Index Diachronica: involving /e/

689 results from /e/   519 results to /e/   133 results with context involving /e/   

plain eːʲ ẽː

from /e/

689 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North Omotice → i / #N_C
e → i / #l_{P,C[+voiced]}
e → i / #b_
e → i / p_r
e → i / #{s,ʃ,tsʼ}_{k(w),ʔ}
e o → i u / #C_P
e o → i u / #(ʔ)_C
e o → i u / #{k(ʼ),x}_{t(ʼ),tsʼ}
e o → i u / #(ʔ)_C$
e o → i u / #P_{tsʼ,tʃʼ}
e(ː) → i(ː) / #C[+sibilant]_{d,n,r}
6.2.2 Proto-Erythrean to Proto-North Erythreaneː oː → i u
{e,o} {i,u} → a ə
6.2.2.1.19 Biblical Hebrew to Modern Israeli Hebrew{e(ː),ɛ} → ɛ
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakioː aː eː iː → o ɔ̃ a i
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenakioː eː iː → o a i
7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-Atsinawe → o
e → i / #_
7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapahoeː → ei / j_
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfoote → i / {#,k}_
{a,e,i} → o / _kʷ
{jiː,ja,ahi} {owaː,awa,awe} awi {iːwa,eːwa,aji,aje,ani} → i oː o(ji) iː / C_C
eLwi → iː
tem {k,p}en → mː nː
ket → tː (→ sː?)
ke(h) → tː ?
{k(ʷ)es,keθ} → sː
e → ∅ / O_ in #U (not universal)
{me,ne} → ∅ / #_O “(followed by truncation of following x)”
{we,wiː} → o / #_
e → a / _#
{eː,iː} → i
7.5 Proto-Algonquian to Cheyennee i → a e
7.6 Proto-Algonquian to Northern East Creewe → o
e eː → i aː
ʃjeː → seː
7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East Creewe → o
e → i (short only)
ʃjeː → ʃeː
7.8 Proto-Algonquian to Plains Creewe → o
e → i (short only in southern dialects, both short and long in northern dialects)
ʃjeː → seː
7.9 Proto-Algonquian to Swampy Creewe → o
e → i (short only)
ʃjeː → ʃeː
7.10 Proto-Algonquian to Woods Creewe → o
e(ː) → i(ː)
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawarewe → wə → oː / ! adjacent to {p,m,k}
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menomineewe je → o i / _C
we → o / #_
e → i / Vː%_ ! _H
e → i / #(C)_ ! _H
e → i / _{k,m} “when in the second syllable of glottal words”
e(ː) i → æ(ː) e
{wiː,jiː,weː,jeː,wæː,jæː} {wi,ji,we,je,wæ,jæ} → iː i / C_
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaqeːk → oχ / _w
o(ː) waː eː iː → u o e i
ehi → eː
7.15 Proto-Algonquian to Ojibwewe e → o i
jeː → iː / C_
7.16 Proto-Algonquian to Piscatawaye → o / unclear conditioning
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawneewe → o
e → i / #(C)_ “(but remains e in a few cases?)”
je → i / C_
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonic{a,e,o,æ} i u y ø → ə i ua {u,ə} {ə,u} / _Ce
{a,æ,e,ø,i,y} o → i u / _Ci
e i {o,u} æ ø y → {ə,a} {i,ə} ə a {ə,u} {u,ə} / _Co
8.1.1 Early Middle Japanese to Modern Japanese(w)e → je
au iu uu eu ou → ɔː juː uː joː oː
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolice o u æ ø y → {a,e} {o,u} {a,o,u a {a,o,u} {o,u,i} / _Ca
a e i o u æ ø y → {a,i} {e,ja} {e,i} {ø,y,o} {o,u,y} {i,a,e} {e,ø} {ø,y,o,u} / _Ce
a e u æ ø y → {a,e} {e,i} {y,ø} {i,e} {i,e,ø} {ø,y,o,u} / _Ci
e → {y,ø} / P_Co
e → {y,ø} / C_Po
e → o / P_Cu
e → o / C_Pu
a e o i æ ø y → {a,i,e} {a,e} u {o,u} e {ø,y,o,u} {o,u} / _Co
a e {o,u} æ ø y → {a,o,u} {e,a} {o,u} {a,o,u} {e,i,u} {i,o,u,y,ø} / _Cu
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkica e i u æ ø y → a {a,ʌ,e} {ɯ,i} {u,o} {ia,ja,ɛ} {ia,ja} ɯ / _Ca
e → ja / #_C{e,i}
a {e,i} o u æ ø y → {ɛ,a} ɛ {ø,o} {y,u} {ia,ja,ɛ} {ia,ja} {y,ø} / _Ci
a e i æ ø y → {o,ja,aj} {ʌ,ɜ} ɯ {ia,ja} {o,u} {u,o} / _Co
e i æ ø y → {ɛ,a,ʌ} {ɯ,i} {e,a} {u,o} ɯ / _Cu
8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchak{e,æ}b ub → ew uw
ew (→ øj) → yj
8.5.1.2 Proto-Kypchak to Kyrgyz{u,ɯ}w {i,y}w aw {æ,e}w → uː yː oː øː
e → i / _ɡ
e → i / k_y (maybe they mean k_j?)
8.5.2 Proto-Turkic to Sakha{e,ɤ}ː → je (the second one is conjectured based on my admittedly sparse knowledge of Turkish; I can only guess that 〈ė〉 is some sort of back unrounded vowel)
eɡ → {je,iː,ji}
10 Austronesian10.1 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Malayo-Polynesiane → a / _s
10.1.1.1 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Balineseej ow → i u
10.1.1.2 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sasakiw ow ej → i o e / _#
10.1.1.3 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sumbawanej ow → e o / _#
10.1.2.7 Proto-Philippine to Proto-Kalamiane → u / _Cu
e → i / _Ci
e → u / uC_
e → a / _C[- voice]#
10.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Batak{a,e} → o / _w#
10.3 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Oceanice {uj,iw} → o i
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwe(C){V[- low]} e(C)a → e(C) e(C)ə
u(C)V[+ high] u(C)e u(C)o u(C)a → {u,i}(C) u(C)ə e(C)ə {u,ɵ}(C)ə
{e,i} → ɪ (sporadic)
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerig— eCV[+ mid] → ɛC
— eCV[+ low] → aC
o e → ʊ ɪ
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to Mwotlapo e i → ɔ ɛ ɪ / C_V[- high]
o e → ʊ ɪ
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejomei → i
e → i / Ḱ_ “[tendency]”
e → i / _Ḱ “[tendency]”
10.3.11.2.1 Proto-Erromango to Syee → o / K_
e → o / _K
10.3.11.3 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Tannao e → {u,ə} i
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’ae(C)V[- low] → e(C)
e(C)V[+ low] → ɛCɛ
a(C){o,e} → a(C)
oa {ae,ea} → uɔ iɛ
o e → ʊ ɪ
10.4.1 Proto-Micronesian to Marshallese{i,u} {e,o} → ɨ ɜ
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Ongane → ə / _N when unstressed ! Ḱ_ (?; included here based on a comment earlier in the paper, but not listed on the correspondence list)
10.5.1 Proto-Ongan to Jarawae → ə / _N, when unstressed (?)
e → {e,ə,o} / _V
e → ∅ / _# (?)
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to Ongee → ə / _N, when unstressed (?)
e → {e,ə,o} / _V
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamite{i,e,u} → ∅ / #_{t,n}a
e → {e,i} / #C_C
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamilaː eː iː oː uː → a ɛ i o u / _#
{om,on} {em,en} {oːm,oːn} {eːm,eːn} → ɔ̃ ɛ̃ õ ẽ
i(ː) e(ː) → u(ː) o(ː) / {m,v,p}_C̣
o e → u i / _C{u,i} “(highly sporadic)”
— i(ː) e(ː) → u(ː) o(ː) / _ɭ
— eCə oCə → Ceː Coː / #_
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.1 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Nafrie → i / _(C)i
e → æ / {P,K}_
e → æ / _P
e → ə / _C{a,ə,u} (seems to have become a in a few instances)
16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central Sentanie → i / _(C)i
e → æ / {P,K}_
e → æ / _P
e → ə / _C{a,ə,u} (seems to have become a in a few instances)
16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern Sentanie → i / _(C)i
e → æ / {P,K}_
e → æ / _P
e → ə / _C{a,ə,u} (seems to have become a in a few instances)
16.1.4 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Western Sentanie → i / _(C)i
e → æ / {P,K}_
e → æ / _P
e → ə / _C{a,ə,u} (seems to have become a in a few instances)
16.1.5 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Tablae → ə / unstressed (possibly only in disyllables?)
