Index Diachronica: involving /i/

727 results from /i/   718 results to /i/   404 results with context involving /i/   

plain

from /i/

727 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.2.2 Proto-Erythrean to Proto-North Erythrean{e,o} {i,u} → a ə
in → ŋ / #_C
6.2.2.1.4 Proto-Boreafrasian to Proto-Semitic{i,u} → ə
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabicuː iː → oː eː / _ʕ
uː iː → oː eː / ʕ_
i → a / Cˤ_{q,ɣ,ʕ}
i → a / {q,ɣ,ʕ}_Cˤ
{u,a,i} → ∅ / _%, when stressed (short only)
uː iː → u i
6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Egyptian Arabici u → e o / only when short, ! _#
{i,u} → ∅ / VC_CV when unstressed (short only)
6.2.2.1.14 Classical Arabic to Moroccan Arabic{a,i} → ə / short only; the change of short a blocked for some speakers before ħ ʕ
aː iː uː → ɑː eː oː / near emphatics
6.2.2.1.18 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrew— i iː u uː → eə iːə oə uːə / _R
— iː → eː / _#
— i u → e a / _R{$,#} (in verbs)
— i u → e o / _C{$,#} (in verbs)
— i → eː oː / else
— i → ə / _R if a frontal allophone of ə in an adjacent syllable
— i → ə / R_ if a frontal allophone of ə in an adjacent syllable
— i → a / _R
— i → a / R_
— a i → aː eː / _%”
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakiiw → o / _#
i → ∅ / #w_
oː aː eː iː → o ɔ̃ a i
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenakiiw → o / _#
i → e / _R
oː eː iː → o a i
7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapahoi(ː) → u(ː) / o(ː)(C[-dental])(C[-dental])_
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventrei → u / o(ː)_
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfoot{a,e,i} → o / _kʷ
{jiː,ja,ahi} {owaː,awa,awe} awi {iːwa,eːwa,aji,aje,ani} → i oː o(ji) iː / C_C
hi → ∅ / aː_
eLwi → iː
i(ː)wi → iː / medially
i(ː)wi → i / _#
{iː,ij,j} → j / C_B
iji → iː
{we,wiː} → o / #_
tsi → ∅ / $_OO “(before a prefix; the first obstruent of the follow[ing] cluster then becomes ʔ)
{eː,iː} → i
7.5 Proto-Algonquian to Cheyennee i → a e
7.6 Proto-Algonquian to Northern East Creelwi → jo
wi → o / C_
7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East Creelwi → jo
wi → o / C_
7.8 Proto-Algonquian to Plains Creelwi → jo
wi → o / C_
7.9 Proto-Algonquian to Swampy Creelwi → jo
wi → o / C_
7.10 Proto-Algonquian to Woods Creelwi → jo
wi → o / C_
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawarei o → iː oː
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menomineewi(ː) → o(ː) / C_w
e(ː) i → æ(ː) e
iː oː oʔ → eː uː uʔ “[blocked when or a C+G sequence follows anywhere in the word, but does apply if æ(ː) intervenes before any following or C+G]”
{wiː,jiː,weː,jeː,wæː,jæː} {wi,ji,we,je,wæ,jæ} → iː i / C_
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaqo(ː) waː eː iː → u o e i
{awa,iwa,iwi} → uː
{o,a}wi → oː
ehi → eː
{aja,iha,iji,ihi,ija} → iː
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawneeiː → i / _j
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonic{a,e,o,æ} i u y ø → ə i ua {u,ə} {ə,u} / _Ce
{a,æ,e,ø,i,y} o → i u / _Ci
e i {o,u} æ ø y → {ə,a} {i,ə} ə a {ə,u} {u,ə} / _Co
8.1.1 Early Middle Japanese to Modern Japaneseau iu uu eu ou → ɔː juː uː joː oː
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolica e i o u æ ø y → {a,i} {e,ja} {e,i} {ø,y,o} {o,u,y} {i,a,e} {e,ø} {ø,y,o,u} / _Ce
i → e / P_Ci
a e o i æ ø y → {a,i,e} {a,e} u {o,u} e {ø,y,o,u} {o,u} / _Co
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkica e i u æ ø y → a {a,ʌ,e} {ɯ,i} {u,o} {ia,ja,ɛ} {ia,ja} ɯ / _Ca
i → e / {r(ʲ),l(ʲ)}_e
a {e,i} o u æ ø y → {ɛ,a} ɛ {ø,o} {y,u} {ia,ja,ɛ} {ia,ja} {y,ø} / _Ci
a e i æ ø y → {o,ja,aj} {ʌ,ɜ} ɯ {ia,ja} {o,u} {u,o} / _Co
e i æ ø y → {ɛ,a,ʌ} {ɯ,i} {e,a} {u,o} ɯ / _Cu
8.5.1.2 Proto-Kypchak to Kyrgyz{u,ɯ}w {i,y}w aw {æ,e}w → uː yː oː øː
8.5.2 Proto-Turkic to Sakhao oɡ ø øɡ iɡ → wo ɥø oː øː iː
iɡ̌ → ɯː → iː (but original ɯː unaffected?)
10 Austronesian10.1.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawaniw uj → {i,?} i / _#
10.1.1.2 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sasakiw ow ej → i o e / _#
10.1.1.3 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sumbawanu i → o e / sometimes
10.1.2.1 Proto-Philippine to Bicoliw → uj
10.1.2.2 Proto-Philippine to Cebuanoiw → uj
10.1.2.3 Proto-Philippine to Hiligaynoniw → uj
10.1.2.4 Proto-Philippine to Ibanagiw → uj
10.1.2.6 Proto-Philippine to Ilocanoiw → uj
10.1.2.7.1 Proto-Kalamian to Agutaynenaɪ ai → ɪɪ ii (not sure if there’s a long vowel or hiatus here)
10.1.2.7.2 Proto-Kalamian to Karamiananenaɪ ai → ɪɪ ii (not sure if there’s a long vowel or hiatus here)
10.1.2.7.3 Proto-Kalamian to Kalamian Tagbanwaaɪ ai → ɪɪ ii (not sure if there’s a long vowel or hiatus here)
10.1.2.8 Proto-Philippine to Kankanayiw → uj
10.1.2.9 Proto-Philippine to Tagaloguj iw → oj uj / _#
10.1.2.10 Proto-Philippine to Warayiw → uj
10.2.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Chamici iw u → ɔj ? ɔw / _#
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorroi u → e o / _C{C,#}
i u → e o / CC# (sporadic)
iw → u
10.2.3 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Malayic{iw,uj} → i / _#
10.2.4.1 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Javaneseiw uj → ju i / _#
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Madureseij uw → uj {uj,ój} / _#
10.2.4.3 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Sundaneseiw uj → {ju,i} oj / _#
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiputai au → ai̯ au̯ / _#
ai au → ɛː ɔː / _…#
i u → əi̯ əu̯ / _#
i → əj / _V “(also cases of (C)i → j /__V)”
iu̯ → ui̯
i u → ɛ ɔ / _C# ! _P (sporadic)
i u → əi̯ əu̯ / _(ʔ)#
əi̯ əu̯ → ai̯ au̯ / ! O[+voiced] earlier in the word
{i,ɛ} {u,ɔ} → iə̯ uə̯ / _{k,ŋ}# “(and also sporadically before final *t and *n and some other consonants)
10.2.6.2 Proto-North Sarawak to Proto-Kenyahi u → e o / _h#
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lónghi → e / _k#
i → iə / _ŋ#
ai̯ au̯ → ɛ ɔ
{ui̯,iu̯} → e
i u → e o / _CV[+close-mid](C)# “(iə is treated as close mid for this change)”
i u → ɛ ɔ / _CV[+open-mid](C)#
i u → e o / _Cɯ#
i u → əj əw / _V(C)#
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabauu i → o e (sporadic)
— u i → uə iə / _{k,ŋ,h,l,r}#
10.3 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Oceanice {uj,iw} → o i
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwi(C)V[+ high] i(C)V[+ mid] i(C)a → i(C) i(C)ə {e,i}(C)ə
{e,i} → ɪ (sporadic)
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerig— iCV[- high] → aC
ia → ɪ “(only somoetimes?)”
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to Mwotlapo e i → ɔ ɛ ɪ / C_V[- high]
uCi → iC (sporadic)
10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to Caaàcu i → o e (not always)
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-Nêlêmwau i → o e / “in monosyllabic forms almost always”
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to Nyelâyuu i → o e (not always)
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Yunagau i → o e / in monosyllables
au ai → ɔ ɛ
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejom{i,o} → e
i → o / {u,w}_
ai → i / _C
ei → i
10.3.11.2 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Erromangou i → o e (sporadic)
10.3.11.2.1 Proto-Erromango to Syei → e / O[+ labial]_
i → e / _O[+ labial]
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’ai(C)V[+ high] → i(C)
i(C)V[- high] → i(C)ɪ
a(C)i a(C)u → {a,ɛ}(C) {ɔ,a,ɛ}(C)
10.4.1 Proto-Micronesian to Marshallese{i,u} {e,o} → ɨ ɜ
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamite{i,e,u} → ∅ / #_{t,n}a
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamilavu aji → aw aj
i u → e o / _Ca
aː eː iː oː uː → a ɛ i o u / _#
i u → ɨ ʉ / short only when unstressed ! in #U
i(ː) e(ː) → u(ː) o(ː) / {m,v,p}_C̣
— i(ː) e(ː) → u(ː) o(ː) / _ɭ
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Aleuti →∅ / #_{z,dʒ}
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic Iñupiaqiv → uj / _u
15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’iki → ∅ / #C[+dental]_C[+dental]V
i a u → ii aa uu / C_ in U[+open -initial -final] such that U[+open]_
iv → j / #_u
in → dʒ / _u (possibly only word-initially?)
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’iki → ∅ / #C[+dental]_C[+dental]V
i a u → ii aa uu / C_ in U[+open -initial -final] such that U[+open]_
iv → j / #_u
in → dʒ / _u (possibly only word-initially?)
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’iki → ∅ / #C[+dental]_C[+dental]V
iv → j / #_u
in → dʒ / _u (possibly only word-initially?)
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’iki → ∅ / #C[+dental]_C[+dental]V
i a u → ii aa uu / C_ in U[+open -initial -final] such that U[+open]_
iv → j / #_u
in → dʒ / _u (possibly only word-initially?)
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.5 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Tablai → ∅ / V_ (with a few exceptions)
oi → oe
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albaniani̯ → ɟ / {a,e,i}_
i̯ → j / _B
i̯ → ∅ / E_
i̯ → h / V_
eː iː oː uː → o i e {y,i}
a e i o → {a,e} (j)e {e,i} a
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albaniani̯ → ɟ / {a,e,i}_
i̯ → j / _B
i̯ → ∅ / E_
i̯ → h / V_
eː iː oː uː → o i e {y,i}
a e i o → {a,e} (j)e {e,i} a
17.2 Proto-Indo-European to Common Anatolianei eu → ɛː uː
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
ej ia → e ɛa
{i,u} → ə / in some unstressed syllables
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
ej ia → e ɛa
{i,u} → ə / in some unstressed syllables
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
ej ia → e ɛa
{i,u} → ə / in some unstressed syllables
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
ej ia → e ɛa
{i,u} → ə / in some unstressed syllables
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
ej ia → e ɛa
{i,u} → ə / in some unstressed syllables
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
ej ia → e ɛa
{i,u} → ə / in some unstressed syllables
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
ej ia → e ɛa
{i,u} → ə / in some unstressed syllables
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishoːi → uː / _#
— {ai,oi} → iː / _#
— i u → e o / _C(…C){a(ː),e(ː),o(ː)}
ei → eː
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshei → eː
ai → ɛ
uː {oi,ɔː} → yː uː
i u → e o / _Ca
17.6 Proto-Indo-European to Dacianoi wo wj ow → ai wa vi aw
ei → {ei,i} (“PIE *ei evolution is not well reconstructed yet”)
17.7 Proto-Indo-European to Common Germanic{i,j} {u,w} → j w / V[+short]C_
{i,j} {u,w} → ij uw
ei oi → iː ai
eːi {oːi,aːi} → eː oː (?)
