Index Diachronica: involving /u/

535 results from /u/   507 results to /u/   254 results with context involving /u/   

plain ũː

from /u/

535 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North Omoticu o → i e
u → uː / #S[+voice]_P[-voice]
6.2.2 Proto-Erythrean to Proto-North Erythrean{e,o} {i,u} → a ə
6.2.2.1.2 Proto-Boreafrasian to Egypto-Berberqu → w / _{f,s} (sporadic)
6.2.2.1.4 Proto-Boreafrasian to Proto-Semitic{i,u} → ə
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabicuː iː → oː eː / _ʕ
uː iː → oː eː / ʕ_
u → o / _{ʕ,ɣ,x,r}
u → o / {ʕ,ɣ,x,r}_
{u,a,i} → ∅ / _%, when stressed (short only)
uː iː → u i
6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Egyptian Arabici u → e o / only when short, ! _#
u → {o,u} / short only, _#
{i,u} → ∅ / VC_CV when unstressed (short only)
6.2.2.1.14 Classical Arabic to Moroccan Arabicu → ə / short only, except near “a labial or velar consonant”
{u,ə} → ∅ / ! C_C(C)#
u → ʊ / short only
aː iː uː → ɑː eː oː / near emphatics
6.2.2.1.16 Classical Arabic to Sudanese Arabicu(ː) → {ɵ,o}(ː)
6.2.2.1.18 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrew— i iː u uː → eə iːə oə uːə / _R
— i u → e a / _R{$,#} (in verbs)
— i u → e o / _C{$,#} (in verbs)
— {o,u}(ː) → iː / _$%oː
— u → ə / _R if a backed allophone of ə in an adjacent syllable
— u → ə / R_ if a backed allophone of ə in an adjacent syllable
— u → ɔ / _C{$,#}
— u → ∅ / ! _Cː
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonicu → a / P_Ce
{a,e,o,æ} i u y ø → ə i ua {u,ə} {ə,u} / _Ce
e i {o,u} æ ø y → {ə,a} {i,ə} ə a {ə,u} {u,ə} / _Co
8.1.1 Early Middle Japanese to Modern Japaneseau iu uu eu ou → ɔː juː uː joː oː
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolice o u æ ø y → {a,e} {o,u} {a,o,u a {a,o,u} {o,u,i} / _Ca
a e i o u æ ø y → {a,i} {e,ja} {e,i} {ø,y,o} {o,u,y} {i,a,e} {e,ø} {ø,y,o,u} / _Ce
a e u æ ø y → {a,e} {e,i} {y,ø} {i,e} {i,e,ø} {ø,y,o,u} / _Ci
a e {o,u} æ ø y → {a,o,u} {e,a} {o,u} {a,o,u} {e,i,u} {i,o,u,y,ø} / _Cu
8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusic{u,ø,y} æ → {o,u} ia / _Ca
{u,æ} ø → {o,u} i / _Co
{u,æ,y} ø → {o,u} ia / _Cu
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkica e i u æ ø y → a {a,ʌ,e} {ɯ,i} {u,o} {ia,ja,ɛ} {ia,ja} ɯ / _Ca
a {e,i} o u æ ø y → {ɛ,a} ɛ {ø,o} {y,u} {ia,ja,ɛ} {ia,ja} {y,ø} / _Ci
8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchak{e,æ}b ub → ew uw
8.5.1.2 Proto-Kypchak to Kyrgyz{u,ɯ}w {i,y}w aw {æ,e}w → uː yː oː øː
8.5.2 Proto-Turkic to Sakhaa{ɡ̌(ɯ),b} {o{ɡ̌,b},aɡ̌u} u{ɡ̌,b} → ɰa wo uː
10 Austronesian10.1.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawaniw uj → {i,?} i / _#
10.1.1.3 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Sumbawanu i → o e / sometimes
u → i / _{s,t,r,n,l} (blocked in Pusu)
10.1.2.4 Proto-Philippine to Ibanaguj → i
10.1.2.9 Proto-Philippine to Tagalogu → o / _#
uj iw → oj uj / _#
10.2.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Chamici iw u → ɔj ? ɔw / _#
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorroi u → e o / _C{C,#}
i u → e o / CC# (sporadic)
uj → {i,u}
10.2.3 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Malayic{iw,uj} → i / _#
10.2.4.1 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Javaneseiw uj → ju i / _#
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Madureseij uw → uj {uj,ój} / _#
10.2.4.3 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Sundaneseiw uj → {ju,i} oj / _#
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauanaj aw uj → e o i
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiputai au → ai̯ au̯ / _#
ai au → ɛː ɔː / _…#
i u → əi̯ əu̯ / _#
u → əw / _V “(also cases of (C)u → w /__V)”
iu̯ → ui̯
i u → ɛ ɔ / _C# ! _P (sporadic)
i u → əi̯ əu̯ / _(ʔ)#
əi̯ əu̯ → ai̯ au̯ / ! O[+voiced] earlier in the word
{i,ɛ} {u,ɔ} → iə̯ uə̯ / _{k,ŋ}# “(and also sporadically before final *t and *n and some other consonants)
10.2.6.2 Proto-North Sarawak to Proto-Kenyahi u → e o / _h#
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lónghu → o / _k#
u → o / _ŋ# “(sporadically failed to occur)”
u → ɯ / _(C)# ! _ʔ#
ai̯ au̯ → ɛ ɔ
{ui̯,iu̯} → e
i u → e o / _CV[+close-mid](C)# “(iə is treated as close mid for this change)”