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanianeː iː oː uː → o i e {y,i}
a e i o → {a,e} (j)e {e,i} a
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanianeː iː oː uː → o i e {y,i}
a e i o → {a,e} (j)e {e,i} a
17.2 Proto-Indo-European to Common Anatolianeh2 → æː / “tautosyllabic”
ei eu → ɛː uː
17.2.1 Common Anatolian to Hittitee o → eː oː / in ”U[+stress]
e → i / _{m,ŋ} when posttonic in U[+closed] or when pretonic
e → a / _n in U[+open +posttonic]
e → a / _{r,l} (sporadic)
17.2.2 Common Anatolian to Luwiane → i / j_
e → a
{ɛ,e}ː æː → iː aː
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lyciane → i / j_
{ɛ,e}ː o æː → iː e aː
e → a / _U[+u,a]
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to Lydiane → i / j_
{e,a,o} → ē / _N in ”U[+closed]
{e,a,o} → ā / _N in ”U[+open]
{e,o} → a / in U[-stress]
o(ː) eː æː → a(ː) iː aː
17.2.5 Common Anatolian to Palaice → i / pretonic
e → a / posttonic in U[+open]
a e → aː eː / in ”U[+closed]
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
{e,o}j ɛw → ɛj ow
{e,o} → a (rare)
e → ɛ
ej ia → e ɛa
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
{e,o}j ɛw → ɛj ow
{e,o} → a (rare)
e → ɛ
ej ia → e ɛa
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
{e,o}j ɛw → ɛj ow
{e,o} → a (rare)
e → ɛ
ej ia → e ɛa
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
{e,o}j ɛw → ɛj ow
{e,o} → a (rare)
e → ɛ
ej ia → e ɛa
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
{e,o}j ɛw → ɛj ow
{e,o} → a (rare)
e → ɛ
ej ia → e ɛa
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
{e,o}j ɛw → ɛj ow
{e,o} → a (rare)
e → ɛ
ej ia → e ɛa
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
{e,o}j ɛw → ɛj ow
{e,o} → a (rare)
e → ɛ
ej ia → e ɛa
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestane eː → a aː
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— h1e h2e h3e → e a o
— eh1 eh2 eh3 → eː aː oː
— e → a / _Ra (short a only), though “[t]he e was often restored by analogy”
— eː → iː
— oː ej → aː eː
— e → o / _w
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irisheː → iː / ! _{i,u}
— e → i / _(C…)#
— e o → i u / _C(…C){H,j}
— {a,e}n → eː / _{p t k s}
{au,eu,ou} → oː
ei → eː
eː → ia / _{#,Cʲ} when stressed; “ai and oi remain, but are written as <ae ai oe oi> seemingly randomly”
— {e,o} → a / _[anything]
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshei → eː
{au,eu,ou} → ∅
{a,e,o} → ei / _(C…)j
e → i / _N
17.6 Proto-Indo-European to Daciane → je / in open syllables, when stressed
e → ja / in closed syllables, when stressed
eː → aː
ei → {ei,i} (“PIE *ei evolution is not well reconstructed yet”)
17.7 Proto-Indo-European to Common Germanice → i
eː → æː
ei oi → iː ai
eːi {oːi,aːi} → eː oː (?)
eu ou → iu au
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothic— o e → u i
— ew → iw
17.7.2.1 West Germanic to Anglo-Frisianai au eu → {eː,aː} aː ia
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle Englisheɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː
{æːj,e(ː)j} → ej
{eɑh,eɑç,eɑx,eɑʝ,eɑɣ} → ɑw
eːɑw iːw → ew ju
ɑ e o → ɑː ɛː oː / in U[+open] ! in #U with the following U containing /iː/ or ending in one of /m n r l/
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle Englisheɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː
{æːj,e(ː)j} → ej
{eɑh,eɑç,eɑx,eɑʝ,eɑɣ} → ɑw
eːɑw iːw → ew ju
ɑ e o → ɑː ɛː oː / in U[+open] ! in #U with the following U containing /iː/ or ending in one of /m n r l/
{e,ɑ,o} → ə → ∅ / _#
17.7.2.1.4 Midlands Middle English to Early Modern Englisheː oː → eɪ oʊ / ! _ɹ
17.7.2.1.5 Early Modern English to American Englishi u e → ɪ ʊ ɛ / _ɹ
eə → eː
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishɜːɹ ɑːɹ ɔːɹ eːɹ oːɹ iːɹ uːɹ → ɜː ɑː ɔː ɛə ɔə ɪə ʊə / syllable-finally
17.7.2.1.7 Early Modern English to British Englishɜːɹ ɑːɹ ɔːɹ eːɹ oːɹ iːɹ uːɹ → ɜː ɑː ɔː ɛə ɔə ɪə ʊə / syllable-finally
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle Englisheɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː
{æːj,e(ː)j} → ej
{eɑh,eɑç,eɑx,eɑʝ,eɑɣ} → ɑw
eːɑw iːw → ew ju
ɑ e o → ɑː ɛː oː / in U[+open] ! in #U with the following U containing /iː/ or ending in one of /m n r l/
{e,ɑ,o} → ə → ∅ / _#, when unstressed (it appears this sound may also have gone to /ɪ/)
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scots— ai oi ui ei au ou iu ɛ(o)u → eː oe əi iː {ɑː,ɔː} ʌu ju j(ʌ)u
— iː eː ɛː aː oː uː {øː,yː} → əi i {i,e} e o u ø
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsæː(ɑ) eː(o) → ɛ iː
e → ɛ / _nt
e(o) → ɛ
e → ɛ / “unstressed”
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle Englisheɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː
{æːj,e(ː)j} → ej
{eɑh,eɑç,eɑx,eɑʝ,eɑɣ} → ɑw
eːɑw iːw → ew ju
ɑ e o → ɑː ɛː oː / in U[+open] ! in #U with the following U containing /iː/ or ending in one of /m n r l/
{e,ɑ,o} → ə / _#
e → ∅ / if another /e/ one syllable previous
17.7.2.1.14 Anglo-Frisian to Old Frisianaj aw ew → {eː,aː} aː ja
17.7.2.2 West Germanic to Old Low Franconianeː oː → ie uo
ei ou → eː oː (except in southeastern dialects; *ei as a result of the umlaut of *ai was not affected)
17.7.2.2.1 Old Low Franconian to Middle Dutch{ie,ia,io} uo → iə uə
{ol,al} {ar,er} or → ɔu aːr oːr / _C[+dental]
17.7.2.2.3 Modern Dutch to Polder Dutch Vowel Shifteː øː oː → ɛi œy ɔu
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germane(ː) i → ø(ː) y / _C[+ affricate]
e(ː) i → ø(ː) y / _{P,l,ʃ} (sporadic?)
e(ː) i → ø(ː) y / {P,l,ʃ}_ (sporadic?)
ou øy ei → au oy ai
17.7.3 Common Germanic to Proto-Norse{æ,e}ː(w(a)) → aː
{æ,e}ːuː {æ,e}ːiː → eu ai
w{o,u}ːwuː j{e,i}ːjiː → uː iː
o(u) {ɔ,ɑ,au,ai,æ} {ja,jE,æ(i),e(i),y} → u a i
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old NorseBːB aː{o,a,æ,e} {æ,e}ː{æ,e}ː {æ,e}ːi iːEː → oː aː eː eː iː
e → i / #(C)(C)(C)_(C)(C)(C){i,j}
e → ja / ! {{h,k,ŋ}n,w,v,l,r}_, _{u,o,i}
a(i) {e,w{æ,i}} {we,ei} (w)ɪ → ey ø y ʏ / w_ ! hw_
a(ː) ae → o(ː) ɒø / #(C)(C)(C)_(C)(C)(C)u
{(j)u,we}ː {o,ɒ}ː aː au → yː øː æː æy
{a,æ,e}ːhiː → æː
{u,we,wi} {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / _(C)(C)(C)i
wa we wi → ɒː øː yː / #P_
e → jɒ / _(C)(C)(C)u ! {{h,k,ŋ}n,w,v,l,r}_
e → ja / _(C)(C)(C)u ! {{h,k,ŋ}n,w,v,l,r}_
au {ai,ey,ei} æ{y,i} øy Vː → o e æ ø V / #(C)(C)(C)_CC
{æ,e}i ai au w{ɪ,i} wy wV iu Vː → eː aː oː weː woː wVː eː oː V
ey → {jo,æ}ː / _ʀ
o {æ,e} → u i / ! in #U
e(ː){B,i(ː)} → e(ː)u / {v,w}_
eː{Bː,i(ː)} → joː / _C[+ alveolar]#
eː{Bː,i(ː)} → juː
eː → e / Ḱ_
eː j → e ∅ / Cw_
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandicu o a ø y e i → uː oː aː øi yː ei iː / _{ɲc,ɲɟ,ŋk,ŋɡ}
u o a øː eː y i → ʏɪ oi ai øi ei yː iː / _j
e → ei / _{ɣ,j}
u oː aː ʏɪ {y,i} {y,i}ː æː eː ey → ʏ ou au ai y ɪ i je ei
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornu a e eː → ʌ ɑ ɪ ɛ / _Cː
e iː → ɛ i(ː)
ey → eː / _F
ey → ɛ / _r
ey → ai
ei → eː / _C(ː,V)# (V can be a syllabic consonant)
e → a / _i
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Norn{u,o}(ː) a aː {ɒ,œ,y} e i(ː) → {o,ɔ}(i) æ(i) {ɔ,ɒ}(i) {o,ɔ}(i) {æ,e} / _{Ḱ,Cʲ}
{ɒ,ey} j{u,o,a}ː yː → o ø u / Ḱ_
e → {o,ɒ} / _w
eː → {ɒ,ə} / w_
e eː → {æ,ɛ,e} {(j)ɛ,je}
ey → ø
17.7.4 Common Germanic to Vandaliceː → i / unstressed
e → i / ! {w,r,h}_
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekej ow → eː oː
eː → iː / _C
eː → iː / _V
e o → ɛ ɔ
ɑu ɛu eu → ɑv ɛv ev
e → i
”{i,e}V → j”V
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greek{eː,ej} ɛː ɑ(ː)j {oj,ɔːj} → iː eː ɛː {y,ø}
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekej ow → eː oː happened “in the various Ionic dialects at various dates”
eː → iː / _V
e o → ɛ ɔ
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittitee(ː) → a(ː) / _h2
e(ː) → a(ː) / h2_
e(ː) → o(ː) / _h3
e(ː) → o(ː) / h3_
{uː,eu,au} → u
— e(ː) → a(ː) / _R “sometimes??”
— e(ː) → a(ː) / “when unstressed?”
