Index Diachronica: involving /o/

452 results from /o/   489 results to /o/   149 results with context involving /o/   

plain oːʷ õː

from /o/

452 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North Omoticu o → i e
e o → i u / #C_P
e o → i u / #(ʔ)_C
e o → i u / #{k(ʼ),x}_{t(ʼ),tsʼ}
e o → i u / #(ʔ)_C$
e o → i u / #P_{tsʼ,tʃʼ}
6.2.2 Proto-Erythrean to Proto-North Erythreaneː oː → i u
{e,o} {i,u} → a ə
6.2.2.1.18 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrew— {o,u}(ː) → iː / _$%oː
— oː → uː
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakioː aː eː iː → o ɔ̃ a i
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenakioː eː iː → o a i
7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-Atsinao(ː) → i(ː)
7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapahoo(ː) → e(ː) / Cj_ (sporadic)
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfoot{jiː,ja,ahi} {owaː,awa,awe} awi {iːwa,eːwa,aji,aje,ani} → i oː o(ji) iː / C_C
on → u / _iC
oː → o
7.5 Proto-Algonquian to Cheyenneo a → e o
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawarei o → iː oː
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menomineeiː oː oʔ → eː uː uʔ “[blocked when or a C+G sequence follows anywhere in the word, but does apply if æ(ː) intervenes before any following or C+G]”
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaqo(ː) waː eː iː → u o e i
{o,a}wi → oː
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonic{a,e,o,æ} i u y ø → ə i ua {u,ə} {ə,u} / _Ce
{a,æ,e,ø,i,y} o → i u / _Ci
e i {o,u} æ ø y → {ə,a} {i,ə} ə a {ə,u} {u,ə} / _Co
8.1.1 Early Middle Japanese to Modern Japaneseau iu uu eu ou → ɔː juː uː joː oː
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolice o u æ ø y → {a,e} {o,u} {a,o,u a {a,o,u} {o,u,i} / _Ca
a e i o u æ ø y → {a,i} {e,ja} {e,i} {ø,y,o} {o,u,y} {i,a,e} {e,ø} {ø,y,o,u} / _Ce
a e o i æ ø y → {a,i,e} {a,e} u {o,u} e {ø,y,o,u} {o,u} / _Co
a e {o,u} æ ø y → {a,o,u} {e,a} {o,u} {a,o,u} {e,i,u} {i,o,u,y,ø} / _Cu
8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusico → {o,u} / _CV
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkica {e,i} o u æ ø y → {ɛ,a} ɛ {ø,o} {y,u} {ia,ja,ɛ} {ia,ja} {y,ø} / _Ci
8.5.2 Proto-Turkic to Sakhao oɡ ø øɡ iɡ → wo ɥø oː øː iː
a{ɡ̌(ɯ),b} {o{ɡ̌,b},aɡ̌u} u{ɡ̌,b} → ɰa wo uː
10 Austronesian10.1.1.1 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Balineseej ow → i u
10.1.1.2 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sasakiw ow ej → i o e / _#
10.1.1.3 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sumbawanej ow → e o / _#
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwo(C)V[+ high] o(C)V[+ mid] o(C)a → ɵ(C) o(C) ɔ(C)ə
u(C)V[+ high] u(C)e u(C)o u(C)a → {u,i}(C) u(C)ə e(C)ə {u,ɵ}(C)ə
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerig— oCV[+ high] → øC
— oCo → œC (sporadic)
— oCV[- high] → ɔC
o e → ʊ ɪ
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to Mwotlapo e i → ɔ ɛ ɪ / C_V[- high]
o e → ʊ ɪ
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Yunagao → ɔ “sometimes”
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejom{i,o} → e
10.3.11.2 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Erromangoo → a
10.3.11.3 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Tannao e → {u,ə} i
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’aa(C){o,e} → a(C)
oCa → ɔCɔ
oa {ae,ea} → uɔ iɛ
o e → ʊ ɪ
10.4.1 Proto-Micronesian to Marshallese{i,u} {e,o} → ɨ ɜ
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamilaː eː iː oː uː → a ɛ i o u / _#
{om,on} {em,en} {oːm,oːn} {eːm,eːn} → ɔ̃ ɛ̃ õ ẽ
o e → u i / _C{u,i} “(highly sporadic)”
— eCə oCə → Ceː Coː / #_
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.1 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Nafrio → e (sporadic, highly unusual)
16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central Sentanio → e (sporadic, highly unusual)
16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern Sentanio → e (sporadic, highly unusual)
16.1.4 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Western Sentanio → e (sporadic, highly unusual)
16.1.5 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Tablaoi → oe
o → e (sporadic, highly unusual)
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanianeː iː oː uː → o i e {y,i}
a e i o → {a,e} (j)e {e,i} a
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanianeː iː oː uː → o i e {y,i}
a e i o → {a,e} (j)e {e,i} a
17.2.1 Common Anatolian to Hittitee o → eː oː / in ”U[+stress]
o(ː) æː → a(ː) eː
17.2.2 Common Anatolian to Luwiano(ː) → a(ː)
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lycian{ɛ,e}ː o æː → iː e aː
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to Lydian{e,a,o} → ē / _N in ”U[+closed]
{e,a,o} → ā / _N in ”U[+open]
{e,o} → a / in U[-stress]
o(ː) eː æː → a(ː) iː aː
17.2.5 Common Anatolian to Palaico(ː) → a(ː)
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
{e,o}j ɛw → ɛj ow
{e,o} → a (rare)
ɛ o → i u / _N
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
{e,o}j ɛw → ɛj ow
{e,o} → a (rare)
ɛ o → i u / _N
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
{e,o}j ɛw → ɛj ow
{e,o} → a (rare)
ɛ o → i u / _N
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
{e,o}j ɛw → ɛj ow
{e,o} → a (rare)
ɛ o → i u / _N
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
{e,o}j ɛw → ɛj ow
{e,o} → a (rare)
ɛ o → i u / _N
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
{e,o}j ɛw → ɛj ow
{e,o} → a (rare)
ɛ o → i u / _N
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
{e,o}j ɛw → ɛj ow
{e,o} → a (rare)
ɛ o → i u / _N
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestano oː → {a,aː} aː
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— oː → uː / in U#
— oː ej → aː eː
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishoː → uː / _(C…)#
oːi → uː / _#
oː → aː / else
— o → a / _{(C…),u}#
— {ai,oi} → iː / _#
— e o → i u / _C(…C){H,j}
{au,eu,ou} → oː
oː → ua / _[anything], when stressed
— {e,o} → a / _[anything]
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welsh{au,eu,ou} → ∅
uː {oi,ɔː} → yː uː
a o → ei {ɨ,ei} / _(C…)j(C…)#
{a,o} → e / _(C…)i(ː)
{a,e,o} → ei / _(C…)j
17.6 Proto-Indo-European to Daciano → a
oi wo wj ow → ai wa vi aw
17.7 Proto-Indo-European to Common Germanico → a
ei oi → iː ai
eːi {oːi,aːi} → eː oː (?)
