Index Diachronica: involving /a/

728 results from /a/   510 results to /a/   259 results with context involving /a/   

plain ãː

from /a/

728 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Omotica(ː) → e(ː) / _{ʕ,q}$
a → o / #Cw_{(d)l,s3}
6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North Omotica → o / #{z,dʒ}_P
6.2.2.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-Chadicaː → a
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabica → i / _C(C), when stressed
{u,a,i} → ∅ / _%, when stressed (short only)
a → a / _C[+ dorsal]
a → e / _(C)(C)i(ː)
aː → a / ! _#
a → {u,o} / P_
a → {u,o} / _P
a → ∅ / _t, in the feminine ending
aːʔ → e / E(C)(C)_#
aː → a / {Cˤ,w}_#
6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Egyptian Arabicaj aw → eː oː / in U[+closed]
a(ː) → ɑ(ː) / near emphatics
a(ː) → ɑ(ː) / if ɑ(ː) is elsewhere in the word
a(ː) → æ(ː) / else (sometimes it seems more like ɛ(ː) to me)
6.2.2.1.8 Classical Arabic to Coastal Hadhrami Arabicaː → eː / in Form VI (tafā‘ala) verbs, though these apparently coexist with forms having the original vowel as well, with semantic distinctions
aː → æː / when not near emphatics
6.2.2.1.9 Classical Arabic to Wādı̄ Hadhrami Arabicaː → eː / in Form VI (tafā‘ala) verbs, though these apparently coexist with forms having the original vowel as well, with semantic distinctions
aː → æː / when not near emphatics
6.2.2.1.10 Classical Arabic to Hassāniyya Arabicaj aw → eː(ʲ) oː(ʷ) (sometimes, the article is unclear)
6.2.2.1.11 Classical Arabic to Iraqi Arabicaj aw → eː oː
6.2.2.1.12 Classical Arabic to Eastern Libyan Arabicaj aw → e(ː,j) o(ː,w)
6.2.2.1.13 Classical Arabic to Western Libyan Arabicaj aw → eː oː
6.2.2.1.14 Classical Arabic to Moroccan Arabic{a,i} → ə / short only; the change of short a blocked for some speakers before ħ ʕ
aː iː uː → ɑː eː oː / near emphatics
aː → æː / else
6.2.2.1.17 Classical Arabic to Tunisian Arabica → ɑ / near emphatics
a → ɛ (sometimes)
aj aw → {aj,eː,iː aw,oː,uː}
6.2.2.1.18 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrew— aː → oː / ! _#
— a → aː / _$
— a → {a,ɛ} (not common)
— aw → aːw
— aj → eː / _$
— aj → ɛː / _#
— a → ∅ / _#
— a → _$%%(…)”
— a → ə / _R if ə in an adjacent syllable
— a → ə / R_ if ə in an adjacent syllable
— a i → aː eː / _%”
— aj aw → eː oː
at → aː / _# (in feminine noun endings)
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakiaː → a / _OO
a → e / #C_OO
a → ∅ / #_OO
oː aː eː iː → o ɔ̃ a i
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenakiaː → a / _OO
aː → ɔ̃
a → ∅ / #_OO
7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-Atsinaa(ː) → o(ː)
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfoot{a,e,i} → o / _kʷ
{jiː,ja,ahi} {owaː,awa,awe} awi {iːwa,eːwa,aji,aje,ani} → i oː o(ji) iː / C_C
a → o / _w
aː → aa / W_ ! when _{C{C,ː},#}
aː → a / else
a → i / ! at word boundaries
7.5 Proto-Algonquian to Cheyenneo a → e o
7.6 Proto-Algonquian to Northern East Creeja → aː / C_
a → i / in some unaccented syllables (short only)
7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East Creeja → aː / C_
7.8 Proto-Algonquian to Plains Creeja → aː / C_
7.9 Proto-Algonquian to Swampy Creeja → aː / C_
7.10 Proto-Algonquian to Woods Creeja → aː / C_
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delaware{a,ə} → ∅ / _{x,h} “in the odd-numbered of any sequence of one or more short-vowel open syllables”; such vowels are considered “weak”
a[+weak] ə[+weak] → ə ∅ / a_Z[+voiced]
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menomineea → o / $am_w
wa ja → uə̯ iə̯ / C_
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaqo(ː) waː eː iː → u o e i
aː → a
(aw)aha → aː
{awa,iwa,iwi} → uː
{o,a}wi → oː
{aja,iha,iji,ihi,ija} → iː
7.15 Proto-Algonquian to Ojibweja → iː / C_C
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawneewa → o / #_
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonica → ə / _Ce
a → i / _Ci
a → u / _Cu
{a,e,o,æ} i u y ø → ə i ua {u,ə} {ə,u} / _Ce
{a,æ,e,ø,i,y} o → i u / _Ci
8.1.1 Early Middle Japanese to Modern Japaneseau iu uu eu ou → ɔː juː uː joː oː
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolica → {a,i} / _Ce
a → {a,e} / _Ci
a → {a,i,e} / _Co
a → {a,o,u} / _Cu
a e i o u æ ø y → {a,i} {e,ja} {e,i} {ø,y,o} {o,u,y} {i,a,e} {e,ø} {ø,y,o,u} / _Ce
a e u æ ø y → {a,e} {e,i} {y,ø} {i,e} {i,e,ø} {ø,y,o,u} / _Ci
a e o i æ ø y → {a,i,e} {a,e} u {o,u} e {ø,y,o,u} {o,u} / _Co
a e {o,u} æ ø y → {a,o,u} {e,a} {o,u} {a,o,u} {e,i,u} {i,o,u,y,ø} / _Cu
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkica ø → {a,ʌ} a / P_Ca
a e i u æ ø y → a {a,ʌ,e} {ɯ,i} {u,o} {ia,ja,ɛ} {ia,ja} ɯ / _Ca
a {e,i} o u æ ø y → {ɛ,a} ɛ {ø,o} {y,u} {ia,ja,ɛ} {ia,ja} {y,ø} / _Ci
a e i æ ø y → {o,ja,aj} {ʌ,ɜ} ɯ {ia,ja} {o,u} {u,o} / _Co
8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchaka → æ / ! _B
8.5.1.2 Proto-Kypchak to Kyrgyz{u,ɯ}w {i,y}w aw {æ,e}w → uː yː oː øː
8.5.2 Proto-Turkic to Sakhaa{ɡ̌(ɯ),b} {o{ɡ̌,b},aɡ̌u} u{ɡ̌,b} → ɰa wo uː
9 Austroasiatic9.1.2 Proto-Vietic to Middle Vietnamesea ɔ → ɨə uə
9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnamesea → aː / _{w,j}
10 Austronesian10.1.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan— aj aw → ej ow / _#
— aj aw → e ow / _#
10.1.1.1 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Balinesea → ə
10.1.1.2 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sasaka →ə / _# (Meno-mene and Mriak-mriku only)
10.1.2.5 Proto-Philippine to Ifugaoay → e / _#
10.1.2.7.1 Proto-Kalamian to Agutaynenaɪ ai → ɪɪ ii (not sure if there’s a long vowel or hiatus here)
10.1.2.7.2 Proto-Kalamian to Karamiananenaɪ ai → ɪɪ ii (not sure if there’s a long vowel or hiatus here)
10.1.2.7.3 Proto-Kalamian to Kalamian Tagbanwaaɪ ai → ɪɪ ii (not sure if there’s a long vowel or hiatus here)
10.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Batak{a,e} → o / _w#
a → e / _j#
10.2.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Chamicwa → u / #_
a → aː / _C# (sometimes)
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorroa → æ “(in some forms; environment and conditioning unclear)”
10.2.3 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Malayic— aj aw → i u / _#
— aj aw → aj aw / _#
10.2.4 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Malayo-Javanic— aw aj → əw əj / _#
— aw aj → aw aj / _#
10.2.4.1 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Javanese— aw aj → e ó / _#
10.2.4.3 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Sundanese— aw aj → o aj / _#
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauanaj aw uj → e o i
wa → o / #_ when unstressed
{aw,əw} → o / _#
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North Sarawaka → ə / _UU(U…)#
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiputai au → ai̯ au̯ / _#
ai au → ɛː ɔː / _…#
a → i / O[+voiced]…_(C)# “(blocked if there was an intervening nasal, and sometimes if there was an intervening voiceless stop or liquid)”
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lóngha → o / _# “(not in all forms)”
a → ɛ / {t,n}_#
ai̯ au̯ → ɛ ɔ
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabaua → o / _(C…)#
— a u → e uj / _{t,s}#
— a → o / _p#
10.3 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Oceanicaw → o / _#
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwa → e / _CV[+ mid] (sporadic)
a → e / _Ci (sporadic)
a(C)V[+ high] a(C)V[+ mid] aCa → ɔ(C) a(C) {ɔ,a}(C)ə
e(C){V[- low]} e(C)a → e(C) e(C)ə
i(C)V[+ high] i(C)V[+ mid] i(C)a → i(C) i(C)ə {e,i}(C)ə
o(C)V[+ high] o(C)V[+ mid] o(C)a → ɵ(C) o(C) ɔ(C)ə
u(C)V[+ high] u(C)e u(C)o u(C)a → {u,i}(C) u(C)ə e(C)ə {u,ɵ}(C)ə
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerig— aCV[+ high] → {ɛ,œ}C
— aCa → {ɘ,a}C
ia → ɪ “(only somoetimes?)”
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to Mwotlapu a → ʊ ɛ / _CV[+ high]
aCV[+ high] → ɪ / when stressed unless primarily stressed
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Yunagaau ai → ɔ ɛ
a → {ɛ,e} “in some words”
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bay”a → i / _CV[- high]
”a → e / _CV[+ high]
10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to Tolomakoa → e (rare?)
10.3.11 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Southern Vanuatua → e / _(C)i
a → ə / _Ca
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejomai → i / _C
ua → ou
au → {u,o} “sometimes”
a → o / P_ “[tendency]”
a → o / _P “[tendency]”
10.3.11.2 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Erromangoa → i / _CV[+ high]
10.3.11.2.1 Proto-Erromango to Syea → o / {w,m,ŋ}_
a → e / _#
10.3.11.3 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Tannaa → o / _{P,Cu}
a → o / P_
a → e / _Ci
a → ə / _Ca
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’aa(C)i a(C)u → {a,ɛ}(C) {ɔ,a,ɛ}(C)
a(C){o,e} → a(C)
oCa → ɔCɔ
oa {ae,ea} → uɔ iɛ
10.4.1 Proto-Micronesian to Marshallesea → ɜ / _wo
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Onganu a ə → {u,o} {a,e} e
aj → e
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to Ongeaw → o
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamilaj → eː “(exception: never finally in monosyllables, never initially in multisyllabic words)”
avu aji → aw aj
aː eː iː oː uː → a ɛ i o u / _#
am an {aːm,aːn} → õ æ̃ ã / _#
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Aleuta → i / i_
15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow Iñupiaqadʒ → i / _a (except in #U?)