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothic— i → ɛ / _{r,h,ʍ}
iw → ju / [- stress]
ij → iː / _s “after the loss of a vowel in final syllables”
ij → i / _# “after the loss of a final vowel or syllable”
iji → iː / U[- stress](C…)_
iji → iː / U[+ long + closed]_ in the stem
i → ∅ / _ji
17.7.2 Common Germanic to West Germanici u → e o / _%{a,o}
17.7.2.1 West Germanic to Anglo-Frisiani o → e a / unstressed
ai au eu → {eː,aː} aː ia
ia iu → jaː juː
{i,u} → ∅ / -# ! VC_
17.7.2.1.1 Anglo-Frisian to Old English{i,u} → ∅/ _# ! V[-long]C_#
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle Englisheːɑw iːw → ew ju
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle Englisheːɑw iːw → ew ju
17.7.2.1.5 Early Modern English to American Englishi u e → ɪ ʊ ɛ / _ɹ
iə → ɪ (ongoing)
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishɜːɹ ɑːɹ ɔːɹ eːɹ oːɹ iːɹ uːɹ → ɜː ɑː ɔː ɛə ɔə ɪə ʊə / syllable-finally
oʊ iː → ɔʊ ɪə / _ɫ
oʊ iː → əʊ ɪi / else
17.7.2.1.7 Early Modern English to British Englishɜːɹ ɑːɹ ɔːɹ eːɹ oːɹ iːɹ uːɹ → ɜː ɑː ɔː ɛə ɔə ɪə ʊə / syllable-finally
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle Englisheːɑw iːw → ew ju
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scots— ai → ɛi → əi / when stem-final
— ai oi ui ei au ou iu ɛ(o)u → eː oe əi iː {ɑː,ɔː} ʌu ju j(ʌ)u
— ɛː → ɛi (→ əi?) / in some northern varieties
— iː eː ɛː aː oː uː {øː,yː} → əi i {i,e} e o u ø
— əi → aɪ / _{r,F[+voiced],$,#} (pursuant to the above)
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsɛ → ɜi → i / _{m,ɲ}
ai → aː
{y,i} → ɪ
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle Englisheːɑw iːw → ew ju
17.7.2.2 West Germanic to Old Low Franconianai au → eː oː
ai u → ei ʏ / _(C…){i(ː),j} (short only; in the case of [ʏ] at least this was not yet phonemic)
ei ou → eː oː (except in southeastern dialects; *ei as a result of the umlaut of *ai was not affected)
17.7.2.2.1 Old Low Franconian to Middle Dutchiu → ju / #_ (in some northern dialects)
iu → {yː,io} (outcome varies depending upon dialect; the former seems more typical)
iw → yw (dialectal)
{ie,ia,io} uo → iə uə
17.7.2.2.2 Middle Dutch to Modern Dutchiː yː → ɛi œy
17.7.2.2.3 Modern Dutch to Polder Dutch Vowel Shiftɛi œy ʌu → ai ay au
17.7.2.2.4 Belgian and Netherlandish Dutch Monophthongizationɛi œy ɔu → ɛː œː ɔː
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germane(ː) i → ø(ː) y / _C[+ affricate]
e(ː) i → ø(ː) y / _{P,l,ʃ} (sporadic?)
e(ː) i → ø(ː) y / {P,l,ʃ}_ (sporadic?)
uː yː iː → ou øy ei, except in certain unstressed endings and monosyllables, _C{C,V,#} (“especially before /xt/”), and Low German borrowings
uə yə iə → uː yː iː
ou øy ei → au oy ai
17.7.2.5 West Germanic to Old Low Germanai au → eː oː
17.7.3 Common Germanic to Proto-Norsewi → u / Ci_C
i → j / _V ! in #U
(w)u(ː) i(ː) → (w)o(ː) e(ː) / _(C)(C)a ! CC = NC or one C = {ʀ,j}
iu → yː
{æ,e}ːuː {æ,e}ːiː → eu ai
w{o,u}ːwuː j{e,i}ːjiː → uː iː
o(u) {ɔ,ɑ,au,ai,æ} {ja,jE,æ(i),e(i),y} → u a i
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norsei → ɪ / _NS[- voice] ! _NS(C){o,i,j}
i → eː / _ʀ#
BːB aː{o,a,æ,e} {æ,e}ː{æ,e}ː {æ,e}ːi iːEː → oː aː eː eː iː
a(i) {e,w{æ,i}} {we,ei} (w)ɪ → ey ø y ʏ / w_ ! hw_
{a,æ,e}ːhiː → æː
{u,we,wi} {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / _(C)(C)(C)i
wa we wi → ɒː øː yː / #P_
au {ai,ey,ei} æ{y,i} øy Vː → o e æ ø V / #(C)(C)(C)_CC
ai wi (w)V → eː weː (w)Vː / _h#
{æ,e}i ai au w{ɪ,i} wy wV iu Vː → eː aː oː weː woː wVː eː oː V
i → eː / _#
ai → aː / _r
ai → aː / _h{C,V}
uN yN iN VN → o øː eː Vː / _{s,f}
e(ː){B,i(ː)} → e(ː)u / {v,w}_
eː{Bː,i(ː)} → joː / _C[+ alveolar]#
eː{Bː,i(ː)} → juː
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandicu o a ø y e i → uː oː aː øi yː ei iː / _{ɲc,ɲɟ,ŋk,ŋɡ}
u o a øː eː y i → ʏɪ oi ai øi ei yː iː / _j
u oː aː ʏɪ {y,i} {y,i}ː æː eː ey → ʏ ou au ai y ɪ i je ei
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Norne iː → ɛ i(ː)
ei → eː / _C(ː,V)# (V can be a syllabic consonant)
i → ɪ / _CC
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greek”{i,e}V → j”V
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-Aryanuʐ aʐ iʐ → uː əː iː
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-Aryana{i,j}(a) a{u,w}(a) → e o
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-Aryana{i,j}(a) a{u,w}(a) → e o
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-Aryana{i,j}(a) a{u,w}(a) → e o
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-Aryana{i,j}(a) a{u,w}(a) → e o
17.10.1.5.1 Vedic Sanskrit to Classical Sanskritau aːu ai aːi → au oː ai eː / ! _V
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavici u → ь ъj
iː uː → i ɨ
e(ː)i → i
{ai,oi} → i / j_
{ai,oi} → æː
{aːi,oːi} → {æː,a} (the former seems to be more common)
{e(ː),i(ː)} {a(ː),o(ː),u(ː)} → ẽ õ / _N$
oi o → i ъ / “Sometimes in final syllables”
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishьr → i(ː)ʐ → {ɛ(ː)r,ɛ(ː)ʐ} → {ɛr,ɛʐ}
a ɛ i ɔ u ɨ ã → aː ɛː iː ɔː uː ɨː ãː / _{C/U}[+voiced][lost yer] (i.e., a voiced consonant or a cluster with one)
ji → i / #_
iji ɨjɨ → i ɨ
ɔvi → ∅
i → ∅ / _# “in the infinite and imperative desinences. . .some verbs have never been affected due to a potential ‘difficult’ cluster that would result, instead they got an analogical final -j extension”
tsi ʐi → tɕ ʐ / V_
i u → u i / {lʲ,j}_ (sporadic)
iː uː ɨː → i u ɨ
{i,ɨ} → ɛ / _C[+rhotic]
ʃi ʒi tʃi dʒi ɕi ʑi → ʂɨ ʐɨ ʈʂɨ ɖʐɨ tsɨ ʒɨ
{i,ɨ} → ∅ / _jV when unstressed
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latinaj → ai → eː (in rustic dialects)
aj → ai → ae
oj → oi → oe → uː
ai → ei → iː / %(C)(C)_ when unstressed
ei oi ou → iː eː uː / %(C)(C)_ when unstressed
{i,o} → e / _#
{i,e} → ∅ / _# (sometimes)
{ai,ei,oi} → ei → iː / _(C)(C)#
17.12.1.1.1 Classical Latin vs. Vulgar Latin{e,i} → j / C_V when unstressed
{e,ai} → ɛ
{i,eː,oi} → e
iː → i
“In contrast, Romanian exhibits u, uː → u (and ultimately also ɔ, oː → o); and Sardinian and African Latin underwent a straight merger of the vowels by length without considering quality (e, eː → e; i, iː → i; u, uː → u; etc.)”
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalaniː → i / stressed
iː → i / _%”V
{i,eː} e → {e,ɛ} {ɛ,e} / stressed
{i,eː,e} → e / _%”V
i → j / ”V_#
iː → ∅ / _#
{i,e(ː),ae} → ∅ / _(C)#
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— {i,e} → j / _V
— {eː,i,oe} → é
— iː oː → i ó
— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e
— iː → i
— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e
— iː oː → i o
ai → e / _#
ai iɛɪ → ɛ i
ou ɛu u uɛi → u œ y yi
{ei,ɔi} → oi / C[-nas]
{aı̃,eı̃} → ɛ̃
oi → wɛ → wa
oı̃ → wɛ̃
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portugueseiː {i,eː} e → i e ɛ / stressed
iː {i,e(ː)} → i e / _%”V
iː → ∅ / {k,s}_#
{i(ː),e(ː),ae} → e / _#
uiː → ui / _#
ı̃ → iɲ
{e,i} → ∅ / {l,m,r}_ when between #U and U[+stress]
{e,i} → ∅ / k_t when between #U and U[+stress]
nɡi → ɲ
{e,i} → ∅ / {L,N}_(C)(C)V(C)#
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— {a,œ,e,i} → e (here, 〈œ〉 denotes the reflex of the Latin vowel written this way, not a front rounded vowel)
i → e / #_sC
ktʃ → its → is (else)
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanian— eː,i,oe → e
— iː o(ː) u(ː) → i o u
— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e
— iː → i
— {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e / _#
— iː → i
i → ∅ / OL_e
i → ∅ / {ts,dz,S}_V
li → lj / _V
Ci → Cʲ / _# ! R…R_#
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardiniani → j / V_V
i → j / _V
au ai → o e
{i,j} → dʒ / Vr_V (“dialectal”)
l{i,j} → lː → {ts,dz,ldz,dʒ,lː} (“varies”)
{i,j} → ɡ / #_e
n{i,j} t{i,j} → ndʒ ts / _V
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanishi u → e o / _(C)#
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tochariani → ə / {P,K(ʷ),s}_
Ci → Cʲə
ih1 i{h2,h3} → jə jɨ
17.13.1 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian A{a,ɛ}i əj → e i
17.13.2 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian B{a,ɛ}i əj → ai i
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makuráp{a/e} {e/a} {ı̃,ẽ} → e a ẽ
18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekens{{a/e},{e/a}} {ı̃,ẽ} → a ẽ
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayoró{a/e} {e/a} {ı̃,ẽ} → a e ı̃
18.4.1 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Akwára{ẽ,ı̃} ɨ̃ {u,ũ,õ} → i ɨ o
18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Cocamaã {ẽ,ı̃} ɨ̃ → a i ∅
iʔ uʔ → j w / C_V
18.4.3 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guajajaraã ẽ ı̃ ɨ̃ {õ,ũ} → ə e i ɨ o
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to GuarayoaN eN iN ɨN uN → ã ẽ ı̃ ɨ̃ ũ / _#
18.4.7 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Parintintínẽ ı̃ ũ → {ẽ,e} {ı̃,i} {ũ,õ}
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to SirionóaN eN iN ɨN uN → ã ẽ ı̃ {ɨ̃,ĩ} õ / _#
18.4.9 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Classical Tupii → ı̃ / ʔ_# (sporadic)
18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to UrubuaN iN uN → {aN,ã} ı̃ {uN,ũ} / _#
20 Khoisan20.2.1 Proto-Kx’a to ǂHoaniaɔ → iu
20.2.2 Proto-Kx’a to Northwestern !Xunui → o (?)
i → ∅ / V_
20.2.3 Proto-Kx’a to Southeastern !Xunui → o (?)
i → ∅ / V_
21 Lakes Plain21.1.1 Proto-Far West to Awerati → s / #_V
iiɛ Vdiɛ → ijɛ βe
21.1.2 Proto-Far West to Saponiti → s / #_V
iiɛ Vdiɛ → dzɛ ɾɛ
21.1.3 Proto-Far West to Rasawati → s / #_V
iiɛ Vdiɛ → ijɛ βie
21.2.1 Proto-Tariku to Proto-Central Tarikuti → s~ti / _V
iC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2 Proto-Tariku to Proto-East Tarikuti → s~ti / _V
21.2.2.1 Proto-East Tariku to BiritaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.2 Proto-East Tariku to Doutaidi → dz / _V
iC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.3 Proto-East Tariku to EritaidiV → dz
iC uC → î û / _{C,#}
iC → iC~i / _{C,#} (not sure how this plays in with the change mentioned earlier about extra-high vowels; I must have misread something)
21.2.2.4 Proto-East Tariku to KaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.5 Proto-East Tariku to ObokuitaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.6 Proto-East Tariku to SikaritaidiV → dz
iC uC → î û / _{C,#}
ik → ɡ / {s,k,p}_ ?
21.2.2.7 Proto-East Tariku to WaritaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
ik → ɡ / {s,p}_ ?
21.2.3 Proto-Tariku to Proto-West TarikuiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.3.1 Proto-West Tariku to Deirateti di → s dz / _V
21.2.3.2 Proto-West Tariku to Faiati → s / _V
21.2.3.3 Proto-West Tariku to Fayuti di → s dz / _V
21.2.3.4 Proto-West Tariku to Kirikiriti → s / _V
21.2.3.5 Proto-West Tariku to Sehudateti di → s dz / _V
21.2.3.6 Proto-West Tariku to Tauseti di → s j / _V
21.2.3.7 Proto-West Tariku to Weirateti di → s dz / _V
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.1 Proto-Chibchan to Arhuacoi → ∅ / a_
ia → ə (“unspecified”)
i → ∅ / C”V(C)_
i → ∅ / _(C)”V
23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to Chibchai → u / _(C)u
i → a / _(C)a
i → e / _(C)e
a {e,i} → i ∅ / C”V(C)_
i → ∅ / _(C)”V
23.1.1.1.3 Proto-Chibchan to Kogii → ∅ / a_ (sometimes)
23.1.1.1.4 Proto-Chibchan to Marocaceroi → ə / oC_
i → ∅ / C”V(C)_
i → ∅ / _(C)”V
23.1.1.1.5 Proto-Chibchan to Motilóni → ∅ / a_ (usually; sometimes the diphthong is retained or → aj)
{u,i} → ∅ / C”V(C)_
i → ∅ / _(C)”V
23.1.1.1.6 Proto-Chibchan to Tuneboai → e / if the *a is not stressed
i → a / _Ca
{a,i} → ∅ / C”V(C)_
i → ∅ / _(C)”V
24 Macro-Pama-Nyungan24.1.1 Proto-Paman to AritinŋitiÉ£i[-long]C → Cj / #_ ! _i
u i → w j / a_ when this a is a result of metathesis (?)