eu ou → iu au
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothic— o e → u i
oːw æːj → ɔː ɛː / _V
17.7.2 Common Germanic to West Germanicoː → uː / _#
17.7.2.1 West Germanic to Anglo-Frisiani o → e a / unstressed
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle Englisheɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː
{ɑːw,ɑːɣ,oːw} → ɔːw
oɣ → ɔːw / _V
{o(ː)ht,ɑːht} → ow
ɑ e o → ɑː ɛː oː / in U[+open] ! in #U with the following U containing /iː/ or ending in one of /m n r l/
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle Englisheɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː
{ɑːw,ɑːɣ,oːw} → ɔːw
oɣ → ɔːw / _V
{ɑːht,o(ː)ht} → ow
ɑ e o → ɑː ɛː oː / in U[+open] ! in #U with the following U containing /iː/ or ending in one of /m n r l/
{e,ɑ,o} → ə → ∅ / _#
17.7.2.1.4 Midlands Middle English to Early Modern Englisheː oː → eɪ oʊ / ! _ɹ
17.7.2.1.5 Early Modern English to American Englisho ɔ → ɔ ɒ / _ɹ (most dialects have at least one if not both)
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishɜːɹ ɑːɹ ɔːɹ eːɹ oːɹ iːɹ uːɹ → ɜː ɑː ɔː ɛə ɔə ɪə ʊə / syllable-finally
oʊ iː → ɔʊ ɪə / _ɫ
oʊ iː → əʊ ɪi / else
oə → oː
17.7.2.1.7 Early Modern English to British Englishɜːɹ ɑːɹ ɔːɹ eːɹ oːɹ iːɹ uːɹ → ɜː ɑː ɔː ɛə ɔə ɪə ʊə / syllable-finally
oʊ → əʊ
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle Englisheɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː
{ɑːw,ɑːɣ,oːw} → ɔːw
oɣ → ɔːw / _V
{ɑːht,o(ː)ht} → ow
ɑ e o → ɑː ɛː oː / in U[+open] ! in #U with the following U containing /iː/ or ending in one of /m n r l/
{e,ɑ,o} → ə → ∅ / _#, when unstressed (it appears this sound may also have gone to /ɪ/)
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scotsoɡ → ʌu
ol al → ou ɑː → ʌu {ɑ,ɔ}
— ai oi ui ei au ou iu ɛ(o)u → eː oe əi iː {ɑː,ɔː} ʌu ju j(ʌ)u
— iː eː ɛː aː oː uː {øː,yː} → əi i {i,e} e o u ø
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsoː → ju / {n,x}_
oː → iu / _K
oː → ø
æː(ɑ) eː(o) → ɛ iː
e(o) → ɛ
o → ʌ / P_r
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle Englisheɑ eːɑ eo eːo → ɑ ɛː e eː
{ɑːw,ɑːɣ,oːw} → ɔːw
oɣ → ɔːw / _V
{ɑːht,o(ː)ht} → ow
ɑ e o → ɑː ɛː oː / in U[+open] ! in #U with the following U containing /iː/ or ending in one of /m n r l/
{e,ɑ,o} → ə / _#
17.7.2.2 West Germanic to Old Low Franconianeː oː → ie uo
ei ou → eː oː (except in southeastern dialects; *ei as a result of the umlaut of *ai was not affected)
17.7.2.2.1 Old Low Franconian to Middle Dutch{ie,ia,io} uo → iə uə
{ol,al} {ar,er} or → ɔu aːr oːr / _C[+dental]
17.7.2.2.3 Modern Dutch to Polder Dutch Vowel Shifteː øː oː → ɛi œy ɔu
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germanou øy ei → au oy ai
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlauta u o → e y ø / _(C…){i(ː),j}
17.7.3 Common Germanic to Proto-NorseEβu Eβo → juː joː
aβ{u,o} → au
oː → a / _n%
w{o,u}ːwuː j{e,i}ːjiː → uː iː
o(u) {ɔ,ɑ,au,ai,æ} {ja,jE,æ(i),e(i),y} → u a i
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old NorseBːB aː{o,a,æ,e} {æ,e}ː{æ,e}ː {æ,e}ːi iːEː → oː aː eː eː iː
u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ y yː / _(C)(C)(C)j
oː → u / _#
{(j)u,we}ː {o,ɒ}ː aː au → yː øː æː æy
u {o,ɒ} a → y ø æ / _(C)(C)(C)i
u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / _(C)(C)(C)i
{u,we,wi} {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / _(C)(C)(C)i
u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / _(C)(C)(C)j
u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / #(C)(C)_ʀ
Eː{u,o}ː Eːaː → joː jaː / {v,w}_
woː wøː jæː Vː → wo wøje V[- long] / _%
o {æ,e} → u i / ! in #U
o → u / V_
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandicu o a ø y e i → uː oː aː øi yː ei iː / _{ɲc,ɲɟ,ŋk,ŋɡ}
u o a øː eː y i → ʏɪ oi ai øi ei yː iː / _j
u oː aː ʏɪ {y,i} {y,i}ː æː eː ey → ʏ ou au ai y ɪ i je ei
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Norno a → ø ɛ / _(C)(C)i
o → ø / _Cr
oː → øː / _(C)(C)#
oː → u(ː)
joː → {u,o,ø} (looks like being in the ultima or the penult may have had something to do with it, but it isn’t clear to me)
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Norn{u,o}(ː) a aː {ɒ,œ,y} e i(ː) → {o,ɔ}(i) æ(i) {ɔ,ɒ}(i) {o,ɔ}(i) {æ,e} / _{Ḱ,Cʲ}
oː → u
{ɒ,ey} j{u,o,a}ː yː → o ø u / Ḱ_
j{u,o,a}ː → ø
17.7.4 Common Germanic to Vandalicoː → u
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekej ow → eː oː
oj → øj → yj (→ yː sometimes)
e o → ɛ ɔ
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greek{eː,ej} ɛː ɑ(ː)j {oj,ɔːj} → iː eː ɛː {y,ø}
oː → uː
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekej ow → eː oː happened “in the various Ionic dialects at various dates”
oː → uː (?)
oj → øj → yj (→ yː sometimes)
e o → ɛ ɔ
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittiteo(ː) → a(ː)
17.10 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iraniano → aː / _CV, “does not affect o2 < eh3
{e,o,o2,N̊} → a
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-Aryane o → i u / _#
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-Aryane o → i u / _#
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-Aryane o → i u / _#
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-Aryane o → i u / _#
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavic{a,o,ə} → e / j_
{a,o,ə} → o
{ai,oi} → i / j_
{ai,oi} → æː
{aːi,oːi} → {æː,a} (the former seems to be more common)
{a(ː)u,o(ː)u} e(ː)u → u ju
{e(ː),i(ː)} {a(ː),o(ː),u(ː)} → ẽ õ / _N$
oi o → i ъ / “Sometimes in final syllables”
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polisho → ɔ / _N
o → u / else
17.11.2 Proto-Slavic to Old Russianor ol er el → oro olo ere ele / _$
ẽ õ → ja u
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latine o → i u / _ŋ
o → u / _{mb,mk,ɫ}
o → e / w_{r,s,t}
oː → uː / _r
oj → oi → oe → uː
{ew,ow} → ou → uː
a o → e u / %(C)(C)_C(C)% when unstressed
ei oi ou → iː eː uː / %(C)(C)_ when unstressed
{i,o} → e / _#
o → u / _C(C)# ! {u,w}_
{ai,ei,oi} → ei → iː / _(C)(C)#
17.12.1.1.1 Classical Latin vs. Vulgar Latin{i,eː,oi} → e
o → ɔ
{u,oː} → o
“In contrast, Romanian exhibits u, uː → u (and ultimately also ɔ, oː → o); and Sardinian and African Latin underwent a straight merger of the vowels by length without considering quality (e, eː → e; i, iː → i; u, uː → u; etc.)”