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic Iñupiaqadʒ → i / _a (except in #U?)
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie Iñupiaqadʒ → i / _a (except in #U?)
15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales Iñupiaqadʒ → i / _a (except in #U?)
15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’iki a u → ii aa uu / C_ in U[+open -initial -final] such that U[+open]_
a → ∅ / _dʒa, except in #U
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’ika → ∅ / C[+velar]_C[+velar]
i a u → ii aa uu / C_ in U[+open -initial -final] such that U[+open]_
a → ∅ / _dʒa (except in #U?)
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’ika → ∅ / C[+velar]_C[+velar]
a → ∅ / _dʒa (except in #U?)
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’ika → ∅ / C[+velar]_C[+velar]
i a u → ii aa uu / C_ in U[+open -initial -final] such that U[+open]_
a → ∅ / _dʒa (except in #U?)
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.1 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Nafria → æ / _(C)e
a → æ / i(C)_
16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central Sentania → æ / _(C)e
a → æ / i(C)_
16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern Sentania → æ / _(C)e
a → æ / i(C)_
16.1.4 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Western Sentania → æ / _(C)e
a → æ / i(C)_
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albaniana e i o → {a,e} (j)e {e,i} a
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albaniana e i o → {a,e} (j)e {e,i} a
17.2.1 Common Anatolian to Hittiteaj aw → ɛː uː / !_{s,n,r,l}
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lyciana → e / _U[+e,i]
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to Lydian{e,a,o} → ē / _N in ”U[+closed]
{e,a,o} → ā / _N in ”U[+open]
17.2.5 Common Anatolian to Palaica e → aː eː / in ”U[+closed]
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenianaː → a
ej ia → e ɛa
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenianaː → a
ej ia → e ɛa
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenianaː → a
ej ia → e ɛa
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenianaː → a
ej ia → e ɛa
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenianaː → a
ej ia → e ɛa
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenianaː → a
ej ia → e ɛa
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenianaː → a
ej ia → e ɛa
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irish— {ai,oi} → iː / _#
— {a,e}n → eː / _{p t k s}
{au,eu,ou} → oː
— a → e / _#
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshai → ɛ
{au,eu,ou} → ∅
aː → ɔː
a o → ei {ɨ,ei} / _(C…)j(C…)#
a → {ɨ,ei} / _(C…)j(C…)#
{a,o} → e / _(C…)i(ː)
{a,e,o} → ei / _(C…)j
17.7 Proto-Indo-European to Common Germanicaː → oː
eːi {oːi,aːi} → eː oː (?)
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothic— aj → a / U_#
17.7.2.1 West Germanic to Anglo-Frisiana → ɑ̃ / _N (short only)
a → æː / short only, includes diphthongs ! B or *ã in next syllable
aː → æː / ! _N or if nasalized
ai au eu → {eː,aː} aː ia
ia iu → jaː juː
a → æ / ! _N or if nasalized, or if *B or *ã in next syllable
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle Englishæj → aj → ej
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle Englishæj → aj → ej
17.7.2.1.4 Midlands Middle English to Early Modern Englisha ɑ {ɛ,ɪ,ɤ} → ɑː ɔː ɜː / _ɹ{C,#}
a → ɑː / “in a few words, like ‘father’”
a → æ / else
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle Englishæj → aj → ej
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scotsol al → ou ɑː → ʌu {ɑ,ɔ}
— ai → ɛi → əi / when stem-final
— a → i / _n (in northern varieties)
— a → e / _n (otherwise)
— a → {ɛ,e} / _rC
— ai oi ui ei au ou iu ɛ(o)u → eː oe əi iː {ɑː,ɔː} ʌu ju j(ʌ)u
— iː eː ɛː aː oː uː {øː,yː} → əi i {i,e} e o u ø
— a ɔ u → {a,ɑ} ɔ ʌ
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsai → aː
a → ɪ / “unstressed and/or final”
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle Englishæj → aj → ej
17.7.2.1.14 Anglo-Frisian to Old Frisianaj aw ew → {eː,aː} aː ja
17.7.2.2 West Germanic to Old Low Franconianai au → eː oː
jan → en / CC_#
a → ɒ? (→ o) / _ɫ
ai u → ei ʏ / _(C…){i(ː),j} (short only; in the case of [ʏ] at least this was not yet phonemic)
a → ɛ / _(C…){i(ː),j} (conjectured based on date from the “Germanic umlaut” article)
17.7.2.2.1 Old Low Franconian to Middle Dutch{ie,ia,io} uo → iə uə
{ol,al} {ar,er} or → ɔu aːr oːr / _C[+dental]
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germanaː → oː / _{N,C[+ dental],P,h} (sporadic?)
aː → oː / {N,C[+ dental],P,h}_ (sporadic?)
aːw → au
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlauta u o → e y ø / _(C…){i(ː),j}
17.7.2.5 West Germanic to Old Low Germanai au → eː oː
17.7.3 Common Germanic to Proto-Norseaβ{u,o} → au
{æ,e}ː(w(a)) → aː
o(u) {ɔ,ɑ,au,ai,æ} {ja,jE,æ(i),e(i),y} → u a i
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old NorseEːBː Eːaː → joː jaː / {v,w}_
BːB aː{o,a,æ,e} {æ,e}ː{æ,e}ː {æ,e}ːi iːEː → oː aː eː eː iː
a(i) {e,w{æ,i}} {we,ei} (w)ɪ → ey ø y ʏ / w_ ! hw_
a → ∅ / C(C)_{ʀ,s,t,θ}#
u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ y yː / _(C)(C)(C)j
a → ∅ / _{ʀ,s,t,θ}#
a → ∅ / CC_U#
a → u / %u / ! in #U
waː naː → oː noː / %u in #U
a(ː) ae → o(ː) ɒø / #(C)(C)(C)_(C)(C)(C)u
a → ∅ / _U#
{(j)u,we}ː {o,ɒ}ː aː au → yː øː æː æy
u {o,ɒ} a → y ø æ / _(C)(C)(C)i
u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / _(C)(C)(C)i
{a,æ,e}ːhiː → æː
ɒːh{u,a} aːh{u,a} → ɒː aː
{u,we,wi} {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / _(C)(C)(C)i
wa we wi → ɒː øː yː / #P_
au {ai,ey,ei} æ{y,i} øy Vː → o e æ ø V / #(C)(C)(C)_CC
u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / _(C)(C)(C)j
u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / #(C)(C)_ʀ
ai wi (w)V → eː weː (w)Vː / _h#
{æ,e}i ai au w{ɪ,i} wy wV iu Vː → eː aː oː weː woː wVː eː oː V
ai → aː / _r
ai → aː / _h{C,V}
Eː{u,o}ː Eːaː → joː jaː / {v,w}_
a → e / _i
a → e / _{i,j,Ḱ}
au → ɒ / j_
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandicwaː → wo
u o a ø y e i → uː oː aː øi yː ei iː / _{ɲc,ɲɟ,ŋk,ŋɡ}
u o a øː eː y i → ʏɪ oi ai øi ei yː iː / _j
aː → ai / _j
u oː aː ʏɪ {y,i} {y,i}ː æː eː ey → ʏ ou au ai y ɪ i je ei
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornu a e eː → ʌ ɑ ɪ ɛ / _Cː
o a → ø ɛ / _(C)(C)i
au → (ɔ)u
a aː → ɛ øː / _r
a → ɔ / _{l,nd}C
ja → i
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Norn{u,o}(ː) a aː {ɒ,œ,y} e i(ː) → {o,ɔ}(i) æ(i) {ɔ,ɒ}(i) {o,ɔ}(i) {æ,e} / _{Ḱ,Cʲ}
{ɒ,ey} j{u,o,a}ː yː → o ø u / Ḱ_
j{u,o,a}ː → ø
a → ∅ / C[+ dental/alveolar]_u
a → {o,ɔ} / _{K,r} (! K = w ?)