17.10 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iraniane → a / _{h2,h3}
e → a / {h2,h3}_
{e,o,o2,N̊} → a
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-Aryane o → i u / _#
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-Aryane o → i u / _#
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-Aryane o → i u / _#
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-Aryane o → i u / _#
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavice(ː)i → i
{a(ː)u,o(ː)u} e(ː)u → u ju
e → ь / _jV
e → o / _wV
{e(ː),i(ː)} {a(ː),o(ː),u(ː)} → ẽ õ / _N$
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishɒ e → a ɛ
17.11.2 Proto-Slavic to Old Russianor ol er el → oro olo ere ele / _$
ẽ õ → ja u
je → o / #_
je → o / V_ (sporadic)
17.12 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Italiceu → ou
17.12.1 Proto-Italic to Proto-Latino-Falsicane → {e,i}
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latine o → i u / _ŋ
e → o / _ɫ
oj → oi → oe → uː
{ew,ow} → ou → uː
a → e → i / %(C)(C)_ŋ when unstressed
a → e → u / %(C)(C)_ɫ when unstressed
e → u / %(C)(C)_ɫ when unstressed
ai → ei → iː / %(C)(C)_ when unstressed
ei oi ou → iː eː uː / %(C)(C)_ when unstressed
{i,e} → ∅ / _# (sometimes)
e → i / _{s,t}#
{ai,ei,oi} → ei → iː / _(C)(C)#
e → o / _w
e → o / w_
17.12.1.1.1 Classical Latin vs. Vulgar Latin{e,i} → j / C_V when unstressed
{e,ai} → ɛ
{i,eː,oi} → e
“In contrast, Romanian exhibits u, uː → u (and ultimately also ɔ, oː → o); and Sardinian and African Latin underwent a straight merger of the vowels by length without considering quality (e, eː → e; i, iː → i; u, uː → u; etc.)”
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalan{i,eː} e → {e,ɛ} {ɛ,e} / stressed
{i,eː,e} → e / _%”V
oe → {e,ɛ}
ae au → e ɔ / stressed
ae au → e o / _%”V
{i,e(ː),ae} → ∅ / _(C)#
e → ɛ / _v
e → i / _{nk,ŋ} when stressed (irregular)
aj → ej → ee → e (irregular)
e → ɛ (in Eastern Catalan)
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— {i,e} → j / _V
— (a)e → è
— {eː,i,oe} → é
— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e
— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e
è → iɛ / in U[+open]
è → iɛ / _C#
è → ɛ / in U[+closed]
V”e → ”Vi
{lːe,lːo} → u / {e,o}_# “[this is actually an analogical development, but it applies as regularly as a sound law]”
é → ɛi / in U[+open]
é → ɛ / in U[+closed]
e → ə / #(C…)_(%…)” in U[+open]
e → ɛ / #(C…)_(%…)” in U[+closed] or _V (?)
{ei,ɔi} → oi / C[-nas]
{aı̃,eı̃} → ɛ̃
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to Italiantaːte → ”ta / _#
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguesee → iː / ”_%ɪː#
iː {i,eː} e → i e ɛ / stressed
iː {i,e(ː)} → i e / _%”V
{i(ː),e(ː),ae} → e / _#
aː oe → a e
ae → ɛ / stressed
e → ∅ / el_#
{ã,ãe,õe} → ão / _#
e V → o ∅ / _? (irregular)
e → o / _m”V (irregular)
e → ∅ / {l,n,r,s,k}_#
e → ∅ / ”{i,e}_#
e → i / _(C)(C)V(C)#
{e,i} → ∅ / {l,m,r}_ when between #U and U[+stress]
{e,i} → ∅ / k_t when between #U and U[+stress]
{e,i} → ∅ / {L,N}_(C)(C)V(C)#
e → j / {a,o,u}_
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— e → i / _V (and possibly V_?)
— e → i / _(C…)i{C(C…)V,#}
— {a,œ,e,i} → e (here, 〈œ〉 denotes the reflex of the Latin vowel written this way, not a front rounded vowel)
— e → i / _(C…)i(C…)#
— e u → e o / _nt#
17.12.1.1.7 Vulgar Latin to Rhaeto-Romanceɛ e → ej je
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanian— (a)e → ɛ
— eː,i,oe → e
— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e
— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e / _#
o e → u i / _N
e → a / i_(C…){a,e}#
”elːa → e”a / _#
e → ə / ”U…P_(C…)V# ! V = i
e → ə / ou_#
e → i / #(C…)V…_n…”U
e → ə / #(C…)V…{t,d,n}_…”U
e → ə / P”_(C…)B
e → ∅ / P_a
e → ə / #{r,P}_…”U
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardiniane → i / C_V
e → ∅ / u_#
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to SpanishRaising of e {ɛ,a} ɔ o → i e o u; near j, in particular environments:
— e → i / _Cj ! C = p
”je.o ”je.a → {”i.o,”jo} ”i.a
e → ∅ / V{d,s,n,l,ɾ}_#
17.12.2 Proto-Italic to Proto-Sibellianeu → ou
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tocharianh2e → ə / _#
h2e a → a ɨ
{eh2,aH} aː → aː ɔ
h3e o → o ɛ
{eh3,oH} → oː
(h1)e (h1)eː → jə jɛː / #_
Ce Ceː → Cʲə Cʲɛ
eH → eː
ow aw ew → ɛu au əw
oy ay ey → ɛi ai əj
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makuráp{a/e} {e/a} {ı̃,ẽ} → e a ẽ
18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekens{{a/e},{e/a}} {ı̃,ẽ} → a ẽ
18.3.3 Proto-Tuparí to Tuparí{a/e} → e
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayoró{a/e} {e/a} {ı̃,ẽ} → a e ı̃
18.4.1 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Akwára{ẽ,ı̃} ɨ̃ {u,ũ,õ} → i ɨ o
18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to CocamaeN → y / _#
e → ɨ / {k,j}_
ã {ẽ,ı̃} ɨ̃ → a i ∅
18.4.3 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guajajaraã ẽ ı̃ ɨ̃ {õ,ũ} → ə e i ɨ o
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to GuarayoaN eN iN ɨN uN → ã ẽ ı̃ ɨ̃ ũ / _#
18.4.7 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to ParintintíneN → ı̃ / _#
ẽ ı̃ ũ → {ẽ,e} {ı̃,i} {ũ,õ}
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to SirionóaN eN iN ɨN uN → ã ẽ ı̃ {ɨ̃,ĩ} õ / _#
18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Urubuɨ̃ ẽ õ → ∅ {ẽ,e} {o,õ,u,ũ}
21 Lakes Plain21.1 Proto-Lakes Plain to Proto-Far Weste o → ɛ ɔ (?)
21.2.1 Proto-Tariku to Proto-Central Tarikue o → ɛ ɔ
21.2.2 Proto-Tariku to Proto-East Tarikue → ɛ
22 Macro-Arawakan22.3 Proto-Arawá to Hypothetical Arawán Substratee → a / medially
e → i / #_
22.6 Proto-Arawá to Sorowaháe → ɨ / _#
e → a / else
22.7 Proto-Arawá to Paumaríe → a / medially
e → {a,i} / #_
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.1 Proto-Chibchan to Arhuacoe → a
23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to Chibchaa {e,i} → i ∅ / C”V(C)_
23.1.1.1.3 Proto-Chibchan to Kogie → a
23.1.1.1.4 Proto-Chibchan to Marocaceroe → a
23.1.1.1.5 Proto-Chibchan to Motilóne → a
{ue,aja} → ə
e → u / uC_
e → ∅ / u_C
23.1.1.1.6 Proto-Chibchan to Tuneboe → a
e → ∅ / u_C
e → i / “conditioning undetermined”
27 Mayan27.1 Proto-Mayan to Ch’olanaː eː oː → ɨ i u
27.9 Proto-Mayan to Tzeltalanaː eː oː → ɨ i u
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.4 Proto-Athabaskan to Chilcotine {ɑ,ə} → i {e,ɪ}
29.1.1.1.7 Proto-Athabaskan to Deg Hit’ane u a {ɑ,ʊ} → a i u ə
29.1.1.1.8 Proto-Athabaskan to Dena’inae a u {ə,ʊ} → a u i ə
29.1.1.1.10 Proto-Athabaskan to Easter Gwich’in{i,e} → {i,ja} (this latter due to the loss of final consonants within the stem)
29.1.1.1.12 Proto-Athabaskan to Holikachuke → a / in prefixes
i e a u {ɑ,ʊ} → e a ɔ o ŭ
29.1.1.1.14 Proto-Athabaskan to Lower Koyukone a ɑ ʊ → a o ŏ ŭ
29.1.1.1.15 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Koyukone a ɑ ʊ → a o ŏ ŭ
29.1.1.1.16 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Kuskokwim Kolchane a {ɑ,ʊ} → a o ŭ
29.1.1.1.17 Proto-Athabaskan to Sarcee{e,ə} ʊ → ɑ u
29.1.1.1.38 Proto-Athabaskan to Lower Tananae a {ɑ,ʊ} → æ ɔ ŭ
29.1.1.1.39 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Tanana{a,ɑ} e i u ʊ → e(a) {i,ea} ju {a,ɨ} o
29.1.1.1.42 Proto-Athabaskan to Southern Tutchonee a → i e
30 Niger-Congo30.1.2 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-Manenguba{u,o} {ɛ,e,i} → w j / C_a in noun roots
{u,o} {ɛ,e,i} → w j / C_(a) in verb roots
{u,o} {ɛ,e,i} → w j / C_$V in noun class prefixes
30.3.1.1.1 Proto-Gbe to Ajá{o,ɔ} {ɛ,e} → u i / _i
j{ã,ẽ} → {ɥ,ɥ̃} / _E
30.3.1.1.3 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Fonoi ɔi ɔ̃i {a,ɛ}i {ɛ̃,ẽ}i ei → oe ɔɛ ɔ̃ɛ̃ ɛɛ ɛ̃ɛ̃ ee
30.3.1.1.7 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Vhe{ɛ,e} {~ɛ,ẽ} → ə ə̃
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinoe → a / _{l,ʔn} when unstressed
e → i / {kʲ,nt}_ when stressed
e → i / in a few data sets “where obscure morphological developments (in the ultimate or penultimate syllable) have resulted in regressive assimilation of vowel quality”
ẽ → a / tʲ_
ẽ → i / h_
ẽ → i / in U[+long -stress]
ẽ → e / else
32.1.2 Proto-Chatino to Tataltepec Chatinoe → a / _ʔ in U[-stress]
et el en → itʲ elʲ enʲ
e → i / _j
32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinoẽ → ı̃ / {t,h}_#
ẽ → ı̃ / _ʔ#
ẽ → ı̃ / ʔ_# “in one case”
32.1.4 Proto-Chatino to Zenzontepec Chatinoe → i / l_ when unstressed
e → i / kʲ_ when stressed
32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to Tlapanec{in,en} an → a u
{iHn,eHn,aHn} uHn → ã ũ
e → i
33 Penutian33.1.1 Proto-Utian to Proto-Costanoan (Ohlone)e → i / _(C…)u
33.3.1 Proto-Yokuts to General Yokutseː əː → e ə (as a result of ablaut)
35 Salishan35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack Halkomelem{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}
35.1.3 Proto-Central Salish to Cowichan Halkomelem{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}
35.1.4 Proto-Central Salish to Musqueam Halkomelem{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to Nooksack{i3~e3} → {i33}
35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straits{i3~e3} → ə3
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern Straits{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern Straits{i3~e3} → ə3
35.1.11 Proto-Central Salish to Sooke Northern Straits{i3~e3} → ə3
35.1.12 Proto-Central Salish to Pentlatch{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}
35.1.13 Proto-Central Salish to Sechelt{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}
35.1.14 Proto-Central Salish to Sqamish{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}
35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to Twana{i3~e3} → {i33}
35.3 Shuswap to Eastern Shuswap Nasal-to-Vowel Shiftsem emˀ → u uʔ / w_ in U[- stressed]
em emˀ → a aʔ / in U[- stressed] ! {p(’),m(ˀ)}_
en enˀ → i iʔ / {ts(’),s,j(ˀ)}_ in U[- stressed]
en enˀ → a ʔ / in U[- stressed] ! {t(’),lʲ,{n,l}(ˀ)}_
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old Mandarin{o,e} → ? / _Cʲ
e → o / w_ŋ
36.1.1.1 Old Mandarin to Modern Pekingese{e,o} → a / _w
36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàiʔ → ieʔ (→ i[truncated vowel-thing]ʔ?)