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalan{u,oː} o → o ɔ / stressed
{u,o(ː)} → u / _%”V in East Catalan
{u,o(ː)} → o / _%”V else
oe → {e,ɛ}
o → u / _a
o → u / _%”V (irregular)
{u(ː),o(ː)} → ∅ / _#
{a,o} → ∅ / #_ (rare)
o → u / _{ɲ,nk,ŋ} when stressed
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— {eː,i,oe} → é
— iː oː → i ó
— o → ò
— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e
— {o(ː),u} → o
— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e
— iː oː → i o
ò → uo → uɛ / in U[+open] ! _N
ò → ɔ / in U[+closed]
{lːe,lːo} → u / {e,o}_# “[this is actually an analogical development, but it applies as regularly as a sound law]”
ó → ou → ɛu / in U[+open]
ó → ɔ / _N
ó → ou / in U[+closed]
o → {ou,ɔ} “(the outcome fluctuates, but ɔ is often the result of analogy rather than strict sound change; always ou before another vowel)”
ou ɛu u uɛi → u œ y yi
oi → wɛ → wa
oı̃ → wɛ̃
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguese{u,oː} o → o ɔ / stressed
{u,o(ː)} → o / _%”V
{u(ː),o(ː)} → o → u / _#
aː oe → a e
{olt,okt} → ujt → ut
o → u / _(”V)
{ã,ãe,õe} → ão / _#
o → ∅ / _{r,l} when between #U and U[+tonic]
o → ∅ / _(C)(C)V(C)#
o → u / _ɲ when stressed
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— o → y / _{tʃ,dʒ,it,id} (did not occur in Dauphiné)
— o → y / _ɲ (in northern and western dialects)
— o → y / _i# (in Bordeaux, Auvergne, and some of Languedoc)
— o → u (during the literary period)
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanian— eː,i,oe → e
— iː o(ː) u(ː) → i o u
— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e
— {o(ː),u} → o
— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e / _#
— {o(ː),uː} → o
o e → u i / _N
a o → ə u / ”U…_#
a o → ə u / #(C…)V…_…”U
o → u / #C…_…”U
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardiniano → u / _k (possibly restricted in occurrence)
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to SpanishRaising of e {ɛ,a} ɔ o → i e o u; near j, in particular environments:
oj → we (sporadic)
”je.o ”je.a → {”i.o,”jo} ”i.a
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tocharianh3e o → o ɛ
{eh3,oH} → oː
oː(s,y) oːn → u {u,õ}
õ oː → o a
ow aw ew → ɛu au əw
oy ay ey → ɛi ai əj
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.4.1 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Akwárao → a / ! o(C…)_(C…)#
{ẽ,ı̃} ɨ̃ {u,ũ,õ} → i ɨ o
18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Cocamao → u(a) / ! o(C…)_(C…)#
18.4.3 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guajajarao → u / ! o(C…)_(C…)#
ã ẽ ı̃ ɨ̃ {õ,ũ} → ə e i ɨ o
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guarayoõ → o
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Sirionóo u → {u,o} {u,o,i}
{ɨ̃,õ} ũ → {õ,ẽ} õ
18.4.9.1.3 Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoró to Cinta Largao → u
18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Urubuɨ̃ ẽ õ → ∅ {ẽ,e} {o,õ,u,ũ}
20 Khoisan20.2.1 Proto-Kx’a to ǂHoano → ∅ / u_
o → ∅ / a(C)_
20.2.2 Proto-Kx’a to Northwestern !Xuno → ∅ / _u
o → a / _Ca
20.2.3 Proto-Kx’a to Southeastern !Xuno → ∅ / _u
o → a / _Ca
21 Lakes Plain21.1 Proto-Lakes Plain to Proto-Far Weste o → ɛ ɔ (?)
21.2.1 Proto-Tariku to Proto-Central Tarikue o → ɛ ɔ
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.2 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Lencano a → {u,o} {a,e}
27 Mayan27.1 Proto-Mayan to Ch’olanaː eː oː → ɨ i u
27.9 Proto-Mayan to Tzeltalanaː eː oː → ɨ i u
28 Muskogean28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western Muskogeanoj aj → iː {aː,iː}
30 Niger-Congo30.1.2 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-Manenguba{u,o} {ɛ,e,i} → w j / C_a in noun roots
{u,o} {ɛ,e,i} → w j / C_(a) in verb roots
{u,o} {ɛ,e,i} → w j / C_$V in noun class prefixes
30.3.1.1.1 Proto-Gbe to Ajá{o,ɔ} {ɛ,e} → u i / _i
30.3.1.1.3 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Fonoi ɔi ɔ̃i {a,ɛ}i {ɛ̃,ẽ}i ei → oe ɔɛ ɔ̃ɛ̃ ɛɛ ɛ̃ɛ̃ ee
30.3.1.1.10 Proto-Vhe to Awalan{o,ɔ} ə → u i / _i
33 Penutian33.1.1 Proto-Utian to Proto-Costanoan (Ohlone)o → a / ! o(C…)_ or _(C…){o,i}
33.1.1.1 Proto-Costanoan to Chochenyoo → u / _(C…)i
33.1.1.3 Proto-Costanoan to Mutsuno → u / _(C…)i
33.1.1.4 Proto-Costanoan to Rumseno → u / _(C…)i
33.3.1 Proto-Yokuts to General Yokutso → u / _Ci
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old Mandarino → a / C_w ! C = {K,C[+pharyngeal]}
{o,a} {a(ta),a(ch)} → e a / _ŋ
o → a / Cʲ_w
{o,e} → ? / _Cʲ
36.1.1.1 Old Mandarin to Modern Pekingese{e,o} → a / _w
o → e / _ŋ
o → e / _#
36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàyʔ → oʔ (eventually → {ʊʔ,(i)uʔ?) / {l,C[+dental +sibilant]}_, in “QYS -k-types”
yʔ → ioʔ (→ iʊʔ dialectally?) / {∅,C[+guttural]}_, in -k-types
yʔ → oʔ (→ ʊʔ?) / C̣_, in -k-types
36.3.1.1 Proto-Naish to Lazeu o → v̩ u
36.3.1.2 Proto-Naish to Mosuo (Na)u o → v̩ u
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to Naxiu o → v̩ u
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Lao → e / _s
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiaok → iɡ
o → e / _l
oj → oi
36.3.2.1.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Hanniuor → ro
36.3.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Japhugu o → ɯ u / _#
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Toop → u
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtseom → {o,a}m
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Naoom → {on,am}
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu Tao → e / _s
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassuo → ə / _n
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeeẽ(ː) õ(ː) → o(ː) ʌ̃(ː)
37.1.2 Proto-Iroquoian to Proto-Northern Iroquoiano(ː) u(ː) → a(ː) o(ː)
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayugao(ː) → õ / _õ(ː)
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandotẽ(ː) õ(ː) o(ː) → ɛ̃(ː) ɔ̃(ː) u(ː)
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagaa(ː) o(ː) õ(ː) → æ(ː) e(ː) ẽ(ː) / r_
õ(ː) → ũ(ː)
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneidaẽ(ː) õ(ː) → ʌ̃(ː) ũ(ː)
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecao → oː / _{aː,æː}
ẽ(ː) õ(ː) → ɛ̃(ː) ɔ̃(ː)
— a e o → ə ɪ ʊ / C_{C,i[-long]}
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscarora{ẽ(ː),õ(ː)} → ə̃(ː)
a(ː) o(ː) → ɔ(ː) u(ː) / ! “when both short and unstressed”
37.1.2.6.2 Tuscarora to Eastern Tuscaroraə̃(ː) a(ː) o(ː) → ɨ̃(ː) ɔ(ː) u(ː) (“in all positions”)
37.2 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Siouanẽ õ → ı̃ ũ
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchowɨ̆ i̯o → u ə
u̯ɨ u̯o → {ɨ,ə} u
uo ɨ̯u → u(ː) u / _C%
o {u̯ɔ,ɨɔ,ɔ} → u oː
{ɨo̯,ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → ɨː iː
{o,ə} → a / _ɨ
o → a / _u
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Taiuo → ɔː
u̯o i̯o → u o
uo → uu → u / _%
38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-Aii̯o → o
o → ɔ
ɨo̯ ɨa̯ ie̯ ɨe̯ → uː aː eː iː
{ou,oɨ} → oː
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Taio → ɔː / _i
38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lüo → u / _N
38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siameseu{o,ə} ɨu → uː ɨː