aː → wo (dialectal)
aː → ɔ(u) / _{l,r}
au → {o,ɔ,ɒ} / j_
au → j{o,ɔ}
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittite{uː,eu,au} → u
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-Aryanuʐ aʐ iʐ → uː əː iː
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-Aryana{i,j}(a) a{u,w}(a) → e o
ah → o
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-Aryana{i,j}(a) a{u,w}(a) → e o
ah → e
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-Aryana{i,j}(a) a{u,w}(a) → e o
ah → o
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-Aryana{i,j}(a) a{u,w}(a) → e o
ah → o
17.10.1.5.1 Vedic Sanskrit to Classical Sanskritau aːu ai aːi → au oː ai eː / ! _V
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavic{a,o,ə} → e / j_
{a,o,ə} → o
{ai,oi} → i / j_
{ai,oi} → æː
{aːi,oːi} → {æː,a} (the former seems to be more common)
{a(ː)u,o(ː)u} e(ː)u → u ju
{e(ː),i(ː)} {a(ː),o(ː),u(ː)} → ẽ õ / _N$
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polisha ɛ i ɔ u ɨ ã → aː ɛː iː ɔː uː ɨː ãː / _{C/U}[+voiced][lost yer] (i.e., a voiced consonant or a cluster with one)
ajɛ → ɛː in adjectives, aː in verbs
{aja,ɔja} {ɔjɛ,ɨjɛ} ɨjɛ → aː ɛː iː
{aja,ɛja,ьja,ɔja} → aː
ã → ɛ̃ / short only
ãː → ã → ɔ̃
aː ɔː ɛː → ɒ o e
{ɛ,a} → ɔ (sporadic)
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latinaj → ai → eː (in rustic dialects)
aj → ai → ae
aw → oː (in rustic dialects)
aw → au
a o → e u / %(C)(C)_C(C)% when unstressed
a → e → i / %(C)(C)_ŋ when unstressed
a → e → u / %(C)(C)_ɫ when unstressed
ai → ei → iː / %(C)(C)_ when unstressed
a → e / _C(C)#
{ai,ei,oi} → ei → iː / _(C)(C)#
17.12.1.1.1 Classical Latin vs. Vulgar Latin{e,ai} → ɛ
aː → a
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalanau → a / _%”u
aː → a
ae au → e ɔ / stressed
ae au → e o / _%”V
ja → je / #_ (irregular)
a → e / “in the penult”
{i,e(ː),ae} → ∅ / _(C)#
{a,o} → ∅ / #_ (rare)
aj → ej → ee → e (irregular)
aj → ej / _ʃ when stressed (irregular)
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— aː → a
— (a)e → è
— aː → a
— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e
— aː → a
— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e
a → ə / intertonic
(ɛ)au → ɔ
a → ə / #{tʃ,dʒ}_(%…)” in U[+open]
a → ɛ / in U[+open] “(but a following ʎ creates a [closed] syllable)”
a → ə
ai → e / _#
ai iɛɪ → ɛ i
{aı̃,eı̃} → ɛ̃
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to Italianau → u / #_ (sporadically, e.g. audire → udire)
au → o
taːte → ”ta / _#
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portugueseau → a / _%”u
au → o
{i(ː),e(ː),ae} → e / _#
aː oe → a e
ae → ɛ / stressed
aɫ → o
{ã,ãe,õe} → ão / _#
a → ∅ / ”ɔ_#
a → e / _j when stressed
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— a → a / _N (Rouergue, Limousin, Auvergne, Dauphiné)
— a → a / _# in monosyllables and oxytones (Rouergue, Limousin, Auvergne, Dauphiné)
— a → å (I have no idea what is going on here. Grandgent seems to distinguish an open and close /a/, and I have listed his open a as /å/, which seems to have been distinct from /ɔ/, but beyond this section it doesn’t really seem to matter very much)
— å ɛ ɔ → a e o / _N (in Limousin and neighboring regions, the last two particularly in Limousin, Languedoc, and Gascon, though when _ɲ this change may have been blocked)
— {a,œ,e,i} → e (here, 〈œ〉 denotes the reflex of the Latin vowel written this way, not a front rounded vowel)
— au → a / _(C…)u
— a → o in most dialects except Gascon and Languedoc; final -as remained in “Limousin and some others”
17.12.1.1.7 Vulgar Latin to Rhaeto-Romancea → e / stressed, usually when Ḱ_
a V → e (= /ə/?) ∅ / in final syllables (though Friulian preserves the ending -is)
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanian— aː → a
— (a)e → ɛ
— aː → a
— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e
— aː → a
— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e / _#
a → ɨ _N ! _{nː,mn}
”elːa → e”a / _#
ja → e / r_#
a → e / C[+palatal]_#
a o → ə u / ”U…_#
a → a / #(C…)V…C[+palatal]_…”U
a o → ə u / #(C…)V…_…”U
a → ə #C(C…)_…”U
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardinianau ai → o e
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to SpanishRaising of e {ɛ,a} ɔ o → i e o u; near j, in particular environments:
— a → e / _j
”je.o ”je.a → {”i.o,”jo} ”i.a
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tocharianh2e a → a ɨ
{eh2,aH} aː → aː ɔ
ow aw ew → ɛu au əw
oy ay ey → ɛi ai əj
17.13.1 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian A{a,ɛ}i əj → e i
{a,ɛ}u əw → o u
17.13.2 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian B{a,ɛ}u əw → au u
{a,ɛ}i əj → ai i
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makuráp{a/e} {e/a} {ı̃,ẽ} → e a ẽ
18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekens{{a/e},{e/a}} {ı̃,ẽ} → a ẽ
18.3.3 Proto-Tuparí to Tuparí{a/e} → e
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayoró{a/e} {e/a} {ı̃,ẽ} → a e ı̃
18.4.1 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Akwáraa → {ɨ,o} / _N#
a → o / ! Cw_
ã → a / Cw_
ã → õ
18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Cocamaa → ∅ / _j#
ã {ẽ,ı̃} ɨ̃ → a i ∅
18.4.3 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guajajaraa → ə / _N#
a → ə / if N in U#
ã ẽ ı̃ ɨ̃ {õ,ũ} → ə e i ɨ o
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to GuarayoaN eN iN ɨN uN → ã ẽ ı̃ ɨ̃ ũ / _#
18.4.6 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Kamayuráã → a / Cw_
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Sirionóa → {∅,o,e} / _j#
aN eN iN ɨN uN → ã ẽ ı̃ {ɨ̃,ĩ} õ / _#
18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to UrubuaN iN uN → {aN,ã} ı̃ {uN,ũ} / _#
20 Khoisan20.2.1 Proto-Kx’a to ǂHoana → ∅ / _e (sporadic)
iaɔ → iu
20.2.2 Proto-Kx’a to Northwestern !Xuna → ∅ / #_m
a → ∅ / _e (sporadic)
a → ∅ / _(C)o
20.2.3 Proto-Kx’a to Southeastern !Xuna → ∅ / #_m
a → ∅ / _(C)o
21 Lakes Plain21.2.1 Proto-Tariku to Proto-Central Tarikua → e (?)
21.2.1.2 Proto-Central Tariku to Iauau → ɔ
21.2.2 Proto-Tariku to Proto-East Tarikua → e (?)
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.1 Proto-Chibchan to Arhuacoia → ə (“unspecified”)
23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to Chibchaa → ∅ / _i, when unstressed
a → i / _Ci
a → ∅ / _u
a {e,i} → i ∅ / C”V(C)_
a → ∅ / _”V
23.1.1.1.4 Proto-Chibchan to Marocaceroa → ∅ / _i
23.1.1.1.5 Proto-Chibchan to Motilóna → i / iC_
{ue,aja} → ə
23.1.1.1.6 Proto-Chibchan to Tuneboai → e / if the *a is not stressed
a → ∅ / _u
{a,i} → ∅ / C”V(C)_
23.1.2 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Lencano a → {u,o} {a,e}
24 Macro-Pama-Nyungan24.1.1 Proto-Paman to AritinŋitiÉ£a[-long]C → Ca / #_ (! _a?)
24.1.2 Proto-Paman to AwŋtimiC aC uC → Cj Ca Cw / #_ ! before an identical vowel
24.1.4 Proto-Paman to Mbiywoma[-long]C → Ca / #_ (! _a?)
24.1.7 Proto-Paman to Yinwuma → i / #C[+palatal]V[-long]C_
27 Mayan27.1 Proto-Mayan to Ch’olanaː eː oː → ɨ i u
27.9 Proto-Mayan to Tzeltalanaː eː oː → ɨ i u
27.10 Proto-Mayan to Yucatecanaː → ɨ
28 Muskogean28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western Muskogeana → o / xʷ_#
oj aj → iː {aː,iː}
28.2.1 Proto-Western Muskogean to Chickasawaw → o
28.2.2 Proto-Western Muskogean to Choctawa → o / _w
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.7 Proto-Athabaskan to Deg Hit’ane u a {ɑ,ʊ} → a i u ə
29.1.1.1.8 Proto-Athabaskan to Dena’inae a u {ə,ʊ} → a u i ə
29.1.1.1.10 Proto-Athabaskan to Easter Gwich’ina u {ɑ,ə} ʊ → {i,e} ju a o
29.1.1.1.11 Proto-Athabaskan to Hana ɑ ə ʊ → æ a {ə,ë} o
29.1.1.1.12 Proto-Athabaskan to Holikachuki e a u {ɑ,ʊ} → e a ɔ o ŭ
29.1.1.1.14 Proto-Athabaskan to Lower Koyukone a ɑ ʊ → a o ŏ ŭ
29.1.1.1.15 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Koyukone a ɑ ʊ → a o ŏ ŭ
29.1.1.1.16 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Kuskokwim Kolchane a {ɑ,ʊ} → a o ŭ
29.1.1.1.38 Proto-Athabaskan to Lower Tananae a {ɑ,ʊ} → æ ɔ ŭ
29.1.1.1.39 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Tanana{a,ɑ} e i u ʊ → e(a) {i,ea} ju {a,ɨ} o
ə → {a,ɨ} (→ ø in the Northway dialect)
29.1.1.1.42 Proto-Athabaskan to Southern Tutchonee a → i e
30 Niger-Congo30.3.1.1.1 Proto-Gbe to Ajáj{ã,ẽ} → {ɥ,ɥ̃} / _E
30.3.1.1.3 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Fonoi ɔi ɔ̃i {a,ɛ}i {ɛ̃,ẽ}i ei → oe ɔɛ ɔ̃ɛ̃ ɛɛ ɛ̃ɛ̃ ee
ãi → ɛ̃ɛ̃
30.3.1.1.10 Proto-Vhe to Awalana → e / _{i,j}
31 Nyulnyulan31.1 Proto-Nyulnyulan to Bardiawu → o
aji → iː / when unstressed
ubu aba → uː aː / when stressed
aɡu → o
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinoa → {i,e} “under special conditions”
32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to Tlapanec{in,en} an → a u
{iHn,eHn,aHn} uHn → ã ũ
33 Penutian33.1.1.1 Proto-Costanoan to Chochenyoa → e / il_
33.1.1.3 Proto-Costanoan to Mutsuna → e / il_
33.1.1.4 Proto-Costanoan to Rumsena → e / il_
33.3.3 Proto-Yokuts to Palewyami{u,a} → e / _CVC#, when stressed (short only)
34 Quechumaran34.4 Proto-Quechumaran to Huarásaw aj {uj,ij} → uː eː iː
35 Salishan35.1.1 Proto-Central Salish to Comox{a33} → {ə3,a3}
{a3~i3} → i3
{a1~i1} → {a11}
35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack Halkomelemu3 {u1,a1} a3 i1 → a3 ə1 ɛ3 {i11}
{a33} → {ɛ33}
{a3~i3} → ɛ3
35.1.3 Proto-Central Salish to Cowichan Halkomelema3 u3 {a1,u1} i1 → ɛ3 a3 ə1 {i11}
{a33} → ə3
{a3~i3} → a3
{a1~i1} → ə1
35.1.4 Proto-Central Salish to Musqueam Halkomelemu3 {u1,a1} a3 i1 → a3 ə1 ɛ3 {i11}
{a33} → {ɛ33}
{a3~i3} → {a33}
{a1~i1} → {ə11}
35.1.5 Proto-Central Salish to Klallama3 → u3 / {Cʷ[+uvular],Kʷ,w}
a3 → u3 / _{Cu,Cʷ[+uvular],w}
a1 → ə1
{a33} → ə3
{a3~i3} → ə3
{a1~i1} → ə1
