ei oi → iː ai
eːi {oːi,aːi} → eː oː (?)
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothic— æː → eː
oːw æːj → ɔː ɛː / _V
ij → iː / _s “after the loss of a vowel in final syllables”
iji → iː / U[- stress](C…)_
iji → iː / U[+ long + closed]_ in the stem
17.7.2 Common Germanic to West GermanicC → Cː / _j ! C = r
oː → uː / _#
17.7.2.1 West Germanic to Anglo-FrisianVN → Ṽː / _F
a → æː / short only, includes diphthongs ! B or *ã in next syllable
æː → aː “under to [sic] the influence of neighboring consonants”, but the article doesn’t elaborate
æː → eː
aː → æː / ! _N or if nasalized
ai au eu → {eː,aː} aː ia
ia iu → jaː juː
17.7.2.1.1 Anglo-Frisian to Old Englishɑ̃ː → õː
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle Englisheɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː
{ɑːw,ɑːɣ,oːw} → ɔːw
oɣ → ɔːw / _V
ɑː y(ː) → ɔː e(ː)
ɑ e o → ɑː ɛː oː / in U[+open] ! in #U with the following U containing /iː/ or ending in one of /m n r l/
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle Englisheɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː
{ɑːw,ɑːɣ,oːw} → ɔːw
oɣ → ɔːw / _V
ɑː y(ː) → ɔː i(ː)
ɑ e o → ɑː ɛː oː / in U[+open] ! in #U with the following U containing /iː/ or ending in one of /m n r l/
17.7.2.1.4 Midlands Middle English to Early Modern Englisha ɑ {ɛ,ɪ,ɤ} → ɑː ɔː ɜː / _ɹ{C,#}
ɑʊ → ɑː / _P
ɑʊ → ɑː / _N (sometimes)
ɑʊ → ɔː / else
a → ɑː / “in a few words, like ‘father’”
17.7.2.1.5 Early Modern English to American Englishæ → æː (e.g., NYC) or ɑː (e.g., Boston) / _{F[-voiced],N[-voiced]} (“words which change vary between dialects”)
ɒ → ɒː → ɔː / _F[-voiced]
eə → eː
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishɜːɹ ɑːɹ ɔːɹ eːɹ oːɹ iːɹ uːɹ → ɜː ɑː ɔː ɛə ɔə ɪə ʊə / syllable-finally
æ → æː → ɑː / _{F[-voiced],N[-voiced]}
ɒ → ɒː → ɔː / _F[-voiced]
uː → ʊə → uː / _ɫ ! in Queensland and New South Wales
uː → ʊʉ → ʉː / else
ɪ → iː / _# when unstressed
ɪ → iː / “unstressed foot-finally if the next syllable is stressed and begins with /k ɡ tʃ dʒ ʃ ʒ/”
ɔə → ɔː
ɛə ʊə → ɛː ɔː (ongoing)
ʊə → oː / ! {j,dʒ}_
ʊə → ʉːwə / “almost always otherwise, but see [above vowel changes after /ɫ/ is formed]”
oə → oː
ɔ → ɔː / “in ‘gone’ and some derivatives”
æ → æː / _{n,m,ɡ,ɫ% ! _n,m,ɡ,ɫ}%{j,w} or a form of a strong verb
æ → æː / _d (rare) ! form of a strong verb
17.7.2.1.7 Early Modern English to British Englishɜːɹ ɑːɹ ɔːɹ eːɹ oːɹ iːɹ uːɹ → ɜː ɑː ɔː ɛə ɔə ɪə ʊə / syllable-finally
æ → æː → ɑː / _{F[-voiced],N[-voiced]}
ɒ → ɒː → ɔː / _F[-voiced]
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle Englisheɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː
{ɑːw,ɑːɣ,oːw} → ɔːw
oɣ → ɔːw / _V
ɑ e o → ɑː ɛː oː / in U[+open] ! in #U with the following U containing /iː/ or ending in one of /m n r l/
y(ː) → i(ː)
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scotsol al → ou ɑː → ʌu {ɑ,ɔ}
— ai oi ui ei au ou iu ɛ(o)u → eː oe əi iː {ɑː,ɔː} ʌu ju j(ʌ)u
— V → Vː / _{r,F[+voiced],$,#}
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsæː → ɛː
øː → eː “(not a thorough change)”
æː(ɑ) eː(o) → ɛ iː
ai → aː
V → Vː / _{r,F[+ voice],V,#}
17.7.2.1.11 Scots to Falkirk ScotsV → Ṽː / _nC “(works across word boundaries)”
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle Englisheɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː
{ɑːw,ɑːɣ,oːw} → ɔːw
oɣ → ɔːw / _V
ɑː → ɔː
ɑ e o → ɑː ɛː oː / in U[+open] ! in #U with the following U containing /iː/ or ending in one of /m n r l/
y(ː) → i(ː)
17.7.2.1.14 Anglo-Frisian to Old Frisianaj aw ew → {eː,aː} aː ja
17.7.2.2 West Germanic to Old Low Franconianai au → eː oː
xs → sː
uː → ʉː (probably, in areas with uː → ʉw / _V)
ei ou → eː oː (except in southeastern dialects; *ei as a result of the umlaut of *ai was not affected)
17.7.2.2.1 Old Low Franconian to Middle Dutchuː → yː
iu → {yː,io} (outcome varies depending upon dialect; the former seems more typical)
{ol,al} {ar,er} or → ɔu aːr oːr / _C[+dental]
V[-long +stress] → Vː / in open syllables (ʏ → {œː,øː} here but this is not phonemically important; there seem to have been qualitative differences between original long vowels and long vowels resulting from this change—lengthened iː seems to have become eː, but lengthened aː merged with original aː); does not affect original long vowels or vowels in diphthongs
17.7.2.2.4 Belgian and Netherlandish Dutch Monophthongizationɛi œy ɔu → ɛː œː ɔː
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germanaː → oː / _{N,C[+ dental],P,h} (sporadic?)