24.1.2 Proto-Paman to AwŋtimiC aC uC → Cj Ca Cw / #_ ! before an identical vowel
u i → w j / a_ when this a is a result of the preceding metathesis
24.1.4 Proto-Paman to Mbiywomi[-long]C → Cj / #_ ! _i
u i → w j / a_ when this a is a result of metathesis (?)
24.1.7 Proto-Paman to Yinwumi → e / #(C)aC[-palatal]_
28 Muskogean28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western Muskogeani → ∅ / #(C)V(C)(C)V(C)(C)_# (sporadic in the case of other vowels)
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.10 Proto-Athabaskan to Easter Gwich’in{i,e} → {i,ja} (this latter due to the loss of final consonants within the stem)
29.1.1.1.12 Proto-Athabaskan to Holikachuki e a u {ɑ,ʊ} → e a ɔ o ŭ
29.1.1.1.39 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Tanana{a,ɑ} e i u ʊ → e(a) {i,ea} ju {a,ɨ} o
30 Niger-Congo30.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Bantui ı̃ V[-round] → uɪ uɪ̃ V[+round] / Cʷ_
30.1.1.1 Proto-Bantu to Sebirwai u VS → j w A / _V[+high +ATR]
30.1.2 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-Manenguba{u,o} {ɛ,e,i} → w j / C_a in noun roots
{u,o} {ɛ,e,i} → w j / C_(a) in verb roots
{u,o} {ɛ,e,i} → w j / C_$V in noun class prefixes
30.2.1.1 Proto-Akanic to Akani → ∅ / #C_a
ı̃ → ∅ / #_ã
30.3.1.1.3 Proto-Gbe to Proto-Fonoi ɔi ɔ̃i {a,ɛ}i {ɛ̃,ẽ}i ei → oe ɔɛ ɔ̃ɛ̃ ɛɛ ɛ̃ɛ̃ ee
ãi → ɛ̃ɛ̃
31 Nyulnyulan31.1 Proto-Nyulnyulan to Bardiaji → iː / when unstressed
i{w,j} → ∅ / _a, when unstressed
i → u / _ju
ib → ∅ / _i, when unstressed
i(ː)b ik → iw ij / _a
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinoi → e / tʃ_
ı̃ → i
32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to Tlapanec{in,en} an → a u
{iHn,eHn,aHn} uHn → ã ũ
33 Penutian33.1.1 Proto-Utian to Proto-Costanoan (Ohlone)i$Ci → e$Ce / _C ! _ɾ
33.1.1.4 Proto-Costanoan to Rumseni → e / _C(C)oC
33.3.1 Proto-Yokuts to General Yokutsiː ɨː uː → eː əː oː (this change sometimes did not occur)
33.3.2.2.2 Northern Yokuts to Kings Valley Yokutsi → u / uC_
33.3.3 Proto-Yokuts to Palewyamii → e / _CVC#, when stressed (! _H, short only)
34 Quechumaran34.4 Proto-Quechumaran to Huarásaw aj {uj,ij} → uː eː iː
35 Salishan35.1.1 Proto-Central Salish to Comox{a3~i3} → i3
{a1~i1} → {a11}
{i33} → ə3
{i31} → {ə1,i1,i3}
{i11} → i1
35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack Halkomelemu3 {u1,a1} a3 i1 → a3 ə1 ɛ3 {i11}
{a3~i3} → ɛ3
{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}
{i31} → ə1
{i11} → ə1
35.1.3 Proto-Central Salish to Cowichan Halkomelema3 u3 {a1,u1} i1 → ɛ3 a3 ə1 {i11}
{a3~i3} → a3
{a1~i1} → ə1
{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}
{i31} → ə1
{i11} → ə1
35.1.4 Proto-Central Salish to Musqueam Halkomelemu3 {u1,a1} a3 i1 → a3 ə1 ɛ3 {i11}
{a3~i3} → {a33}
{a1~i1} → {ə11}
{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}
{i31} → ə1
{i11} → ə1
35.1.5 Proto-Central Salish to Klallam{a3~i3} → ə3
{a1~i1} → ə1
{i33} → ə3
{i31} → ə1
{i11} → ə1
35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to Lushootseedi1 → {i11}
{a1~i1} → i1
{i33} → {i11}
{i31} → {i3,i1}
{i11} → {ə1,i1}
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to Nooksacka1 u3 u1 i1 → æ2 o3 o1 i2
{a3~i3} → æ3
{a1~i1} → æ2
{i3~e3} → {i33}
{i31} → i3
{i11} → {i21}
35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straits{a3~i3} → ə3
{a1~i1} → ə1
{i3~e3} → ə3
{i31} → ə1
{i11} → ə1
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern Straits{a3~i3} → ə3
{a1~i1} → ə1
{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}
{i31} → ə1
{i11} → {ə1,i1}
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern Straits{a3~i3} → ə3
{a1~i1} → {ə1,e1}
{i3~e3} → ə3
{i31} → ə1
{i11} → ə1
35.1.11 Proto-Central Salish to Sooke Northern Straits{a3~i3} → ə3
{a1~i1} → ə1
{i3~e3} → ə3
{i31} → ə1
{i11} → ə1
35.1.12 Proto-Central Salish to Pentlatchi1 → ə1
{a1~i1} → {i11}
{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}
{i31} → i3
{i11} → {i1,∅}
35.1.13 Proto-Central Salish to Sechelti1 → {i11j}
{a3~i3} → i3
{a1~i1} → {i11}
{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}
{i31} → i3
{i11} → {i1,∅}
35.1.14 Proto-Central Salish to Sqamish{a3~i3} → i3
{a1~i1} → i1
{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}
{i31} → i3
{i11} → {i1,∅}
35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to Twana{a3~i3} → a3
{a1~i1} → {i11}
{i3~e3} → {i33}
{i31} → {i3,i1}
{i11} → i1
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old Mandarini → ∅ / C(w)_a
ia → e / else
36.1.1.1 Old Mandarin to Modern Pekingesei → e / C_ʔ
#r…î# → #î…r
î → e / _C# ! C = r
36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuài → [long-tail vowel thing] / C̣_ (“sometimes”, in “variant readings”); when following /ʂ ʐ/, sometimes yields [ʂi], other times [s truncated vowel-thing]
iʔ iw → eʔ ew / C̣_ (the latter with variant iɛu?)
iʔ → ieʔ (→ i[truncated vowel-thing]ʔ?)
yʔ → ioʔ (→ iʊʔ dialectally?) / {∅,C[+guttural]}_, in -k-types
36.3.1.1 Proto-Naish to Lazea u i iN → e y ɯ i / T_%
{a,i} → ɯ / R_%
iN → æ / {P,C}r_%
i → v̩ / m_%
36.3.1.2 Proto-Naish to Mosuo (Na)iN → æ / {P,C}r_
{iN,u} i → i ɯ / T_
i → ɯ / {R,Kr}_
i → v̩ / m_
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to Naxia iN {i,u} → e ɚɯ / T_%
iN → ɚ / {P,C}r_%
i → ɯ / {R,kr}_%
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Laew iw → im ju
i → e / _s
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiaiw → jo
i → e / _m
ip it → ib o
36.3.2.1.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Hanniuan {at.is} → o ie
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Toi → o / _m
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtseew iw → i jo
36.3.2.2.3 Proto-rGyalrongic to Patiim it ik is ij → em u e es e
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Moi → a / _t
i → iɛ / _s
i → ɐ / _m
36.3.2.2.5 Proto-rGyalrongic to Trungi → əi / _#
i → iə / _m
it → u
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Naoi → e / _m
i i{t,k} → {ə,iɛ} ə
iŋ → ʅ
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu Tae i → i a / _m
it ik → o ek
iw ij → iu ei
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassuit ik → o i
is → eu
im iŋ → wa ie
ij → e
36.3.3.1 Old Tibetan to Amdo dialectsi → ə / _#
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoianı̃ → i
37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeeiji → iː
37.1.2 Proto-Iroquoian to Proto-Northern Iroquoianiji(ː) → hi(ː) / {k,s}_ “(possibly after all non-glottal obstruents)”
i → e / ! _hCC (“short only”)
37.2.5 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Crow-Hidatsaã ı̃ ũ → a i u
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Taiiə → ı̆ / _C%
ɛi ei → ai iː
38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchowɨ̆ i̯o → u ə
i̯e → i
{(i)ɛ,i̯ɛ} → eː
{ɨo̯,ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → ɨː iː
ai → aːi
u̯əi uəi uai i̯əu iau → oːi uːi uːiau oːu
əi → ai
ɨ̯ai → aːi
u̯əi → oːi
i̯əu → au
ɛ i → eː iː / _u
{uəi,uai} iau → uːi eːu
38.1.1.3.5 Central Tai to T’ien-Paoi iː u → ə ei oʊ̯
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Taiiə → ı̆ / _C%
{ɨ̯u,i̯ɛ} → ɨə̯~ɨa̯ / _%
u̯o i̯o → u o
ɛi ei → ai əi
38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-Aii̯o → o
ɛ iɛ → eː ı̆
i̯e → i
ɨo̯ ɨa̯ ie̯ ɨe̯ → uː aː eː iː
{əi,ɛi,ei} → ai
ɨ̯ai → ɨːi
u̯əi ɔi → (w)iː oːi
{ɛi,ei} → ɨː
ɛ e i → eː a iː / _u
i̯əu → uː
uəi uai iau → iː oːi eːu
38.1.1.4.3 North Tai to Wu-Mingi → {i,oi} / _%
əi → ai
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Taiiə → ı̆ / _C% (not in all languages)
ɛi ei → ai iː
38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lü{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} {ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → o ə e
əi → ai
38.1.1.5.3 Southwest Tai to Shan{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} {ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → o ə e
əi → ai
38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siameseɨ̯u i̯o → uː u
i̯e → e
{(i)ɛ,i̯ɛ} → ɛː
ɨ̯ai → aːi
{u̯əi,ɔi} → ɔːi
uəi → uai
38.1.1.5.6 Southwest Tai to White Tai{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} {ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → o ə e
əi → ai
41 Trans-New Guinea41.1 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Apalɨe u i → a {u,ɨ} {i,ɨ}
41.8 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kiwaiu i → {u,o} {i,e}
41.11 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Middle Wahgii → {i,e}
42 Uralic42.1 Proto-Uralic to Pre-Finniciw ow → y uː / _(C) (*)
i → e / _C, when unstressed
iw → u / unstressed
42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnicixi uxu → øː oː
xi → @ / else
UŋA eŋi → Oː øː
ŋi → @ / V_
Uwi ewi → oː øː
i → ∅ / æw_
ji → O / {i,e,y}
i → ∅ / Aj_#
i → ∅ / {o,u}j_
uw ij → ow ej / _C
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishi → ∅ / {VC,ks}_ at the ends of a suffix
βi → U / _#
oi → o / unstressed
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnishið → j / ”V_V
iU OU → Uː Oː
i → y / #(C…)l_y
i → y / #(C…)_væ
42.1.1.1.2 Standard Finnish to Modern Standard Finnishie yɤ uo → iː yː uː / _A
43 Uto-Aztecan43.2 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Hopii → j / h_ ! _#
43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhami → ∅ / ts_#
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basquei → u / _(C…)u (Roncalese)
i → y / _(C…)y (Souletin)
u i → o e / _r{C,#}
i → ∅ / _#, in disyllables
hu hi → ʊ ɪ / {o,e}_ (also happened with /a/ sometimes, but usually such sequences just dropped one vowel)
its̺ → tʃ / _# (Biscayan)
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.2 Proto-Pai to Paipaii → ə / unstressed