35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to Lushootseed{a33} → {ə3,a3}
{a1~i1} → i1
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to Nooksacka1 u3 u1 i1 → æ2 o3 o1 i2
{a33} → æ3
{a3~i3} → æ3
{a1~i1} → æ2
35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straitsa3 → o3 / {{C[+ uvular],K}ʷ,w}_
a3 → o3 / _{Cu,C[+ uvular]ʷ,w}
a3 → e3 / else
a1 → ə1
{a33} → ə3
{a3~i3} → ə3
{a1~i1} → ə1
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern Straitsa3 → e3 / ! {{C[+ uvular],K}ʷ,w}_ or when _{Cu,C[+ uvular]ʷ,w}
a1 → ə1
{a33} → {ə3,e3}
{a3~i3} → ə3
{a1~i1} → ə1
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern Straitsa3 → a3 / {{C[+ uvular],K}ʷ,w}_
a3 → a3 / _{Cu,C[+ uvular]ʷ,w}
a1 → ə1
{a33} → ə3
{a3~i3} → ə3
{a1~i1} → {ə1,e1}
35.1.11 Proto-Central Salish to Sooke Northern Straitsa3 → {a3,o3} / {{C[+ uvular],K}ʷ,w}_
a3 → e3
a1 → ə1
{a33} → ə3
{a3~i3} → ə3
{a1~i1} → ə1
35.1.12 Proto-Central Salish to Pentlatch{a33} → ə3
{a1~i1} → {i11}
35.1.13 Proto-Central Salish to Sechelt{a33} → ə3
{a3~i3} → i3
{a1~i1} → {i11}
35.1.14 Proto-Central Salish to Sqamish{a33} → {a33}
{a3~i3} → i3
{a1~i1} → i1
35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to Twana{a33} → {ə3,a3}
{a3~i3} → a3
{a1~i1} → {i11}
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old Mandarinia → e / else
{o,a} {a(ta),a(ch)} → e a / _ŋ
{a(ta),a(ch)} → o / else
36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàwɔn ja wa → uɔn ia ua
aʔ → ɔʔ / C[+guttural]_
jaʔ → iaʔ
waʔ → aʔ / C[+labiodental]_
waʔ → uaʔ
aj jaj waj aw jaw → ai iai uai au iau
awʔ → ɔʔ (“Trigault gives a variant in -ɛʔ, which becomes general in the later GH varieties”)
{jawʔ,wawʔ} → ɔʔ / C̣_
jawʔ wawʔ → iɔʔ uɔʔ
am → an
{jam,jan} → iɛn
wan → an / C[+labiodental]_
wan → uan / else
aŋ jaŋ → uaŋ aŋ / C̣_
waŋ → uaŋ
36.3.1.1 Proto-Naish to Lazea u i iN → e y ɯ i / T_%
a → i / {ŋ,w}_%
a → wɤ / {K,ŋ}w_%
{a,i} → ɯ / R_%
a → ie / ! K_%
a aS → ɑ {ɑ,u}
36.3.1.2 Proto-Naish to Mosuo (Na)a → e / {R,T}_%
a → wɤ / {K,ŋ}w_%
a → i / ! K_%
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to Naxia iN {i,u} → e ɚɯ / T_%
a → i / ŋ_%
a → ɯ / {R,w}_%
a → wa / {K,ŋ}w_%
a → e / ! K_%
a aS → ɑ {ɑ,o} / _%
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Laa → e / _m
aj → i
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiaa ap at ar am aj → e eb e(d) er om e.i
36.3.2.1.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Hanniuan {at.is} → o ie
36.3.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Japhugaŋ → o / _#
a → o / _m#
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Toat → {at,ɛ,ed}
an → ia
aj → oi
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Moa → o / _r
36.3.2.2.5 Proto-rGyalrongic to Trungan → a(i)
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Naoa(t) → ɛ / _#
ap → ɛk
an → ɿɛ
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu Taa → e / _(p)
aw aj → au ai
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassuan ap → ai ie
aj → ui
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoianã → ẽ
37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeea(ː)wẽ(ː) → a(ː)ma(ː)
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayuga”V(C)(C)CaCV → V(C)”(C)CaCV / _#
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagaara → aː / “unaccented syllables only”
”V(C)(C)CaCV → V(C)”(C)CaCV / _#
a(ː) o(ː) õ(ː) → æ(ː) e(ː) ẽ(ː) / r_
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecaa → æ / _ra(ː)
a → e / _ro(ː)
ã → ẽ / _rõː
a(ː) → æ(ː) / r_
a(ː) → ẽ(ː) / adjacent to a nasal vowel
a(ː) æ(ː) → õ(ː) ẽ(ː) / n_
a(ː) → õ(ː) / V[+nas]H_
a(ː) → õ(ː) / V[+nas]({ʔ,s})w_
— a e o → ə ɪ ʊ / C_{C,i[-long]}
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscaroraa(ː) o(ː) → ɔ(ː) u(ː) / ! “when both short and unstressed”
37.1.2.6.2 Tuscarora to Eastern Tuscaroraə̃(ː) a(ː) o(ː) → ɨ̃(ː) ɔ(ː) u(ː) (“in all positions”)
37.2.3 Proto-Siouan to Mandanã → a / in ”U (sporadic)
37.2.5 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Crow-Hidatsaã ı̃ ũ → a i u
37.2.6.4 Proto-Dhegiha to Quapawã → õ (*)
37.2.7.1 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Biloxiã → an (sporadic)
37.2.7.2 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Ofoã → {an,õ}
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Taiɨ̯a → aː
38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchow{ɨo̯,ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → ɨː iː
{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} → uː
ai → aːi
u̯əi uəi uai i̯əu iau → oːi uːi uːiau oːu
a → aː / _u,i
ɨ̯ai → aːi
{uəi,uai} iau → uːi eːu
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Taiɨ̯a → ɨa̯~ɨə̯
{u̯ɔ,u̯a} → ua~uə
uɨ̯ ua̯ → ɨə uɔ̯ → ɨː ɔː
38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-Aiɨə̯~ɨa̯ → ɨː / _%
ɨə̯~ɨa̯ → ɨ / _C%
ɨa̯~ɨə̯ → iː / j_
ɨa̯~ɨə̯ → ɨː
ua~uə → uː
ua~u@̯ → uː
ɨ̯a~ɨə → ɨː
ɨo̯ ɨa̯ ie̯ ɨe̯ → uː aː eː iː
ɨ a → ɨː aː / _i
ɨ̯ai → ɨːi
uəi uai iau → iː oːi eːu
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Taiɨ̯a → aː
38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lü{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} {ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → o ə e
38.1.1.5.3 Southwest Tai to Shan{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} {ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → o ə e
38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siameseu̯a → aː
a → aː / _i
ɨ̯ai → aːi
ɨ̯əu au → au aːu
38.1.1.5.6 Southwest Tai to White Tai{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} {ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → o ə e
41 Trans-New Guinea41.3 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Binanderea → {a,o}
41.4 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kaetiu a → {u,o,y} {a,o}
41.7 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kâteu a → {u,ɔ} {ɔ,a}
41.9 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Selepetu o a e → {u,ɔ} {o,ɔ} {a,ɔ} {e,o}
42 Uralic42.1 Proto-Uralic to Pre-Finnica → æ / {a,e,ê,i,y}(X)(C)(C)_, when unstressed
42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnicuwa → oː (*)
42.1.1.1.2 Standard Finnish to Modern Standard FinnishVa → Vː / unstressed
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livonianɑː au → ɔː ɔu (though sometimes ɑː develops, apparently at least partially due to metathesis?)
a → aː / VC_
43 Uto-Aztecan43.5.1.1 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Kawaiisua → o / P_
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basquea o e → ɛ u i / {i,u}(C…)_ (this [ɛ] is tentatively marked as such; Egurtzegi transcribes it as /e/ but says it’s not as close as /e/)
a → e / _$a (Biscayan, Alavese, some Guipuscoan)
a → ∅ / _V
a → ∅ / V_# (Guipuscoan; happens because of reanalysis of the definite article)
aɪ → eɪ → e (rare)
aʊ → aɪ / !_{ɾ,r,s̺,s̻} (Souletin, Roncalese)
ʊa → o “especially after a velar stop”
oa ea → u(e) i(e) / _#
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.2 Proto-Pai to Paipaiaw aj → o e
46 Vowel Shifts46.5 Old English-to-Scots Vowel Shiftsai → ɛi → əi / when stem-final
a → i / _n (in northern varieties)
a → e / _n (otherwise)
a → {ɛ,e} / _rC
ai oi ui ei au ou iu ɛ(o)u → eː oe əi iː {ɑː,ɔː} ʌu ju j(ʌ)u
iː eː ɛː aː oː uː {øː,yː} → əi i {i,e} e o u ø
a ɔ u → {a,ɑ} ɔ ʌ
46.7 Great Vowel Shift (English)aː ɔː → ɛː oː → eː ow → ej (əw)
46.8 Greek Vowel Shiftai ɔi → ɛ yː
ɛu au → ɛv av
46.11 Middle Chinese to Cantonese Vowel Shift (“The Inner-Outer Flip”)a → ɔ / _{ŋ,k}
a → {aː,ə} “(the environments for these respective changes are somewhat unclear)”
a → aː / _{i,u}
a → ə → ∅ / i_u
46.13 Old Norse to Faroese Vowel Shift{a,æː} → ɛa / a
aː → ɔa “(except NE of the Faroes → aː)” / ɔ
46.14 Pre-Slavic Vowel Changesen an → ẽ ã
a aː → o a
aj → {æ2,i2} “(reduced)”
aw → u
46.15 Proto-Japanese to Old Japanese Vowel Shift{u,ɨ}i {,a,i {ɨi,i{a,ə}} u{ɨ,a,ə} → wi e je wo
46.17 Proto-Maidun to Nisenian Vowel Shiftu i e a → y e a o
46.19 Southern [United States] Shift (English)aɪ → aː / _#
aɪ → aː / _C[+ voiced]
aɪ → ɑeː / else (only for some speakers)
aɪ → aː / else (only for some speakers)

to /a/

510 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.2.2 Proto-Erythrean to Proto-North Erythrean{e,o} {i,u} → a ə
6.2.2.1 Proto-North Erythrean to Proto-Chadicaː → a
6.2.2.1.5 Proto-Semitic to Classical ArabicV{j,w}V → aː / some sequences
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabici → a / Cˤ_{q,ɣ,ʕ}
i → a / {q,ɣ,ʕ}_Cˤ
a → a / _C[+ dorsal]
aː → a / ! _#
aː → a / {Cˤ,w}_#
6.2.2.1.14 Classical Arabic to Moroccan Arabicə → a / near ħ ʕ
6.2.2.1.17 Classical Arabic to Tunisian Arabicaj aw → {aj,eː,iː aw,oː,uː}
6.2.2.1.18 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrew— a → aː / _$
— a → {a,ɛ} (not common)
— i u → e a / _R{$,#} (in verbs)
— aw → aːw
— i → a / _R
— i → a / R_
— a i → aː eː / _%”
at → aː / _# (in feminine noun endings)
6.2.2.1.19 Biblical Hebrew to Modern Israeli Hebrewə → a / near gutturals
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakiaː → a / _OO
oː aː eː iː → o ɔ̃ a i
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenakiaː → a / _OO
oː eː iː → o a i
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfootaː → aa / W_ ! when _{C{C,ː},#}
aː → a / else
e → a / _#
7.5 Proto-Algonquian to Cheyennee i → a e
7.6 Proto-Algonquian to Northern East Creee eː → i aː
ja → aː / C_
7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East Creeja → aː / C_
7.8 Proto-Algonquian to Plains Creeja → aː / C_
7.9 Proto-Algonquian to Swampy Creeja → aː / C_
7.10 Proto-Algonquian to Woods Creeja → aː / C_
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawareə → a / _x “[i]n a nonrounding environment”