aː → oː / {N,C[+ dental],P,h}_ (sporadic?)
e(ː) i → ø(ː) y / _C[+ affricate]
e(ː) i → ø(ː) y / _{P,l,ʃ} (sporadic?)
e(ː) i → ø(ː) y / {P,l,ʃ}_ (sporadic?)
y(ː) yə ø(ː) øy → i(ː) iə e(ː) ei (intermittent)
uə yə iə → uː yː iː
V → Vː / _%, when stressed (except for /ə/?)
V → Vː / _r{t,d,s,ts} (except /ə/)
V → Vː / in some monosyllables ending in alveolar resonants or vowels
V → Vː / by analogy in some cases
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlautp t k → fː zː xː / V_V
17.7.2.5 West Germanic to Old Low Germanai au → eː oː
vː ɣː hː → bː ɡː xː (perhaps not strictly a sound change, but worth noting)
17.7.3 Common Germanic to Proto-NorseEβu Eβo → juː joː
{æ,e}ː(w(a)) → aː
Vn → Vː / _hV
(w)u(ː) i(ː) → (w)o(ː) e(ː) / _(C)(C)a ! CC = NC or one C = {ʀ,j}
iu → yː
w{o,u}ːwuː j{e,i}ːjiː → uː iː
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norsei → eː / _ʀ#
EːBː Eːaː → joː jaː / {v,w}_
BːB aː{o,a,æ,e} {æ,e}ː{æ,e}ː {æ,e}ːi iːEː → oː aː eː eː iː
u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ y yː / _(C)(C)(C)j
ʀn → nː
waː naː → oː noː / %u in #U
a(ː) ae → o(ː) ɒø / #(C)(C)(C)_(C)(C)(C)u
{(j)u,we}ː {o,ɒ}ː aː au → yː øː æː æy
u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / _(C)(C)(C)i
V → Vː / _l{P,w,k,#}
{a,æ,e}ːhiː → æː
ɒːh{u,a} aːh{u,a} → ɒː aː
{u,we,wi} {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / _(C)(C)(C)i
wa we wi → ɒː øː yː / #P_
u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / _(C)(C)(C)j
u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / #(C)(C)_ʀ
rː{r,ʀ} sʀ → rː sː
l(ː)ʀ n(ː)ʀ → lː nː / ”Vː_ (or all V_ ?)
ai wi (w)V → eː weː (w)Vː / _h#
ɒ → oː / n_h
{æ,e}i ai au w{ɪ,i} wy wV iu Vː → eː aː oː weː woː wVː eː oː V
ey → {jo,æ}ː / _ʀ
i → eː / _#
ðl(ː) ðn(ː) → lː nː
V{θ,ð} → Vː / #(C)(C)(C)_{l,r}
ai → aː / _r
ai → aː / _h{C,V}
lθ nθ → lː nː
Ṽ → Vː / in #U (maybe only ı̃?)