45.1.3 Proto-Pai to Tipaii → ə / unstressed
46 Vowel Shifts46.3 Belgian and Netherlandish Dutch Monophthongizationɛi œy ɔu → ɛː œː ɔː
46.4 Polder Dutch Vowel Shiftɛi œy ʌu → ai ay au
46.5 Old English-to-Scots Vowel Shiftsai → ɛi → əi / when stem-final
ai oi ui ei au ou iu ɛ(o)u → eː oe əi iː {ɑː,ɔː} ʌu ju j(ʌ)u
ɛː → ɛi (→ əi?) / in some northern varieties
iː eː ɛː aː oː uː {øː,yː} → əi i {i,e} e o u ø
— əi → aɪ / _{r,F[+voiced],$,#} (pursuant to the above)
46.7 Great Vowel Shift (English)iː uː → əj əw → ɑj ɑw
46.8 Greek Vowel Shiftai ɔi → ɛ yː
46.10 Late Proto-Finnic to Savonian Vowel Shiftɑː æː ɑi æi → uɑ iæ ɑe æe
ei oi øi → eː oe øe
li ni ri si → lʲi nʲi rʲi sʲi
46.11 Middle Chinese to Cantonese Vowel Shift (“The Inner-Outer Flip”)iəu → au
46.13 Old Norse to Faroese Vowel Shift{i,y} → iː / ɪ
{iː,yː} → ʊi / ʊ(i)
46.14 Pre-Slavic Vowel Changesi → ı̆ [ə?] → {e,a} (strong)/∅ (weak) “in modern languages”
iː → i
46.15 Proto-Japanese to Old Japanese Vowel Shift{u,ɨ}i {,a,i {ɨi,i{a,ə}} u{ɨ,a,ə} → wi e je wo
46.16 Development of Proto-Lolo-Burmese -i(C)# and -u(C)# to Lahu-i -i{p,k} -it -i{m,ŋ} -in → -i -ɨʔ -iʔ -ɛ -ɨ
46.17 Proto-Maidun to Nisenian Vowel Shiftu i e a → y e a o
46.19 Southern [United States] Shift (English)ɛj(ə) ɪj(ə) i eɪ → ej(ə) ij(ə) ɪi ɛi
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.3 List 3: Vowelsi u → s̩ f̩ (Ōgami) (http://amritas.com/101023.htm#10192359)

to /i/

718 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North Omoticu o → i e
e → i / #N_C
e → i / #l_{P,C[+voiced]}
e → i / #b_
e → i / p_r
e → i / #{s,ʃ,tsʼ}_{k(w),ʔ}
e o → i u / #C_P
e o → i u / #(ʔ)_C
e o → i u / #{k(ʼ),x}_{t(ʼ),tsʼ}
e o → i u / #(ʔ)_C$
e o → i u / #P_{tsʼ,tʃʼ}
e(ː) → i(ː) / #C[+sibilant]_{d,n,r}
6.2.2 Proto-Erythrean to Proto-North Erythreaneː oː → i u
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berberə → i
q → i / #_V{Z,C[+dental]}
ʕ → i / #_VR
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabic∅ → i / #al$_z
a → i / _C(C), when stressed
uː iː → u i
6.2.2.1.10 Classical Arabic to Hassāniyya Arabic— j w → i u / #_CV
— j w → iː uː / #_CC
6.2.2.1.17 Classical Arabic to Tunisian Arabicaj aw → {aj,eː,iː aw,oː,uː}
6.2.2.1.18 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrew— i iː u uː → eə iːə oə uːə / _R
— {o,u}(ː) → iː / _$%oː
7 Algonquian7.1 Proto-Algonquian to Kennebec River Abenakioː aː eː iː → o ɔ̃ a i
7.2 Proto-Algonquian to St. Francis Abenakinj → i / #_
oː eː iː → o a i
7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-Atsinao(ː) → i(ː)
e → i / #_
7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapahoeː → ei / j_
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfoote → i / {#,k}_
∅ → i / r_w
{jiː,ja,ahi} {owaː,awa,awe} awi {iːwa,eːwa,aji,aje,ani} → i oː o(ji) iː / C_C
∅ → i / #_jC
∅ → i / C_jV#
eLwi → iː
i(ː)wi → iː / medially
i(ː)wi → i / _#
iji → iː
a → i / ! at word boundaries
{eː,iː} → i
7.6 Proto-Algonquian to Northern East Creee eː → i aː
a → i / in some unaccented syllables (short only)
7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East Creee → i (short only)
7.8 Proto-Algonquian to Plains Creee → i (short only in southern dialects, both short and long in northern dialects)
7.9 Proto-Algonquian to Swampy Creee → i (short only)
7.10 Proto-Algonquian to Woods Creee(ː) → i(ː)
7.11 Proto-Algonquian to Munsee Delawarei o → iː oː
ə → i / _hC
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menomineewe je → o i / _C
e → i / Vː%_ ! _H
e → i / #(C)_ ! _H
e → i / _{k,m} “when in the second syllable of glottal words”
{wiː,jiː,weː,jeː,wæː,jæː} {wi,ji,we,je,wæ,jæ} → iː i / C_
wa ja → uə̯ iə̯ / C_
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaqo(ː) waː eː iː → u o e i
{aja,iha,iji,ihi,ija} → iː
7.15 Proto-Algonquian to Ojibwewe e → o i
jeː → iː / C_
ja → iː / C_C
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawneee → i / #(C)_ “(but remains e in a few cases?)”
iː → i / _j
je → i / C_
∅ → i / #C_jVː “(for some speakers)”
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonica → i / _Ci
{a,e,o,æ} i u y ø → ə i ua {u,ə} {ə,u} / _Ce
{a,æ,e,ø,i,y} o → i u / _Ci
e i {o,u} æ ø y → {ə,a} {i,ə} ə a {ə,u} {u,ə} / _Co
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolica → {a,i} / _Ce
a → {a,i,e} / _Co
e o u æ ø y → {a,e} {o,u} {a,o,u a {a,o,u} {o,u,i} / _Ca
a e i o u æ ø y → {a,i} {e,ja} {e,i} {ø,y,o} {o,u,y} {i,a,e} {e,ø} {ø,y,o,u} / _Ce
a e u æ ø y → {a,e} {e,i} {y,ø} {i,e} {i,e,ø} {ø,y,o,u} / _Ci
a e o i æ ø y → {a,i,e} {a,e} u {o,u} e {ø,y,o,u} {o,u} / _Co
a e {o,u} æ ø y → {a,o,u} {e,a} {o,u} {a,o,u} {e,i,u} {i,o,u,y,ø} / _Cu
8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusicæ → i / {s,ʃ,x}_Ca
{u,ø,y} æ → {o,u} ia / _Ca
æ ø → i {o,u} / _Ce
æ → i / {s,ʃ,x}_Ci
æ ø y → ia {o,u} i / _Ci
{u,æ} ø → {o,u} i / _Co
ø → i / {s,ʃ,x}_Cu
{u,æ,y} ø → {o,u} ia / _Cu
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkica e i u æ ø y → a {a,ʌ,e} {ɯ,i} {u,o} {ia,ja,ɛ} {ia,ja} ɯ / _Ca
y → i / {r(ʲ),l(ʲ)}_e
a {e,i} o u æ ø y → {ɛ,a} ɛ {ø,o} {y,u} {ia,ja,ɛ} {ia,ja} {y,ø} / _Ci
a e i æ ø y → {o,ja,aj} {ʌ,ɜ} ɯ {ia,ja} {o,u} {u,o} / _Co
e i æ ø y → {ɛ,a,ʌ} {ɯ,i} {e,a} {u,o} ɯ / _Cu
8.5.1.2 Proto-Kypchak to Kyrgyze → i / _ɡ
e → i / k_y (maybe they mean k_j?)
8.5.2 Proto-Turkic to Sakhao oɡ ø øɡ iɡ → wo ɥø oː øː iː
iɡ̌ → ɯː → iː (but original ɯː unaffected?)
eɡ → {je,iː,ji}
9 Austroasiatic9.1.2.1 Middle Vietnamese to Hanoi Vietnameseɨ → i / _(ə)w
10 Austronesian10.1.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawaniw uj → {i,?} i / _#
10.1.1.1 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Balineseej ow → i u
10.1.1.2 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sasakiw ow ej → i o e / _#
10.1.1.3 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sumbawanu → i / _{s,t,r,n,l} (blocked in Pusu)
10.1.2.4 Proto-Philippine to Ibanaguj → i
10.1.2.7 Proto-Philippine to Proto-Kalamiane → i / _Ci
10.1.2.7.1 Proto-Kalamian to Agutaynenaɪ ai → ɪɪ ii (not sure if there’s a long vowel or hiatus here)
10.1.2.7.2 Proto-Kalamian to Karamiananenaɪ ai → ɪɪ ii (not sure if there’s a long vowel or hiatus here)
10.1.2.7.3 Proto-Kalamian to Kalamian Tagbanwaaɪ ai → ɪɪ ii (not sure if there’s a long vowel or hiatus here)
10.1.2.9 Proto-Philippine to Tagalogə → i
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorrouj → {i,u}
10.2.3 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Malayic{iw,uj} → i / _#
— aj aw → i u / _#
10.2.4.1 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Javaneseiw uj → ju i / _#
— əw əj → i u / _#
10.2.4.3 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Sundaneseiw uj → {ju,i} oj / _#
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauanaj aw uj → e o i
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiputai au → ai̯ au̯ / _#
i u → əi̯ əu̯ / _#
iu̯ → ui̯
a → i / O[+voiced]…_(C)# “(blocked if there was an intervening nasal, and sometimes if there was an intervening voiceless stop or liquid)”
i u → əi̯ əu̯ / _(ʔ)#
əi̯ əu̯ → ai̯ au̯ / ! O[+voiced] earlier in the word
{i,ɛ} {u,ɔ} → iə̯ uə̯ / _{k,ŋ}# “(and also sporadically before final *t and *n and some other consonants)
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lónghi → iə / _ŋ#
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabau— u i → uə iə / _{k,ŋ,h,l,r}#
10.3 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Oceanice {uj,iw} → o i
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwi(C)V[+ high] i(C)V[+ mid] i(C)a → i(C) i(C)ə {e,i}(C)ə
u(C)V[+ high] u(C)e u(C)o u(C)a → {u,i}(C) u(C)ə e(C)ə {u,ɵ}(C)ə
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to MwotlapuCi → iC (sporadic)
10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to Caaàcu → i (typical)
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-NêlêmwauCu → iCi
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to Nyelâyuu → i “often”
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bay”a → i / _CV[- high]
10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to Tolomakou → i (“sporadic”)
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejomai → i / _C
ei → i
e → i / Ḱ_ “[tendency]”
e → i / _Ḱ “[tendency]”
10.3.11.2 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Erromangoa → i / _CV[+ high]
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Uraə → i
10.3.11.3 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Tannao e → {u,ə} i
10.3.11.3.1 Proto-Tanna to Kwamerau → {e,i} / _Cu
10.3.11.3.2 Proto-Tanna to Lenakelr → {l,i}
10.3.11.3.3 Proto-Tanna to North Tannar → i
10.3.11.3.4 Proto-Tanna to Southwest Tannau → {e,i} / _Cu
10.3.11.3.5 Proto-Tanna to Whitesandsr → {l,i}
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’ai(C)V[+ high] → i(C)
i(C)V[- high] → i(C)ɪ
uCV[+ high] → iC “sometimes”
oa {ae,ea} → uɔ iɛ
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamitee → {e,i} / #C_C
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamilaː eː iː oː uː → a ɛ i o u / _#
j → jːi / E_#
o e → u i / _C{u,i} “(highly sporadic)”
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Aleuta → i / i_
15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow Iñupiaqə → i / at word boundaries
ədʒ → i / _{a,u} (except in #U)
adʒ → i / _a (except in #U?)
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic Iñupiaqə → i / else
ədʒ → i / _{a,u} (except in #U)
adʒ → i / _a (except in #U?)
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie Iñupiaqə → i / else
ədʒ → i / _{a,u} (except in #U)
adʒ → i / _a (except in #U?)
15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales Iñupiaqə → i / else
ədʒ → i / _{a,u} (except in #U)
adʒ → i / _a (except in #U?)