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaqaː → a
(aw)aha → aː
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-JaponicV → a / _Ca
u → a / P_Ce
{a,e,o,æ} i u y ø → ə i ua {u,ə} {ə,u} / _Ce
e i {o,u} æ ø y → {ə,a} {i,ə} ə a {ə,u} {u,ə} / _Co
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolica → {a,i} / _Ce
a → {a,e} / _Ci
a → {a,i,e} / _Co
a → {a,o,u} / _Cu
e o u æ ø y → {a,e} {o,u} {a,o,u a {a,o,u} {o,u,i} / _Ca
a e i o u æ ø y → {a,i} {e,ja} {e,i} {ø,y,o} {o,u,y} {i,a,e} {e,ø} {ø,y,o,u} / _Ce
a e u æ ø y → {a,e} {e,i} {y,ø} {i,e} {i,e,ø} {ø,y,o,u} / _Ci
a e o i æ ø y → {a,i,e} {a,e} u {o,u} e {ø,y,o,u} {o,u} / _Co
a e {o,u} æ ø y → {a,o,u} {e,a} {o,u} {a,o,u} {e,i,u} {i,o,u,y,ø} / _Cu
8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusic{u,ø,y} æ → {o,u} ia / _Ca
æ ø y → ia {o,u} i / _Ci
{u,æ,y} ø → {o,u} ia / _Cu
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkica ø → {a,ʌ} a / P_Ca
a e i u æ ø y → a {a,ʌ,e} {ɯ,i} {u,o} {ia,ja,ɛ} {ia,ja} ɯ / _Ca
e → ja / #_C{e,i}
a {e,i} o u æ ø y → {ɛ,a} ɛ {ø,o} {y,u} {ia,ja,ɛ} {ia,ja} {y,ø} / _Ci
æ → a / P_Co
a e i æ ø y → {o,ja,aj} {ʌ,ɜ} ɯ {ia,ja} {o,u} {u,o} / _Co
e i æ ø y → {ɛ,a,ʌ} {ɯ,i} {e,a} {u,o} ɯ / _Cu
8.5.2 Proto-Turkic to Sakhaa{ɡ̌(ɯ),b} {o{ɡ̌,b},aɡ̌u} u{ɡ̌,b} → ɰa wo uː
9 Austroasiatic9.1.2.1 Middle Vietnamese to Hanoi Vietnameseɛ → a / _C[+palatal]
9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnamesea → aː / _{w,j}
ɛ → a / _C[+palatal]
10 Austronesian10.1 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Malayo-Polynesiane → a / _s
10.1.2.1 Proto-Philippine to Bicolə → a / V_V
10.1.2.4 Proto-Philippine to Ibanagə → a
10.1.2.7 Proto-Philippine to Proto-Kalamiane → a / _C[- voice]#
10.2.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Chamica → aː / _C# (sometimes)
10.2.3 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Malayic— aj aw → aj aw / _#
10.2.3.1 Proto-Malayic to (Standard) Malayə → a / _(C…)#
10.2.4 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Malayo-Javanic— aw aj → aw aj / _#
10.2.4.3 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Sundanese— aw aj → o aj / _#
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiputai au → ai̯ au̯ / _#
ə → a / _ʔ#
əi̯ əu̯ → ai̯ au̯ / ! O[+voiced] earlier in the word
ə → {ə,a} / _C# “(free variants)”
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabau— ə → a / _(C…)# (eventually spread to everywhere)
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwa(C)V[+ high] a(C)V[+ mid] aCa → ɔ(C) a(C) {ɔ,a}(C)ə
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerig— iCV[- high] → aC
— eCV[+ low] → aC
— aCa → {ɘ,a}C
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-NêlêmwaV[+ mid] → a / near nasals?
10.3.11.2 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Erromangoo → a
10.3.11.3.1 Proto-Tanna to Kwameraə → a / in U#
10.3.11.3.4 Proto-Tanna to Southwest Tannaə → a / in U#
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’aa(C)i a(C)u → {a,ɛ}(C) {ɔ,a,ɛ}(C)
a(C){o,e} → a(C)
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Onganu a ə → {u,o} {a,e} e
10.5.1 Proto-Ongan to Jarawa∅ → a / h#_ (that’s not a typo; this happens across the word boundary)
12 Northwest Caucasian12.1.1 Proto-Abazgi to Ashkharywa Abaza”Vʕ ʕ”V → ”aa a”a (but stays /ʕ/ sometimes?)
12.1.3 Proto-Abazgi to Ahchypsy Abkhaz”Vʕ ʕ”V → ”aa a”a
ʕ ʕʷ → aː ɥ
12.1.4 Proto-Abazgi to Bzyp Abkhaz”Vʕ ʕ”V → ”aa a”a
12.1.5 Proto-Abazgi to Abzhywa Proper”Vʕ ʕ”V → ”aa a”a
ʕ ʕʷ → aː ɥ
12.1.6 Proto-Abazgi to Tsabal Abzhywa”Vʕ ʕ”V → ”aa a”a
ʕ ʕʷ → aː ɥ
12.1.7 Proto-Abazgi to Khaltsys Sadz”Vʕ ʕ”V → ”aa a”a
12.1.8 Proto-Abazgi to Tswydzhy Sadz”Vʕ ʕ”V → ”aa a”a
12.2.1.1 Adyghe to Abadzekh Adyghetʃʼ tɬʼ → ʔaj~ʔ ɬʼ
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamilavu aji → aw aj
aː eː iː oː uː → a ɛ i o u / _#
am an {aːm,aːn} → õ æ̃ ã / _#
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Aleutu → a / a_
15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow Iñupiaqə → a / a_
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic Iñupiaqə → a / a_
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie Iñupiaqə → a / a_
15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales Iñupiaqə → a / a_
15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’ikə → a / _#
i a u → ii aa uu / C_ in U[+open -initial -final] such that U[+open]_
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’ikə → a / _#
i a u → ii aa uu / C_ in U[+open -initial -final] such that U[+open]_
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’ikə → a /
u → a / a_
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’ikə → a / _#
i a u → ii aa uu / C_ in U[+open -initial -final] such that U[+open]_
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albaniana e i o → {a,e} (j)e {e,i} a
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albaniana e i o → {a,e} (j)e {e,i} a
17.2.1 Common Anatolian to Hittiteo(ː) æː → a(ː) eː
e → a / _n in U[+open +posttonic]
e → a / _{r,l} (sporadic)
17.2.2 Common Anatolian to Luwiane → a
o(ː) → a(ː)
{ɛ,e}ː æː → iː aː
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lycian{ɛ,e}ː o æː → iː e aː
e → a / _U[+u,a]
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to Lydian{e,a,o} → ā / _N in ”U[+open]
{e,o} → a / in U[-stress]
o(ː) eː æː → a(ː) iː aː
17.2.5 Common Anatolian to Palaice → a / posttonic in U[+open]
o(ː) → a(ː)
a e → aː eː / in ”U[+closed]
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenian{e,o} → a (rare)
aː → a
ej ia → e ɛa
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenian{e,o} → a (rare)
aː → a
ej ia → e ɛa
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenian{e,o} → a (rare)
aː → a
ej ia → e ɛa
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenian{e,o} → a (rare)
aː → a
ej ia → e ɛa
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenian{e,o} → a (rare)
aː → a
ej ia → e ɛa
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenian{e,o} → a (rare)
aː → a
ej ia → e ɛa
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenian{e,o} → a (rare)
aː → a
ej ia → e ɛa
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar aɫ
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestan{n̩,m̩} → a
e eː → a aː
o oː → {a,aː} aː
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— h1e h2e h3e → e a o
— eh1 eh2 eh3 → eː aː oː
— H → a / C_C ! #_
— ∅ → a / CR_HC
— H → a / #R_C
— e → a / _Ra (short a only), though “[t]he e was often restored by analogy”
— ∅ → a / C_RC
— oː ej → aː eː
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishr̩ l̩ → {ri,ra} {li,la} / _{S,R} (which vowel crops up is unpredictable)
r̩ l̩ → {ra,ar} {la,al} / _{s,CC,V,#} (the results are unpredictable)
m̩ n̩ → am an / _{s,({m,j,w)V}
oː → aː / else
— o → a / _{(C…),u}#
oː → ua / _[anything], when stressed
eː → ia / _{#,Cʲ} when stressed; “ai and oi remain, but are written as <ae ai oe oi> seemingly randomly”
— {e,o} → a / _[anything]
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshɔː → au / when stressed
17.6 Proto-Indo-European to Daciano → a
e → ja / in closed syllables, when stressed
eː → aː
oi wo wj ow → ai wa vi aw
17.7 Proto-Indo-European to Common Germanico → a
ei oi → iː ai
eu ou → iu au
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothic— aj → a / U_#
17.7.2.1 West Germanic to Anglo-Frisianæː → aː “under to [sic] the influence of neighboring consonants”, but the article doesn’t elaborate
æu → au (æ → a / _B in general?)
i o → e a / unstressed
ai au eu → {eː,aː} aː ia
ia iu → jaː juː
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle Englishæj → aj → ej
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle Englishæj → aj → ej
17.7.2.1.4 Midlands Middle English to Early Modern Englishəɪ əʊ → aɪ aʊ / “in most of Britain”
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle Englishæj → aj → ej
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scots— a ɔ u → {a,ɑ} ɔ ʌ
— əi → aɪ / _{r,F[+voiced],$,#} (pursuant to the above)
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsɑ → a / ! _{l,r} (sporadic)
ai → aː
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle Englishæj → aj → ej
17.7.2.1.14 Anglo-Frisian to Old Frisianaj aw ew → {eː,aː} aː ja
17.7.2.2.1 Old Low Franconian to Middle Dutch{ol,al} {ar,er} or → ɔu aːr oːr / _C[+dental]
17.7.2.2.3 Modern Dutch to Polder Dutch Vowel Shiftɛi œy ʌu → ai ay au
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germanou øy ei → au oy ai
aːw → au
17.7.3 Common Germanic to Proto-Norseaβ{u,o} → au
{æ,e}ː(w(a)) → aː
oː → a / _n%
{æ,e}ːuː {æ,e}ːiː → eu ai
o(u) {ɔ,ɑ,au,ai,æ} {ja,jE,æ(i),e(i),y} → u a i
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old NorseEːBː Eːaː → joː jaː / {v,w}_
BːB aː{o,a,æ,e} {æ,e}ː{æ,e}ː {æ,e}ːi iːEː → oː aː eː eː iː
e → ja / ! {{h,k,ŋ}n,w,v,l,r}_, _{u,o,i}
ɒːh{u,a} aːh{u,a} → ɒː aː
e → ja / _(C)(C)(C)u ! {{h,k,ŋ}n,w,v,l,r}_
{æ,e}i ai au w{ɪ,i} wy wV iu Vː → eː aː oː weː woː wVː eː oː V
ai → aː / _r
ai → aː / _h{C,V}
Eː{u,o}ː Eːaː → joː jaː / {v,w}_
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandicɒ ɒː → ø aː
u o a ø y e i → uː oː aː øi yː ei iː / _{ɲc,ɲɟ,ŋk,ŋɡ}
u o a øː eː y i → ʏɪ oi ai øi ei yː iː / _j
aː → ai / _j
u oː aː ʏɪ {y,i} {y,i}ː æː eː ey → ʏ ou au ai y ɪ i je ei
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Norney → ai
e → a / _i
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
17.8.10 Proto-Indo-European to Mycenaean Greek{Hx,m̩,n̩} → a
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittitee(ː) → a(ː) / _h2
e(ː) → a(ː) / h2_
o(ː) → a(ː)
m̩ n̩ r̩ l̩ → am an ar al
— e(ː) → a(ː) / _R “sometimes??”