je jeʔ yeʔ → ɛ ɛʔ uɛʔ / C̣_
je jeʔ → iɛ iɛʔ
yeʔ → yɛʔ (→ {uɔʔ,yɔʔ} in southern speech?)
ye jej → yɛ i
jew → au / C̣(C?)_
jew → iau / else
{jem,jen} → iɛn / sometimes after C̣_ (but ! ʐ_) (only in one variety?)
yen → uɛn / C̣_
yen → yɛn
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Laew iw → im ju
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiae → i / _#
et ej → o e.i
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Toe → i / _{s,#}
et → o
ej → ai
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtseew iw → i jo
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Moes er → or ər
e → iɛ
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Naoew e ej → ə i ei
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu Tae i → i a / _m
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassuew → i
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoiane → i / r_ʔ
37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeea(ː)wẽ(ː) → a(ː)ma(ː)
ẽ(ː) õ(ː) → o(ː) ʌ̃(ː)
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayugae(ː) → ẽ / _ẽ(ː)
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandotẽ(ː) õ(ː) o(ː) → ɛ̃(ː) ɔ̃(ː) u(ː)
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneidaẽ(ː) õ(ː) → ʌ̃(ː) ũ(ː)
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecaẽ(ː) → e(ː) / _{e(ː),o(ː)
ẽ(ː) õ(ː) → ɛ̃(ː) ɔ̃(ː)
— a e o → ə ɪ ʊ / C_{C,i[-long]}
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscarora{ẽ(ː),õ(ː)} → ə̃(ː)
e(ː) → ɛ(ː)
37.2 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Siouanẽ õ → ı̃ ũ
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Taiɛi ei → ai iː
38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchowe → i / _C%
i̯e → i
{ɨo̯,ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → ɨː iː
{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} → uː
{ɛɨ,eɨ} → aɨ
eu → uː
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Taiɛi ei → ai əi
38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-Aie → o / _{m,p}%
e → ɛ / _C%
i̯e → i
ue̯ → u / _C%
ue̯ → uː
ɨo̯ ɨa̯ ie̯ ɨe̯ → uː aː eː iː
{əi,ɛi,ei} → ai
{ɛi,ei} → ɨː
ɛ e i → eː a iː / _u
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Taiɛi ei → ai iː
38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lüe → i / _N%
{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} {ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → o ə e
38.1.1.5.3 Southwest Tai to Shan{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} {ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → o ə e
38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siamesee → o / _{m,p}%
i̯e → e
{ɛɨ,eɨ} → ai
eu → uː
38.1.1.5.6 Southwest Tai to White Taie → i / _N%
{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} {ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → o ə e
40 Totozoquean40.2 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Totonacan{e,ɨ} {ḛ ɨ̰} → i ḭ
41 Trans-New Guinea41.1 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Apalɨe u i → a {u,ɨ} {i,ɨ}
41.9 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Selepetu o a e → {u,ɔ} {o,ɔ} {a,ɔ} {e,o}
42 Uralic42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnicê ô → e o / _(X)Ci
ê → y / _(X)CA
ej → i / unstressed
UŋA eŋi → Oː øː
Uwi ewi → oː øː
yje → øː → jø (?)
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishe → ∅ / C[+coronal]_%
e → @ / h_ (suffixal)
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnisheː øː oː → ie yø uo
e → i / A_, when unstressed
Ue → eː / unstressed
e → ø / #(C…)_y
42.1.1.1.2 Standard Finnish to Modern Standard Finnishie yɤ uo → iː yː uː / _A
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livoniane → ɤ / _C(C){a,o,u}
eː øː oː ɤ(ː) → iːe yːø uːo ɨ(ː)
æy ey → æu eu
e o → eː oː / _Cɑ
eː oː → je wo
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basquee → o / _(C…)o (eastern dialects, Bermeo Biscayan)
e → o / o(C…)_ (eastern dialects)
a o e → ɛ u i / {i,u}(C…)_ (this [ɛ] is tentatively marked as such; Egurtzegi transcribes it as /e/ but says it’s not as close as /e/)
o e → u i / _$a (raising of *o is less common)
e → i / _{n,C[+ sibilant]} (sporadic)
e → a / {V,C}_r (“mainly in the western dialects”)
e → ∅ / #_ (Navarrese, rare)
e → j / #_V (at least a few times?)
e → ∅ / #Ur_
u {o,e} → ∅ a / _#, in disyllables (eastern dialects)
aɪ → eɪ → e (rare)
eʊ → {e,eɡu}
eɪ → e / #_
eð (→ e ?) → j / #_V
e → j / #_a
e → ∅ / #_e
ʊe → e
oa ea → u(e) i(e) / _#
46 Vowel Shifts46.2 California Vowel Shift (English){æ,e} → ɛ / _ɹ
46.4 Polder Dutch Vowel Shifteː øː oː → ɛi œy ɔu
46.5 Old English-to-Scots Vowel Shiftsai oi ui ei au ou iu ɛ(o)u → eː oe əi iː {ɑː,ɔː} ʌu ju j(ʌ)u
iː eː ɛː aː oː uː {øː,yː} → əi i {i,e} e o u ø
46.7 Great Vowel Shift (English)eː oː → iː uː
ɛː → eː → iː
aː ɔː → ɛː oː → eː ow → ej (əw)
46.8 Greek Vowel Shifteː ɛː → iː eː
eː → iː
46.10 Late Proto-Finnic to Savonian Vowel Shifteː øː oː → ie yø uo
ei oi øi → eː oe øe
eu → eo
46.13 Old Norse to Faroese Vowel Shifte → eː / ɛ
eː → ɛa “(except Suðuroy → eː)” / a “(except Suðuroy → ɛ)”
46.14 Pre-Slavic Vowel Changeseː → æ
en an → ẽ ã
ej → i
ew → ju
46.15 Proto-Japanese to Old Japanese Vowel Shifte o → je wo / _#
e o → i u / else
46.17 Proto-Maidun to Nisenian Vowel Shiftu i e a → y e a o
46.19 Southern [United States] Shift (English)ɛj(ə) ɪj(ə) i eɪ → ej(ə) ij(ə) ɪi ɛi

to /e/

519 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Omotica(ː) → e(ː) / _{ʕ,q}$
6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North Omoticu o → i e
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabicuː iː → oː eː / _ʕ
uː iː → oː eː / ʕ_
a → e / _(C)(C)i(ː)
aːʔ → e / E(C)(C)_#
6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Egyptian Arabici u → e o / only when short, ! _#
aj aw → eː oː / in U[+closed]
∅ → e / CVCC_CVCV (applies across word boundaries)
6.2.2.1.8 Classical Arabic to Coastal Hadhrami Arabicaː → eː / in Form VI (tafā‘ala) verbs, though these apparently coexist with forms having the original vowel as well, with semantic distinctions
6.2.2.1.9 Classical Arabic to Wādı̄ Hadhrami Arabicaː → eː / in Form VI (tafā‘ala) verbs, though these apparently coexist with forms having the original vowel as well, with semantic distinctions
6.2.2.1.10 Classical Arabic to Hassāniyya Arabicaj aw → eː(ʲ) oː(ʷ) (sometimes, the article is unclear)
6.2.2.1.11 Classical Arabic to Iraqi Arabicaj aw → eː oː
6.2.2.1.12 Classical Arabic to Eastern Libyan Arabicaj aw → e(ː,j) o(ː,w)
6.2.2.1.13 Classical Arabic to Western Libyan Arabicaj aw → eː oː
6.2.2.1.14 Classical Arabic to Moroccan Arabicaː iː uː → ɑː eː oː / near emphatics
6.2.2.1.17 Classical Arabic to Tunisian Arabicaj aw → {aj,eː,iː aw,oː,uː}
6.2.2.1.18 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrew— i iː u uː → eə iːə oə uːə / _R
— iː → eː / _#
— i u → e a / _R{$,#} (in verbs)
— i u → e o / _C{$,#} (in verbs)
— i → eː oː / else
— aj → eː / _$
— a i → aː eː / _%”
— aj aw → eː oː
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakia → e / #C_OO
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenakii → e / _R
7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapahoeː → ei / j_
o(ː) → e(ː) / Cj_ (sporadic)
7.5 Proto-Algonquian to Cheyenneo a → e o
e i → a e
w j → {v,o} {t,e}