15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’iki a u → ii aa uu / C_ in U[+open -initial -final] such that U[+open]_
ə → i / u_
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’iki a u → ii aa uu / C_ in U[+open -initial -final] such that U[+open]_
ə → i / {u,a}_ (though aə seems to have become i in some circumstances)
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’ikə → i / {u,a}_
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’iki a u → ii aa uu / C_ in U[+open -initial -final] such that U[+open]_
ə → i / {u,a}_ (though aə seems to have become i in some circumstances)
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.1 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Nafrie → i / _(C)i
16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central Sentanie → i / _(C)i
16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern Sentanie → i / _(C)i
16.1.4 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Western Sentanie → i / _(C)i
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanian{m̩,n̩} l̩ r̩ → e uj {ri,ir}
eː iː oː uː → o i e {y,i}
a e i o → {a,e} (j)e {e,i} a
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanian{m̩,n̩} l̩ r̩ → e uj {ri,ir}
eː iː oː uː → o i e {y,i}
a e i o → {a,e} (j)e {e,i} a
17.2.1 Common Anatolian to Hittitee → i / _{m,ŋ} when posttonic in U[+closed] or when pretonic
17.2.2 Common Anatolian to Luwiane → i / j_
{ɛ,e}ː æː → iː aː
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lyciane → i / j_
{ɛ,e}ː o æː → iː e aː
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to Lydiane → i / j_
o(ː) eː æː → a(ː) iː aː
17.2.5 Common Anatolian to Palaice → i / pretonic
ɛː → iː
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
ɛ o → i u / _N
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
ɛ o → i u / _N
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
ɛ o → i u / _N
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
ɛ o → i u / _N
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
ɛ o → i u / _N
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
ɛ o → i u / _N
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
ɛ o → i u / _N
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— ∅ → i / C{l,r}S
— eː → iː
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irisheː → iː / ! _{i,u}
r̩ l̩ → {ri,ra} {li,la} / _{S,R} (which vowel crops up is unpredictable)
— e → i / _(C…)#
— {ai,oi} → iː / _#
— e o → i u / _C(…C){H,j}
eː → ia / _{#,Cʲ} when stressed; “ai and oi remain, but are written as <ae ai oe oi> seemingly randomly”
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welsha o → ei {ɨ,ei} / _(C…)j(C…)#
a → {ɨ,ei} / _(C…)j(C…)#
{a,e,o} → ei / _(C…)j
e → i / _N
ɣ → i / _C
xt → iθ
ɣ → i / C_V
ɛː → ui
17.6 Proto-Indo-European to Dacianoi wo wj ow → ai wa vi aw
ei → {ei,i} (“PIE *ei evolution is not well reconstructed yet”)
17.7 Proto-Indo-European to Common Germanic{i,j} {u,w} → ij uw
e → i
ei oi → iː ai
eu ou → iu au
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothic— o e → u i
— ew → iw
j → i / C_# “after the loss of a final vowel or syllable”
ij → iː / _s “after the loss of a vowel in final syllables”
ij → i / _# “after the loss of a final vowel or syllable”
iji → iː / U[- stress](C…)_
iji → iː / U[+ long + closed]_ in the stem
17.7.2.1 West Germanic to Anglo-Frisianai au eu → {eː,aː} aː ia
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle Englishɑː y(ː) → ɔː i(ː)
17.7.2.1.4 Midlands Middle English to Early Modern Englishəɪ əʊ → ɑi æʊ / “in some parts of South-Eastern England”
17.7.2.1.5 Early Modern English to American Englishɪ → i / _# when unstressed
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishoʊ iː → əʊ ɪi / else
ɪ → iː / _# when unstressed
ɪ → iː / “unstressed foot-finally if the next syllable is stressed and begins with /k ɡ tʃ dʒ ʃ ʒ/”
ɫj → ɫi / “after any segment after which coda-/ɫ/ is forbidden, e.g. failure [fæiɫiɐ]”
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle Englishy(ː) → i(ː)
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scots— ai → ɛi → əi / when stem-final
— øː → wi / {k,ɡ}_ (in Mid Northern dialects)
— øː → i (in northern dialects)
— a → i / _n (in northern varieties)
— ai oi ui ei au ou iu ɛ(o)u → eː oe əi iː {ɑː,ɔː} ʌu ju j(ʌ)u
— ɛː → ɛi (→ əi?) / in some northern varieties
— iː eː ɛː aː oː uː {øː,yː} → əi i {i,e} e o u ø
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsoː → iu / _K
æː(ɑ) eː(o) → ɛ iː
ɛ → ɜi → i / _{m,ɲ}
ʌ → ɪi (sporadic)
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle Englishy(ː) → i(ː)
17.7.2.2 West Germanic to Old Low Franconianeː oː → ie uo
ai u → ei ʏ / _(C…){i(ː),j} (short only; in the case of [ʏ] at least this was not yet phonemic)
17.7.2.2.1 Old Low Franconian to Middle Dutchiu → {yː,io} (outcome varies depending upon dialect; the former seems more typical)
{ie,ia,io} uo → iə uə
17.7.2.2.2 Middle Dutch to Modern Dutchiː yː → ɛi œy
17.7.2.2.3 Modern Dutch to Polder Dutch Vowel Shiftɛi œy ʌu → ai ay au
eː øː oː → ɛi œy ɔu
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germany(ː) yə ø(ː) øy → i(ː) iə e(ː) ei (intermittent)
uː yː iː → ou øy ei, except in certain unstressed endings and monosyllables, _C{C,V,#} (“especially before /xt/”), and Low German borrowings
uə yə iə → uː yː iː
ou øy ei → au oy ai
17.7.3 Common Germanic to Proto-Norsej → i / C_
{æ,e}ːuː {æ,e}ːiː → eu ai
w{o,u}ːwuː j{e,i}ːjiː → uː iː
o(u) {ɔ,ɑ,au,ai,æ} {ja,jE,æ(i),e(i),y} → u a i
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old NorseBːB aː{o,a,æ,e} {æ,e}ː{æ,e}ː {æ,e}ːi iːEː → oː aː eː eː iː
e → i / #(C)(C)(C)_(C)(C)(C){i,j}
o {æ,e} → u i / ! in #U
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandicu o a ø y e i → uː oː aː øi yː ei iː / _{ɲc,ɲɟ,ŋk,ŋɡ}
u o a øː eː y i → ʏɪ oi ai øi ei yː iː / _j
aː → ai / _j
e → ei / _{ɣ,j}
u oː aː ʏɪ {y,i} {y,i}ː æː eː ey → ʏ ou au ai y ɪ i je ei
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornny → in
ja → i
œ → iː / _N
yː → i
y → {ɪ,i}
e iː → ɛ i(ː)
ey → ai
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Norn{u,o}(ː) a aː {ɒ,œ,y} e i(ː) → {o,ɔ}(i) æ(i) {ɔ,ɒ}(i) {o,ɔ}(i) {æ,e} / _{Ḱ,Cʲ}
17.7.4 Common Germanic to Vandaliceː → i / unstressed
e → i / ! {w,r,h}_
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekeː → iː / _C
eː → iː / _V
e → i
y → i
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greek{eː,ej} ɛː ɑ(ː)j {oj,ɔːj} → iː eː ɛː {y,ø}
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekeː → iː / _V
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-Aryanə → i
R̊H → {u,i}R / _V (sporadic)
R̊H → {u,i}ːR / _C
uʐ aʐ iʐ → uː əː iː
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-Aryane o → i u / _#
ɽ → i
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-Aryane o → i u / _#
ɽ → i
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-Aryane o → i u / _#
ɽ → i
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-Aryane o → i u / _#
ɽ → i
17.10.1.5.1 Vedic Sanskrit to Classical Sanskritau aːu ai aːi → au oː ai eː / ! _V
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slaviciː uː → i ɨ
e(ː)i → i
{ai,oi} → i / j_
oi o → i ъ / “Sometimes in final syllables”
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishьl → il / P_
ьr → i(ː)ʐ → {ɛ(ː)r,ɛ(ː)ʐ} → {ɛr,ɛʐ}
a ɛ i ɔ u ɨ ã → aː ɛː iː ɔː uː ɨː ãː / _{C/U}[+voiced][lost yer] (i.e., a voiced consonant or a cluster with one)
{aja,ɔja} {ɔjɛ,ɨjɛ} ɨjɛ → aː ɛː iː
ьjь ъjь → i ɨ
jь → i / utterance-initially (cf. English utterance-initial glottal stops before vowels)
ь ъ → i ɨ / _j
ji → i / #_
iji ɨjɨ → i ɨ
i u → u i / {lʲ,j}_ (sporadic)
iː uː ɨː → i u ɨ
kɨ ɡɨ → kʲi ɡʲi
17.11.2 Proto-Slavic to Old Russianjь → i
17.12.1 Proto-Italic to Proto-Latino-Falsicane → {e,i}
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latine o → i u / _ŋ
aj → ai → eː (in rustic dialects)
aj → ai → ae
oj → oi → oe → uː
V → i / %(C)(C)_% when unstressed
V → {i,u} / %(C)(C)_%P when unstressed
a → e → i / %(C)(C)_ŋ when unstressed
ai → ei → iː / %(C)(C)_ when unstressed
ei oi ou → iː eː uː / %(C)(C)_ when unstressed
e → i / _{s,t}#
{ai,ei,oi} → ei → iː / _(C)(C)#
j → i / C_
17.12.1.1.1 Classical Latin vs. Vulgar Latiniː → i
“In contrast, Romanian exhibits u, uː → u (and ultimately also ɔ, oː → o); and Sardinian and African Latin underwent a straight merger of the vowels by length without considering quality (e, eː → e; i, iː → i; u, uː → u; etc.)”
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalaniː → i / stressed
iː → i / _%”V
mnj → {mni,ɲ} / V_V
j ɡj ts z n → tʃ i w s ∅ / _#
e → i / _{nk,ŋ} when stressed (irregular)
ɛj ɔj → jɛj uei / i {u,ui} / stressed
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— iː oː → i ó
— iː → i
— iː oː → i o
è → iɛ / in U[+open]
è → iɛ / _C#
V”e → ”Vi
ɛ ɔ → iɛ uɛ / _{Cj,jC}
é → ɛi / in U[+open]
ɛ → i / _C(C…)i#
ai iɛɪ → ɛ i
ou ɛu u uɛi → u œ y yi
{ei,ɔi} → oi / C[-nas]
ɲ → in / _{C,#}
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguesee → iː / ”_%ɪː#
iː {i,eː} e → i e ɛ / stressed
iː {i,e(ː)} → i e / _%”V
uiː → ui / _#
ı̃ → iɲ
e → i / _(C)(C)V(C)#
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— e → i / _V (and possibly V_?)
— e → i / _(C…)i{C(C…)V,#}
— e → i / _(C…)i(C…)#
∅ → i / #_sC
j → i / _(s)#
tʃ → i / _C
tʃ → i / C_
ð → i / C_
ð → i / _C ! _s#
j → i / _C
p j → b i / _l
p k tʃ b ɡ β j → b ɡ i {b,u,u→y→i} ∅ {u,u→y→i} i / _r
{t,d} → ð → i / _r
ktj klj → is ʎ
rːVɡ rːj → rdʒ ir
rj → rʲ → ir / V_V
{sːj,stʃj,stj} → ʃ → is (except in the west or extreme east, where the outcome was some flavor of (i)(t)ʃ)
sj → ʒ → (i)(d)ʒ (in some northeastern, northern, and western dialects)
sj → ʒ → iz (the usual outcome)
tVɡ trj → dʒ ir
tj → tʃ → dj → djʒ (?) → dz (in the north and west) or idz (in the south and east)—medial (i)dz became (i)z; i-less forms “prevail in the literary language” and seem to have become common if the dz follows the stress
ndt ndtʃ ntʃ nkt nf → n{d,t} {nts,ndz(→ nz),ndʒ} n(t)s {ɲ,(i)nt,ntʃ} {nf,fː(→ f)}
stʃ → (i)(t)ʃ (for western and extreme eastern regions)
stʃ → is (otherwise)
ktʃ → (i)tʃ (in western and extreme eastern dialects)
ktʃ → its → is (else)
tʃ k → {i,s} {∅,k} / _m
kt ɡd → it id (in the north, northeast, and southwest)
ɡn{d,t} → ŋn{d,t} → ɲ{d,t} → {(i)nd,ɲd,ndʒ} or t(ʃ)
ksː → is
pt → {ut,it} “in a few words”
jd → {dʒ,id}
17.12.1.1.7 Vulgar Latin to Rhaeto-Romanceuː → y (→ i in most descendants, with the exception of Engadine)
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanianm s → n i / _#
— iː o(ː) u(ː) → i o u
— iː → i
— iː → i
s → i / #(C…)V_#
ɛ → ie
o e → u i / _N
e → i / #(C…)V…_n…”U
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardiniane → i / C_V
∅ → i / _s (“[m]ainly Logudorese”)
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to SpanishRaising of e {ɛ,a} ɔ o → i e o u; near j, in particular environments:
— e → i / _Cj ! C = p
”je.o ”je.a → {”i.o,”jo} ”i.a
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tocharianoy ay ey → ɛi ai əj
17.13.1 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian A{a,ɛ}i əj → e i
17.13.2 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian B{a,ɛ}i əj → ai i
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.1.2 Pre-Bakairi to Western Bakairiɨ → i
18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekensɨ → i / #_{p,βe}
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayoró{a/e} {e/a} {ı̃,ẽ} → a e ı̃
18.4.1 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Akwára{ẽ,ı̃} ɨ̃ {u,ũ,õ} → i ɨ o
18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Cocama∅ → i / j_#, in monosyllables
j → i / _#, in polysyllables
ã {ẽ,ı̃} ɨ̃ → a i ∅
18.4.3 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guajajaraã ẽ ı̃ ɨ̃ {õ,ũ} → ə e i ɨ o
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to GuarayoaN eN iN ɨN uN → ã ẽ ı̃ ɨ̃ ũ / _#
18.4.7 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to ParintintíneN → ı̃ / _#
ẽ ı̃ ũ → {ẽ,e} {ı̃,i} {ũ,õ}
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Sirionój → {j,i} / _#
o u → {u,o} {u,o,i}
aN eN iN ɨN uN → ã ẽ ı̃ {ɨ̃,ĩ} õ / _#
18.4.9 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Classical Tupii → ı̃ / ʔ_# (sporadic)
18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Urubuj b → {j,i} ∅ / _#
aN iN uN → {aN,ã} ı̃ {uN,ũ} / _#
20 Khoisan20.2.1 Proto-Kx’a to ǂHoaniaɔ → iu
20.2.3 Proto-Kx’a to Southeastern !Xunɛ ɔ → i u
21 Lakes Plain21.1.1 Proto-Far West to Aweraiiɛ Vdiɛ → ijɛ βe
21.1.3 Proto-Far West to Rasawaiiɛ Vdiɛ → ijɛ βie
21.2.1 Proto-Tariku to Proto-Central Tarikuti → s~ti / _V
iC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2 Proto-Tariku to Proto-East Tarikuti → s~ti / _V
21.2.2.1 Proto-East Tariku to BiritaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.2 Proto-East Tariku to DoutaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.3 Proto-East Tariku to EritaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
∅ → dz → î_V
iC → iC~i / _{C,#} (not sure how this plays in with the change mentioned earlier about extra-high vowels; I must have misread something)