— e(ː) → a(ː) / “when unstressed?”
17.10 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iraniane → a / _{h2,h3}
e → a / {h2,h3}_
o → aː / _CV, “does not affect o2 < eh3
{e,o,o2,N̊} → a
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-Aryan∅ → a / #_z
17.10.1.5.1 Vedic Sanskrit to Classical Sanskritau aːu ai aːi → au oː ai eː / ! _V
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavic{aːi,oːi} → {æː,a} (the former seems to be more common)
æː → a / “After palatal fricatives and affricates”
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishɔr ɔl → ra la / #_T “in syllables with long vowels”
ɛ ɛ̃ ɛː → ɔ ɔ̃ a / _C[-palatalized +dental] (also sporadically before plain non-dentals)
ъ → aː / _r
ь → aː / r_C[+dental -palatalized]
{ɛ̃,ɔ̃} → ã
a ɛ i ɔ u ɨ ã → aː ɛː iː ɔː uː ɨː ãː / _{C/U}[+voiced][lost yer] (i.e., a voiced consonant or a cluster with one)
{aja,ɔja} {ɔjɛ,ɨjɛ} ɨjɛ → aː ɛː iː
{aja,ɛja,ьja,ɔja} → aː
ãː → ã → ɔ̃
ɒ e → a ɛ
17.11.2 Proto-Slavic to Old Russianẽ õ → ja u
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latinaj → ai → eː (in rustic dialects)
aj → ai → ae
aw → au
17.12.1.1.1 Classical Latin vs. Vulgar Latinaː → a
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalanau → a / _%”u
aː → a
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— aː → a
— aː → a
— aː → a
ɛ → ɛa / _l{C,#}
ɛ̃ → ã
oi → wɛ → wa
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to Italiantaːte → ”ta / _#
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portugueseau → a / _%”u
aː oe → a e
V → a / _{n,r}(C)V(C)# (irregular)
{ã,ãe,õe} → ão / _#
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— a → a / _N (Rouergue, Limousin, Auvergne, Dauphiné)
— a → a / _# in monosyllables and oxytones (Rouergue, Limousin, Auvergne, Dauphiné)
— a → å (I have no idea what is going on here. Grandgent seems to distinguish an open and close /a/, and I have listed his open a as /å/, which seems to have been distinct from /ɔ/, but beyond this section it doesn’t really seem to matter very much)
— å ɛ ɔ → a e o / _N (in Limousin and neighboring regions, the last two particularly in Limousin, Languedoc, and Gascon, though when _ɲ this change may have been blocked)
— au → a / _(C…)u
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanian— aː → a
— aː → a
— aː → a
e → a / i_(C…){a,e}#
”elːa → e”a / _#
a → a / #(C…)V…C[+palatal]_…”U
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardinianr → arː / #_(j)B / Logudorese
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanish”je.o ”je.a → {”i.o,”jo} ”i.a
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tocharianh2e a → a ɨ
{eh2,aH} aː → aː ɔ
õ oː → o a
ow aw ew → ɛu au əw
oy ay ey → ɛi ai əj
”ɨ ”ə ɨ[- stress] ə[- stress] → ɨ a a ə
17.13.1 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian A{ɔ,ɛ} → a
17.13.2 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian B{a,ɛ}u əw → au u
{a,ɛ}i əj → ai i
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makuráp{a/e} {e/a} {ı̃,ẽ} → e a ẽ
18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekens{{a/e},{e/a}} {ı̃,ẽ} → a ẽ
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayoró{a/e} {e/a} {ı̃,ẽ} → a e ı̃
18.4.1 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Akwárao → a / ! o(C…)_(C…)#
ã → a / Cw_
18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Cocamao → u(a) / ! o(C…)_(C…)#
ã {ẽ,ı̃} ɨ̃ → a i ∅
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to GuarayoaN eN iN ɨN uN → ã ẽ ı̃ ɨ̃ ũ / _#
18.4.6 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Kamayuráã → a / Cw_
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to SirionóaN eN iN ɨN uN → ã ẽ ı̃ {ɨ̃,ĩ} õ / _#
18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to UrubuaN iN uN → {aN,ã} ı̃ {uN,ũ} / _#
20 Khoisan20.2.1 Proto-Kx’a to ǂHoan∅ → a / o_m
20.2.2 Proto-Kx’a to Northwestern !Xuno → a / _Ca
20.2.3 Proto-Kx’a to Southeastern !Xuno → a / _Ca
22 Macro-Arawakan22.3 Proto-Arawá to Hypothetical Arawán Substratee → a / medially
22.6 Proto-Arawá to Sorowaháe → a / else
22.7 Proto-Arawá to Paumaríe → a / medially
e → {a,i} / #_
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.1 Proto-Chibchan to Arhuacoe → a
23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to Chibchai → a / _(C)a
23.1.1.1.3 Proto-Chibchan to Kogie → a
23.1.1.1.4 Proto-Chibchan to Marocaceroe → a
23.1.1.1.5 Proto-Chibchan to Motilóne → a
23.1.1.1.6 Proto-Chibchan to Tuneboe → a
i → a / _Ca
23.1.2 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Lencano a → {u,o} {a,e}
24 Macro-Pama-Nyungan24.1.1 Proto-Paman to AritinŋitiÉ£a[-long]C → Ca / #_ (! _a?)
24.1.2 Proto-Paman to AwŋtimiC aC uC → Cj Ca Cw / #_ ! before an identical vowel
∅ → a / #(C)aː(C)_V ! _a
24.1.4 Proto-Paman to Mbiywoma[-long]C → Ca / #_ (! _a?)
28 Muskogean28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western Muskogeanoj aj → iː {aː,iː}
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.1 Proto-Athabaskan to Ahtnaɑ ə ʊ → a e o
29.1.1.1.5 Proto-Athabaskan to Chipewyanɑ ʊ → a o
29.1.1.1.7 Proto-Athabaskan to Deg Hit’ane u a {ɑ,ʊ} → a i u ə
29.1.1.1.8 Proto-Athabaskan to Dena’inae a u {ə,ʊ} → a u i ə
29.1.1.1.9 Proto-Athabaskan to Dogribɑ ə ʊ u → a e o i
29.1.1.1.10 Proto-Athabaskan to Easter Gwich’in{i,e} → {i,ja} (this latter due to the loss of final consonants within the stem)
a u {ɑ,ə} ʊ → {i,e} ju a o
29.1.1.1.11 Proto-Athabaskan to Hana ɑ ə ʊ → æ a {ə,ë} o
29.1.1.1.12 Proto-Athabaskan to Holikachuke → a / in prefixes
i e a u {ɑ,ʊ} → e a ɔ o ŭ
29.1.1.1.14 Proto-Athabaskan to Lower Koyukone a ɑ ʊ → a o ŏ ŭ
29.1.1.1.15 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Koyukone a ɑ ʊ → a o ŏ ŭ
29.1.1.1.16 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Kuskokwim Kolchane a {ɑ,ʊ} → a o ŭ
29.1.1.1.29 Proto-Athabaskan to Bearlake Slavey-Hareɑ ə ʊ → a ɛ o
29.1.1.1.31 Proto-Athabaskan to Mountain Slavey-Hareɑ ə ʊ → a e o
29.1.1.1.32 Proto-Athabaskan to Slavey Slavey-Hareɑ ə ʊ → a e o
29.1.1.1.33 Proto-Athabaskan to Tahltan-Kaska-Tagishɑ ə ʊ → a {i,e} u
29.1.1.1.37 Proto-Athabaskan to Tanacrossɑ ə ʊ → {æ̆,ă} æ̆ ŏ
29.1.1.1.39 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Tanana{a,ɑ} e i u ʊ → e(a) {i,ea} ju {a,ɨ} o
ə → {a,ɨ} (→ ø in the Northway dialect)
29.1.1.1.41 Proto-Athabaskan to Northern Tutchone{ɑ,ə,ʊ} → {a,o}
29.1.1.1.42 Proto-Athabaskan to Southern Tutchone{ɑ,ə,ʊ} → {a,o}
30 Niger-Congo30.2.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic to Proto-Akanicɛ → ia / #(C)_
31 Nyulnyulan31.1 Proto-Nyulnyulan to Bardiubu aba → uː aː / when stressed
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinoe → a / _{l,ʔn} when unstressed
ẽ → a / tʲ_
32.1.2 Proto-Chatino to Tataltepec Chatinoe → a / _ʔ in U[-stress]
32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to Tlapanec{in,en} an → a u
{iHn,eHn,aHn} uHn → ã ũ
33 Penutian33.1.1 Proto-Utian to Proto-Costanoan (Ohlone)o → a / ! o(C…)_ or _(C…){o,i}
33.3.1.1 General Yokuts to Buena Vista YokutsV[+ high] → a / V[+ high]C_(C)#
35 Salishan35.1.1 Proto-Central Salish to Comox{a33} → {ə3,a3}
{a1~i1} → {a11}
35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack Halkomelemu3 {u1,a1} a3 i1 → a3 ə1 ɛ3 {i11}
{u33} → {o33,a3}
35.1.3 Proto-Central Salish to Cowichan Halkomelema3 u3 {a1,u1} i1 → ɛ3 a3 ə1 {i11}
{a3~i3} → a3
35.1.4 Proto-Central Salish to Musqueam Halkomelemu3 {u1,a1} a3 i1 → a3 ə1 ɛ3 {i11}
{a3~i3} → {a33}
35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to Lushootseed{u33} → a3
{a33} → {ə3,a3}
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern Straitsu3 u1 → a3 ə1
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern Straitsu3 u1 → a3 ə1
a3 → a3 / {{C[+ uvular],K}ʷ,w}_
a3 → a3 / _{Cu,C[+ uvular]ʷ,w}
35.1.11 Proto-Central Salish to Sooke Northern Straitsu3 u1 → a3 ə1
a3 → {a3,o3} / {{C[+ uvular],K}ʷ,w}_
35.1.14 Proto-Central Salish to Sqamish{a33} → {a33}
35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to Twana{a33} → {ə3,a3}
{a3~i3} → a3
35.2.1 Proto-Interior Salish to Columbian and Okanagan Nasal-to-Vowel Shiftsnˀ → aʔ / _# (all other Interior Salishan languages have /eʔ/ in this position)
35.3 Shuswap to Eastern Shuswap Nasal-to-Vowel Shiftsem emˀ → a aʔ / in U[- stressed] ! {p(’),m(ˀ)}_
en enˀ → a ʔ / in U[- stressed] ! {t(’),lʲ,{n,l}(ˀ)}_
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old Mandarino → a / C_w ! C = {K,C[+pharyngeal]}
{o,a} {a(ta),a(ch)} → e a / _ŋ
o → a / Cʲ_w
? → a / Cw_Cʲ
36.1.1.1 Old Mandarin to Modern Pekingese{e,o} → a / _w
36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàjew → au / C̣(C?)_
jew → iau / else
ɔ → a / in two cases cited; extremely rare change
ɔn → an; “[t]his final occurs exclusively after SR gutturals”
wɔn ja wa → uɔn ia ua
jaʔ → iaʔ
waʔ → aʔ / C[+labiodental]_
waʔ → uaʔ
aj jaj waj aw jaw → ai iai uai au iau
am → an