(Vː)θt → (V)tː
Eː{u,o}ː Eːaː → joː jaː / {v,w}_
θː ðː → tː dː
ht → tː
NS[- voice] → S[- voice]ː
{t(ː),ɡː}k → kː
ts → sː / V_V
uN yN iN VN → o øː eː Vː / _{s,f}
lθ nθ → lː nː
ɣ → ɡː / _j
ɪʊ → yː
ø øː → e æː
e(ː){B,i(ː)} → e(ː)u / {v,w}_
eː{Bː,i(ː)} → joː / _C[+ alveolar]#
eː{Bː,i(ː)} → juː
N(ː) k k(ː) N(ː)ɡ ɡ(ː) ɣ → ɲc(ː) c(ː) ɲɟ(ː) ɟ(ː) ʝ / _{i,j}
N(ː) k k(ː) N(ː)ɡ ɡ(ː) ɣ → ɲc(ː) c(ː) ɲɟ(ː) ɟ(ː) ɟ / _{i,j}
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandicɒ ɒː → ø aː
u o a ø y e i → uː oː aː øi yː ei iː / _{ɲc,ɲɟ,ŋk,ŋɡ}
u o a øː eː y i → ʏɪ oi ai øi ei yː iː / _j
S[- voice]ː S[+ voice]ː → ʰS S[- voice]ː
V → Vː / _(C)#, in monosyllables
V → Vː / ! _CCV, in polysyllables
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornp(ː) t(ː) k(ː) → b(ː) d(ː) ɡ(ː) / {V,R}_{V,R}
fd → dː
uː → øː / _CC
oː → øː / _(C)(C)#
oː → u(ː)
a aː → ɛ øː / _r
æ → eː / _{ð,r}
æ → ɛː
œ → ɛː / _CC
œ → iː / _N
œ → eː
e iː → ɛ i(ː)
ey → eː / _F
ei → eː / _C(ː,V)# (V can be a syllabic consonant)
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornnd ld (→ nː lː ?) → ɲ ʎ
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian GreekVns → Vːs
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekɑː → æː
Vns → Vːs
tʃ → tː / medial
u(ː)(j) → y(ː)(j)
æː → ɛː (includes diphthongs)
ej ow → eː oː
eː → iː / _C
eː → iː / _V
ɛː → eː
ɑj → ɛː
oj → øj → yj (→ yː sometimes)
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian GreekVns → Vːs
{eː,ej} ɛː ɑ(ː)j {oj,ɔːj} → iː eː ɛː {y,ø}
oː → uː
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan GreekVns → Vːs
æː → ɛː
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan GreekVns → Vːs
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric GreekVns → V(ː)s (Tucker says that “[i]n a few Doric dialects the lengthening did not occur”)
tʃ → tː / medial
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian GreekVns → Vːs
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekɑː → æː
Vns → Vːs
tʃ → sː / medial
VCw → VːC
æː → ɛː
ej ow → eː oː happened “in the various Ionic dialects at various dates”
u(ː)(j) → y(ː)(j)
oː → uː (?)
eː → iː / _V
ɛː → eː
ɑj → ɛː
oj → øj → yj (→ yː sometimes)
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian GreekVns → Vːs
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittitee(ː) → a(ː) / _h2
e(ː) → a(ː) / h2_
e(ː) → o(ː) / _h3
e(ː) → o(ː) / h3_
o(ː) → a(ː)
— e(ː) → a(ː) / _R “sometimes??”
— e(ː) → a(ː) / “when unstressed?”
17.10 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iraniantʃʃ → ʃː
o → aː / _CV, “does not affect o2 < eh3
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-AryanVH → Vː / _{C,#}
R̊H → {u,i}ːR / _C
uʐ aʐ iʐ → uː əː iː
əː → oː / w_
əː → eː
tst dzdʱ → tː dʱː
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-AryanVN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#
dʒɲ → ɳː / V_V
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-AryanVN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#
dʒɲ → ɲː / V_V
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-AryanVN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#
kʂ → tʃː
dʒɲ → ɳː / V_V
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-AryanVN VC[-nas] → V[+nas] Vː / _#
kʂ → tʃː
dʒɲ → ɳː / V_V
17.10.1.5 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Vedic Sanskritsɕ ɕʂ → ɕː ʂː
t.ʂ t.ɕ → kʂ cʰː
17.10.1.5.1 Vedic Sanskrit to Classical Sanskritau aːu ai aːi → au oː ai eː / ! _V
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavic{ai,oi} → æː
{aːi,oːi} → {æː,a} (the former seems to be more common)