7.6 Proto-Algonquian to Northern East Creeʃjeː → seː
7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East Creeʃjeː → ʃeː
7.8 Proto-Algonquian to Plains Creeʃjeː → seː
7.9 Proto-Algonquian to Swampy Creeʃjeː → ʃeː
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menomineee(ː) i → æ(ː) e
iː oː oʔ → eː uː uʔ “[blocked when or a C+G sequence follows anywhere in the word, but does apply if æ(ː) intervenes before any following or C+G]”
æ → e / in odd syllables ! _{w,j,H}
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaqo(ː) waː eː iː → u o e i
ehi → eː
8 Altaic8.1.1 Early Middle Japanese to Modern Japanese(w)e → je
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolica → {a,e} / _Ci
a → {a,i,e} / _Co
e o u æ ø y → {a,e} {o,u} {a,o,u a {a,o,u} {o,u,i} / _Ca
a e i o u æ ø y → {a,i} {e,ja} {e,i} {ø,y,o} {o,u,y} {i,a,e} {e,ø} {ø,y,o,u} / _Ce
i → e / P_Ci
a e u æ ø y → {a,e} {e,i} {y,ø} {i,e} {i,e,ø} {ø,y,o,u} / _Ci
a e o i æ ø y → {a,i,e} {a,e} u {o,u} e {ø,y,o,u} {o,u} / _Co
a e {o,u} æ ø y → {a,o,u} {e,a} {o,u} {a,o,u} {e,i,u} {i,o,u,y,ø} / _Cu
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkica e i u æ ø y → a {a,ʌ,e} {ɯ,i} {u,o} {ia,ja,ɛ} {ia,ja} ɯ / _Ca
i → e / {r(ʲ),l(ʲ)}_e
e i æ ø y → {ɛ,a,ʌ} {ɯ,i} {e,a} {u,o} ɯ / _Cu
8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchak{e,æ}b ub → ew uw
æ → e
8.5.2 Proto-Turkic to Sakha{e,ɤ}ː → je (the second one is conjectured based on my admittedly sparse knowledge of Turkish; I can only guess that 〈ė〉 is some sort of back unrounded vowel)
eɡ → {je,iː,ji}
10 Austronesian10.1.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan— aj aw → ej ow / _#
— aj aw → e ow / _#
10.1.1.2 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sasakiw ow ej → i o e / _#
10.1.1.3 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sumbawanej ow → e o / _#
u i → o e / sometimes
10.1.2.5 Proto-Philippine to Ifugaoay → e / _#
10.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Bataka → e / _j#
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorroi u → e o / _C{C,#}
i u → e o / CC# (sporadic)
10.2.4.1 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Javanese— aw aj → e ó / _#
10.2.4.3 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Sundanese— əw əj → o e / _#
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauanaj aw uj → e o i
ə → {e,o} / stressed; “(result of /e/ or /o/ unpredictable)”
10.2.6.2 Proto-North Sarawak to Proto-Kenyahi u → e o / _h#
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lónghi → e / _k#
{ui̯,iu̯} → e
i u → e o / _CV[+close-mid](C)# “(iə is treated as close mid for this change)”
i u → e o / _Cɯ#
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabauu i → o e (sporadic)
— a u → e uj / _{t,s}#
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwa → e / _CV[+ mid] (sporadic)
a → e / _Ci (sporadic)
e(C){V[- low]} e(C)a → e(C) e(C)ə
i(C)V[+ high] i(C)V[+ mid] i(C)a → i(C) i(C)ə {e,i}(C)ə
u(C)V[+ high] u(C)e u(C)o u(C)a → {u,i}(C) u(C)ə e(C)ə {u,ɵ}(C)ə
10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to Caaàcu i → o e (not always)
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-Nêlêmwau i → o e / “in monosyllabic forms almost always”
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to Nyelâyuu i → o e (not always)
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Yunagau i → o e / in monosyllables
a → {ɛ,e} “in some words”
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bay”a → e / _CV[+ high]
V → e / C_# ! C = j
10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to Tolomakoa → e (rare?)
10.3.11 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Southern Vanuatua → e / _(C)i
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejom{i,o} → e
u → e / {θ,ɣ}_
u → e / _θ
10.3.11.2 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Erromangou i → o e (sporadic)
10.3.11.2.1 Proto-Erromango to Syei → e / O[+ labial]_
i → e / _O[+ labial]
a → e / _#
ə → {o,e}
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Urau → e / ɣ_# (? this change is a bit unclear)
10.3.11.3 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Tannaa → e / _Ci
10.3.11.3.1 Proto-Tanna to Kwamerau → {e,i} / _Cu
ə → e / else
10.3.11.3.4 Proto-Tanna to Southwest Tannau → {e,i} / _Cu
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’ae(C)V[- low] → e(C)
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Onganu a ə → {u,o} {a,e} e
aj → e
10.5.1 Proto-Ongan to Jarawae → {e,ə,o} / _V
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to Onge∅ → e / C_#
e → {e,ə,o} / _V
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamitee → {e,i} / #C_C
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamilaj → eː “(exception: never finally in monosyllables, never initially in multisyllabic words)”
i u → e o / _Ca
{om,on} {em,en} {oːm,oːn} {eːm,eːn} → ɔ̃ ɛ̃ õ ẽ
— eCə oCə → Ceː Coː / #_
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.1 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Nafriə → e / _{C[+palatal],E}
o → e (sporadic, highly unusual)
16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central Sentaniə → e / _{C[+palatal],E}
o → e (sporadic, highly unusual)
16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern Sentaniə → e / _{C[+palatal],E}
o → e (sporadic, highly unusual)
16.1.4 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Western Sentaniə → e / _{C[+palatal],E}
o → e (sporadic, highly unusual)
16.1.5 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Tablaoi → oe
o → e (sporadic, highly unusual)
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanian{m̩,n̩} l̩ r̩ → e uj {ri,ir}
eː iː oː uː → o i e {y,i}
a e i o → {a,e} (j)e {e,i} a
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanian{m̩,n̩} l̩ r̩ → e uj {ri,ir}
eː iː oː uː → o i e {y,i}
a e i o → {a,e} (j)e {e,i} a
17.2.1 Common Anatolian to Hittitee o → eː oː / in ”U[+stress]
o(ː) æː → a(ː) eː
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lycian{ɛ,e}ː o æː → iː e aː
a → e / _U[+e,i]
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to Lydian{e,a,o} → ē / _N in ”U[+closed]
17.2.5 Common Anatolian to Palaica e → aː eː / in ”U[+closed]
æː → eː
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenianej ia → e ɛa
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenianej ia → e ɛa
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenianej ia → e ɛa
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenianej ia → e ɛa
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenianej ia → e ɛa
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenianej ia → e ɛa
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenianej ia → e ɛa
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— h1e h2e h3e → e a o
— eh1 eh2 eh3 → eː aː oː
— oː ej → aː eː
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishm̩ n̩ → em en / else
— i u → e o / _C(…C){a(ː),e(ː),o(ː)}
— {a,e}n → eː / _{p t k s}
ei → eː
— a → e / _#
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshei → eː
i u → e o / _Ca
a o → ei {ɨ,ei} / _(C…)j(C…)#
a → {ɨ,ei} / _(C…)j(C…)#
{a,o} → e / _(C…)i(ː)
{a,e,o} → ei / _(C…)j
17.6 Proto-Indo-European to Daciane → je / in open syllables, when stressed
ei → {ei,i} (“PIE *ei evolution is not well reconstructed yet”)