wan → an / C[+labiodental]_
wan → uan / else
aŋ jaŋ → uaŋ aŋ / C̣_
waŋ → uaŋ
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to Naxia → wa / {K,ŋ}w_%
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Lau → a / _k
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Toat → {at,ɛ,ed}
an → ia
ej → ai
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtseuŋ → ak
om → {o,a}m
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Moi → a / _t
36.3.2.2.5 Proto-rGyalrongic to Trungun → ial
an → a(i)
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Naoom → {on,am}
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu Taaw aj → au ai
e i → i a / _m
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassuan ap → ai ie
im iŋ → wa ie
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeea(ː)wẽ(ː) → a(ː)ma(ː)
V[+nas] → aː[+high rising tone]
37.1.2 Proto-Iroquoian to Proto-Northern Iroquoiano(ː) u(ː) → a(ː) o(ː)
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayuga∅ → a / w_j
”V(C)(C)CaCV → V(C)”(C)CaCV / _#
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huron∅ → a / CC_ʔ
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandotɛ̃(ː) → ã(ː) / w_
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagaara → aː / “unaccented syllables only”
”V(C)(C)CaCV → V(C)”(C)CaCV / _#
37.2.3 Proto-Siouan to Mandanã → a / in ”U (sporadic)
37.2.5 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Crow-Hidatsaã ı̃ ũ → a i u
37.2.6.1 Proto-Dhegiha to Kansaũ → aN / stressed
37.2.6.2 Proto-Dhegiha to Omaha-Poncaũ → ã / stressed
37.2.6.4 Proto-Dhegiha to Quapawũ → ã / stressed (*)
37.2.7.1 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Biloxiã → an (sporadic)
37.2.7.2 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Ofoã → {an,õ}
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Taiɨ̯a → aː
ɛi ei → ai iː
38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchowai → aːi
u̯əi uəi uai i̯əu iau → oːi uːi uːiau oːu
a → aː / _u,i
əi → ai
ɨ̯ai → aːi
{o,ə} → a / _ɨ
{ɛɨ,eɨ} → aɨ
o → a / _u
i̯əu → au
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Taiɨ̆ → a / _K
{ɨ̯u,i̯ɛ} → ɨə̯~ɨa̯ / _%
ɨ̯a → ɨa̯~ɨə̯
{u̯ɔ,u̯a} → ua~uə
ɨ̯ɔ → ɨa~ɨə
ɛi ei → ai əi
38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-Aiɨ̆ → a / _K
ə → {a,ɒ,ɑ,ʌ} ?
ɨo̯ ɨa̯ ie̯ ɨe̯ → uː aː eː iː
ɨ a → ɨː aː / _i
{əi,ɛi,ei} → ai
ə → a / _{u,ɨ}
ɛ e i → eː a iː / _u
38.1.1.4.3 North Tai to Wu-Mingu → aʊ̯
əi → ai
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Taiɨ̯a → aː
ɛi ei → ai iː
38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lüəi → ai
38.1.1.5.3 Southwest Tai to Shanəi → ai
38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siameseu̯a → aː
a → aː / _i
ɨ̯ai → aːi
əɨ → ai
{ɛɨ,eɨ} → ai
oɨ → ai
{o,ə} ɛ → a ɛː / _u
ɨ̯əu au → au aːu
uəi → uai
38.1.1.5.6 Southwest Tai to White Taiəi → ai
40 Totozoquean40.2 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Totonacan{ə,ɔ} {ə̰,ɔ̰} → a a̰
41 Trans-New Guinea41.1 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Apalɨe u i → a {u,ɨ} {i,ɨ}
41.3 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Binanderea → {a,o}
41.4 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kaetiu a → {u,o,y} {a,o}
41.7 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kâteu a → {u,ɔ} {ɔ,a}
41.9 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Selepetu o a e → {u,ɔ} {o,ɔ} {a,ɔ} {e,o}
42 Uralic42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnishæ → a / e(C…)_(C…)o
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livoniana → aː / VC_
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basque∅ → a / #_{ra,ro} (sporadic)
e → a / {V,C}_r (“mainly in the western dialects”)
u {o,e} → ∅ a / _#, in disyllables (eastern dialects)
aʊ → aɪ / !_{ɾ,r,s̺,s̻} (Souletin, Roncalese)
46 Vowel Shifts46.2 California Vowel Shift (English)æ → a
46.4 Polder Dutch Vowel Shiftɛi œy ʌu → ai ay au
46.5 Old English-to-Scots Vowel Shiftsa ɔ u → {a,ɑ} ɔ ʌ
— əi → aɪ / _{r,F[+voiced],$,#} (pursuant to the above)
46.8 Greek Vowel Shiftɛu au → ɛv av
46.11 Middle Chinese to Cantonese Vowel Shift (“The Inner-Outer Flip”)ə → a
a → {aː,ə} “(the environments for these respective changes are somewhat unclear)”
ə → a / _{i,u}
iəu → au
a → aː / _{i,u}
46.12 Northern Cities Vowel Shift (English)ɑ ɔ → a ɑ
46.13 Old Norse to Faroese Vowel Shift{a,æː} → ɛa / a
aː → ɔa “(except NE of the Faroes → aː)” / ɔ
eː → ɛa “(except Suðuroy → eː)” / a “(except Suðuroy → ɛ)”
46.14 Pre-Slavic Vowel Changesen an → ẽ ã
i → ı̆ [ə?] → {e,a} (strong)/∅ (weak) “in modern languages”
a aː → o a
u → ŭ [ɤ?] → {e,o,ɤ,a} (strong)/∅ (weak) “in modern languages”
46.17 Proto-Maidun to Nisenian Vowel Shiftu i e a → y e a o
46.19 Southern [United States] Shift (English)aɪ → aː / _#
aɪ → aː / _C[+ voiced]
aɪ → aː / else (only for some speakers)

with context involving /a/

259 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabic∅ → i / #al$_z
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakisk → kː / ! _a
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenakisk → kː / ! _a
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfootx → sː / {i,#e,ja,ke}_
t → ts / _{i,e(ː),a}
hi → ∅ / aː_
w → ∅ / {a,o}_iC
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawarea[+weak] ə[+weak] → ə ∅ / a_Z[+voiced]
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menomineea → o / $am_w
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaqk → χ / _(w)a(ː) ! #_
k → χ / a(ː)_
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawneej → ∅ / {tʃ,ʃ,w}_aː
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-JaponicV → a / _Ca
b → w / ! _{a,ə,Vj}
8.1.1 Early Middle Japanese to Modern Japanesew → ∅ / ! _{a,o}
w → ∅ / k_a
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolice o u æ ø y → {a,e} {o,u} {a,o,u a {a,o,u} {o,u,i} / _Ca
ʃ → tʃ / #_a
ŋ → n / #_{a,o,e}
8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusicæ → i / {s,ʃ,x}_Ca
{u,ø,y} æ → {o,u} ia / _Ca
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkica ø → {a,ʌ} a / P_Ca
a e i u æ ø y → a {a,ʌ,e} {ɯ,i} {u,o} {ia,ja,ɛ} {ia,ja} ɯ / _Ca
ʃ → tʃ / #_a
8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchakɣ → w / {a,u,i,o}_
9 Austroasiatic9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnamesec ɲ t n → t n k ŋ / a_ (short /a/ only)
10 Austronesian10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorro∅ → j / i_a
∅ → w / u_a
∅ → w / a_u
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North Sarawakh → ʔ / a_{i,u}
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiput∅ → h / a_#
10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to Caaàck → ∅ / _{o,a}
10.3.5.4 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Northern∅ → j / #_a
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-Nêlêmwak → ∅ / _{o,a}
kʰ → h / _a
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Yunagak → ∅ / _{o,a}
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bayp v m → t θ n / _{a,e,i}
10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to Tolomakom b → n̼ t̼ → n t / _{a,e,i}
10.3.11 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Southern Vanuatua → ə / _Ca
10.3.11.3 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Tannaa → ə / _Ca
10.3.11.3.3 Proto-Tanna to North Tannakʷ → ∅ / _a (rare)
10.4.1 Proto-Micronesian to Marshallesef → ɰ / #_aCo
∅ → ɰ / #_aC[-low]
∅ → j / #_{aC[+low],V[-back],C[-back]}
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to Onge{w,r} → ∅ / {a,e}_#
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamite{i,e,u} → ∅ / #_{t,n}a
c → s / #_{a,u}
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamili u → e o / _Ca
c → s / _{a,o,u,e}
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Aleutu → a / a_
v → w / a_a (in eastern dialects)
dʒ → ð / u_a (in eastern dialects)
15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow Iñupiaqə → a / a_
ədʒ → i / _{a,u} (except in #U)
adʒ → i / _a (except in #U?)
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic Iñupiaqə → a / a_
v → ∅ / u_a
ədʒ → i / _{a,u} (except in #U)
adʒ → i / _a (except in #U?)
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie Iñupiaqə → a / a_
ədʒ → i / _{a,u} (except in #U)
adʒ → i / _a (except in #U?)
15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales Iñupiaqə → a / a_
ədʒ → i / _{a,u} (except in #U)
adʒ → i / _a (except in #U?)
15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’ikə → ∅ / _dʒ{a,u}, except in #U
a → ∅ / _dʒa, except in #U
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’ikə → i / {u,a}_ (though aə seems to have become i in some circumstances)
ə → ∅ / _dʒ{a,u} except in #U
a → ∅ / _dʒa (except in #U?)
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’iku → a / a_
ə → i / {u,a}_
ə → ∅ / _dʒ{a,u} except in #U
a → ∅ / _dʒa (except in #U?)