{u̯o,u̯ɨ} u̯ɔ → o ɔː
ɨ̯u i̯o → uː u
oɨ → ai
{o,ə} ɛ → a ɛː / _u
38.1.1.5.6 Southwest Tai to White Taio → u / _N
40 Totozoquean40.2 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Totonacano o̰ → u ṵ
41 Trans-New Guinea41.9 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Selepetu o a e → {u,ɔ} {o,ɔ} {a,ɔ} {e,o}
42 Uralic42.1 Proto-Uralic to Pre-Finniciw ow → y uː / _(C) (*)
42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnicê ô → e o / _(X)Ci
ô → ɯ → i / _(X)CA
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishoi → o / unstressed
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnisheː øː oː → ie yø uo
42.1.1.1.2 Standard Finnish to Modern Standard Finnishie yɤ uo → iː yː uː / _A
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livonianeː øː oː ɤ(ː) → iːe yːø uːo ɨ(ː)
e o → eː oː / _Cɑ
o → oː / _{RC#,i}
eː oː → je wo
wo → ʊ / P_
43 Uto-Aztecan43.2 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Hopio → ø
43.3 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Luiseñoo ɨ → e o
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basqueõ → ũ (Souletin)
a o e → ɛ u i / {i,u}(C…)_ (this [ɛ] is tentatively marked as such; Egurtzegi transcribes it as /e/ but says it’s not as close as /e/)
o → u / _n{C,#} (Souletin; some raising occurred elsewhere)
o e → u i / _$a (raising of *o is less common)
u {o,e} → ∅ a / _#, in disyllables (eastern dialects)
oɪ → uɪ (rare)
oa ea → u(e) i(e) / _#
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.1 Proto-Pai to Chapaio → u
46 Vowel Shifts46.2 California Vowel Shift (English)oʊ̯ → eʊ̯ (“common only within certain social groups”)
46.4 Polder Dutch Vowel Shifteː øː oː → ɛi œy ɔu
46.5 Old English-to-Scots Vowel Shiftsai oi ui ei au ou iu ɛ(o)u → eː oe əi iː {ɑː,ɔː} ʌu ju j(ʌ)u
iː eː ɛː aː oː uː {øː,yː} → əi i {i,e} e o u ø
46.7 Great Vowel Shift (English)eː oː → iː uː
aː ɔː → ɛː oː → eː ow → ej (əw)
46.8 Greek Vowel Shiftoː → uː
46.10 Late Proto-Finnic to Savonian Vowel Shifteː øː oː → ie yø uo
ei oi øi → eː oe øe
ɑu ou → ɑː oː
46.13 Old Norse to Faroese Vowel Shifto → oː / ɔ
oː → {ɔu,ɛu,œu} / œ “(except Suðuroy → ɔ)”
46.15 Proto-Japanese to Old Japanese Vowel Shifte o → je wo / _#
e o → i u / else
46.19 Southern [United States] Shift (English)uʊ oʊ → ʉʊ̈ əʊ̈ (a bit of a guesstimate based upon the prose description in the article and the mean-formant-value chart cited from Labov, Ash & Bobert (2006))

to /o/

489 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Omotica → o / #Cw_{(d)l,s3}
6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North Omotica → o / #{z,dʒ}_P
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabicuː iː → oː eː / _ʕ
uː iː → oː eː / ʕ_
u → o / _{ʕ,ɣ,x,r}
u → o / {ʕ,ɣ,x,r}_
a → {u,o} / P_
a → {u,o} / _P
6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Egyptian Arabici u → e o / only when short, ! _#
u → {o,u} / short only, _#
aj aw → eː oː / in U[+closed]
6.2.2.1.10 Classical Arabic to Hassāniyya Arabicaj aw → eː(ʲ) oː(ʷ) (sometimes, the article is unclear)
6.2.2.1.11 Classical Arabic to Iraqi Arabicaj aw → eː oː
6.2.2.1.12 Classical Arabic to Eastern Libyan Arabicaj aw → e(ː,j) o(ː,w)
6.2.2.1.13 Classical Arabic to Western Libyan Arabicaj aw → eː oː
6.2.2.1.14 Classical Arabic to Moroccan Arabicaː iː uː → ɑː eː oː / near emphatics
6.2.2.1.16 Classical Arabic to Sudanese Arabicu(ː) → {ɵ,o}(ː)
6.2.2.1.17 Classical Arabic to Tunisian Arabicaj aw → {aj,eː,iː aw,oː,uː}
6.2.2.1.18 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrew— aː → oː / ! _#
— i iː u uː → eə iːə oə uːə / _R
— i u → e o / _C{$,#} (in verbs)
— aj aw → eː oː
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakiiw → o / _#
oː aː eː iː → o ɔ̃ a i
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenakiiw → o / _#
oː eː iː → o a i
7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-Atsinawe → o
a(ː) → o(ː)
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfoot{a,e,i} → o / _kʷ
{jiː,ja,ahi} {owaː,awa,awe} awi {iːwa,eːwa,aji,aje,ani} → i oː o(ji) iː / C_C
a → o / _w
{we,wiː} → o / #_
oː → o
7.5 Proto-Algonquian to Cheyenneo a → e o
w j → {v,o} {t,e}
7.6 Proto-Algonquian to Northern East Creewe → o
lwi → jo
wi → o / C_
7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East Creewe → o
lwi → jo
wi → o / C_
7.8 Proto-Algonquian to Plains Creewe → o
lwi → jo
wi → o / C_
7.9 Proto-Algonquian to Swampy Creewe → o
lwi → jo
wi → o / C_
7.10 Proto-Algonquian to Woods Creewe → o
lwi → jo
wi → o / C_
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawarewe → wə → oː / ! adjacent to {p,m,k}
i o → iː oː
ə → o / _h{p,kʷ,w,m}
ə → o / _x{p,kʷ,V[+round]}
ə → o / {p,m}_x
ə → o / _ŋkʷ
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menomineewe je → o i / _C
we → o / #_
a → o / $am_w
wi(ː) → o(ː) / C_w
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaqeːk → oχ / _w
o(ː) waː eː iː → u o e i
{o,a}wi → oː
7.15 Proto-Algonquian to Ojibwewe e → o i
7.16 Proto-Algonquian to Piscatawaye → o / unclear conditioning
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawneewe → o
wa → o / #_
8 Altaic8.1.1 Early Middle Japanese to Modern Japaneseau iu uu eu ou → ɔː juː uː joː oː
ɔː → oː
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolica → {a,o,u} / _Cu
e o u æ ø y → {a,e} {o,u} {a,o,u a {a,o,u} {o,u,i} / _Ca
a e i o u æ ø y → {a,i} {e,ja} {e,i} {ø,y,o} {o,u,y} {i,a,e} {e,ø} {ø,y,o,u} / _Ce
a e u æ ø y → {a,e} {e,i} {y,ø} {i,e} {i,e,ø} {ø,y,o,u} / _Ci
e → o / P_Cu
e → o / C_Pu
a e o i æ ø y → {a,i,e} {a,e} u {o,u} e {ø,y,o,u} {o,u} / _Co
a e {o,u} æ ø y → {a,o,u} {e,a} {o,u} {a,o,u} {e,i,u} {i,o,u,y,ø} / _Cu
8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusico → {o,u} / _CV
{u,ø,y} æ → {o,u} ia / _Ca
æ ø → i {o,u} / _Ce
æ ø y → ia {o,u} i / _Ci
{u,æ} ø → {o,u} i / _Co
{u,æ,y} ø → {o,u} ia / _Cu
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkica e i u æ ø y → a {a,ʌ,e} {ɯ,i} {u,o} {ia,ja,ɛ} {ia,ja} ɯ / _Ca
a {e,i} o u æ ø y → {ɛ,a} ɛ {ø,o} {y,u} {ia,ja,ɛ} {ia,ja} {y,ø} / _Ci
a e i æ ø y → {o,ja,aj} {ʌ,ɜ} ɯ {ia,ja} {o,u} {u,o} / _Co
e i æ ø y → {ɛ,a,ʌ} {ɯ,i} {e,a} {u,o} ɯ / _Cu
8.5.1.2 Proto-Kypchak to Kyrgyz{u,ɯ}w {i,y}w aw {æ,e}w → uː yː oː øː
8.5.2 Proto-Turkic to Sakhao oɡ ø øɡ iɡ → wo ɥø oː øː iː
a{ɡ̌(ɯ),b} {o{ɡ̌,b},aɡ̌u} u{ɡ̌,b} → ɰa wo uː
10 Austronesian10.1.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan— aj aw → ej ow / _#
— aj aw → e ow / _#
10.1.1.2 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sasakiw ow ej → i o e / _#
10.1.1.3 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sumbawanej ow → e o / _#
u i → o e / sometimes
10.1.2.5 Proto-Philippine to Ifugaoə → o
10.1.2.9 Proto-Philippine to Tagalogu → o / _#
uj iw → oj uj / _#
10.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Batak{a,e} → o / _w#
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorroi u → e o / _C{C,#}
i u → e o / CC# (sporadic)
10.2.4.1 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Javaneseh → {o,h,w} / V_V
— aw aj → e ó / _#
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Madureseij uw → uj {uj,ój} / _#
10.2.4.3 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Sundaneseiw uj → {ju,i} oj / _#
— əw əj → o e / _#
— aw aj → o aj / _#