i u → ɛ ɔ / _CV[+open-mid](C)#
i u → e o / _Cɯ#
i u → əj əw / _V(C)#
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabauu i → o e (sporadic)
— a u → e uj / _{t,s}#
— u i → uə iə / _{k,ŋ,h,l,r}#
10.3 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Oceanice {uj,iw} → o i
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwu(C)V[+ high] u(C)e u(C)o u(C)a → {u,i}(C) u(C)ə e(C)ə {u,ɵ}(C)ə
u → ʉ / ! Cw_
10.3.3 Proto-Oceanic to Lemerig— uCV[- high] → oC
10.3.4 Proto-Oceanic to MwotlapuCi → iC (sporadic)
u a → ʊ ɛ / _CV[+ high]
10.3.5.1 Proto-New Caledonia to Caaàcu → i (typical)
u i → o e (not always)
10.3.5.4.1 Proto-Northern to Nixumwak-NêlêmwauCu → iCi
u i → o e / “in monosyllabic forms almost always”
10.3.5.5 Proto-New Caledonia to Nyelâyuu → i “often”
u i → o e (not always)
10.3.5.8 Proto-New Caledonia to Proto-Yunagau i → o e / in monosyllables
au ai → ɔ ɛ
10.3.8 Proto-Oceanic to Tolomakou → i (“sporadic”)
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejomu → o
u → e / {θ,ɣ}_
u → e / _θ
ua → ou
au → {u,o} “sometimes”
10.3.11.2 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Erromangou i → o e (sporadic)
10.3.11.2.2 Proto-Erromango to Urau → e / ɣ_# (? this change is a bit unclear)
10.3.11.3.1 Proto-Tanna to Kwamerau → {e,i} / _Cu
10.3.11.3.4 Proto-Tanna to Southwest Tannau → {e,i} / _Cu
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’aa(C)i a(C)u → {a,ɛ}(C) {ɔ,a,ɛ}(C)
uCV[+ high] → iC “sometimes”
uCV[- high] → uCʊ
10.4.1 Proto-Micronesian to Marshallese{i,u} {e,o} → ɨ ɜ
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Ongan{qʷ,ku,qu} → kʷ (note that PAn might have had *qʷ *kʷ → q {k,w} instead; may be a change from POn-PAn, if it existed)
u a ə → {u,o} {a,e} e
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamite{i,e,u} → ∅ / #_{t,n}a
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamilavu aji → aw aj
i u → e o / _Ca
aː eː iː oː uː → a ɛ i o u / _#
um → ũ / _#
i u → ɨ ʉ / short only when unstressed ! in #U
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Aleutu → a / a_
15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’iki a u → ii aa uu / C_ in U[+open -initial -final] such that U[+open]_
u → ∅ / #_vV
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’iki a u → ii aa uu / C_ in U[+open -initial -final] such that U[+open]_
u → ∅ / #_vV
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’iku → a / a_
u → ∅ / #_vV
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’iki a u → ii aa uu / C_ in U[+open -initial -final] such that U[+open]_
u → ∅ / #_vV
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanianu̯ → v
eː iː oː uː → o i e {y,i}
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanianu̯ → v
eː iː oː uː → o i e {y,i}
17.2 Proto-Indo-European to Common Anatolianei eu → ɛː uː
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to Lydianj u → ð w / #_
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
{i,u} → ə / in some unstressed syllables
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
{i,u} → ə / in some unstressed syllables
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
{i,u} → ə / in some unstressed syllables
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
{i,u} → ə / in some unstressed syllables
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
{i,u} → ə / in some unstressed syllables
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
{i,u} → ə / in some unstressed syllables
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
{i,u} → ə / in some unstressed syllables
17.4.1 Proto-Indo-European to Avestanu̯ → v
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— u → o / _wO
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irish— i u → e o / _C(…C){a(ː),e(ː),o(ː)}
{au,eu,ou} → oː
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welsh{au,eu,ou} → ∅
uː {oi,ɔː} → yː uː
i u → e o / _Ca
17.7 Proto-Indo-European to Common Germanic{i,j} {u,w} → j w / V[+short]C_
{i,j} {u,w} → ij uw
eu ou → iu au
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothic— u → ɔ / _{r,h} (unless this r “arose from older s by assimilation”)