21.2.2.4 Proto-East Tariku to KaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.5 Proto-East Tariku to ObokuitaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.6 Proto-East Tariku to SikaritaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.7 Proto-East Tariku to WaritaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.3 Proto-Tariku to Proto-West TarikuiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
22 Macro-Arawakan22.3 Proto-Arawá to Hypothetical Arawán Substratee → i / #_
22.7 Proto-Arawá to Paumaríe → {a,i} / #_
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to Chibchaa → i / _Ci
a {e,i} → i ∅ / C”V(C)_
23.1.1.1.3 Proto-Chibchan to Kogij → i / C(V)_
23.1.1.1.5 Proto-Chibchan to Motilóna → i / iC_
23.1.1.1.6 Proto-Chibchan to Tuneboe → i / “conditioning undetermined”
24 Macro-Pama-Nyungan24.1.7 Proto-Paman to Yinwuma → i / #C[+palatal]V[-long]C_
26 Mande26.2 Proto-Mande to Busaj → i
27 Mayan27.1 Proto-Mayan to Ch’olanaː eː oː → ɨ i u
27.9 Proto-Mayan to Tzeltalanaː eː oː → ɨ i u
28 Muskogean28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western Muskogeanoj aj → iː {aː,iː}
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.4 Proto-Athabaskan to Chilcotine {ɑ,ə} → i {e,ɪ}
29.1.1.1.7 Proto-Athabaskan to Deg Hit’ane u a {ɑ,ʊ} → a i u ə
29.1.1.1.8 Proto-Athabaskan to Dena’inae a u {ə,ʊ} → a u i ə
29.1.1.1.9 Proto-Athabaskan to Dogribɑ ə ʊ u → a e o i
29.1.1.1.10 Proto-Athabaskan to Easter Gwich’in{i,e} → {i,ja} (this latter due to the loss of final consonants within the stem)
a u {ɑ,ə} ʊ → {i,e} ju a o
29.1.1.1.22 Proto-Eastern Southern Athabaskan to Jicarillaxʲ xʔ j ɡʔ → ih iʔ i iʔ / _#
29.1.1.1.33 Proto-Athabaskan to Tahltan-Kaska-Tagishɑ ə ʊ → a {i,e} u
29.1.1.1.39 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Tanana{a,ɑ} e i u ʊ → e(a) {i,ea} ju {a,ɨ} o
29.1.1.1.42 Proto-Athabaskan to Southern Tutchonee a → i e
30 Niger-Congo30.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Bantuu ũ → i ı̃ / #R[-labial]_
ʋ̃ ɪ̃ → ũ ı̃ / #N[-labial]_
ɪ ɪ̃ → i ı̃ / #(C)V[-high]C_
30.2 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Potou-Akanicɪ(Cɪ) → e(Ci) / t_; “vowel nasalizations are retained either way on each”
30.2.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic to Proto-Akanicɛ → ia / #(C)_
h → ɲı̃ / #_ã
30.3.1.1.1 Proto-Gbe to Ajá{o,ɔ} {ɛ,e} → u i / _i
30.3.1.1.10 Proto-Vhe to Awalan{o,ɔ} ə → u i / _i
31 Nyulnyulan31.1 Proto-Nyulnyulan to Bardiaji → iː / when unstressed
u → i / _j
i(ː)b ik → iw ij / _a
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinoı̃ → i
e → i / {kʲ,nt}_ when stressed
e → i / in a few data sets “where obscure morphological developments (in the ultimate or penultimate syllable) have resulted in regressive assimilation of vowel quality”
ẽ → i / h_
ẽ → i / in U[+long -stress]
a → {i,e} “under special conditions”
32.1.2 Proto-Chatino to Tataltepec Chatinoet el en → itʲ elʲ enʲ
e → i / _j
ɛ → ı̃ / S_#
ɛ → i / n_#
32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinoẽ → ı̃ / {t,h}_#
ẽ → ı̃ / _ʔ#
ẽ → ı̃ / ʔ_# “in one case”
32.1.4 Proto-Chatino to Zenzontepec Chatinoe → i / l_ when unstressed
e → i / kʲ_ when stressed
32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to Tlapanece → i
33 Penutian33.1.1 Proto-Utian to Proto-Costanoan (Ohlone)e → i / _(C…)u
ɨ → {e,i} / CC_
ɨ → i
33.1.1.2.1 Proto-Miwok to Proto-Western Miwokɨ → {u,i}
33.3.1.3 Buena Vista Yokuts to Tulamniɨ(ː) ə(ː) → i(ː) e(ː)
33.3.2.2 Proto-Nim-Yokuts to Northern Yokutsɨ(ː) ə(ː) → i(ː) e(ː)
33.3.3 Proto-Yokuts to Palewyamiɨ(ː) → i(ː)
V → i / C”iC_
34 Quechumaran34.4 Proto-Quechumaran to Huarásaw aj {uj,ij} → uː eː iː
35 Salishan35.1.1 Proto-Central Salish to Comox{a3~i3} → i3
{i31} → {ə1,i1,i3}
{i11} → i1
35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack Halkomelemu3 {u1,a1} a3 i1 → a3 ə1 ɛ3 {i11}
{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}
35.1.3 Proto-Central Salish to Cowichan Halkomelema3 u3 {a1,u1} i1 → ɛ3 a3 ə1 {i11}
{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}
35.1.4 Proto-Central Salish to Musqueam Halkomelemu3 {u1,a1} a3 i1 → a3 ə1 ɛ3 {i11}
{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}
35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to Lushootseedi1 → {i11}
{a1~i1} → i1
{i33} → {i11}
{i31} → {i3,i1}
{i11} → {ə1,i1}
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to Nooksacka1 u3 u1 i1 → æ2 o3 o1 i2
{i3~e3} → {i33}
{i31} → i3
{i11} → {i21}
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern Straits{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}
{i11} → {ə1,i1}
35.1.12 Proto-Central Salish to Pentlatch{a1~i1} → {i11}
{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}
{i31} → i3
{i11} → {i1,∅}
35.1.13 Proto-Central Salish to Sechelti1 → {i11j}
{a3~i3} → i3
{a1~i1} → {i11}
{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}
{i31} → i3
{i11} → {i1,∅}
35.1.14 Proto-Central Salish to Sqamish{a3~i3} → i3
{a1~i1} → i1
{i3~e3} → {ə3,i3}
{i31} → i3
{i11} → {i1,∅}
35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to Twana{a1~i1} → {i11}
{i3~e3} → {i33}
{i31} → {i3,i1}
{i11} → i1
35.3 Shuswap to Eastern Shuswap Nasal-to-Vowel Shiftsen enˀ → i iʔ / {ts(’),s,j(ˀ)}_ in U[- stressed]
35.4 Shuswap to Spokane-Kalispel Shuswap Nasal-to-Vowel Shiftsn nˀ → i iʔ / C_s
n nˀ → i iʔ / _{i,ʃ} (sporadic)
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1 Proto-Sino-Tibetan to Middle Chinese(C-)l- → {d,ji}-
36.1.1.1 Old Mandarin to Modern Pekingese#r…î# → #î…r
36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàj → i
long-tail vowel thing → i (or [truncated vowel-thing] “where GH sibilant initial variants occur”)
iʔ → ieʔ (→ i[truncated vowel-thing]ʔ?)
uj → u(ɛ)i / m_
uj → uɛi / {P,C[+guttural],∅}_
uj → ui / {C[+dental],C[+sibilant]}_
juŋ → iuŋ / _{∅,x,ʋ,ʔ}
juŋ → iuŋ / _ɡ[+píng tone]
jujŋ ujŋ → iuŋ uŋ
yʔ → oʔ (eventually → {ʊʔ,(i)uʔ?) / {l,C[+dental +sibilant]}_, in “QYS -k-types”
yʔ → ioʔ (→ iʊʔ dialectally?) / {∅,C[+guttural]}_, in -k-types
je jeʔ → iɛ iɛʔ
ye jej → yɛ i
jew → iau / else
{jem,jen} → iɛn / sometimes after C̣_ (but ! ʐ_) (only in one variety?)
wɔn ja wa → uɔn ia ua
jaʔ → iaʔ
aj jaj waj aw jaw → ai iai uai au iau
jawʔ wawʔ → iɔʔ uɔʔ
{jam,jan} → iɛn
36.3.1.1 Proto-Naish to Lazea u i iN → e y ɯ i / T_%
a → i / {ŋ,w}_%
a → ie / ! K_%
36.3.1.2 Proto-Naish to Mosuo (Na)a → i / ! K_%
{iN,u} i → i ɯ / T_
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to Naxia → i / ŋ_%
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Lau → i / _{r,s}
aj → i
ew iw → im ju
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiauj → ui
ok → iɡ
oj → oi
a ap at ar am aj → e eb e(d) er om e.i
e → i / _#
et ej → o e.i
ip it → ib o
36.3.2.1.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Hanniuan {at.is} → o ie
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Toan → ia
aj → oi
e → i / _{s,#}
ej → ai
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtseew iw → i jo
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Moe → iɛ
i → iɛ / _s
36.3.2.2.5 Proto-rGyalrongic to Trungun → ial
an → a(i)
i → əi / _#
i → iə / _m
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Naoew e ej → ə i ei
i i{t,k} → {ə,iɛ} ə
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu Taaw aj → au ai
e i → i a / _m
iw ij → iu ei
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassuan ap → ai ie
aj → ui
ew → i
it ik → o i
im iŋ → wa ie
36.3.3.1 Old Tibetan to Amdo dialectss → either i or a diphthong ending in i? / _#
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoiane → i / r_ʔ
ı̃ → i
37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeeiji → iː
∅ → i / C_R
37.1.2 Proto-Iroquoian to Proto-Northern Iroquoianiji(ː) → hi(ː) / {k,s}_ “(possibly after all non-glottal obstruents)”
∅ → i(ː) / #_(C)(C)CVC(C)(C)#
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huronk → i / #_n
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneida∅ → i / {V,t}n_k(ʷ)V
— ∅ → i / C_jV(H)#
37.2 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Siouanẽ õ → ı̃ ũ
37.2.5 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Crow-Hidatsaã ı̃ ũ → a i u
37.2.6 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Dhegihau → i / in ”U (sporadic)
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Taiiə → ı̆ / _C%
ɛi ei → ai iː
38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchowe → i / _C%
i̯e → i
{ɨo̯,ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → ɨː iː
ai → aːi
u̯əi uəi uai i̯əu iau → oːi uːi uːiau oːu
əi → ai
ɨ̯ai → aːi
u̯əi → oːi
ɛ i → eː iː / _u
{uəi,uai} iau → uːi eːu
38.1.1.3.5 Central Tai to T’ien-Paoi iː u → ə ei oʊ̯
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Taiiə → ı̆ / _C%
ɛi ei → ai əi
38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-Aiɛ iɛ → eː ı̆
i̯e → i
ɨa̯~ɨə̯ → iː / j_
ɨo̯ ɨa̯ ie̯ ɨe̯ → uː aː eː iː
{əi,ɛi,ei} → ai
ɨ̯ai → ɨːi
u̯əi ɔi → (w)iː oːi
ɛ e i → eː a iː / _u
uəi uai iau → iː oːi eːu
38.1.1.4.3 North Tai to Wu-Mingi → {i,oi} / _%
əi → ai
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Taiiə → ı̆ / _C% (not in all languages)
ɛi ei → ai iː
38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lüe → i / _N%
əi → ai
38.1.1.5.3 Southwest Tai to Shanəi → ai
38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siameseɨ̯ai → aːi
{u̯əi,ɔi} → ɔːi
əɨ → ai
{ɛɨ,eɨ} → ai
oɨ → ai
uəi → uai
38.1.1.5.6 Southwest Tai to White Taie → i / _N%
əi → ai
40 Totozoquean40.2 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Totonacan{e,ɨ} {ḛ ɨ̰} → i ḭ
41 Trans-New Guinea41.1 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Apalɨe u i → a {u,ɨ} {i,ɨ}
41.8 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kiwaiu i → {u,o} {i,e}
41.11 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Middle Wahgii → {i,e}
42 Uralic42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnicô → ɯ → i / _(X)CA
ej → i / unstressed
wI → i
nʲ → ni / #(C)i_V
nʲ → in / V_V
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishj w → i U / V_{C,#}
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnisheː øː oː → ie yø uo
j → i / C_, when initial in a suffix
e → i / A_, when unstressed
42.1.1.1.2 Standard Finnish to Modern Standard Finnishie yɤ uo → iː yː uː / _A
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livonianeː øː oː ɤ(ː) → iːe yːø uːo ɨ(ː)
y ø → i e / else
43 Uto-Aztecan43.4 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Nahuatlɨ u → e {i,e} “(all */u/ affected, but conditions for when it became /i/ or /e/ are not known)”
43.5.1.2 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Monoɨ → i / _h
uV → u(i)
43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhaml → i / {p,m,k(ʷ),w}_# “in all dialects, and varies by dialect after other consonants”
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basquea o e → ɛ u i / {i,u}(C…)_ (this [ɛ] is tentatively marked as such; Egurtzegi transcribes it as /e/ but says it’s not as close as /e/)
o e → u i / _$a (raising of *o is less common)
e → i / _{n,C[+ sibilant]} (sporadic)
oa ea → u(e) i(e) / _#
46 Vowel Shifts46.1 7-to-5 Vowel Merger (Bantu)ɪ ʊ → i u
46.2 California Vowel Shift (English)æ ɪ → e i / _ŋ; some speakers (esp. in southern regions) may also have pin-pen and “a single phoneme in contrast to the nasal diphthong [ãɪ̃] of the U.S. Northeast” (though the article doesn’t specify what this is; maybe it’s just plain ã)
u → {iʊ̯,ʉ,ɯ}
46.4 Polder Dutch Vowel Shiftɛi œy ʌu → ai ay au
eː øː oː → ɛi œy ɔu
46.5 Old English-to-Scots Vowel Shiftsai → ɛi → əi / when stem-final
øː → wi / {k,ɡ}_ (in Mid Northern dialects)
øː → i (in northern dialects)
a → i / _n (in northern varieties)
ai oi ui ei au ou iu ɛ(o)u → eː oe əi iː {ɑː,ɔː} ʌu ju j(ʌ)u
ɛː → ɛi (→ əi?) / in some northern varieties
iː eː ɛː aː oː uː {øː,yː} → əi i {i,e} e o u ø
46.7 Great Vowel Shift (English)eː oː → iː uː
ɛː → eː → iː
46.8 Greek Vowel Shifteː ɛː → iː eː
eː → iː
y(ː) ɔː → i(ː) ɔ
46.10 Late Proto-Finnic to Savonian Vowel Shifteː øː oː → ie yø uo
ɑː æː ɑi æi → uɑ iæ ɑe æe
li ni ri si → lʲi nʲi rʲi sʲi
46.13 Old Norse to Faroese Vowel Shift{i,y} → iː / ɪ
{iː,yː} → ʊi / ʊ(i)
46.14 Pre-Slavic Vowel Changesej → i
i → ı̆ [ə?] → {e,a} (strong)/∅ (weak) “in modern languages”
iː → i
aj → {æ2,i2} “(reduced)”
46.15 Proto-Japanese to Old Japanese Vowel Shifte o → i u / else
{u,ɨ}i {,a,i {ɨi,i{a,ə}} u{ɨ,a,ə} → wi e je wo
46.16 Development of Proto-Lolo-Burmese -i(C)# and -u(C)# to Lahu-i -i{p,k} -it -i{m,ŋ} -in → -i -ɨʔ -iʔ -ɛ -ɨ
46.19 Southern [United States] Shift (English)ɛj(ə) ɪj(ə) i eɪ → ej(ə) ij(ə) ɪi ɛi
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.2 List 2: Conditional or complex consonant changesn → i / _s and sometimes other fricatives (Montana Salish)

with context involving /i/

404 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1 Proto-Afro-Asiatic to Proto-Omoticʃ → s2 / {i,j}_
6.1.1.2 North Omotic to Dizints → tʃ / _i
6.1.2.2 South Omotic to Dimets → ʃ / _i
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berberq → ∅ / _i
l → j / #_iC ?