17.7 Proto-Indo-European to Common Germaniceːi {oːi,aːi} → eː oː (?)
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothic— æː → eː
17.7.2 Common Germanic to West Germanici u → e o / _%{a,o}
17.7.2.1 West Germanic to Anglo-Frisianæː → eː
i o → e a / unstressed
ai au eu → {eː,aː} aː ia
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle Englisheɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː
æj → aj → ej
{æːj,e(ː)j} → ej
eːɑw iːw → ew ju
ɑː y(ː) → ɔː e(ː)
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle Englisheɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː
æj → aj → ej
{æːj,e(ː)j} → ej
eːɑw iːw → ew ju
17.7.2.1.4 Midlands Middle English to Early Modern Englisheː oː → eɪ oʊ / ! _ɹ
17.7.2.1.5 Early Modern English to American Englishæː ɑː ɔː → æə~eə ɑ ɔ
eə → eː
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle Englisheɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː
æj → aj → ej
{æːj,e(ː)j} → ej
eːɑw iːw → ew ju
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scots— a → e / _n (otherwise)
— a → {ɛ,e} / _rC
— ai oi ui ei au ou iu ɛ(o)u → eː oe əi iː {ɑː,ɔː} ʌu ju j(ʌ)u
— iː eː ɛː aː oː uː {øː,yː} → əi i {i,e} e o u ø
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsøː → eː “(not a thorough change)”
æ(ɑ) → e
ɑː → e / ! _{ŋ,n}
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle Englisheɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː
æj → aj → ej
{æːj,e(ː)j} → ej
eːɑw iːw → ew ju
17.7.2.1.14 Anglo-Frisian to Old Frisianaj aw ew → {eː,aː} aː ja
17.7.2.2 West Germanic to Old Low Franconianeː oː → ie uo
ai au → eː oː
jan → en / CC_#
ai u → ei ʏ / _(C…){i(ː),j} (short only; in the case of [ʏ] at least this was not yet phonemic)
ei ou → eː oː (except in southeastern dialects; *ei as a result of the umlaut of *ai was not affected)
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germany(ː) yə ø(ː) øy → i(ː) iə e(ː) ei (intermittent)
uː yː iː → ou øy ei, except in certain unstressed endings and monosyllables, _C{C,V,#} (“especially before /xt/”), and Low German borrowings
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlauta u o → e y ø / _(C…){i(ː),j}
17.7.2.5 West Germanic to Old Low Germanai au → eː oː
17.7.3 Common Germanic to Proto-Norse(w)u(ː) i(ː) → (w)o(ː) e(ː) / _(C)(C)a ! CC = NC or one C = {ʀ,j}
{æ,e}ːuː {æ,e}ːiː → eu ai
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norsei → eː / _ʀ#
BːB aː{o,a,æ,e} {æ,e}ː{æ,e}ː {æ,e}ːi iːEː → oː aː eː eː iː
a(i) {e,w{æ,i}} {we,ei} (w)ɪ → ey ø y ʏ / w_ ! hw_
au {ai,ey,ei} æ{y,i} øy Vː → o e æ ø V / #(C)(C)(C)_CC
ai wi (w)V → eː weː (w)Vː / _h#
{æ,e}i ai au w{ɪ,i} wy wV iu Vː → eː aː oː weː woː wVː eː oː V
i → eː / _#
ʏ ɪ → ø e
æ → e
woː wøː jæː Vː → wo wøje V[- long] / _%
uN yN iN VN → o øː eː Vː / _{s,f}
a → e / _i
ø øː → e æː
e(ː){B,i(ː)} → e(ː)u / {v,w}_
a → e / _{i,j,Ḱ}
eː → e / Ḱ_
eː j → e ∅ / Cw_
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandicu o a ø y e i → uː oː aː øi yː ei iː / _{ɲc,ɲɟ,ŋk,ŋɡ}
u o a øː eː y i → ʏɪ oi ai øi ei yː iː / _j
e → ei / _{ɣ,j}
u oː aː ʏɪ {y,i} {y,i}ː æː eː ey → ʏ ou au ai y ɪ i je ei
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornɒ → {ɛ,e} / _CːV (V can be a syllabic consonant)
æ → eː / _{ð,r}
œ → eː
ey → eː / _F
ei → eː / _C(ː,V)# (V can be a syllabic consonant)
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Norn{u,o}(ː) a aː {ɒ,œ,y} e i(ː) → {o,ɔ}(i) æ(i) {ɔ,ɒ}(i) {o,ɔ}(i) {æ,e} / _{Ḱ,Cʲ}
æ → e / ! _{Ḱ,Cʲ}
e eː → {æ,ɛ,e} {(j)ɛ,je}
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekej ow → eː oː
ɛː → eː
ɑu ɛu eu → ɑv ɛv ev
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greek{eː,ej} ɛː ɑ(ː)j {oj,ɔːj} → iː eː ɛː {y,ø}
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekej ow → eː oː happened “in the various Ionic dialects at various dates”
ɛː → eː
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-Aryanəː → eː
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-Aryana{i,j}(a) a{u,w}(a) → e o
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-Aryana{i,j}(a) a{u,w}(a) → e o
ah → e
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-Aryana{i,j}(a) a{u,w}(a) → e o
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-Aryana{i,j}(a) a{u,w}(a) → e o
17.10.1.5.1 Vedic Sanskrit to Classical Sanskritau aːu ai aːi → au oː ai eː / ! _V
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavic{a,o,ə} → e / j_
{m̩,n̩} → {ẽ,õ} / _C$
{e(ː),i(ː)} {a(ː),o(ː),u(ː)} → ẽ õ / _N$
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polish— {ь,ъ} → e / iambic counting from U# or a syllable not containing a yer
aː ɔː ɛː → ɒ o e
17.11.2 Proto-Slavic to Old Russianor ol er el → oro olo ere ele / _$
17.12.1 Proto-Italic to Proto-Latino-Falsicanl̥ r̥ → ol {or,er} / _#
m̥ n̥ → em en
e → {e,i}
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latino → e / w_{r,s,t}
aj → ai → eː (in rustic dialects)
aj → ai → ae
oj → oi → oe → uː
V → e / %(C)(C)_%r when unstressed (with some exceptions)
a o → e u / %(C)(C)_C(C)% when unstressed
a → e → i / %(C)(C)_ŋ when unstressed
a → e → u / %(C)(C)_ɫ when unstressed
ai → ei → iː / %(C)(C)_ when unstressed
ei oi ou → iː eː uː / %(C)(C)_ when unstressed
{i,o} → e / _#
a → e / _C(C)#
{ai,ei,oi} → ei → iː / _(C)(C)#
m̩ n̩ → em en
17.12.1.1.1 Classical Latin vs. Vulgar Latin{i,eː,oi} → e
ɛ ɔ → e o / when unstressed
“In contrast, Romanian exhibits u, uː → u (and ultimately also ɔ, oː → o); and Sardinian and African Latin underwent a straight merger of the vowels by length without considering quality (e, eː → e; i, iː → i; u, uː → u; etc.)”
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalan{i,eː} e → {e,ɛ} {ɛ,e} / stressed
{i,eː,e} → e / _%”V
oe → {e,ɛ}
ae au → e ɔ / stressed
ae au → e o / _%”V
∅ → e / #_sC
ja → je / #_ (irregular)
∅ → {e,o} / CL_#
∅ → {e,o} / rː_#
a → e / “in the penult”
aj → ej → ee → e (irregular)
aj → ej / _ʃ when stressed (irregular)
ɛj ɔj → jɛj uei / i {u,ui} / stressed
ɛ → e / ! _{rː,l,rC[-labial],nr} or _ ? w#
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— (a)e → è
— {eː,i,oe} → é
— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e
— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e
∅ → e / #_sC
ai → e / _#
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portugueseiː {i,eː} e → i e ɛ / stressed
iː {i,e(ː)} → i e / _%”V
{i(ː),e(ː),ae} → e / _#
aː oe → a e
ɛ ɔ → e o / _(”u)#
a → e / _j when stressed
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— ɪ → e
— ɔ → ɥe / _{u,P,k,ɡ,i} (in western dialects, Limousin, and Auvergne)
— ɔ → {ɥe,ɥo,ɔ} / _{u,P,k,ɡ,i} (in southern dialects)
— å ɛ ɔ → a e o / _N (in Limousin and neighboring regions, the last two particularly in Limousin, Languedoc, and Gascon, though when _ɲ this change may have been blocked)
— ju → jeu
— ɔ → {ɔ,we} (in southwestern dialects)
— {a,œ,e,i} → e (here, 〈œ〉 denotes the reflex of the Latin vowel written this way, not a front rounded vowel)
— e u → e o / _nt#
— V → e “in many late words”
i → e / #_sC
17.12.1.1.7 Vulgar Latin to Rhaeto-Romanceɛ e → ej je
a → e / stressed, usually when Ḱ_
a V → e (= /ə/?) ∅ / in final syllables (though Friulian preserves the ending -is)
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanian— eː,i,oe → e
— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e
— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e / _#
ɛ → ie
”elːa → e”a / _#
ja → e / r_#
a → e / C[+palatal]_#
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardinianau ai → o e
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to SpanishRaising of e {ɛ,a} ɔ o → i e o u; near j, in particular environments:
— ɛ ɔ u → e o u / _(C)j
— a → e / _j
oj → we (sporadic)
ɛ ɔ → je we
i u → e o / _(C)#
17.12.2 Proto-Italic to Proto-Sibellianr̥ → er / _#
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-TocharianeH → eː
17.13.1 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian A{a,ɛ}i əj → e i
17.13.2 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian Bɔ ɛ → o e
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makuráp{a/e} {e/a} {ı̃,ẽ} → e a ẽ
18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekens{{a/e},{e/a}} {ı̃,ẽ} → a ẽ
18.3.3 Proto-Tuparí to Tuparí{a/e} → e
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayoró{a/e} {e/a} {ı̃,ẽ} → a e ı̃
18.4.3 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guajajaraã ẽ ı̃ ɨ̃ {õ,ũ} → ə e i ɨ o
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to GuarayoaN eN iN ɨN uN → ã ẽ ı̃ ɨ̃ ũ / _#
18.4.7 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Parintintínẽ ı̃ ũ → {ẽ,e} {ı̃,i} {ũ,õ}
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Sirionóa → {∅,o,e} / _j#
aN eN iN ɨN uN → ã ẽ ı̃ {ɨ̃,ĩ} õ / _#
{ɨ̃,õ} ũ → {õ,ẽ} õ
18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Urubuɨ̃ ẽ õ → ∅ {ẽ,e} {o,õ,u,ũ}