17.7.2 Common Germanic to West Germanici u → e o / _%{a,o}
17.7.2.1 West Germanic to Anglo-Frisianæu → au (æ → a / _B in general?)
ai au eu → {eː,aː} aː ia
ia iu → jaː juː
{i,u} → ∅ / -# ! VC_
17.7.2.1.1 Anglo-Frisian to Old English{i,u} → ∅/ _# ! V[-long]C_#
17.7.2.1.5 Early Modern English to American Englishi u e → ɪ ʊ ɛ / _ɹ
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishɜːɹ ɑːɹ ɔːɹ eːɹ oːɹ iːɹ uːɹ → ɜː ɑː ɔː ɛə ɔə ɪə ʊə / syllable-finally
uː → ʊə → uː / _ɫ ! in Queensland and New South Wales
uː → ʊʉ → ʉː / else
17.7.2.1.7 Early Modern English to British Englishɜːɹ ɑːɹ ɔːɹ eːɹ oːɹ iːɹ uːɹ → ɜː ɑː ɔː ɛə ɔə ɪə ʊə / syllable-finally
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scotsol al → ou ɑː → ʌu {ɑ,ɔ}
— uː → ʌu / when-stem final, in northern varieties
— ai oi ui ei au ou iu ɛ(o)u → eː oe əi iː {ɑː,ɔː} ʌu ju j(ʌ)u
— iː eː ɛː aː oː uː {øː,yː} → əi i {i,e} e o u ø
— a ɔ u → {a,ɑ} ɔ ʌ
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsu → ʊ → ɵ → ʌ
uː → u
{ɔu,ɑu} → ɑ
u → ʏ
17.7.2.2 West Germanic to Old Low Franconianai au → eː oː
ai u → ei ʏ / _(C…){i(ː),j} (short only; in the case of [ʏ] at least this was not yet phonemic)
uː → ʉw / _V (probably, in most areas)
uː → ʊw / _V (probably, in areas that did not undergo the above change, such as Limburg)
uː → ʉː (probably, in areas with uː → ʉw / _V)
ei ou → eː oː (except in southeastern dialects; *ei as a result of the umlaut of *ai was not affected)
17.7.2.2.1 Old Low Franconian to Middle Dutchuː → yː
iu → ju / #_ (in some northern dialects)
iu → {yː,io} (outcome varies depending upon dialect; the former seems more typical)
{ie,ia,io} uo → iə uə
{uː,uw} u → ɔw o (except in the southeast)
17.7.2.2.2 Middle Dutch to Modern Dutchuː → ʌu (? conjectured based on the above diphthongization and on developments in Polder Dutch vowels)
17.7.2.2.3 Modern Dutch to Polder Dutch Vowel Shiftɛi œy ʌu → ai ay au
17.7.2.2.4 Belgian and Netherlandish Dutch Monophthongizationɛi œy ɔu → ɛː œː ɔː
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germanuː yː iː → ou øy ei, except in certain unstressed endings and monosyllables, _C{C,V,#} (“especially before /xt/”), and Low German borrowings
uə yə iə → uː yː iː
ou øy ei → au oy ai
u y → o ø / _N (with some occasional exceptions)
17.7.2.4 High German Cosonant Shift and Umlauta u o → e y ø / _(C…){i(ː),j}
17.7.2.5 West Germanic to Old Low Germanai au → eː oː
17.7.3 Common Germanic to Proto-NorseEβu Eβo → juː joː
aβ{u,o} → au
(w)u(ː) i(ː) → (w)o(ː) e(ː) / _(C)(C)a ! CC = NC or one C = {ʀ,j}
iu → yː
{æ,e}ːuː {æ,e}ːiː → eu ai
w{o,u}ːwuː j{e,i}ːjiː → uː iː
o(u) {ɔ,ɑ,au,ai,æ} {ja,jE,æ(i),e(i),y} → u a i
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norseu {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ y yː / _(C)(C)(C)j
{(j)u,we}ː {o,ɒ}ː aː au → yː øː æː æy
u {o,ɒ} a → y ø æ / _(C)(C)(C)i