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabica → e / _(C)(C)i(ː)
7 Algonquian7.3 Proto-Algonquian to Proto-Arapaho-AtsinaW → ∅ / C_i(ː)
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventreʃ {θ,t} m k → s ts tʲ bʲ / _{i(ː),j,#}
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfootx → sː / {i,#e,ja,ke}_
∅ → s / {i(ː),#e}_t
t → ts / _{i,e(ː),a}
∅ → s / k_i(ː)
∅ → j / {oːw,iːj}_i#
w → j / {r,k}_i#
w → j / _i
w → ∅ / {a,o}_iC
on → u / _iC
7.6 Proto-Algonquian to Northern East Creek → tʃ / _i
7.7 Proto-Algonquian to Southern East Creek → tʃ / _i
7.13 Proto-Algonquian to Miami-Illinoiss → ʃ / _i (not universal)
s → ʃ / _iV
7.15 Proto-Algonquian to Ojibwew → ∅ / {t,r}_i
7.17 Proto-Algonquian to Shawneej → ∅ / C_i(ː)
w → ∅ / t_i
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonica → i / _Ci
{a,æ,e,ø,i,y} o → i u / _Ci
ɡ → ∅ / iV_
r → t / _{i,u}
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolica → {a,e} / _Ci
i → e / P_Ci
a e u æ ø y → {a,e} {e,i} {y,ø} {i,e} {i,e,ø} {ø,y,o,u} / _Ci
pʰ → b / #_U[+high pitch]
t(ʰ) d → tʃ dʒ / _i
tʃ → dʒ / #_i
lʲ → dʒ / #_i
8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusicy → u / P_C{e,i}
æ → i / {s,ʃ,x}_Ci
æ ø y → ia {o,u} i / _Ci
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkice → ja / #_C{e,i}
a {e,i} o u æ ø y → {ɛ,a} ɛ {ø,o} {y,u} {ia,ja,ɛ} {ia,ja} {y,ø} / _Ci
8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchakɣ → w / {a,u,i,o}_
9 Austroasiatic9.1.2 Proto-Vietic to Middle Vietnamesel → ∅ / {i,e}_
9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnamesec ɲ → t n / {i,e}_
ə → ∅ / {i,ɨ}_{p,m.w}
10 Austronesian10.1.1.1 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Balinesew → b / i_#
10.1.1.3 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sumbawanw → ∅ / i_#
10.1.2.5 Proto-Philippine to Ifugao∅ → j / _iw#
10.1.2.7 Proto-Philippine to Proto-Kalamiane → i / _Ci
10.1.2.7.1 Proto-Kalamian to Agutaynent → s / _i
10.1.2.7.2 Proto-Kalamian to Karamiananent → s / _i
10.2 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Batakw → ∅ / i_#
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorro∅ → j / i_a
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauan∅ → j / i_V
j → ∅ / C_i
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North Sarawakh → ʔ / a_{i,u}
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lóngh{p,t} n → c̚ ɲ / {i,ɛ}_#
m → ɲ / i_#
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabau— m p → n t / {u,i}_
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwa → e / _Ci (sporadic)
10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to Caaàcjʰ → h / _i
10.3.5.2 Proto-New Caledonia to Jawéjʰ → h / _i
10.3.5.3 Proto-New Caledonia to Nemi-Pije-Fwaijʰ → h / _i
10.3.5.4 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-NorthernC → ∅ / _$(possessive suffix)#
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to Nyelâyujʰ j → h ∅ / _i
10.3.5.6 Proto-New Caledonia to Pwaameis → h / _i
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Yunagajʰ → h / _i
10.3.6.2 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Naguŋ → n / _i
10.3.6.3 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Natügut → l / _{u,i}
ŋ → n / _i
10.3.7 Proto-Oceanic to Shark Bayp v m → t θ n / _{a,e,i}
10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to Tolomakom b → n̼ t̼ → n t / _{a,e,i}
10.3.9.1 Proto-Utupua to Asuboat → s / _i
10.3.9.2 Proto-Utupua to Nebaoŋ → n / _i
10.3.9.3 Proto-Utupua to Tanibilidr → ɟ / _i
10.3.10.3 Proto-Vanikoro to Vanot → s / _{u,i}
10.3.11 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Southern Vanuatua → e / _(C)i
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejoms → θ / ! _i, occasionally
10.3.11.2.1 Proto-Erromango to Syeɣ → k / _i
10.3.11.3 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Tannaa → e / _Ci
10.3.11.3.3 Proto-Tanna to North Tannav → ∅ / _i
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Onganb → ∅ / #_{u,i}
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.1 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Proto-Dravidianw → v / #_{i,e}lV
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamiltː nt → cː ɲc / {i,j}_
o e → u i / _C{u,i} “(highly sporadic)”
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Aleuta → i / i_
dʒ → ð / i_ (in eastern and central dialects)
15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow Iñupiaqt → s / i_
v → ∅ / u_i
dʒ → ʁ / i_u
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic Iñupiaqt → s / i_
dʒ → tʃ / i_{u,i}
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie Iñupiaqv → ∅ / u_i
15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales Iñupiaqdʒ → ʁ / i_u
ɣ → u / {i,ə}_V
15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’iks → dʒ / {i,u}_V
dʒ → ∅ / i_i
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’iks → dʒ / {i,u}_V
dʒ → ∅ / i_i
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’ik∅→ n / #_iN (This one is sort of a guess, given a singular example in the text that isn’t really commented upon)
s → dʒ / {i,u}_V
dʒ → ∅ / i_i
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’ikdʒ → ∅ / i_i
s → dʒ / {i,u}_V
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.1 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Nafrie → i / _(C)i
a → æ / i(C)_
16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central Sentanie → i / _(C)i
a → æ / i(C)_
16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern Sentanie → i / _(C)i
a → æ / i(C)_
16.1.4 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Western Sentanie → i / _(C)i
a → æ / i(C)_
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanianḱ → s / _{u̯,u,i̯,i}
s → ʃ / V{i̯,u̯,r,k}_V
i̯ → ɟ / {a,e,i}_
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanianḱ → s / _{u̯,u,i̯,i}
s → ʃ / V{i̯,u̯,r,k}_V
i̯ → ɟ / {a,e,i}_
17.2.1 Common Anatolian to Hittitet → ts / _i ! s_
d → s / #_{i,j}
17.2.2 Common Anatolian to Luwian{ḱ,k} → ∅ / _i(ː)
17.2.3 Common Anatolian to Lycian{ɡ́,ɡ} → ∅ / _i(ː)
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to Lydiand → tʃ / _{i,u}
s → ʃ / _{i,e}
s → ʃ / i_
l → ʎ / _{i,j}
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armeniankʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armeniankʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armeniankʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
ɡʷʱ → dʒ / #_{e,i}
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armeniankʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armeniankʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armeniankʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
ɡʷʱ → dʒ / #_{e,i}
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armeniankʷ → tʃʰ / _{e,i}
ɡʷʱ → dʒ / #_{e,i}
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irisheː → iː / ! _{i,u}
— n → ∅ / {i,o,u}_{p,t,k,s}
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welsh{a,o} → e / _(C…)i(ː)
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothici → ∅ / _ji
17.7.2.2 West Germanic to Old Low Franconianai u → ei ʏ / _(C…){i(ː),j} (short only; in the case of [ʏ] at least this was not yet phonemic)
a → ɛ / _(C…){i(ː),j} (conjectured based on date from the “Germanic umlaut” article)
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlauta u o → e y ø / _(C…){i(ː),j}
17.7.3 Common Germanic to Proto-Norsewi → u / Ci_C
j → ∅ / _i
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norsee → i / #(C)(C)(C)_(C)(C)(C){i,j}
u {o,ɒ} a → y ø æ / _(C)(C)(C)i
u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / _(C)(C)(C)i
{u,we,wi} {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / _(C)(C)(C)i
a → e / _i
N(ː) k k(ː) N(ː)ɡ ɡ(ː) ɣ → ɲc(ː) c(ː) ɲɟ(ː) ɟ(ː) ʝ / _{i,j}
a → e / _{i,j,Ḱ}
N(ː) k k(ː) N(ː)ɡ ɡ(ː) ɣ → ɲc(ː) c(ː) ɲɟ(ː) ɟ(ː) ɟ / _{i,j}
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornh → x / _i
o a → ø ɛ / _(C)(C)i
e → a / _i
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornɡ(ː) → dʒ / _iV
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian Greekt → ts / _i
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekt → ts / _i
ɡ x → j ç / _{ɛ,i}
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greekt → ts / _i
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greekt → ts / _i
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan Greekt → ts / _i
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric Greekt → ts / _i
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian Greekt → ts / _i
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekt → ts / _i
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greekt → ts / _i
17.8.10 Proto-Indo-European to Mycenaean Greekt → ts / _i
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittitet → ts / _{i,e}
17.10 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iraniank ɡ ɡʱ → c ɟ ɟʱ / _e,i,j
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavics → x / {i,u,r,k}_
k ɡ x → tʃ ʒ ʃ / _{e(ː)(i),i(ː)}
k ɡ x → ts dz s / _{æː,i}
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishɛ ɛ̃ ɛː → ɔ ɔ̃ a / _C[-palatalized +dental] (also sporadically before plain non-dentals)
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latinkʷ → k / _{o,i,C}
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalanŋ → ɲ / _{i,e}
sk → ʃ / V_{i,e}
k ɡ → ∅ {∅,ʒ} / V_{i,e} (ɡ → ʒ is learned)
k → ts → s / #_{i,e}
ɡ → ʒ / #_{i,e}
kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ / #_{i,e}
kʷ → ɡ / V_{i,e}
ɡʷ → ɡ / C_{i,e}
ʎ → l / ”i_
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— V → ”V / _C*”{i,e}V
— u → ó / !_iː
l → ∅ / {i,u}_
ɛ → i / _C(C…)i#
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguesee → ∅ / ”{i,e}_#
k → ts → s / #_{i,e}
ɡ → ɡʲ → dʲ → dʒ → ʒ / #_{i,e}
kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ / #_{i,e,o}
kʷ → ɡ / V_{i,e}
kʷ → k / VC_{a,i,e}
ɡ → {∅,ʒ} / V_{i,e} (ɡ → ʒ is learned)
j → ∅ / i_ʒV
sk k → jʃ z / V_{i,e}
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— ɔ → y / _{u,P,k,ɡ,i} (in northwestern dialects)
— ɔ → ɥe / _{u,P,k,ɡ,i} (in western dialects, Limousin, and Auvergne)
— ɔ → ɥo / _{u,P,k,ɡ,i} (in Languedoc)
— ɔ → {ɥe,ɥo,ɔ} / _{u,P,k,ɡ,i} (in southern dialects)
— e → i / _(C…)i{C(C…)V,#}