21 Lakes Plain21.1.1 Proto-Far West to Aweraiiɛ Vdiɛ → ijɛ βe
21.1.3 Proto-Far West to Rasawaiiɛ Vdiɛ → ijɛ βie
21.2.1 Proto-Tariku to Proto-Central Tarikua → e (?)
21.2.1.1 Proto-Central Tariku to Edopiɛ → e
21.2.2 Proto-Tariku to Proto-East Tarikua → e (?)
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to Chibchai → e / _(C)e
23.1.1.1.6 Proto-Chibchan to Tuneboai → e / if the *a is not stressed
23.1.2 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Lencano a → {u,o} {a,e}
24 Macro-Pama-Nyungan24.1.7 Proto-Paman to Yinwumi → e / #(C)aC[-palatal]_
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.1 Proto-Athabaskan to Ahtnaɑ ə ʊ → a e o
29.1.1.1.4 Proto-Athabaskan to Chilcotine {ɑ,ə} → i {e,ɪ}
29.1.1.1.9 Proto-Athabaskan to Dogribɑ ə ʊ u → a e o i
29.1.1.1.10 Proto-Athabaskan to Easter Gwich’ina u {ɑ,ə} ʊ → {i,e} ju a o
29.1.1.1.11 Proto-Athabaskan to Hana ɑ ə ʊ → æ a {ə,ë} o
29.1.1.1.12 Proto-Athabaskan to Holikachuki e a u {ɑ,ʊ} → e a ɔ o ŭ
29.1.1.1.31 Proto-Athabaskan to Mountain Slavey-Hareɑ ə ʊ → a e o
29.1.1.1.32 Proto-Athabaskan to Slavey Slavey-Hareɑ ə ʊ → a e o
29.1.1.1.33 Proto-Athabaskan to Tahltan-Kaska-Tagishɑ ə ʊ → a {i,e} u
29.1.1.1.39 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Tanana{a,ɑ} e i u ʊ → e(a) {i,ea} ju {a,ɨ} o
29.1.1.1.42 Proto-Athabaskan to Southern Tutchonee a → i e
30 Niger-Congo30.2 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Potou-Akanicɪ(Cɪ) → e(Ci) / t_; “vowel nasalizations are retained either way on each”
30.3.1.1.1 Proto-Gbe to Ajáɛ ɛ̃ → e ẽ
30.3.1.1.3 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Fonoi ɔi ɔ̃i {a,ɛ}i {ɛ̃,ẽ}i ei → oe ɔɛ ɔ̃ɛ̃ ɛɛ ɛ̃ɛ̃ ee
30.3.1.1.4 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Genɛ ɛ̃ → e ẽ
30.3.1.1.9 Proto-Vhe to Avénoə → e / _{i,j}
30.3.1.1.10 Proto-Vhe to Awalana → e / _{i,j}
30.3.1.1.13 Proto-Vhe to Tɔ̣wunə → e / _{i,j}
30.3.1.1.14 Proto-Vhe to Wacı́ə → e / _{i,j}
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinoi → e / tʃ_
ẽ → e / else
a → {i,e} “under special conditions”
32.1.2 Proto-Chatino to Tataltepec Chatinoet el en → itʲ elʲ enʲ
ɛ → e / _ʔ#, in monosyllables
33 Penutian33.1.1 Proto-Utian to Proto-Costanoan (Ohlone)i$Ci → e$Ce / _C ! _ɾ
ɨ$Cɨ → e$Ce / _C ! _ɾ
ɨ → e / CC_#
ɨ → {e,i} / CC_
33.1.1.1 Proto-Costanoan to Chochenyoa → e / il_
33.1.1.3 Proto-Costanoan to Mutsuna → e / il_
33.1.1.4 Proto-Costanoan to Rumsena → e / il_
i → e / _C(C)oC
33.3.1 Proto-Yokuts to General Yokutsiː ɨː uː → eː əː oː (this change sometimes did not occur)
eː əː → e ə (as a result of ablaut)
33.3.1.3 Buena Vista Yokuts to Tulamniɨ(ː) ə(ː) → i(ː) e(ː)
33.3.2.2 Proto-Nim-Yokuts to Northern Yokutsɨ(ː) ə(ː) → i(ː) e(ː)
33.3.3 Proto-Yokuts to Palewyami{u,a} → e / _CVC#, when stressed (short only)
i → e / _CVC#, when stressed (! _H, short only)
V → e / C”VC_
34 Quechumaran34.4 Proto-Quechumaran to Huarásaw aj {uj,ij} → uː eː iː
35 Salishan35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straitsa3 → e3 / else
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern Straitsa3 → e3 / ! {{C[+ uvular],K}ʷ,w}_ or when _{Cu,C[+ uvular]ʷ,w}
{a33} → {ə3,e3}
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern Straits{a1~i1} → {ə1,e1}
35.1.11 Proto-Central Salish to Sooke Northern Straitsa3 → e3
35.2.2 Proto-Interior Salish to Thompson Nasal-to-Vowel ShiftsN[- glottalized] → e / _O[+ same POA] “‘in primary forms’”
n̩ → e / n_ (this is admittedly a bit conjectural; the paper is not being very clear here)
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old Mandarinia → e / else
{o,a} {a(ta),a(ch)} → e a / _ŋ
36.1.1.1 Old Mandarin to Modern Pekingeseo → e / _ŋ
i → e / C_ʔ
o → e / _#
î → e / _C# ! C = r
36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàiʔ iw → eʔ ew / C̣_ (the latter with variant iɛu?)
iʔ → ieʔ (→ i[truncated vowel-thing]ʔ?)
əjʔ əw {əm,ən} → eʔ ɛu ɛn
36.3.1.1 Proto-Naish to Lazea u i iN → e y ɯ i / T_%
a → ie / ! K_%
36.3.1.2 Proto-Naish to Mosuo (Na)a → e / {R,T}_%
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to Naxia iN {i,u} → e ɚɯ / T_%
a → e / ! K_%
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Lao → e / _s
a → e / _m
i → e / _s
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiao → e / _l
a ap at ar am aj → e eb e(d) er om e.i
et ej → o e.i
i → e / _m
36.3.2.1.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Hanniuan {at.is} → o ie
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Toat → {at,ɛ,ed}
36.3.2.2.3 Proto-rGyalrongic to Patiim it ik is ij → em u e es e
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Naouj → ue
ew e ej → ə i ei
i → e / _m
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu Tauk uŋ → {u,o} e
o → e / _s
a → e / _(p)
it ik → o ek
iw ij → iu ei
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassuan ap → ai ie
is → eu
im iŋ → wa ie
ij → e
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoianã → ẽ
37.1.2 Proto-Iroquoian to Proto-Northern Iroquoiani → e / ! _hCC (“short only”)
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayugae(ː) → ẽ / _ẽ(ː)
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandotx → e / #_r
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagaa(ː) o(ː) õ(ː) → æ(ː) e(ː) ẽ(ː) / r_
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneida∅ → e / w_r (and “probably. . .in other environments”)
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Mohawk∅ → e / {tsh,s,n}_r
∅ → e / w_j
∅ → e / n_k(ʷ)
∅ → e / {t,k}_{r,n}
∅ → e / {#,V}s_n
∅ → e / t_w
∅ → e / {#,V}s_w
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneida— ∅ → e / C_{n,l}V(H)#
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecaa → e / _ro(ː)
ã → ẽ / _rõː
a(ː) → ẽ(ː) / adjacent to a nasal vowel
ẽ(ː) → e(ː) / _{e(ː),o(ː)
a(ː) æ(ː) → õ(ː) ẽ(ː) / n_
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchow{(i)ɛ,i̯ɛ} → eː
ɛ i → eː iː / _u
{uəi,uai} iau → uːi eːu
38.1.1.3.5 Central Tai to T’ien-Paoi iː u → ə ei oʊ̯
38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-Aiɛ iɛ → eː ı̆
ɨo̯ ɨa̯ ie̯ ɨe̯ → uː aː eː iː
ɛ e i → eː a iː / _u
uəi uai iau → iː oːi eːu
38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lü{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} {ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → o ə e
38.1.1.5.3 Southwest Tai to Shan{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} {ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → o ə e
38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siamesei̯e → e
38.1.1.5.6 Southwest Tai to White Tai{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} {ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → o ə e
41 Trans-New Guinea41.8 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kiwaiu i → {u,o} {i,e}
41.9 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Selepetu o a e → {u,ɔ} {o,ɔ} {a,ɔ} {e,o}
41.11 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Middle Wahgii → {i,e}
42 Uralic42.1 Proto-Uralic to Pre-Finnicɤ(ː?) ɑː æː → ɑ(ː?) oː eː / stressed
i → e / _C, when unstressed
42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnicê ô → e o / _(X)Ci
æ → e / _j, unstressed
ɑ → e / ”{o,u}(X)C_j
uw ij → ow ej / _C
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnisheː øː oː → ie yø uo
Ue → eː / unstressed
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livonianɑ æ → æe / _(C…)i
eː øː oː ɤ(ː) → iːe yːø uːo ɨ(ː)
æy ey → æu eu
y ø → i e / else
e o → eː oː / _Cɑ
eː oː → je wo
43 Uto-Aztecan43.3 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Luiseñoo ɨ → e o
43.4 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Nahuatlɨ u → e {i,e} “(all */u/ affected, but conditions for when it became /i/ or /e/ are not known)”
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basque∅ → e / #_r
∅ → e / #_{s̺,s̻}C
a → e / _$a (Biscayan, Alavese, some Guipuscoan)
u i → o e / _r{C,#}
aɪ → eɪ → e (rare)
eʊ → {e,eɡu}
eɪ → e / #_
eð (→ e ?) → j / #_V
ʊe → e
oa ea → u(e) i(e) / _#
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.2 Proto-Pai to Paipaiaw aj → o e
46 Vowel Shifts46.2 California Vowel Shift (English)æ ɪ → e i / _ŋ; some speakers (esp. in southern regions) may also have pin-pen and “a single phoneme in contrast to the nasal diphthong [ãɪ̃] of the U.S. Northeast” (though the article doesn’t specify what this is; maybe it’s just plain ã)
æ → {eə̯,ɪə̯} / _N
oʊ̯ → eʊ̯ (“common only within certain social groups”)
46.5 Old English-to-Scots Vowel Shiftsa → e / _n (otherwise)
a → {ɛ,e} / _rC
ai oi ui ei au ou iu ɛ(o)u → eː oe əi iː {ɑː,ɔː} ʌu ju j(ʌ)u
iː eː ɛː aː oː uː {øː,yː} → əi i {i,e} e o u ø
46.7 Great Vowel Shift (English)ɛː → eː → iː
aː ɔː → ɛː oː → eː ow → ej (əw)
46.8 Greek Vowel Shifteː ɛː → iː eː