u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / _(C)(C)(C)i
u → o / _m#
u → ∅ / _({ʀ,s,t,θ})#
ɒːh{u,a} aːh{u,a} → ɒː aː
u → o / _m#
{u,we,wi} {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / _(C)(C)(C)i
au {ai,ey,ei} æ{y,i} øy Vː → o e æ ø V / #(C)(C)(C)_CC
u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / _(C)(C)(C)j
u {o,ɒ} a au juː → y ø æ æy yː / #(C)(C)_ʀ
{æ,e}i ai au w{ɪ,i} wy wV iu Vː → eː aː oː weː woː wVː eː oː V
Eː{u,o}ː Eːaː → joː jaː / {v,w}_
uN yN iN VN → o øː eː Vː / _{s,f}
au → ɒ / j_
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandicu o a ø y e i → uː oː aː øi yː ei iː / _{ɲc,ɲɟ,ŋk,ŋɡ}
u o a øː eː y i → ʏɪ oi ai øi ei yː iː / _j
u oː aː ʏɪ {y,i} {y,i}ː æː eː ey → ʏ ou au ai y ɪ i je ei
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornu a e eː → ʌ ɑ ɪ ɛ / _Cː
u → ø / _l(ː)
u → ʌ / _C{ː,CC}
uː → øː / _CC
au → (ɔ)u
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Norn{u,o}(ː) a aː {ɒ,œ,y} e i(ː) → {o,ɔ}(i) æ(i) {ɔ,ɒ}(i) {o,ɔ}(i) {æ,e} / _{Ḱ,Cʲ}
u → {o,ɒ} / _CC
uː → {u,o,ɒ,ø} (conditioning unclear; it seems the presence of a velar consonant may have helped to retain the quality of /u/)
{ɒ,ey} j{u,o,a}ː yː → o ø u / Ḱ_
j{u,o,a}ː → ø
au → {o,ɔ,ɒ} / j_
au → j{o,ɔ}
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greeku(ː)(j) → y(ː)(j)
ɑu ɛu eu → ɑv ɛv ev
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greeku(ː)(j) → y(ː)(j)
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittite{uː,eu,au} → u
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-Aryanuʐ aʐ iʐ → uː əː iː
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-Aryana{i,j}(a) a{u,w}(a) → e o
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-Aryana{i,j}(a) a{u,w}(a) → e o
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-Aryana{i,j}(a) a{u,w}(a) → e o
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-Aryana{i,j}(a) a{u,w}(a) → e o
17.10.1.5.1 Vedic Sanskrit to Classical Sanskritau aːu ai aːi → au oː ai eː / ! _V
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavici u → ь ъj
iː uː → i ɨ
u → ь / j_
{a(ː)u,o(ː)u} e(ː)u → u ju
{e(ː),i(ː)} {a(ː),o(ː),u(ː)} → ẽ õ / _N$
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polisha ɛ i ɔ u ɨ ã → aː ɛː iː ɔː uː ɨː ãː / _{C/U}[+voiced][lost yer] (i.e., a voiced consonant or a cluster with one)
{ɛ(ː)jɛ,ьjɛ,ɔjɛ,ujɛ,ɨjɛ} → ɛː
i u → u i / {lʲ,j}_ (sporadic)
iː uː ɨː → i u ɨ
u → ɔ (rare, sporadic)
17.12 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Italiceu → ou
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latin{ew,ow} → ou → uː
ei oi ou → iː eː uː / %(C)(C)_ when unstressed
17.12.1.1.1 Classical Latin vs. Vulgar Latin{u,oː} → o
uː → u
“In contrast, Romanian exhibits u, uː → u (and ultimately also ɔ, oː → o); and Sardinian and African Latin underwent a straight merger of the vowels by length without considering quality (e, eː → e; i, iː → i; u, uː → u; etc.)”