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauanaj aw uj → e o i
ə → {e,o} / stressed; “(result of /e/ or /o/ unpredictable)”
wa → o / #_ when unstressed
{aw,əw} → o / _#
10.2.6.2 Proto-North Sarawak to Proto-Kenyahi u → e o / _h#
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lónghu → o / _k#
u → o / _ŋ# “(sporadically failed to occur)”
a → o / _# “(not in all forms)”
i u → e o / _CV[+close-mid](C)# “(iə is treated as close mid for this change)”
i u → e o / _Cɯ#
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabaua → o / _(C…)#
u i → o e (sporadic)
— a → o / _p#
10.3 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Oceanice {uj,iw} → o i
aw → o / _#
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwo(C)V[+ high] o(C)V[+ mid] o(C)a → ɵ(C) o(C) ɔ(C)ə
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerig— uCV[- high] → oC
10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to Caaàcu i → o e (not always)
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-Nêlêmwau i → o e / “in monosyllabic forms almost always”
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to Nyelâyuu i → o e (not always)
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Yunagau i → o e / in monosyllables
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejomu → o
i → o / {u,w}_
ua → ou
au → {u,o} “sometimes”
a → o / P_ “[tendency]”
a → o / _P “[tendency]”
10.3.11.2 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Erromangou i → o e (sporadic)
10.3.11.2.1 Proto-Erromango to Syee → o / K_
e → o / _K
a → o / {w,m,ŋ}_
ə → {o,e}
10.3.11.3 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Tannaa → o / _{P,Cu}
a → o / P_
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Onganu a ə → {u,o} {a,e} e
10.5.1 Proto-Ongan to Jarawae → {e,ə,o} / _V
10.5.2 Proto-Ongan to Ongeaw → o
e → {e,ə,o} / _V
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamili u → e o / _Ca
aː eː iː oː uː → a ɛ i o u / _#
am an {aːm,aːn} → õ æ̃ ã / _#
{om,on} {em,en} {oːm,oːn} {eːm,eːn} → ɔ̃ ɛ̃ õ ẽ
i(ː) e(ː) → u(ː) o(ː) / {m,v,p}_C̣
— i(ː) e(ː) → u(ː) o(ː) / _ɭ
— eCə oCə → Ceː Coː / #_
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.1 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Nafriə → o / _(C)o
16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central Sentaniə → o / _(C)o
16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern Sentaniə → o / _(C)o
16.1.4 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Western Sentaniə → o / _(C)o
16.1.5 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Tablaoi → oe
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanianeː iː oː uː → o i e {y,i}
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanianeː iː oː uː → o i e {y,i}
17.2.1 Common Anatolian to Hittitee o → eː oː / in ”U[+stress]
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenian{e,o}j ɛw → ɛj ow
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenian{e,o}j ɛw → ɛj ow
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenian{e,o}j ɛw → ɛj ow
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenian{e,o}j ɛw → ɛj ow
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenian{e,o}j ɛw → ɛj ow
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenian{e,o}j ɛw → ɛj ow
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenian{e,o}j ɛw → ɛj ow
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— h1e h2e h3e → e a o
— eh1 eh2 eh3 → eː aː oː
— e → o / _w
— u → o / _wO
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irish— i u → e o / _C(…C){a(ː),e(ː),o(ː)}
{au,eu,ou} → oː
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshi u → e o / _Ca
17.7 Proto-Indo-European to Common Germanicaː → oː
eːi {oːi,aːi} → eː oː (?)
17.7.2 Common Germanic to West Germanici u → e o / _%{a,o}
17.7.2.1.1 Anglo-Frisian to Old Englishɑ̃ː → õː
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle English{o(ː)ht,ɑːht} → ow
ɑ e o → ɑː ɛː oː / in U[+open] ! in #U with the following U containing /iː/ or ending in one of /m n r l/
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle English{ɑːht,o(ː)ht} → ow
ɑ e o → ɑː ɛː oː / in U[+open] ! in #U with the following U containing /iː/ or ending in one of /m n r l/
17.7.2.1.4 Midlands Middle English to Early Modern Englisheː oː → eɪ oʊ / ! _ɹ
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishʊə → oː / ! {j,dʒ}_
oə → oː
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle English{ɑːht,o(ː)ht} → ow
ɑ e o → ɑː ɛː oː / in U[+open] ! in #U with the following U containing /iː/ or ending in one of /m n r l/
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scotsol al → ou ɑː → ʌu {ɑ,ɔ}
— ai oi ui ei au ou iu ɛ(o)u → eː oe əi iː {ɑː,ɔː} ʌu ju j(ʌ)u
— iː eː ɛː aː oː uː {øː,yː} → əi i {i,e} e o u ø
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle English{ɑːht,o(ː)ht} → ow
ɑ e o → ɑː ɛː oː / in U[+open] ! in #U with the following U containing /iː/ or ending in one of /m n r l/
17.7.2.2 West Germanic to Old Low Franconianeː oː → ie uo
ai au → eː oː
a → ɒ? (→ o) / _ɫ
ei ou → eː oː (except in southeastern dialects; *ei as a result of the umlaut of *ai was not affected)
17.7.2.2.1 Old Low Franconian to Middle Dutchiu → {yː,io} (outcome varies depending upon dialect; the former seems more typical)
{uː,uw} u → ɔw o (except in the southeast)
{ol,al} {ar,er} or → ɔu aːr oːr / _C[+dental]
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germanaː → oː / _{N,C[+ dental],P,h} (sporadic?)
aː → oː / {N,C[+ dental],P,h}_ (sporadic?)
uː yː iː → ou øy ei, except in certain unstressed endings and monosyllables, _C{C,V,#} (“especially before /xt/”), and Low German borrowings
ou øy ei → au oy ai
u y → o ø / _N (with some occasional exceptions)
17.7.2.5 West Germanic to Old Low Germanai au → eː oː
17.7.3 Common Germanic to Proto-NorseEβu Eβo → juː joː
(w)u(ː) i(ː) → (w)o(ː) e(ː) / _(C)(C)a ! CC = NC or one C = {ʀ,j}
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old NorseEːBː Eːaː → joː jaː / {v,w}_
BːB aː{o,a,æ,e} {æ,e}ː{æ,e}ː {æ,e}ːi iːEː → oː aː eː eː iː
waː naː → oː noː / %u in #U
a(ː) ae → o(ː) ɒø / #(C)(C)(C)_(C)(C)(C)u
u → o / _m#
u → o / _m#
au {ai,ey,ei} æ{y,i} øy Vː → o e æ ø V / #(C)(C)(C)_CC
ɒ → oː / n_h
{æ,e}i ai au w{ɪ,i} wy wV iu Vː → eː aː oː weː woː wVː eː oː V
ey → {jo,æ}ː / _ʀ
Eː{u,o}ː Eːaː → joː jaː / {v,w}_
woː wøː jæː Vː → wo wøje V[- long] / _%
uN yN iN VN → o øː eː Vː / _{s,f}
eː{Bː,i(ː)} → joː / _C[+ alveolar]#
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandicwaː → wo
u o a ø y e i → uː oː aː øi yː ei iː / _{ɲc,ɲɟ,ŋk,ŋɡ}
u o a øː eː y i → ʏɪ oi ai øi ei yː iː / _j
u oː aː ʏɪ {y,i} {y,i}ː æː eː ey → ʏ ou au ai y ɪ i je ei
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornjoː → {u,o,ø} (looks like being in the ultima or the penult may have had something to do with it, but it isn’t clear to me)
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Norn{u,o}(ː) a aː {ɒ,œ,y} e i(ː) → {o,ɔ}(i) æ(i) {ɔ,ɒ}(i) {o,ɔ}(i) {æ,e} / _{Ḱ,Cʲ}
u → {o,ɒ} / _CC
uː → {u,o,ɒ,ø} (conditioning unclear; it seems the presence of a velar consonant may have helped to retain the quality of /u/)
{ɒ,ey} j{u,o,a}ː yː → o ø u / Ḱ_
a → {o,ɔ} / _{K,r} (! K = w ?)