46.10 Late Proto-Finnic to Savonian Vowel Shifteː øː oː → ie yø uo
ɑː æː ɑi æi → uɑ iæ ɑe æe
ei oi øi → eː oe øe
eu → eo
46.13 Old Norse to Faroese Vowel Shifte → eː / ɛ
46.14 Pre-Slavic Vowel Changesen an → ẽ ã
i → ı̆ [ə?] → {e,a} (strong)/∅ (weak) “in modern languages”
u → ŭ [ɤ?] → {e,o,ɤ,a} (strong)/∅ (weak) “in modern languages”
46.15 Proto-Japanese to Old Japanese Vowel Shifte o → je wo / _#
{u,ɨ}i {,a,i {ɨi,i{a,ə}} u{ɨ,a,ə} → wi e je wo
46.17 Proto-Maidun to Nisenian Vowel Shiftu i e a → y e a o
46.18 South African Chain Shift (English)æ ɛ ɪ → ɛ e ɨ
46.19 Southern [United States] Shift (English)aɪ → ɑeː / else (only for some speakers)
ɛj(ə) ɪj(ə) i eɪ → ej(ə) ij(ə) ɪi ɛi

with context involving /e/

133 matches

7 Algonquian7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapahoʃ m → x b / o(ː)_e(ː)
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventreʃ θ m k → θ t b tʃ / _e(ː)
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfootx → sː / {i,#e,ja,ke}_
x → sː / e(ː)_s
∅ → s / {i(ː),#e}_t
t → ts / _{i,e(ː),a}
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawneej → ∅ / {tʃ,ʃ}_eː
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonica → ə / _Ce
u → a / P_Ce
{a,e,o,æ} i u y ø → ə i ua {u,ə} {ə,u} / _Ce
8.1.1 Early Middle Japanese to Modern Japanesej → ∅ / _e
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolica → {a,i} / _Ce
a e i o u æ ø y → {a,i} {e,ja} {e,i} {ø,y,o} {o,u,y} {i,a,e} {e,ø} {ø,y,o,u} / _Ce
ŋ → n / #_{a,o,e}
8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusicy → u / P_C{e,i}
æ ø → i {o,u} / _Ce
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkicy → i / {r(ʲ),l(ʲ)}_e
e → ja / #_C{e,i}
ø → ʌ / P_Ce
i → e / {r(ʲ),l(ʲ)}_e
9 Austroasiatic9.1.2 Proto-Vietic to Middle Vietnamesel → ∅ / {i,e}_
9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnamesec ɲ → t n / {i,e}_
10 Austronesian10.3.5.4 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-NorthernC → ∅ / _$(possessive suffix)#
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bayp v m → t θ n / _{a,e,i}
10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to Tolomakom b → n̼ t̼ → n t / _{a,e,i}
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to Onge{w,r} → ∅ / {a,e}_#
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.1 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Proto-Dravidianw → v / #_{i,e}lV
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamilc → s / _{a,o,u,e}
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.1 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Nafria → æ / _(C)e
16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central Sentania → æ / _(C)e
16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern Sentania → æ / _(C)e
16.1.4 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Western Sentania → æ / _(C)e
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albaniani̯ → ɟ / {a,e,i}_
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albaniani̯ → ɟ / {a,e,i}_
17.2 Proto-Indo-European to Common Anatolianj → ∅ / #_e (not widely attested)
17.2.2 Common Anatolian to Luwian{ḱ,k} → j / _e(ː)
D R → Dː Rː / ”e_ in U[+open]
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lycian{ɡ́,ɡ} → j / _e(ː)
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to Lydians → ʃ / _{i,e}
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armeniankʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armeniankʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armeniankʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
ɡʷʱ → dʒ / #_{e,i}
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armeniankʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armeniankʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armeniankʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
ɡʷʱ → dʒ / #_{e,i}
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armeniankʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
ɡʷʱ → dʒ / #_{e,i}
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irish— i u → e o / _C(…C){a(ː),e(ː),o(ː)}
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norse∅ → j / {y,e}(ː)_a
j → ∅ / _eː
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittitet → ts / _{i,e}
17.10 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iraniank ɡ ɡʱ → c ɟ ɟʱ / _e,i,j
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavick ɡ x → tʃ ʒ ʃ / _{e(ː)(i),i(ː)}
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishɛ ɛ̃ ɛː → ɔ ɔ̃ a / _C[-palatalized +dental] (also sporadically before plain non-dentals)
ьl → ɛɫ / P_C[+dental -palatalized]
ь → aː / r_C[+dental -palatalized]
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalanŋ → ɲ / _{i,e}
sk → ʃ / V_{i,e}
k ɡ → ∅ {∅,ʒ} / V_{i,e} (ɡ → ʒ is learned)
k → ts → s / #_{i,e}
ɡ → ʒ / #_{i,e}
kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ / #_{i,e}
kʷ → ɡ / V_{i,e}
ɡʷ → ɡ / C_{i,e}
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— V → ”V / _C*”{i,e}V
∅ → j / {ʃ,ʒ,sj,zj}”{a,é}_ in U[+open]
{lːe,lːo} → u / {e,o}_# “[this is actually an analogical development, but it applies as regularly as a sound law]”
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguesee → ∅ / el_#
e → ∅ / ”{i,e}_#
k → ts → s / #_{i,e}
ɡ → ɡʲ → dʲ → dʒ → ʒ / #_{i,e}
kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ / #_{i,e,o}
kʷ → ɡ / V_{i,e}
kʷ → k / VC_{a,i,e}
ɡ → {∅,ʒ} / V_{i,e} (ɡ → ʒ is learned)
sk k → jʃ z / V_{i,e}
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— E → ∅ / _e
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to RomanianV → ”V / _(C…)”{i,e}V
i → ∅ / OL_e
e → a / i_(C…){a,e}#
u → ∅ / o_e
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardinian{i,j} → ɡ / #_e
r → urː / #_e / Logudorese
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanishk ɡ → tʃ dʒ → ts dz / _{j,i,e,ɛ}
f → h / ! _{ue,L}
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-TocharianKʷ → ɕ / _e(ː)
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makurápɨ → ∅ / ! #_{p,β}e
18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekensɨ → i / #_{p,βe}
20 Khoisan20.2.1 Proto-Kx’a to ǂHoana → ∅ / _e (sporadic)
20.2.2 Proto-Kx’a to Northwestern !Xuna → ∅ / _e (sporadic)
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to Chibchai → e / _(C)e
25 Macro-Panoan25.1.4 Proto-Tacanan to Tacana∅ → j / k_e
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.3 Proto-Athabaskan to BeaverT → TŠ / _{i,e,u}, in the British Columbian dialect
29.1.1.1.18 Proto-Athabaskan to SekaniT → TŠ / _{i,e,u} ! in Ware Sekani
29.1.1.1.30 Proto-Athabaskan to Hare Slavey-Hare∅ → j / _e
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1.2 Proto-Bantu to Tswana{tʃ,k} {ntʃ,nk,r} {ɲdʒ,nɡ} mp mb p b {d,l} m n → s tsʰ ts tʃʰ(w) tʃ(w) ʃ(w) dʒ(w) dʒ ŋw ɲ / _{ɪ,e}V
{tʃ,k} {ɲtʃ,nk} {ndʒ,nɡ} → s tsʰ ts / _{i,ɪ,e}
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinot → ɾ / _{u,ẽ} when unstressed
t → tʃ / _”{e,iʔ}
kʷ → ɾ / #_ek
32.1.2 Proto-Chatino to Tataltepec Chatinol n → lʲ nʲ / e_ in U[-long -stress]
32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinokʷ → w / _eːj
kʷ → w / _ek
ts → ʃ / #_ẽ
ʃ → s / _{ik,e,ı̃,ẽ}
33 Penutian33.1.1.2 Proto-Utian to Proto-Miwokʈ → tʃ / _e
ʈ → tʃ / e_
33.1.1.4 Proto-Costanoan to Rumsenʈ → {ʈ,tʃ} / {i,e,o}$_
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old Mandarink → j / {e,a,o}_
36.1.1.1 Old Mandarin to Modern Pekingesej → ∅ / C_weŋ
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayugar → w / {o(ː),õ(ː)}_{a(ː),e(ː),ẽ(ː),i(ː)}
r → j / {e(ː),ẽ(ː),i(ː)}_{a(ː),o(ː),õ(ː)}
e(ː) → ẽ / _ẽ(ː)
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandot∅ → j / {e(ː),ẽ(ː),i(ː)}_V
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagar → j / {e(ː),ẽ(ː),i(ː)}_V
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecaẽ(ː) → e(ː) / _{e(ː),o(ː)
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscarora∅ → j / k_e(ː)
37.2.6.1 Proto-Dhegiha to KansaL → bl / #_e (*)
37.2.6.2 Proto-Dhegiha to Omaha-Poncan → θ / _{ã,ẽ,õ}
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to Osagen → ð / _{ã,ẽ,õ}
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Tail → ∅ / p_{ɯ,e,i}
38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchowpr → pʰ / _{ɯ,e,i}
38.1.1.3.2 Central Tai to Nungpr → pʰ / _{ɯ,e,i}
42 Uralic42.1 Proto-Uralic to Pre-Finnica → æ / {a,e,ê,i,y}(X)(C)(C)_, when unstressed
42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnicɑ → o / ”{a,e,i}(X)C_j
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnisht → z → @ / _r{i,e}
k → ɣ i / {i,e}_R{i,e}
ɣ → j / C_e
æ → a / e(C…)_(C…)o
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basquehu hi → ʊ ɪ / {o,e}_ (also happened with /a/ sometimes, but usually such sequences just dropped one vowel)
e → ∅ / #_e