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalanu → w → ∅ / (“when in unstressed penult or between first and tonic syllables; irregular”)
uː → u / stressed
uː → u / _%”V
au → a / _%”u
{u,oː} o → o ɔ / stressed
{u,o(ː)} → u / _%”V in East Catalan
{u,o(ː)} → o / _%”V else
u → w / ”ɛ_#
ae au → e ɔ / stressed
ae au → e o / _%”V
{u(ː),o(ː)} → ∅ / _#
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— u → ∅ / CC_V
— u → ó / !_iː
— uː → u
— {o(ː),u} → o
— u(ː) → o / except _V (?)
ò → uo → uɛ / in U[+open] ! _N
(ɛ)au → ɔ
ó → ou → ɛu / in U[+open]
uɛ → ɛu
ou ɛu u uɛi → u œ y yi
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to Italianau → u / #_ (sporadically, e.g. audire → udire)
au → o
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portugueseu → w / _V (between first and stressed syllables)
au → a / _%”u
au → o
uː → u
uiː → ui / _#
{u,oː} o → o ɔ / stressed
{u,o(ː)} → o / _%”V
{u(ː),o(ː)} → o → u / _#
{olt,okt} → ujt → ut
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— ju → jeu
— u → y
— u → o
— au → a / _(C…)u
— e u → e o / _nt#
pw → upw → up → ub
l{tj,tʃj} ldʒ → lts ldz → uts udz → us uz
βtʃ → u{ts,dz} → u{s,z}
17.12.1.1.7 Vulgar Latin to Rhaeto-Romanceuː → y (→ i in most descendants, with the exception of Engadine)
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanianu → ∅ / CC_V
— iː o(ː) u(ː) → i o u
— {o(ː),u} → o
— {o(ː),uː} → o
— u → o / ! V_
u → ∅ / o_e
u → ∅ / ! {OL,”V}_#
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardinianau ai → o e
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanish— ɛ ɔ u → e o u / _(C)j
i u → e o / _(C)#
17.12.2 Proto-Italic to Proto-Sibellianeu → ou
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tocharianu → wə / #_
u → {ə,u}
uh1 u{h2,h3} → uː → wə wɨ
17.13.1 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian A{a,ɛ}u əw → o u
17.13.2 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian B{a,ɛ}u əw → au u
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.3.1 Proto-Tuparí to Makurápu → o / _{p,b}i
18.3.3 Proto-Tuparí to Tuparíu → o / _{p,b}i
18.3.4 Proto-Tuparí to Wayoróu → ɨ / _{p,b}i
18.4.1 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Akwárau → ∅ / k_w
{ẽ,ı̃} ɨ̃ {u,ũ,õ} → i ɨ o
18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Cocamau → ũ (? possibly backwards?)
iʔ uʔ → j w / C_V
18.4.3 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guajajarau → ∅ / k_w
ã ẽ ı̃ ɨ̃ {õ,ũ} → ə e i ɨ o
18.4.4 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guaraníu → ∅ / k_w
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to GuarayoaN eN iN ɨN uN → ã ẽ ı̃ ɨ̃ ũ / _#
18.4.6 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Kamayuráu → õ (? possibly backwards?)
18.4.7 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Parintintínu → ∅ / k_w