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishъ → aː / _r
ъl → ɔ(ː)ɫ / P_
ьl → ɔ(ː)ɫ
ь → aː / r_C[+dental -palatalized]
ьr → i(ː)ʐ → {ɛ(ː)r,ɛ(ː)ʐ} → {ɛr,ɛʐ}
a ɛ i ɔ u ɨ ã → aː ɛː iː ɔː uː ɨː ãː / _{C/U}[+voiced][lost yer] (i.e., a voiced consonant or a cluster with one)
ajɛ → ɛː in adjectives, aː in verbs
{aja,ɔja} {ɔjɛ,ɨjɛ} ɨjɛ → aː ɛː iː
{ɛ(ː)jɛ,ьjɛ,ɔjɛ,ujɛ,ɨjɛ} → ɛː
{ɔjɔ̃,ɔ̃jɔ̃,ьjɔ̃} → ɔ̃ː
{aja,ɛja,ьja,ɔja} → aː
ɔ → ɔː / _{r,l} (sporadic, perhaps analogical)
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latinoː → uː / _r
aj → ai → eː (in rustic dialects)
oj → oi → oe → uː
aw → oː (in rustic dialects)
{ew,ow} → ou → uː
ai → ei → iː / %(C)(C)_ when unstressed
ei oi ou → iː eː uː / %(C)(C)_ when unstressed
{ai,ei,oi} → ei → iː / _(C)(C)#
V → Vː / _zC[+voiced]
V → Vː / _S[+voiced]{S[-voiced],F[-voiced]}; “(i, e, and o sometimes bypass this)”
V → Vː / _z{l,r}
V → Vː / _{t,d}t
{t,d}t → tst → sː
V → {Vː,V[+nas]} / _n{f,s}
17.12.1.1.1 Classical Latin vs. Vulgar Latinj → ʝː / V_V
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to CatalanVV → Vː (“For outcomes of word-final vowels, see down below”)
mn → nː → ɲ
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— V0V0 → V0ː
sːj zj rj → jsː jz jr
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to ItaliankVl → kːj / unstressed
kt → tː
C → Cː / V_jV
tj ks w → ts sː ɡw
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguesers → sː
V0V0 → V0ː
e → iː / ”_%ɪː#
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old ProvençalVN → Vː / _S (except for the prefixes con-, in-); I’m assuming this change happened in Vulgar Latin and then vowel length went to quality
rs → sː
mn → mpn → nː (dialectal)
{t,d}l {k,ɡ}l → lː ʎ
βw tw → wː dw → ɡʷ ɡʷ → ɡ ɡ
ndt ndtʃ ntʃ nkt nf → n{d,t} {nts,ndz(→ nz),ndʒ} n(t)s {ɲ,(i)nt,ntʃ} {nf,fː(→ f)}
td → tː → t
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to RomanianV0V0 → V0ː
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardiniannd {lː,ld} → ɳɖ ɖː / V_V
kw ɡw → pː bː / #_ (“[o]nly Logudorese”)
{p,k}s → sː
l{i,j} → lː → {ts,dz,ldz,dʒ,lː} (“varies”)
sk → sː
ɡn → nː
r → urː / #_e / Logudorese
r → arː / #_(j)B / Logudorese
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanish{tj,kj} {tːj,kːj,ptj,ktj,skj} → ts tːs
pt {ɾs,ps} → tː sː
mb mn → mː nː
{jl,lj} {jn,nj} {jɡ,ɡj} → ʎ ɲ ʝː
bj → ʝː (sporadic)
kθ → θː
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tocharian{eh2,aH} aː → aː ɔ
{eh3,oH} → oː
uh1 u{h2,h3} → uː → wə wɨ
(h1)e (h1)eː → jə jɛː / #_
eH → eː
17.13.1 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian ACʲj → Cʲː
17.13.2 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian BC[+ coronal]w → Cː
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to CocamaV0ʔV0 → V0ː
18.4.9.1.3 Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoró to Cinta LargaVh → Vː
V → Vː / _#
28 Muskogean28 MuskogeanV → V̂ː / _Cko, ko lost?
28.1.2 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to CreekV1kV2 → V2ː / #((C)V(C))(C)_#
V0xV0 → V0ː
kl → kː
28.1.4 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Korasatint → tː
28.1.6 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Seminoletl → tː
28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western Muskogeanoj aj → iː {aː,iː}
tl st → lː tː
28.2.1 Proto-Western Muskogean to Chickasawxʷɬ → ɬː
28.2.2 Proto-Western Muskogean to Choctawɬh → ɬː
31 Nyulnyulan31.1 Proto-Nyulnyulan to Bardiaji → iː / when unstressed
ubu aba → uː aː / when stressed
V → Vː / when stressed ?