aː → wo (dialectal)
au → {o,ɔ,ɒ} / j_
au → j{o,ɔ}
e → {o,ɒ} / _w
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekej ow → eː oː
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekej ow → eː oː happened “in the various Ionic dialects at various dates”
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittitee(ː) → o(ː) / _h3
e(ː) → o(ː) / h3_
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-Aryanəː → oː / w_
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-Aryana{i,j}(a) a{u,w}(a) → e o
ah → o
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-Aryana{i,j}(a) a{u,w}(a) → e o
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-Aryana{i,j}(a) a{u,w}(a) → e o
ah → o
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-Aryana{i,j}(a) a{u,w}(a) → e o
ah → o
17.10.1.5.1 Vedic Sanskrit to Classical Sanskritau aːu ai aːi → au oː ai eː / ! _V
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavic{a,o,ə} → o
e → o / _wV
{m̩,n̩} → {ẽ,õ} / _C$
{e(ː),i(ː)} {a(ː),o(ː),u(ː)} → ẽ õ / _N$
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishaː ɔː ɛː → ɒ o e
17.11.2 Proto-Slavic to Old Russianor ol er el → oro olo ere ele / _$
je → o / #_
je → o / V_ (sporadic)
17.12 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Italiceu → ou
17.12.1 Proto-Italic to Proto-Latino-Falsicanl̥ r̥ → ol {or,er} / _#
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latine → o / _ɫ
oj → oi → oe → uː
aw → oː (in rustic dialects)
{ew,ow} → ou → uː
V → o / %(C)(C)V_% when unstressed
e → o / _w
e → o / w_
l̩ l̩ː r̩ r̩ː → ol l or r
17.12.1.1.1 Classical Latin vs. Vulgar Latin{u,oː} → o
ɛ ɔ → e o / when unstressed
“In contrast, Romanian exhibits u, uː → u (and ultimately also ɔ, oː → o); and Sardinian and African Latin underwent a straight merger of the vowels by length without considering quality (e, eː → e; i, iː → i; u, uː → u; etc.)”
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalan{u,oː} o → o ɔ / stressed
{u,o(ː)} → o / _%”V else
ae au → e o / _%”V
∅ → {e,o} / CL_#
∅ → {e,o} / rː_#
ɔ → o / _N$C
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— iː oː → i ó
— o → ò
— u → ó / !_iː
— {o(ː),u} → o
— iː oː → i o
— u(ː) → o / except _V (?)
ò → uo → uɛ / in U[+open] ! _N
ó → ou → ɛu / in U[+open]
ó → ou / in U[+closed]
o → {ou,ɔ} “(the outcome fluctuates, but ɔ is often the result of analogy rather than strict sound change; always ou before another vowel)”
{ei,ɔi} → oi / C[-nas]
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to Italianau → o
ɔ → uo / stressed ! j_ or _{dʒ,L}
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portugueseau → o
{u,oː} o → o ɔ / stressed
{u,o(ː)} → o / _%”V
{u(ː),o(ː)} → o → u / _#
ɛ ɔ → e o / _(”u)#
aɫ → o
ɔ̃ → õ
{ã,ãe,õe} → ão / _#
e V → o ∅ / _? (irregular)
e → o / _m”V (irregular)
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— ʊ → o (this change seems to have happened later, hence is listed separately)
— ɔ → ɥo / _{u,P,k,ɡ,i} (in Languedoc)
— ɔ → {ɥe,ɥo,ɔ} / _{u,P,k,ɡ,i} (in southern dialects)
— å ɛ ɔ → a e o / _N (in Limousin and neighboring regions, the last two particularly in Limousin, Languedoc, and Gascon, though when _ɲ this change may have been blocked)
— u → o
— a → o in most dialects except Gascon and Languedoc; final -as remained in “Limousin and some others”
— e u → e o / _nt#
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanian— iː o(ː) u(ː) → i o u
— {o(ː),u} → o
— {o(ː),uː} → o
— u → o / ! V_
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardinianau ai → o e
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to SpanishRaising of e {ɛ,a} ɔ o → i e o u; near j, in particular environments:
— ɛ ɔ u → e o u / _(C)j
”je.o ”je.a → {”i.o,”jo} ”i.a
i u → e o / _(C)#
17.12.2 Proto-Italic to Proto-Sibellianeu → ou
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tocharianh3e o → o ɛ
{eh3,oH} → oː
oː(s,y) oːn → u {u,õ}
õ oː → o a
ɛ → o / _$B
17.13.1 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian A{a,ɛ}u əw → o u
17.13.2 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian Bɔ ɛ → o e
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makurápu → o / _{p,b}i
18.3.3 Proto-Tuparí to Tuparíu → o / _{p,b}i
18.4.1 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Akwáraa → {ɨ,o} / _N#
a → o / ! Cw_
ã → õ
{ẽ,ı̃} ɨ̃ {u,ũ,õ} → i ɨ o
18.4.3 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guajajaraã ẽ ı̃ ɨ̃ {õ,ũ} → ə e i ɨ o
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guarayoõ → o
18.4.6 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Kamayuráu → õ (? possibly backwards?)
18.4.7 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Parintintínẽ ı̃ ũ → {ẽ,e} {ı̃,i} {ũ,õ}
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Sirionóa → {∅,o,e} / _j#
o u → {u,o} {u,o,i}
aN eN iN ɨN uN → ã ẽ ı̃ {ɨ̃,ĩ} õ / _#
{ɨ̃,õ} ũ → {õ,ẽ} õ
18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Urubuu → o / ! o(C…)_(C…)#
ɨ̃ ẽ õ → ∅ {ẽ,e} {o,õ,u,ũ}
20 Khoisan20.2.2 Proto-Kx’a to Northwestern !Xunui → o (?)
20.2.3 Proto-Kx’a to Southeastern !Xunui → o (?)
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to Chibchau → o / _Ca
23.1.2 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Lencano a → {u,o} {a,e}
28 Muskogean28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western Muskogeana → o / xʷ_#
28.2.1 Proto-Western Muskogean to Chickasawaw → o
28.2.2 Proto-Western Muskogean to Choctawa → o / _w
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.1 Proto-Athabaskan to Ahtnaɑ ə ʊ → a e o
29.1.1.1.2 Proto-Athabaskan to Babineu ɑ ʊ → {o,u} ə u
29.1.1.1.5 Proto-Athabaskan to Chipewyanɑ ʊ → a o
29.1.1.1.6 Proto-Athabaskan to Dakelhu {ɑ,ʊ} → {o,u} ə
29.1.1.1.9 Proto-Athabaskan to Dogribɑ ə ʊ u → a e o i
29.1.1.1.10 Proto-Athabaskan to Easter Gwich’ina u {ɑ,ə} ʊ → {i,e} ju a o
29.1.1.1.11 Proto-Athabaskan to Hana ɑ ə ʊ → æ a {ə,ë} o
29.1.1.1.12 Proto-Athabaskan to Holikachuki e a u {ɑ,ʊ} → e a ɔ o ŭ
29.1.1.1.14 Proto-Athabaskan to Lower Koyukone a ɑ ʊ → a o ŏ ŭ
29.1.1.1.15 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Koyukone a ɑ ʊ → a o ŏ ŭ
29.1.1.1.16 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Kuskokwim Kolchane a {ɑ,ʊ} → a o ŭ
29.1.1.1.18 Proto-Athabaskan to Sekaniʊ → o
29.1.1.1.29 Proto-Athabaskan to Bearlake Slavey-Hareɑ ə ʊ → a ɛ o
29.1.1.1.31 Proto-Athabaskan to Mountain Slavey-Hareɑ ə ʊ → a e o
29.1.1.1.32 Proto-Athabaskan to Slavey Slavey-Hareɑ ə ʊ → a e o
29.1.1.1.37 Proto-Athabaskan to Tanacrossɑ ə ʊ → {æ̆,ă} æ̆ ŏ
29.1.1.1.39 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Tanana{a,ɑ} e i u ʊ → e(a) {i,ea} ju {a,ɨ} o
29.1.1.1.40 Proto-Athabaskan to Tsetsautʊ → o
29.1.1.1.41 Proto-Athabaskan to Northern Tutchone{ɑ,ə,ʊ} → {a,o}
29.1.1.1.42 Proto-Athabaskan to Southern Tutchone{ɑ,ə,ʊ} → {a,o}
30 Niger-Congo30.3.1.1.3 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Fonoi ɔi ɔ̃i {a,ɛ}i {ɛ̃,ẽ}i ei → oe ɔɛ ɔ̃ɛ̃ ɛɛ ɛ̃ɛ̃ ee
31 Nyulnyulan31.1 Proto-Nyulnyulan to Bardiawu → o
aɡu → o
33 Penutian33.3.1 Proto-Yokuts to General Yokutsiː ɨː uː → eː əː oː (this change sometimes did not occur)
33.3.3 Proto-Yokuts to PalewyamiV → o / C”oC_
35 Salishan35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack Halkomelem{u33} → {o33,a3}
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to Nooksacka1 u3 u1 i1 → æ2 o3 o1 i2
{u33} → o3
35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straitsu3 u1 → o3 ə1
a3 → o3 / {{C[+ uvular],K}ʷ,w}_
a3 → o3 / _{Cu,C[+ uvular]ʷ,w}
35.1.11 Proto-Central Salish to Sooke Northern Straitsa3 → {a3,o3} / {{C[+ uvular],K}ʷ,w}_
35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to Twanau3 u1 → o3 ə1
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old Mandarinw → o / Cʲ_?w
{a(ta),a(ch)} → o / else
? → o / _ŋ
e → o / w_ŋ
36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàuʔ → oʔ (occasionally → uɛʔ?)