ẽ ı̃ ũ → {ẽ,e} {ı̃,i} {ũ,õ}
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Sirionóu → ∅ / k_w
o u → {u,o} {u,o,i}
aN eN iN ɨN uN → ã ẽ ı̃ {ɨ̃,ĩ} õ / _#
{ɨ̃,õ} ũ → {õ,ẽ} õ
18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Urubuu → ∅ / k_w
u → o / ! o(C…)_(C…)#
aN iN uN → {aN,ã} ı̃ {uN,ũ} / _#
20 Khoisan20.2.1 Proto-Kx’a to ǂHoanu → ∅ / o_
20.2.2 Proto-Kx’a to Northwestern !Xunui → o (?)
u → ∅ / _o
20.2.3 Proto-Kx’a to Southeastern !Xunui → o (?)
u → ∅ / _o
21 Lakes Plain21.1 Proto-Lakes Plain to Proto-Far Westku →∅ / #_
21.2.1 Proto-Tariku to Proto-Central Tarikuku → b
iC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.1.2 Proto-Central Tariku to Iauau → ɔ
21.2.2.1 Proto-East Tariku to BiritaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
ku → b
21.2.2.2 Proto-East Tariku to DoutaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.3 Proto-East Tariku to EritaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.4 Proto-East Tariku to KaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.5 Proto-East Tariku to ObokuitaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.6 Proto-East Tariku to SikaritaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.7 Proto-East Tariku to WaritaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.3 Proto-Tariku to Proto-West TarikuiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to Chibchau → o / _Ca
u → ∅ / _a
23.1.1.1.3 Proto-Chibchan to Kogiu → w / _a
23.1.1.1.5 Proto-Chibchan to Motilónu → ∅ / a_
u → ∅ / _a
{ue,aja} → ə
{u,i} → ∅ / C”V(C)_
24 Macro-Pama-Nyungan24.1.1 Proto-Paman to AritinŋitiÉ£u[-long]C → Cw / #_
u i → w j / a_ when this a is a result of metathesis (?)
24.1.2 Proto-Paman to AwŋtimiC aC uC → Cj Ca Cw / #_ ! before an identical vowel
u i → w j / a_ when this a is a result of the preceding metathesis
24.1.4 Proto-Paman to Mbiywomu[-long]C → Cw / #_
u i → w j / a_ when this a is a result of metathesis (?)
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.2 Proto-Athabaskan to Babineu ɑ ʊ → {o,u} ə u
29.1.1.1.6 Proto-Athabaskan to Dakelhu {ɑ,ʊ} → {o,u} ə
29.1.1.1.7 Proto-Athabaskan to Deg Hit’ane u a {ɑ,ʊ} → a i u ə
29.1.1.1.8 Proto-Athabaskan to Dena’inae a u {ə,ʊ} → a u i ə
29.1.1.1.9 Proto-Athabaskan to Dogribɑ ə ʊ u → a e o i
29.1.1.1.10 Proto-Athabaskan to Easter Gwich’ina u {ɑ,ə} ʊ → {i,e} ju a o
29.1.1.1.12 Proto-Athabaskan to Holikachuki e a u {ɑ,ʊ} → e a ɔ o ŭ
29.1.1.1.39 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Tanana{a,ɑ} e i u ʊ → e(a) {i,ea} ju {a,ɨ} o
30 Niger-Congo30.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Bantuu ũ → i ı̃ / #R[-labial]_
30.1.1.1 Proto-Bantu to Sebirwai u VS → j w A / _V[+high +ATR]
30.1.2 Pre-Proto-Bantu to Proto-Manenguba{u,o} {ɛ,e,i} → w j / C_a in noun roots
{u,o} {ɛ,e,i} → w j / C_(a) in verb roots
{u,o} {ɛ,e,i} → w j / C_$V in noun class prefixes
31 Nyulnyulan31.1 Proto-Nyulnyulan to Bardiawu → o
u → i / _j
ubu aba → uː aː / when stressed
aɡu → o
32 Oto-Manguean32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to Tlapanec{iHn,eHn,aHn} uHn → ã ũ
33 Penutian33.3.1 Proto-Yokuts to General Yokutsiː ɨː uː → eː əː oː (this change sometimes did not occur)
33.3.3 Proto-Yokuts to Palewyami{u,a} → e / _CVC#, when stressed (short only)
34 Quechumaran34.4 Proto-Quechumaran to Huarásaw aj {uj,ij} → uː eː iː
35 Salishan35.1.2 Proto-Central Salish to Chilliwack Halkomelemu3 {u1,a1} a3 i1 → a3 ə1 ɛ3 {i11}
{u33} → {o33,a3}
35.1.3 Proto-Central Salish to Cowichan Halkomelema3 u3 {a1,u1} i1 → ɛ3 a3 ə1 {i11}
35.1.4 Proto-Central Salish to Musqueam Halkomelemu3 {u1,a1} a3 i1 → a3 ə1 ɛ3 {i11}
{u33} → ə3
35.1.5 Proto-Central Salish to Klallamu1 → ə1
{u33} → ə3
35.1.6 Proto-Central Salish to Lushootseed{u33} → a3
35.1.7 Proto-Central Salish to Nooksacka1 u3 u1 i1 → æ2 o3 o1 i2
{u33} → o3
35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straitsu3 u1 → o3 ə1
{u33} → ə1
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern Straitsu3 u1 → a3 ə1
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern Straitsu3 u1 → a3 ə1
{u33} → ə3
35.1.11 Proto-Central Salish to Sooke Northern Straitsu3 u1 → a3 ə1
{u33} → ə3
35.1.13 Proto-Central Salish to Sechelt{u33} → u3
35.1.14 Proto-Central Salish to Sqamishu1 → {u11}
{u33} → ə3
35.1.15 Proto-Central Salish to Twanau3 u1 → o3 ə1
36 Sino-Tibetan36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàuj → (ɣ)u
uʔ → oʔ (occasionally → uɛʔ?)