33 Penutian33.2.1 Proto-Wintuan to NomlakiVrV → {Vː,M}
33.3.1 Proto-Yokuts to General Yokutsiː ɨː uː → eː əː oː (this change sometimes did not occur)
33.3.1.3 Buena Vista Yokuts to Tulamniɨ(ː) ə(ː) → i(ː) e(ː)
Vʔ → Vː / stressed
33.3.2.2 Proto-Nim-Yokuts to Northern Yokutsɨ(ː) ə(ː) → i(ː) e(ː)
33.3.3 Proto-Yokuts to Palewyamiɨ(ː) → i(ː)
34 Quechumaran34.4 Proto-Quechumaran to Huarásaw aj {uj,ij} → uː eː iː
35 Salishan35.1.1 Proto-Central Salish to ComoxV3ʔ → V3(ː)ʔ / _#
35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack HalkomelemV3h → V3ː / _C
V3ʔ → V3(ː) / _#
V3ʔ → V3ː / _O
V3ʔR → V3ːR
lʔn → lː / V3_V
35.1.3 Proto-Central Salish to Cowichan HalkomelemV3h → V3ː / _C
V03ʔ(V0) → {V03ː,V03ʔV0}
V3ʔR → {V3ʔR,V3ːRʔ} / _V
35.1.4 Proto-Central Salish to Musqueam HalkomelemV3h → V3ː / _C
V3ʔ → V3{ː,ʔ} / _O
V03ʔV0 → {V3ː,V03ʔV0}
V3ʔR → {V3ʔR,V3ːRʔ} / _V
35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to LushootseedV3h → V3{ː,ʔ} / _C
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern StraitsV3h → V3(ː) / _C
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern StraitsV3h → V3ː / _C
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokee{wV,jV} → Vː[+low falling tone]
Vʔ → Vː[+low falling tone] / _C
{Vh,Vʔ} → Vː / _#
a(ː)wẽ(ː) → a(ː)ma(ː)
V[+nas] → aː[+high rising tone]
∅ → Vː[+high rising tone] / C_# (“usually one of [/aː iː ʌ̃ː/ with this tone], the conditions are unclear”)
iji → iː
ẽ(ː) õ(ː) → o(ː) ʌ̃(ː)
37.1.2 Proto-Iroquoian to Proto-Northern Iroquoiano(ː) u(ː) → a(ː) o(ː)
iji(ː) → hi(ː) / {k,s}_ “(possibly after all non-glottal obstruents)”
∅ → i(ː) / #_(C)(C)CVC(C)(C)#
”V → ”Vː / “in open penultimate syllables followed by a non-glottal consonant”
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to CayugaV → Vː / _C[-glottal] “in even-numbered syllables when accented or immediately before the accent”
”V0V0 → V0ː[-accent]
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to WyandotVh → Vː / _R
ẽ(ː) õ(ː) o(ː) → ɛ̃(ː) ɔ̃(ː) u(ː)
ɛ̃(ː) → ã(ː) / w_
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagaara → aː / “unaccented syllables only”
Vw → Vː / _{r,j}
”V → ”Vː / _C(R)V
V → Vː / _”C[-glottal](R)V{ː,H} in “even numbered syllables only”
V → Vː / _KRV “in the second syllable of a word”
a(ː) o(ː) õ(ː) → æ(ː) e(ː) ẽ(ː) / r_
Vr → Vː / _C
rV → Vː / C_
õ(ː) → ũ(ː)
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneidaẽ(ː) õ(ː) → ʌ̃(ː) ũ(ː)
”V → ”Vː[+falling tone] / _{ʔ,hR}
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneida”Vː[-falling tone]CV → Vː”CV
”V → ”Vː / _ʔ
— Vː[+falling tone]C(C)V(H) → V̊ː[+falling tone]C̊(C̊)V̊(H̊) / _#
— CVː[+falling tone] → C̊V̊ː[+falling tone] / _#
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to SenecaV → Vː / _{t,k(ʷ),s,n,r,j,w} “in even penultimate syllables”
a(ː) → æ(ː) / r_
Vh → Vː / _{n,w,j}
o → oː / _{aː,æː}
a(ː) → ẽ(ː) / adjacent to a nasal vowel
ẽ(ː) → e(ː) / _{e(ː),o(ː)
a(ː) æ(ː) → õ(ː) ẽ(ː) / n_
a(ː) → õ(ː) / V[+nas]H_
a(ː) → õ(ː) / V[+nas]({ʔ,s})w_
ẽ(ː) õ(ː) → ɛ̃(ː) ɔ̃(ː)