uŋ → oŋ (in one source?)
juŋ → uŋ (→ oŋ dialectally?)
yʔ → oʔ (eventually → {ʊʔ,(i)uʔ?) / {l,C[+dental +sibilant]}_, in “QYS -k-types”
yʔ → ioʔ (→ iʊʔ dialectally?) / {∅,C[+guttural]}_, in -k-types
yʔ → oʔ (→ ʊʔ?) / C̣_, in -k-types
36.3.1.1 Proto-Naish to LazeB → o / {qʰ,(N)q}_
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to Naxia aS → ɑ {ɑ,o} / _%
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiaut uk → ud oɡ
oj → oi
a ap at ar am aj → e eb e(d) er om e.i
et ej → o e.i
iw → jo
ip it → ib o
36.3.2.1.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Hanniuor → ro
an {at.is} → o ie
36.3.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Japhugaŋ → o / _#
a → o / _m#
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Tou → o / _k
uj → os
aj → oi
et → o
i → o / _m
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtseom → {o,a}m
ew iw → i jo
36.3.2.2.3 Proto-rGyalrongic to Patiuk → o
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Mou → o / _p
a → o / _r
es er → or ər
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Naout u{k,n} ur → ud uo uɛ
om → {on,am}
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu Tauk uŋ → {u,o} e
it ik → o ek
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassuuk → o
it ik → o i
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeeẽ(ː) õ(ː) → o(ː) ʌ̃(ː)
37.1.2 Proto-Iroquoian to Proto-Northern Iroquoiano(ː) u(ː) → a(ː) o(ː)
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayugao(ː) → õ / _õ(ː)
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneida— ∅ → o / C_wV(H)#
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecao → oː / _{aː,æː}
a(ː) æ(ː) → õ(ː) ẽ(ː) / n_
a(ː) → õ(ː) / V[+nas]H_
a(ː) → õ(ː) / V[+nas]({ʔ,s})w_
37.2.6.4 Proto-Dhegiha to Quapawã → õ (*)
37.2.7.2 Proto-Ohio-Valley to Ofoã → {an,õ}
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchowo {u̯ɔ,ɨɔ,ɔ} → u oː
uɔ ɨ̯ɔ → oː ɨ
u̯əi uəi uai i̯əu iau → oːi uːi uːiau oːu
ɔ ɨ → oː ɨː / _i
u̯əi → oːi
38.1.1.3.5 Central Tai to T’ien-Paoi iː u → ə ei oʊ̯
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Taiu̯o i̯o → u o
38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-Aiɔː → oː
i̯o → o
e → o / _{m,p}%
ɔ → oː
u̯əi ɔi → (w)iː oːi
{ou,oɨ} → oː
uəi uai iau → iː oːi eːu
38.1.1.4.3 North Tai to Wu-Mingi → {i,oi} / _%
38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lü{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} {ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → o ə e
38.1.1.5.3 Southwest Tai to Shan{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} {ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → o ə e
38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siamese{u̯o,u̯ɨ} u̯ɔ → o ɔː
e → o / _{m,p}%
38.1.1.5.6 Southwest Tai to White Tai{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} {ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → o ə e
40 Totozoquean40.1 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Mixe-Zoqueanɨ ɔ → ə o
41 Trans-New Guinea41.3 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Binanderea → {a,o}
41.4 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kaetiu a → {u,o,y} {a,o}
41.8 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kiwaiu i → {u,o} {i,e}
41.9 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Selepetu o a e → {u,ɔ} {o,ɔ} {a,ɔ} {e,o}
42 Uralic42.1 Proto-Uralic to Pre-Finnicɤ(ː?) ɑː æː → ɑ(ː?) oː eː / stressed
Aw → o / unstressed (possibly analogical)
42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnicê ô → e o / _(X)Ci
ɑ → o / ”{a,e,i}(X)C_j
ixi uxu → øː oː
uwa → oː (*)
Uwi ewi → oː øː
uw ij → ow ej / _C
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishoi → o / unstressed
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnisheː øː oː → ie yø uo
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livonianeː øː oː ɤ(ː) → iːe yːø uːo ɨ(ː)
e o → eː oː / _Cɑ
o → oː / _{RC#,i}
eː oː → je wo
ɔ(ː) → o(ː)
43 Uto-Aztecan43.3 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Luiseñoo ɨ → e o
43.5.1.1 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Kawaiisua → o / P_
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basquee → o / _(C…)o (eastern dialects, Bermeo Biscayan)
e → o / o(C…)_ (eastern dialects)
u i → o e / _r{C,#}
ʊa → o “especially after a velar stop”
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.2 Proto-Pai to Paipaiaw aj → o e
45.1.3 Proto-Pai to Tipaiu → o / _K
46 Vowel Shifts46.5 Old English-to-Scots Vowel Shiftsai oi ui ei au ou iu ɛ(o)u → eː oe əi iː {ɑː,ɔː} ʌu ju j(ʌ)u
iː eː ɛː aː oː uː {øː,yː} → əi i {i,e} e o u ø
46.7 Great Vowel Shift (English)aː ɔː → ɛː oː → eː ow → ej (əw)
46.10 Late Proto-Finnic to Savonian Vowel Shifteː øː oː → ie yø uo
ei oi øi → eː oe øe
ɑu ou → ɑː oː
eu → eo
46.13 Old Norse to Faroese Vowel Shifto → oː / ɔ
46.14 Pre-Slavic Vowel Changesa aː → o a
u → ŭ [ɤ?] → {e,o,ɤ,a} (strong)/∅ (weak) “in modern languages”
46.15 Proto-Japanese to Old Japanese Vowel Shifte o → je wo / _#
{ɨ,ə} → o
{u,ɨ}i {,a,i {ɨi,i{a,ə}} u{ɨ,a,ə} → wi e je wo
46.17 Proto-Maidun to Nisenian Vowel Shiftu i e a → y e a o

with context involving /o/

149 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.2.2.1.3 Ancient Egyptian to Copticr → l / #o_#
6.2.2.1.18 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrew— {o,u}(ː) → iː / _$%oː
7 Algonquian7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapahoi(ː) → u(ː) / o(ː)(C[-dental])(C[-dental])_
ʃ m → x b / o(ː)_e(ː)
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventrei → u / o(ː)_
ʃ θ m → θ t w / _o(ː)
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfoot∅ → j / {oːw,iːj}_i#
w → ∅ / {a,o}_iC
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawarex → χʷ / o(ː)_{V,#}
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonice i {o,u} æ ø y → {ə,a} {i,ə} ə a {ə,u} {u,ə} / _Co
8.1.1 Early Middle Japanese to Modern Japanese∅ → w / _o
w → ∅ / ! _{a,o}
w → ∅ / _o
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolica → {a,i,e} / _Co
e → {y,ø} / P_Co
e → {y,ø} / C_Po
a e o i æ ø y → {a,i,e} {a,e} u {o,u} e {ø,y,o,u} {o,u} / _Co
ŋ → n / #_{a,o,e}
8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusic{u,æ} ø → {o,u} i / _Co
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkicæ → a / P_Co
a e i æ ø y → {o,ja,aj} {ʌ,ɜ} ɯ {ia,ja} {o,u} {u,o} / _Co
8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchakɣ → w / {a,u,i,o}_
10 Austronesian10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to Caaàck → ∅ / _{o,a}
10.3.5.4 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-NorthernC → ∅ / _$(possessive suffix)#
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-Nêlêmwak → ∅ / _{o,a}
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Yunagak → ∅ / _{o,a}
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejoml → tʃ / _{o,E}