uj → u(ɛ)i / m_
uj → uɛi / {P,C[+guttural],∅}_
uj → ui / {C[+dental],C[+sibilant]}_
ujʔ → uɛʔ (dialectally → uɔʔ?)
un → uɛn / ! {C[+dental],C[+sibilant]}_
uɛn → ɛn / ʋ_
uŋ → oŋ (in one source?)
juŋ → iuŋ / _{∅,x,ʋ,ʔ}
juŋ → iuŋ / _ɡ[+píng tone]
juŋ → uŋ (→ oŋ dialectally?)
jujŋ ujŋ → iuŋ uŋ
36.3.1.1 Proto-Naish to Lazea u i iN → e y ɯ i / T_%
u o → v̩ u
36.3.1.2 Proto-Naish to Mosuo (Na){iN,u} i → i ɯ / T_
u o → v̩ u
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to Naxiu → ɚ / Pr_%
u o → v̩ u
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Lau → a / _k
u → i / _{r,s}
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiaut uk → ud oɡ
uj → ui
36.3.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Japhugu o → ɯ u / _#
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Tou → o / _k
uj → os
36.3.2.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to lCog Rtseuŋ → ak
36.3.2.2.3 Proto-rGyalrongic to Patiuk → o
36.3.2.2.4 Proto-rGyalrongic to Suo Mou → o / _p
36.3.2.2.5 Proto-rGyalrongic to Trungun → ial
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Naout u{k,n} ur → ud uo uɛ
uj → ue
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu Tauk uŋ → {u,o} e
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassuuk → o
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.2 Proto-Iroquoian to Proto-Northern Iroquoiano(ː) u(ː) → a(ː) o(ː)
37.2.5 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Crow-Hidatsaã ı̃ ũ → a i u
37.2.6 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Dhegihau → i / in ”U (sporadic)
37.2.6.1 Proto-Dhegiha to Kansaũ → aN / stressed
37.2.6.2 Proto-Dhegiha to Omaha-Poncaũ → ã / stressed
37.2.6.4 Proto-Dhegiha to Quapawũ → ã / stressed (*)
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchowuə → ŭ
u̯ɨ u̯o → {ɨ,ə} u
uo ɨ̯u → u(ː) u / _C%
ɨ̯u → uː
o {u̯ɔ,ɨɔ,ɔ} → u oː
uɔ ɨ̯ɔ → oː ɨ
{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} → uː
u̯əi uəi uai i̯əu iau → oːi uːi uːiau oːu
u̯əi → oːi
eu → uː
i̯əu → au
{uəi,uai} iau → uːi eːu
38.1.1.3.5 Central Tai to T’ien-Paoi iː u → ə ei oʊ̯
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Taiuo → ɔː
{ɨ̯u,i̯ɛ} → ɨə̯~ɨa̯ / _%
u̯o i̯o → u o
{u̯ɔ,u̯a} → ua~uə
uo → uu → u / _%
uɨ̯ ua̯ → ɨə uɔ̯ → ɨː ɔː
38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-Aiuə → ŭ
u̯ɨ → ɔ / m_
u̯ɨ → ɨ
ua~uə → uː
ua~u@̯ → uː
ue̯ → u / _C%
ue̯ → uː
u̯əi ɔi → (w)iː oːi
{ou,oɨ} → oː
i̯əu → uː
uəi uai iau → iː oːi eːu
38.1.1.4.3 North Tai to Wu-Mingu → aʊ̯
38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lü{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} {ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → o ə e
38.1.1.5.3 Southwest Tai to Shan{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} {ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → o ə e
38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siameseu{o,ə} ɨu → uː ɨː
{u̯o,u̯ɨ} u̯ɔ → o ɔː
u̯a → aː
ɨ̯u i̯o → uː u
{u̯əi,ɔi} → ɔːi
eu → uː
ɨ̯əu au → au aːu
uəi → uai
38.1.1.5.6 Southwest Tai to White Tai{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} {ɨa̯,ɨe̯} ie̯ → o ə e
41 Trans-New Guinea41.1 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Apalɨe u i → a {u,ɨ} {i,ɨ}
41.4 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kaetiu a → {u,o,y} {a,o}
41.7 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kâteu a → {u,ɔ} {ɔ,a}
41.8 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kiwaiu i → {u,o} {i,e}
41.9 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Selepetu o a e → {u,ɔ} {o,ɔ} {a,ɔ} {e,o}
42 Uralic42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnicixi uxu → øː oː
uwa → oː (*)
uw ij → ow ej / _C
42.1.1.1.2 Standard Finnish to Modern Standard Finnishie yɤ uo → iː yː uː / _A
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livonianɑː au → ɔː ɔu (though sometimes ɑː develops, apparently at least partially due to metathesis?)