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscarora”V → ”Vː / _n in “penultimate syllables only”
”V → ”Vː / _{k(ʷ),(ˀ)t}{s,R,H} (“penultimate syllables only”)
”V → ”Vː / _RR
{ẽ(ː),õ(ː)} → ə̃(ː)
e(ː) → ɛ(ː)
ə̃(ː) → ɨ̃(ː) / ! “when both short and stressed”
a(ː) o(ː) → ɔ(ː) u(ː) / ! “when both short and unstressed”
37.1.2.6.2 Tuscarora to Eastern Tuscaroraə̃(ː) a(ː) o(ː) → ɨ̃(ː) ɔ(ː) u(ː) (“in all positions”)
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.1 Proto-Tai to AhomV → Vː / _%
38.1.1.2 Proto-Tai to SaekV → Vː / _%
38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central TaiV → Vː / _%
ɨ̯a → aː
ɛi ei → ai iː
38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchowuo ɨ̯u → u(ː) u / _C%
ɨ̯u → uː
o {u̯ɔ,ɨɔ,ɔ} → u oː
{(i)ɛ,i̯ɛ} → eː
uɔ ɨ̯ɔ → oː ɨ
{ɨo̯,ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → ɨː iː
{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} → uː
ai → aːi
V → Vː / _V
u̯əi uəi uai i̯əu iau → oːi uːi uːiau oːu
a → aː / _u,i
ɨ̯ai → aːi
ɔ ɨ → oː ɨː / _i
u̯əi → oːi
eu → uː
ɛ i → eː iː / _u
{uəi,uai} iau → uːi eːu
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North TaiV → Vː / _%
uo → ɔː
uɨ̯ ua̯ → ɨə uɔ̯ → ɨː ɔː
38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-Aiɔː → oː
ɨə̯~ɨa̯ → ɨː / _%
ɛ iɛ → eː ı̆
ɨa̯~ɨə̯ → iː / j_
ɨa̯~ɨə̯ → ɨː
ua~uə → uː
ɔ → oː
ua~u@̯ → uː
ɨ̯a~ɨə → ɨː
ue̯ → uː
ɨo̯ ɨa̯ ie̯ ɨe̯ → uː aː eː iː
ɨ a → ɨː aː / _i
ɨ̯ai → ɨːi
u̯əi ɔi → (w)iː oːi
{ɛi,ei} → ɨː
{ou,oɨ} → oː
ɛ e i → eː a iː / _u
i̯əu → uː
uəi uai iau → iː oːi eːu
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest TaiV → Vː / _%
ɨə → ɨː
ɨ̯a → aː
ɛi ei → ai iː
o → ɔː / _i
38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siameseu{o,ə} ɨu → uː ɨː
{u̯o,u̯ɨ} u̯ɔ → o ɔː
u̯a → aː
ɨ̯u i̯o → uː u
{(i)ɛ,i̯ɛ} → ɛː
{ɨɔ,ɨ̯ɔ} → ɔː
a → aː / _i
ɨ̯ai → aːi
{u̯əi,ɔi} → ɔːi
{o,ə} ɛ → a ɛː / _u
eu → uː
ɨ̯əu au → au aːu
41 Trans-New Guinea41.5.2.4 Proto-Kainantu to UsarufaN1N2 → N2ː ?
42 Uralic42.1 Proto-Uralic to Pre-Finniciw ow → y uː / _(C) (*)
ɤ(ː?) ɑː æː → ɑ(ː?) oː eː / stressed
42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-FinnicV → Vː / _#
ixi uxu → øː oː
UŋA eŋi → Oː øː
uwa → oː (*)
Uwi ewi → oː øː
yje → øː → jø (?)
ðʲ sʲ tsʲ(ː) lʲ → ð s ts(ː) l
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnish{kt,pt} {kts,pts} → tː tːs
xk → kː (even across word boundaries)
(t(ː))sn kx(tx) rn ln → sː xː rː lː
{p,t,k}({p,t,k})n {p,t,k}({p,t,k})m → nː mː
ts tsˑ tsː → s θˑ θː
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnishmb nd ŋɡ → mː nː ŋː
V → Vː / h_hC
V → Vː / _hC (sporadic)
lð rð → lː rː
AO → {A,O,U}ː / unstressed
Ue → eː / unstressed
VU → Vː / _#
iU OU → Uː Oː
42.1.1.1.2 Standard Finnish to Modern Standard FinnishVa → Vː / unstressed
ie yɤ uo → iː yː uː / _A
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to LivonianVn → Vː / _s
Vh → Vːɦ / _C, except maybe ! _j and/or _ʋ
C → Cː / ʔ_V
dj lj rj ɡj → dʲ lːʲ rːʲ jɡ
lʋ rʋ jʋ → lː rː jː
VCːɑ → VːCɑ
ɑː au → ɔː ɔu (though sometimes ɑː develops, apparently at least partially due to metathesis?)