— ɛ → jɛ / _{u,i,ʎ,rʲ,ʃ,ʒ,j,tʃ,dʒ} (except in some northern and western dialects, or if this u ← l or if this i ← ð)
— o → y / _{tʃ,dʒ,it,id} (did not occur in Dauphiné)
— o → y / _i# (in Bordeaux, Auvergne, and some of Languedoc)
— e → i / _(C…)i(C…)#
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to RomanianV → ”V / _(C…)”{i,e}V
t d s → ts dz ʃ / _i
e → a / i_(C…){a,e}#
l → lj / _i
lː → ∅ / _i
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardiniank → ts / _i
d → ∅ / V_{i,j}
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanishk ɡ → tʃ dʒ → ts dz / _{j,i,e,ɛ}
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makurápβ → ∅ / _i
u → o / _{p,b}i
18.3.2 Proto-Tuparí to Mekensβ → ∅ / i_
ð → s / _i
18.3.3 Proto-Tuparí to Tuparí{(n)dz,ts} → s / _i
β ð → ∅ {s,h} / _i
u → o / _{p,b}i
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayoróu → ɨ / _{p,b}i
18.4.1 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Akwárat → tʃ / _{i,ı̃}
18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Cocamat → tʃ / _{i,ı̃}
18.4.3 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guajajarat → ts / _{i,ı̃}
18.4.4 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guaranít → tʃ / _{i,ı̃}
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guarayot → tʃ / _{i,ı̃}
18.4.6 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Kamayurát → tʃ / _{i,ı̃}
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Sirionót → {ts,tʃ} / _{i,ı̃}
18.4.9 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Classical Tupit → tʃ / _{i,ı̃}
18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Urubut → ʃ / _{i,ı̃}
21 Lakes Plain21.2.1.1 Proto-Central Tariku to Edopid → dz / _i
∅ → dz / _î
21.2.2.1 Proto-East Tariku to BiritaiV → ∅ / di_
∅ → dz / î_V
21.2.2.4 Proto-East Tariku to KaiV → ∅ / di_
∅ → dz / î_V
21.2.2.5 Proto-East Tariku to ObokuitaiV → ∅ / di_
21.2.2.6 Proto-East Tariku to Sikaritai∅ → dz / î_V
21.2.2.7 Proto-East Tariku to WaritaiV → ∅ / di_
∅ → dz / î_V
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.1 Proto-Chibchan to Arhuacoj → ∅ / i_V
23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to Chibchaa → ∅ / _i, when unstressed
a → i / _Ci
23.1.1.1.3 Proto-Chibchan to Kogis → {ʃ,tʃ} / _i
23.1.1.1.4 Proto-Chibchan to Marocaceros → {ts,ʃ} / _i
a → ∅ / _i
23.1.1.1.5 Proto-Chibchan to Motilóns → {ʃ,tʃ} / _i
s → x / i_
a → i / iC_
24 Macro-Pama-Nyungan24.1.1 Proto-Paman to AritinŋitiÉ£i[-long]C → Cj / #_ ! _i
24.1.2 Proto-Paman to Awŋtim∅ → j / #(C)iː(C)_V ! _i
24.1.4 Proto-Paman to Mbiywomi[-long]C → Cj / #_ ! _i
24.1.7 Proto-Paman to Yinwum∅ → j / #iː(C)_a
25 Macro-Panoan25.1.2 Proto-Tacanan to Chamatʃ → s / _i
n → ɲ / i_{o,a} (the former is conjectured)
25.1.4 Proto-Tacanan to Tacanak → kʷ / #_i
28 Muskogean28 Muskogeanl → j / a_i
28.2 Proto-Muskogean to Proto-Western Muskogeanxʷ → h / %_{o,i}(C)#
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.3 Proto-Athabaskan to BeaverT → TŠ / _{i,e,u}, in the British Columbian dialect
29.1.1.1.18 Proto-Athabaskan to SekaniT → TŠ / _{i,e,u} ! in Ware Sekani
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1.1 Proto-Bantu to Sebirwai u VS → j w A / _V[+high +ATR]
30.1.1.2 Proto-Bantu to Tswana{p,t,tʃ,k} {mp,nt,ɲtʃ,nk} {(m)b,(n)d,(ɲ)dʒ,(n)ɡ} {m,n} → s tsʰ ts ɲ / _iV
{p,t,tʃ,k} {mp,nt,ɲtʃ,nk} {(m)b,(n)d,(ɲ)dʒ,(n)ɡ} {m,n,ɲ} → sw tsʰw tsw ɲw / _iV
{tʃ,k} {ɲtʃ,nk} {ndʒ,nɡ} → s tsʰ ts / _{i,ɪ,e}
30.3.1.1.1 Proto-Gbe to Ajá{o,ɔ} {ɛ,e} → u i / _i
V[+ nas - high] → [+ high] / _i
ʁ → j / _i
χ ʁ → s z / _{i,j}
30.3.1.1.2 Proto-Ajá to Hwet d → tʃ dʒ / _{u,i}
30.3.1.1.6 Proto-Phla-Pherá to Aladak ɡ → ʃ ʒ / _i
30.3.1.1.8 Proto-Vhe to Adángbek ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _i
30.3.1.1.9 Proto-Vhe to Avénoə → e / _{i,j}
t d → tʃ dʒ / _{u,i}
k ɡ s → ts dz ʃ / _i
30.3.1.1.10 Proto-Vhe to Awalana → e / _{i,j}
{o,ɔ} ə → u i / _i
t d → tʃ dʒ / _{u,i}
s {k,ts} {ɡ,dz} → ʃ tʃ dʒ / _i
χ ʁ → ʃ {ʒ,j} / _{u,i,j}
30.3.1.1.11 Proto-Vhe to Kpándo{t,k} {d,ɡ} → ts dz / _i
30.3.1.1.12 Proto-Vhe to Pecı́{k,ts} {ɡ,dz} → tʃ dʒ / _i
30.3.1.1.13 Proto-Vhe to Tɔ̣wunə → e / _{i,j}
k ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _i
30.3.1.1.14 Proto-Vhe to Wacı́ə → e / _{i,j}
{k,ts} {ɡ,dz} → tʃ dʒ / _i
31 Nyulnyulan31.1 Proto-Nyulnyulan to Bardij → ∅ / i_
ib → ∅ / _i, when unstressed
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinot → tʃ / _”{e,iʔ}
t → ʃ / i_i
nʲ → l / #_i
32.1.2 Proto-Chatino to Tataltepec Chatinot → tʃ / #_iç
tʲ → tʃ / _i[-long -stress]
c → tʃ / i_
32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinoʃ → s / _{ik,e,ı̃,ẽ}
ʃ → ts / _i, in monosyllables
33 Penutian33.1.1 Proto-Utian to Proto-Costanoan (Ohlone)k → ʂ / _i
k → ʂ / i_
33.1.1.1 Proto-Costanoan to Chochenyoa → e / il_
o → u / _(C…)i
33.1.1.3 Proto-Costanoan to Mutsuna → e / il_
o → u / _(C…)i
33.1.1.4 Proto-Costanoan to Rumsenʈ → {ʈ,tʃ} / {i,e,o}$_
a → e / il_
o → u / _(C…)i
33.3.1 Proto-Yokuts to General Yokutso → u / _Ci
33.3.3 Proto-Yokuts to Palewyamis → ʃ / _i
ts tsʰ tsʼ → tʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ / _i
V → i / C”iC_
34 Quechumaran34.2 Proto-Quechumaran to Boliviaʂ → h / _{a,i}
j → ∅ / i_{a,u}
34.3 Proto-Quechumaran to Cuzcoh → ∅ / #q_{i,u}
34.4 Proto-Quechumaran to Huarásʂ → h / _{i,u}
34.6 Proto-Quechumaran to Quitotʼ → tʰ / #_i
34.7 Proto-Quechumaran to Riobambaqh → kʰ / _i ! _i{ʃ,tʃ}
tʼ → tʰ / #_i
kh → kʰ / #_{i,u}
ɲ → n / ! h_i
34.8 Proto-Quechumaran to Santiagoʃ → s / ! i_i or _S
ʂ → ∅ / _{a,i}
j → ∅ / i_{a,u}
34.9 Proto-Quechumaran to Tenaɲ → n / _i
w → ∅ / #_i
35 Salishan35.1.1 Proto-Central Salish to Comoxs → ∅ / #_{wa,wi}
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to Nooksacks → ʃ / #_{xʲ,w{i,a},qʷa}
35.4 Shuswap to Spokane-Kalispel Shuswap Nasal-to-Vowel Shiftsn nˀ → i iʔ / _{i,ʃ} (sporadic)
36 Sino-Tibetan36.1.1 Late Middle Chinese to Old Mandarinxɦ → ∅ / _j(w){?,ia,a(ta)}
36.1.1.1 Old Mandarin to Modern Pekingesej → ∅ / jî_
36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàŋ → ∅ / _{i,j,w,y}
ʔ → ∅ / _{j,i,y}
juŋ → iuŋ / _ɡ[+píng tone]
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Laŋ → ∅ / i_
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kia{k,j} → ∅ / i_
36.3.2.1.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Hanniut → ∅ / i_
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham To{ŋ,j} → ∅ / i_
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Naoj → ∅ / i_
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Iroquoianw → ∅ / _{o,õ,ı̃}
t → ts / _{i,ı̃}
tʰ → ts / _i
r → ts / _i
37.1.1 Proto-Iroquoian to Cherokeek kʷ → ts k / _i
w → ∅ / h_i
37.1.2 Proto-Iroquoian to Proto-Northern Iroquoiann → ∅ / _ti
37.1.2.1 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Cayugats → hs / V_ ! _{h,i,j,r}
ts → s / ! _{h,i,j,r}
r → w / {o(ː),õ(ː)}_{a(ː),e(ː),ẽ(ː),i(ː)}
r → j / {e(ː),ẽ(ː),i(ː)}_{a(ː),o(ː),õ(ː)}
37.1.2.2 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Huronts → s / ! _{i,j}
n → ∅ / _i “(in pronominal prefixes only)”
37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandot∅ → j / {e(ː),ẽ(ː),i(ː)}_V
x → ∅ / _{i,j}
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagats → hs / V_V ! _i
ts → s / ! _{h,i,j}
r → j / {e(ː),ẽ(ː),i(ː)}_V
ts → tʃ / _{(h)i,(h)j}
s → ʃ / _{hi,hj}
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneidats → s / ! _{h,i,j}
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Mohawk— ts → tʃ / _{(h)i,(h)j}
37.1.2.4.2 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Oneida— jV → ∅ / Ci_(H)#
ts → tʃ / _{(h)i,(h)j}
37.1.2.5 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Senecats → s / ! _{i,j}
r → j / i(ː)_V
— a e o → ə ɪ ʊ / C_{C,i[-long]}
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscarorats → tʃ / _{h,i,j}
37.2 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Siouanx → ç / _{i,u}
37.2.5.1 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Crowk → ts / _i
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.3 Proto-Tai to Central Tail → ∅ / p_{ɯ,e,i}
38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchowpr → pʰ / _{ɯ,e,i}
a → aː / _u,i
ɔ ɨ → oː ɨː / _i
38.1.1.3.2 Central Tai to Nungpr → pʰ / _{ɯ,e,i}
38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-Aiɨ a → ɨː aː / _i
38.1.1.5 Proto-Tai to Southwest Taio → ɔː / _i
38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siamesea → aː / _i
ɨ → ə / _i
41 Trans-New Guinea41.2 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Asmatt → s / #_i
41.3 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Binanderet → j / #_i
t → {r,s} / V_i
42 Uralic42.1 Proto-Uralic to Pre-Finnica → æ / {a,e,ê,i,y}(X)(C)(C)_, when unstressed
42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnicê ô → e o / _(X)Ci
ɑ → o / ”{a,e,i}(X)C_j
j → ∅ / C_i{C,#}
nʲ → ni / #(C)i_V
t → ts / _i ! following a coronal obstruent or “before a derivational suffix”
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishj → ∅ / _i (*)
Vː → V[-long] / _i
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnisht → z → @ / _r{i,e}
k → ɣ i / {i,e}_R{i,e}
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livoniant ts s(C) n l r → tʲ tsʲ sʲ(C) nʲ lʲ rʲ / _i
ɑ æ → æe / _(C…)i
o → oː / _{RC#,i}
43 Uto-Aztecan43.4 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Nahuatls ts → ʃ tʃ / _i
43.5.1.1 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to Kawaiisuhts → z / V_i
43.6 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Tohono O’odhamts → s / _i
44 Vasconic44.1 Proto-Vasconic to Aquitanians → ʃ / i_#
44.2 Proto-Basque to Basquen → ɲ / {i,ɪ}_V
a o e → ɛ u i / {i,u}(C…)_ (this [ɛ] is tentatively marked as such; Egurtzegi transcribes it as /e/ but says it’s not as close as /e/)
{ɾ,r} → ʎ / {i,j}_ (eastern dialects)
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.1 Proto-Pai to Chapaitʃ → ʃ / _{w,i}
46 Vowel Shifts46.1 7-to-5 Vowel Merger (Bantu)S → F / _{i,u} (Do not necessarily have to be fricatives at the same POA; in some cases, the phones go to null or to /l/)
46.11 Middle Chinese to Cantonese Vowel Shift (“The Inner-Outer Flip”)ə → ∅ / i_{ŋ,k}
ə → a / _{i,u}
a → aː / _{i,u}
a → ə → ∅ / i_u
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.2 List 2: Conditional or complex consonant changesm → n / _i (Tsakonian)