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’ikə → i / {u,a}_ (though aə seems to have become i in some circumstances)
ə → ∅ / _dʒ{a,u} except in #U
a → ∅ / _dʒa (except in #U?)
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.1 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Nafrie → ə / _C{a,ə,u} (seems to have become a in a few instances)
16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central Sentanie → ə / _C{a,ə,u} (seems to have become a in a few instances)
16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern Sentanie → ə / _C{a,ə,u} (seems to have become a in a few instances)
16.1.4 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Western Sentanie → ə / _C{a,ə,u} (seems to have become a in a few instances)
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albaniani̯ → ɟ / {a,e,i}_
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albaniani̯ → ɟ / {a,e,i}_
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armeniant → tʰ / {aw,ow}_
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armeniant → tʰ / {aw,ow}_
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armeniant → tʰ / {aw,ow}_ ! #_
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armeniant → tʰ / {aw,ow}_
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armeniant → tʰ / {aw,ow}_
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armeniant → tʰ / {aw,ow}_
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armeniant → tʰ / {aw,ow}_
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestanh(j) → ŋh / a_a
hw → ŋʷh / a_a
h → ŋ / a_ra
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— e → a / _Ra (short a only), though “[t]he e was often restored by analogy”
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irish— i u → e o / _C(…C){a(ː),e(ː),o(ː)}
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshi u → e o / _Ca
17.7.2 Common Germanic to West Germanici u → e o / _%{a,o}
17.7.2.1.11 Scots to Falkirk Scotsʟ → ʊ / {a,ɛ}_, typically ! _V
17.7.3 Common Germanic to Proto-Norse(w)u(ː) i(ː) → (w)o(ː) e(ː) / _(C)(C)a ! CC = NC or one C = {ʀ,j}
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norse∅ → j / {y,e}(ː)_a
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandicv → ∅ / {u,o,a}ː_
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.10 Proto-Indo-European to Mycenaean Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishɛ ɛ̃ ɛː → ɔ ɔ̃ a / _C[-palatalized +dental] (also sporadically before plain non-dentals)
ьl → ɛɫ / P_C[+dental -palatalized]
ь → aː / r_C[+dental -palatalized]
s → ∅ / _ɫza in “słza”
17.11.2 Proto-Slavic to Old Russian∅ → j / #_a
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalano → u / _a
kʷ → k / #_a%”V
kʷ → ɡw / V_a
kʷ → kw / #_”a
ɡʷ → ɡw / #_a
ɡʷ → ɡw / C_a
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French{k,ɡ} → ∅ / B_a
{k,ɡ} → j / _{a,C}
kʷ → j{v,u} / V_a
k ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _a
∅ → j / {ʃ,ʒ,sj,zj}”{a,é}_ in U[+open]
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to Italianr → ∅ / a_ju#
ɡ → ∅ / a_V
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portugueseɫ → w / V_Ca
k → ɡ / #_{a,r} (rare)
kʷ → kw / #_”a
kʷ → k / VC_{a,i,e}
kʷ → ɡw / V_a
ɡʷ → ɡw / C_a
e → j / {a,o,u}_
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal(s)k ɡ → (s)tʃ dʒ / #_a (in the north and northeast)
kː → tʃ / _a (in the east and northeast)
ɡ → j / _a (in the north and east; further → dʒ in the north)
ð → ∅ / au_
rdɡ → r{ɡ,dʒ} / _a
bk → pts / _a
ksk → stʃ / _a (in the north and northeast)
pk → ptʃ / _a
17.12.1.1.7 Vulgar Latin to Rhaeto-Romancek ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _a (note the similarity with some varieties of Old Provençal)
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romaniankʷ ɡʷ → p b / V_a
e → a / i_(C…){a,e}#
m → u / a_nV
e → ∅ / P_a
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-TocharianKʷ → K / _{C,o,a} ! C = syllabic
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.1.2 Pre-Bakairi to Western Bakairiz → h / V_a
20 Khoisan20.2.1 Proto-Kx’a to ǂHoano → ∅ / a(C)_
20.2.2 Proto-Kx’a to Northwestern !Xuno → a / _Ca
20.2.3 Proto-Kx’a to Southeastern !Xuno → a / _Ca
21 Lakes Plain21.2.1.1 Proto-Central Tariku to Edopid → d~n~l / #_a
21.2.1.2 Proto-Central Tariku to Iaud → d~l~n / #_a
21.2.3.1 Proto-West Tariku to Deirateb → m / #_a
21.2.3.2 Proto-West Tariku to Faiab d → m n / #_a
21.2.3.3 Proto-West Tariku to Fayub d → m n / #_a
21.2.3.4 Proto-West Tariku to Kirikirib d → m n / #_a
21.2.3.5 Proto-West Tariku to Sehudateb → m / #_a
21.2.3.6 Proto-West Tariku to Tauseb → m / #_a
21.2.3.7 Proto-West Tariku to Weirateb d → m n / #_a
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.1 Proto-Chibchan to Arhuacoi → ∅ / a_
23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to Chibchau → o / _Ca
u → ∅ / _a
i → a / _(C)a
23.1.1.1.3 Proto-Chibchan to Kogii → ∅ / a_ (sometimes)
u → w / _a
23.1.1.1.5 Proto-Chibchan to Motilóni → ∅ / a_ (usually; sometimes the diphthong is retained or → aj)
u → ∅ / a_
u → ∅ / _a
23.1.1.1.6 Proto-Chibchan to Tuneboi → a / _Ca
24 Macro-Pama-Nyungan24.1.1 Proto-Paman to AritinŋitiÉ£u i → w j / a_ when this a is a result of metathesis (?)
24.1.2 Proto-Paman to Awŋtimu i → w j / a_ when this a is a result of the preceding metathesis
∅ → a / #(C)aː(C)_V ! _a
24.1.4 Proto-Paman to Mbiywomu i → w j / a_ when this a is a result of metathesis (?)
24.1.7 Proto-Paman to Yinwumi → e / #(C)aC[-palatal]_
∅ → j / #iː(C)_a
∅ → w / #uː(C)_a
25 Macro-Panoan25.1.2 Proto-Tacanan to Chaman → ɲ / i_{o,a} (the former is conjectured)
25.1.4 Proto-Tacanan to Tacanak → kʷ / _a
28 Muskogean28 Muskogeanl → j / a_i
28.1.2 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Creekx → w / a_o
30 Niger-Congo30.1.2 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-Manenguba{u,o} {ɛ,e,i} → w j / C_a in noun roots
{u,o} {ɛ,e,i} → w j / C_(a) in verb roots
30.2.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic to Proto-Akanich → ɲı̃ / #_ã
30.2.1.1 Proto-Akanic to Akani → ∅ / #C_a
ı̃ → ∅ / #_ã
30.3.1.1.7 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Vhew → ɣ / _{a,E}
31 Nyulnyulan31.1 Proto-Nyulnyulan to Bardii{w,j} → ∅ / _a, when unstressed
b → w / a_u
i(ː)b ik → iw ij / _a
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinot → ɾ / _”a
k → ɡ / a_a
h → d / _a (…lolwut)
32.1.2 Proto-Chatino to Tataltepec Chatinotʲ → t / _a
32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinokʲ → k / _{a,ã}
ts → tʃ / #_{a,õ}ʔ
tʃ → ts / a_
s → tʃ / #_a
nʲ → j / _ã (with some exceptions?)
h → ʔ / _ã
33 Penutian33.1.1.2.1 Proto-Miwok to Proto-Western Miwokʈ → tʃ / {aː,oː}_
33.1.1.4 Proto-Costanoan to Rumsenʈ → {ʈ,tʃ} / {aː,oː}_
34 Quechumaran34.2 Proto-Quechumaran to Boliviaʂ → h / _{a,i}
j → ∅ / i_{a,u}
34.3 Proto-Quechumaran to Cuzcoph → p / #_aC[+sibilant]
ph → p / a_ (?)
kh → k / #_a
34.4 Proto-Quechumaran to Huarásʂ → ʃ / _a
34.7 Proto-Quechumaran to Riobambaʎ → ʒ / _{a,u}
34.8 Proto-Quechumaran to Santiagoʂ → ∅ / _{a,i}
ʎ → ʒ / _{a,u}
j → ∅ / i_{a,u}
35 Salishan35.1.1 Proto-Central Salish to Comoxs → ∅ / #_{wa,wi}
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to Nooksacks → ʃ / #_{xʲ,w{i,a},qʷa}
ə1 → æ2 / a3C(C)_
ə1 → æ2 / _C(C)a3
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1 Proto-Sino-Tibetan to Middle ChineseKw → Kʷ- / _a-
36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old Mandarinxɦ → ∅ / _j(w){?,ia,a(ta)}
i → ∅ / C(w)_a
C → Cʲ / {K,C[+pharyngeal]}_{a,a(ch)}
ŋ → n / n_Cʲa(ta)
k → j / {e,a,o}_
∅ → w / C̣_aŋ
wʲ → w / _aŋ
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Lan → ∅ / a_
36.3.2.1.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Hanniuk → ∅ / {u,a}_
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Toŋ → ɳ / {o,a}_
36.3.2.2.3 Proto-rGyalrongic to Patin → ∅ / a_
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu Tat → ŋ / a_
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassut → ∅ / a_
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoianm → w / _ã
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayugar → w / {o(ː),õ(ː)}_{a(ː),e(ː),ẽ(ː),i(ː)}
r → j / {e(ː),ẽ(ː),i(ː)}_{a(ː),o(ː),õ(ː)}
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecaa → æ / _ra(ː)
o → oː / _{aː,æː}
37.2.6.2 Proto-Dhegiha to Omaha-Poncan → θ / _{ã,ẽ,õ}
Lʲ → {θ,n} / _V[+nas -stress]
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to Osagen → ð / _{ã,ẽ,õ}
Lʲ → ð / _V[+nas -stress]
37.2.6.4 Proto-Dhegiha to QuapawLʲ → t / #_ã (*)
42 Uralic42.1 Proto-Uralic to Pre-Finnica → æ / {a,e,ê,i,y}(X)(C)(C)_, when unstressed
42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnicɑ → o / ”{a,e,i}(X)C_j
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livoniane → ɤ / _C(C){a,o,u}
43 Uto-Aztecan43.3 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Luiseñok → q / an_
k → x / a_
43.4 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Nahuatlt → tɬ / _{a,u}
43.5.1.2 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Mono(h)k → (h)q / _{o,a} ! ɨ_
kw → q / _a
(h)kʷ → hq(ʷ) / _{o,a}
43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhamɭ → ɖ / _a
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basque∅ → a / #_{ra,ro} (sporadic)
a → e / _$a (Biscayan, Alavese, some Guipuscoan)
o e → u i / _$a (raising of *o is less common)
{w,y} → ∅ / _ja
e → j / #_a
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.1 Proto-Pai to Chapai{w,j} → ∅ / a_