eː øː oː ɤ(ː) → iːe yːø uːo ɨ(ː)
V → Vː / _RC(C)ɑ (includes diphthongs)
a → aː / VC_
e o → eː oː / _Cɑ
o → oː / _{RC#,i}
ɔ(ː) → o(ː)
43 Uto-Aztecan43.5.1.1 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to KawaiisuuV Vː → uː Vː (not sure if this occurs before or after the previous change)
44 Vasconic44.1 Proto-Vasconic to Aquitanianś → {s(ː),ʃ} / _#
S[+ fortis] → S[- voice]ː (specifically, the source lists t[+ fortis] k[+ fortis] → t(ː) k(ː), both of the tokens with optional length suffixes and *aTa → 〈atta〉, so I’m extrapolating)
n[+ fortis] → n(ː) / V_V
44.2 Proto-Basque to Basquenb → mː → m
46 Vowel Shifts46.3 Belgian and Netherlandish Dutch Monophthongizationɛi œy ɔu → ɛː œː ɔː
46.5 Old English-to-Scots Vowel Shiftsai oi ui ei au ou iu ɛ(o)u → eː oe əi iː {ɑː,ɔː} ʌu ju j(ʌ)u
— V → Vː / _{r,F[+voiced],$,#}
46.7 Great Vowel Shift (English)eː oː → iː uː
ɛː → eː → iː
aː ɔː → ɛː oː → eː ow → ej (əw)
46.8 Greek Vowel Shiftu(ː) → y(ː)
oː → uː
eː ɛː → iː eː
ai ɔi → ɛ yː
eː → iː
y(ː) ɔː → i(ː) ɔ
46.10 Late Proto-Finnic to Savonian Vowel Shiftei oi øi → eː oe øe
ɑu ou → ɑː oː
æy øy → æː øː
46.11 Middle Chinese to Cantonese Vowel Shift (“The Inner-Outer Flip”)V → Vː / _#
a → {aː,ə} “(the environments for these respective changes are somewhat unclear)”
a → aː / _{i,u}
46.13 Old Norse to Faroese Vowel Shifte → eː / ɛ
{i,y} → iː / ɪ
o → oː / ɔ
u → uː / short: ʊ / unstressed: {o,ɔ}
{œ,ɔ} → øː/œ “(except Suðuroy → ʏ)”
46.19 Southern [United States] Shift (English)aɪ → aː / _#
aɪ → aː / _C[+ voiced]
aɪ → ɑeː / else (only for some speakers)
aɪ → aː / else (only for some speakers)
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.2 List 2: Conditional or complex consonant changesb d ɡ → bː dː ɡː / V_V (some dialects of Italian; there may be more to it than this, since words like “repubblica” are in standard Italian and not just dialects)

with context involving /ː/

121 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabica → e / _(C)(C)i(ː)
6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Egyptian ArabicVː → V / C_C{ː,C}V
6.2.2.1.12 Classical Arabic to Eastern Libyan Arabic∅ → ə / C_CV(ː,V)CC
6.2.2.1.13 Classical Arabic to Western Libyan Arabic∅ → ə / CCV(ː,V)C_C
6.2.2.1.18 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrew— {o,u}(ː) → iː / _$%oː
— u → ∅ / ! _Cː
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakiw → ∅ / _# ! k(ː)_
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenakiw → ∅ / _# ! k(ː)_
7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-AtsinaW → ∅ / C_i(ː)
7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapahoi(ː) → u(ː) / o(ː)(C[-dental])(C[-dental])_
ʃ m → x b / o(ː)_e(ː)
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventrei → u / o(ː)_
ʃ θ m → θ t w / _o(ː)
ʃ θ m k → θ t b tʃ / _e(ː)
ʃ {θ,t} m k → s ts tʲ bʲ / _{i(ː),j,#}
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfootx → sː / e(ː)_s
∅ → s / {i(ː),#e}_t
t → ts / _{i,e(ː),a}
∅ → s / k_i(ː)
∅ → j / {oːw,iːj}_i#
hi → ∅ / aː_
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawarex → χʷ / o(ː)_{V,#}
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menomineee → i / Vː%_ ! _H
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaqk → χ / _(w)a(ː) ! #_
k → χ / a(ː)_
7.15 Proto-Algonquian to Ojibwe{w,j}V[-long] → ∅ / Vː_# (Whimemsz is unsure if this change is across-the-board or not)
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawneej → ∅ / C_i(ː)
j → ∅ / {tʃ,ʃ}_eː
j → ∅ / {tʃ,ʃ,w}_aː
∅ → i / #C_jVː “(for some speakers)”
17 Indo-European17.2.2 Common Anatolian to Luwian{ḱ,k} → j / _e(ː)
{ḱ,k} → ∅ / _i(ː)
hh h → h ∅ / ”Vː_u
hh h → h ∅ / u_”Vː
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lycian{ɡ́,ɡ} → j / _e(ː)
{ɡ́,ɡ} → ∅ / _i(ː)
17.2.5 Common Anatolian to Palaich → ∅ / ”Vː_u
h → ∅ / u_”Vː
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishɡʷ → b / #_V ! _u(ː)
— i u → e o / _C(…C){a(ː),e(ː),o(ː)}
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welsh{a,o} → e / _(C…)i(ː)
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothicw → ∅ / oː_j
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
17.7.2.1.4 Midlands Middle English to Early Modern Englishtj sj dj zj → tʃ ʃ dʒ ʒ / ! _uː (perhaps only before stressed uː?)