10.3.11.3.3 Proto-Tanna to North Tannar → l / _{o,E}
10.4.1 Proto-Micronesian to Marshallesea → ɜ / _wo
f → ɰ / #_aCo
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamilc → s / _{a,o,u,e}
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.1 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Nafriə → o / _(C)o
16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central Sentaniə → o / _(C)o
16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern Sentaniə → o / _(C)o
16.1.4 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Western Sentaniə → o / _(C)o
17 Indo-European17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armeniant → tʰ / {aw,ow}_
j → w / _o
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armeniant → tʰ / {aw,ow}_
j → w / _o
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armeniant → tʰ / {aw,ow}_ ! #_
j → w / _o
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armeniant → tʰ / {aw,ow}_
j → w / _o
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armeniant → tʰ / {aw,ow}_
j → w / _o
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armeniant → tʰ / {aw,ow}_
j → w / _o
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armeniant → tʰ / {aw,ow}_
j → w / _o
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irish— i u → e o / _C(…C){a(ː),e(ː),o(ː)}
— n → ∅ / {i,o,u}_{p,t,k,s}
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothicw → ∅ / oː_j
17.7.2 Common Germanic to West Germanici u → e o / _%{a,o}
17.7.2.2.2 Middle Dutch to Modern Dutchl → u / o_{t,d}#
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germanw → ∅ / {ou,øy,yː}_
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norsew → ∅ / C_o
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandicv → ∅ / {u,o,a}ː_
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.8.10 Proto-Indo-European to Mycenaean Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → p pʰ b / _{a,o,C}
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittiteh3 → ∅ / _o “(according to Kortlandt)”
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polisha ɛ i ɔ u ɨ ã → aː ɛː iː ɔː uː ɨː ãː / _{C/U}[+voiced][lost yer] (i.e., a voiced consonant or a cluster with one)
v → ∅ / x_o
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latinw → ∅ / s_o
kʷ → k / _{o,i,C}
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalanl → ∅ / {o,u}_CV
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French{lːe,lːo} → u / {e,o}_# “[this is actually an analogical development, but it applies as regularly as a sound law]”
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguesekʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ / #_{i,e,o}
e → j / {a,o,u}_
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— B → ∅ / _o
w → v → ∅ / _”o
ɡ → ɡ / _{o,u/y}
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanianu → ∅ / o_e
e → ə / ou_#
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-TocharianKʷ → K / _{C,o,a} ! C = syllabic
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekensɡʷ → k / _o
18.3.3 Proto-Tuparí to Tuparíɡʷ → ∅ / _o
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayoróɡʷ → ɡ / _o
18.4.1 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Akwárao → a / ! o(C…)_(C…)#
18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Cocamao → u(a) / ! o(C…)_(C…)#
18.4.3 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guajajarao → u / ! o(C…)_(C…)#
18.4.6 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Kamayuráp → h / _{o,u,w}
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Sirionóp → {h,∅} / _{u,o}
18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Urubuu → o / ! o(C…)_(C…)#
20 Khoisan20.2.1 Proto-Kx’a to ǂHoan∅ → a / o_m
u → ∅ / o_
20.2.2 Proto-Kx’a to Northwestern !Xunu → ∅ / _o
a → ∅ / _(C)o
20.2.3 Proto-Kx’a to Southeastern !Xunu → ∅ / _o
a → ∅ / _(C)o
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.4 Proto-Chibchan to Marocaceroi → ə / oC_
25 Macro-Panoan25.1.2 Proto-Tacanan to Chaman → ɲ / i_{o,a} (the former is conjectured)
27 Mayan27.3 Proto-Mayan to Huastecanh → w / _{o,u}
28 Muskogean28 MuskogeanV → V̂ː / _Cko, ko lost?
28.1.2 Proto-Eastern Muskogean to Creekx → w / a_o
28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western Muskogeanxʷ → h / %_{o,i}(C)#
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1.2 Proto-Bantu to Tswanamp mb p b m → tʃʰ(w) tʃ(w) ʃ(w) dʒ(w) ŋw / _{ʊ,o}V
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.2 Proto-Chatino to Tataltepec Chatinot → tʲ / _õ (…again…lolwut)
tʲ → tʃ / _i[-long -stress]
32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinots → tʃ / #_{a,õ}ʔ
33 Penutian33.1.1 Proto-Utian to Proto-Costanoan (Ohlone)o → a / ! o(C…)_ or _(C…){o,i}
33.1.1.2.1 Proto-Miwok to Proto-Western Miwokʈ → tʃ / {aː,oː}_
33.1.1.4 Proto-Costanoan to Rumsenʈ → {ʈ,tʃ} / {aː,oː}_
ʈ → {ʈ,tʃ} / {i,e,o}$_
i → e / _C(C)oC
33.3.3 Proto-Yokuts to PalewyamiV → o / C”oC_
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old Mandarinŋ → ∅ / #_ ! #_o(w)
k → j / {e,a,o}_
∅ → w / C_o# ! C = {K,C[+pharyngeal]}
wʲ → w / C̣_oŋ
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Toŋ → ɳ / {o,a}_
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoianw → ∅ / _{o,õ,ı̃}
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayugar → w / {o(ː),õ(ː)}_{a(ː),e(ː),ẽ(ː),i(ː)}
r → j / {e(ː),ẽ(ː),i(ː)}_{a(ː),o(ː),õ(ː)}
o(ː) → õ / _õ(ː)
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandot∅ → w / {o(ː),õ(ː)}_V
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagar → w / {o(ː),õ(ː)}_V
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecaa → e / _ro(ː)
ã → ẽ / _rõː
hw → ∅ / õ_
r → j / C[-glottal](h)_{o(ː),õ(ː)
r → w / {o(ː),õ(ː)}_V
ẽ(ː) → e(ː) / _{e(ː),o(ː)
37.2.6.2 Proto-Dhegiha to Omaha-Poncan → θ / _{ã,ẽ,õ}
37.2.6.3 Proto-Dhegiha to Osagen → ð / _{ã,ẽ,õ}
37.2.6.4 Proto-Dhegiha to QuapawLʲ → j / #_õ (*)
42 Uralic42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnicɑ → e / ”{o,u}(X)C_j
i → ∅ / {o,u}j_
w → ∅ / o_st (*)
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishʋ → ∅ / #_{o,u,y}
∅ → ʋ / #_{yː,øː,oː}
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnishæ → a / e(C…)_(C…)o
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livoniane → ɤ / _C(C){a,o,u}
w → ʋ / #_o
43 Uto-Aztecan43.4 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Nahuatlw → ∅ / _o
43.5.1.2 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Mono(h)k → (h)q / _{o,a} ! ɨ_
(h)kʷ → hq(ʷ) / _{o,a}
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basque∅ → a / #_{ra,ro} (sporadic)
e → o / _(C…)o (eastern dialects, Bermeo Biscayan)
e → o / o(C…)_ (eastern dialects)
∅ → m / o$_V (Orozko Biscayan)
hu hi → ʊ ɪ / {o,e}_ (also happened with /a/ sometimes, but usually such sequences just dropped one vowel)