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle EnglishVː → V[-long] / _C{ː,C} ! _st{#,V} or when preceding a cluster which had triggered a vowel to become long in Old English; the book gives “Christ” vs. “Christmas” as an example
17.7.2.1.13 Middle English to Yola∅ → ɛ / uː_d
17.7.2.1.15 North Frisian Lenitionp t k → b d ɡ → v r ɣ / Vː_{V,#}
17.7.2.2 West Germanic to Old Low Franconianai u → ei ʏ / _(C…){i(ː),j} (short only; in the case of [ʏ] at least this was not yet phonemic)
a → ɛ / _(C…){i(ː),j} (conjectured based on date from the “Germanic umlaut” article)
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germanw → ∅ / {ou,øy,yː}_
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlauta u o → e y ø / _(C…){i(ː),j}
17.7.3 Common Germanic to Proto-Norsen → ∅ / V{ː,V}_hV
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norsew → ∅ / #P_Vː
l(ː)ʀ n(ː)ʀ → lː nː / ”Vː_ (or all V_ ?)
{l(ː),n}{r,ʀ} → ∅ / V{ː,V}_
s → ts / {l,n}ː_
Sː → S[- long] / _{r}ː
∅ → j / {y,e}(ː)_a
j → ∅ / _eː
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandic{l(ː),rl} C → ɬ C[- voice] / S_ ! Sː_
v → ∅ / {u,o,a}ː_
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornf → ∅ / Vː_V
u a e eː → ʌ ɑ ɪ ɛ / _Cː
u → ø / _l(ː)
u → ʌ / _C{ː,CC}
ɒ → ɔ / _C(ː)C
ɒ → ʌ / _r(ː)
ɒ → {ɛ,e} / _CːV (V can be a syllabic consonant)
ei → eː / _C(ː,V)# (V can be a syllabic consonant)
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornɒ → ɛ / _Cː
y → ə / _r(ː)
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekj → ∅ / Vː_
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekj → ∅ / Vː_
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavick ɡ x → tʃ ʒ ʃ / _{e(ː)(i),i(ː)}
k ɡ x → ts dz s / _{æː,i}
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latind → ∅ / Vː_#
dʱ → b / uː_
mː → n / {W,Vː}_
∅ → t / sː_r
sː → s / {W,Vː}_
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalan∅ → {e,o} / rː_#
ɛ → e / ! _{rː,l,rC[-labial],nr} or _ ? w#
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— u → ó / !_iː
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguesee → iː / ”_%ɪː#
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençalsː → s / Vː_
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-TocharianKʷ → ɕ / _e(ː)
{t,dʱ} → tʲ / _E(ː)
24 Macro-Pama-Nyungan24.1.2 Proto-Paman to Awŋtim∅ → j / #(C)iː(C)_V ! _i
∅ → w / #(C)uː(C)_V ! _u
∅ → a / #(C)aː(C)_V ! _a
24.1.7 Proto-Paman to Yinwum∅ → j / #iː(C)_a
∅ → w / #uː(C)_a
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinokʷ → w / _eːj
33 Penutian33.1.1.2.1 Proto-Miwok to Proto-Western Miwokʈ → tʃ / {aː,oː}_
33.1.1.4 Proto-Costanoan to Rumsenʈ → {ʈ,tʃ} / {aː,oː}_
33.3.1.2 Buena Vista Yokuts to Hometwoli∅ → h / V(ː)_, when stressed (only sometimes, “particularly before consonants”)
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayugar → w / {o(ː),õ(ː)}_{a(ː),e(ː),ẽ(ː),i(ː)}
r → j / {e(ː),ẽ(ː),i(ː)}_{a(ː),o(ː),õ(ː)}
e(ː) → ẽ / _ẽ(ː)
o(ː) → õ / _õ(ː)
h → ∅ / Vː_#
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandot∅ → w / {o(ː),õ(ː)}_V
∅ → j / {e(ː),ẽ(ː),i(ː)}_V
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to OnondagaV → Vː / _”C[-glottal](R)V{ː,H} in “even numbered syllables only”
r → j / {e(ː),ẽ(ː),i(ː)}_V
r → w / {o(ː),õ(ː)}_V
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneidaʔ → ∅ / ”Vː_
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecaa → æ / _ra(ː)
a → e / _ro(ː)
ã → ẽ / _rõː
r → j / C[-glottal](h)_{o(ː),õ(ː)
r → j / i(ː)_V
r → w / {o(ː),õ(ː)}_V
o → oː / _{aː,æː}
ẽ(ː) → e(ː) / _{e(ː),o(ː)
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscarorah → ∅ / Vː_#
∅ → j / k_e(ː)
42 Uralic42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnicn → ∅ / _tː
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnish∅ → ʋ / #_{yː,øː,oː}