43 Uto-Aztecan43.4 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Nahuatlɨ u → e {i,e} “(all */u/ affected, but conditions for when it became /i/ or /e/ are not known)”
43.5.1.1 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to KawaiisuuV Vː → uː Vː (not sure if this occurs before or after the previous change)
43.5.1.2 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to MonouV → u(i)
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basqueu ũ → y ỹ / _r(p(ʰ),β,k(ʰ),ɣ,l,s̺,s̻,ʃ,h) (Souletin)
u ũ → y ỹ / _{s̻,ts̺,ts̻} (but not _s̺) (Souletin)
u i → o e / _r{C,#}
u {o,e} → ∅ a / _#, in disyllables (eastern dialects)
hu hi → ʊ ɪ / {o,e}_ (also happened with /a/ sometimes, but usually such sequences just dropped one vowel)
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.3 Proto-Pai to Tipaiu → o / _K
46 Vowel Shifts46.2 California Vowel Shift (English)u → {iʊ̯,ʉ,ɯ}
46.3 Belgian and Netherlandish Dutch Monophthongizationɛi œy ɔu → ɛː œː ɔː
46.4 Polder Dutch Vowel Shiftɛi œy ʌu → ai ay au
46.5 Old English-to-Scots Vowel Shiftsuː → ʌu / when-stem final, in northern varieties
ai oi ui ei au ou iu ɛ(o)u → eː oe əi iː {ɑː,ɔː} ʌu ju j(ʌ)u
iː eː ɛː aː oː uː {øː,yː} → əi i {i,e} e o u ø
a ɔ u → {a,ɑ} ɔ ʌ
46.7 Great Vowel Shift (English)iː uː → əj əw → ɑj ɑw
46.8 Greek Vowel Shiftu(ː) → y(ː)
ɛu au → ɛv av
46.10 Late Proto-Finnic to Savonian Vowel Shiftɑu ou → ɑː oː
eu → eo
46.11 Middle Chinese to Cantonese Vowel Shift (“The Inner-Outer Flip”)uə yə → ɔ œ / _{n,t}
iəu → au
46.13 Old Norse to Faroese Vowel Shiftu → uː / short: ʊ / unstressed: {o,ɔ}
uː → ʉu / ʏ
46.14 Pre-Slavic Vowel Changesu → ŭ [ɤ?] → {e,o,ɤ,a} (strong)/∅ (weak) “in modern languages”
uː → ɨ
46.15 Proto-Japanese to Old Japanese Vowel Shift{u,ɨ}i {,a,i {ɨi,i{a,ə}} u{ɨ,a,ə} → wi e je wo
46.16 Development of Proto-Lolo-Burmese -i(C)# and -u(C)# to Lahu-u -up -ut -uk -um -un -uŋ → -u -ɔʔ -əʔ -uʔ -ɔ -ə -ɛ
46.17 Proto-Maidun to Nisenian Vowel Shiftu i e a → y e a o
46.19 Southern [United States] Shift (English)uʊ oʊ → ʉʊ̈ əʊ̈ (a bit of a guesstimate based upon the prose description in the article and the mean-formant-value chart cited from Labov, Ash & Bobert (2006))
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.3 List 3: Vowelsi u → s̩ f̩ (Ōgami) (http://amritas.com/101023.htm#10192359)

to /u/

507 matches

6 Afro-Asiatic6.1.1 Proto-Omotic to North Omotice o → i u / #C_P
e o → i u / #(ʔ)_C
e o → i u / #{k(ʼ),x}_{t(ʼ),tsʼ}
e o → i u / #(ʔ)_C$
e o → i u / #P_{tsʼ,tʃʼ}
u → uː / #S[+voice]_P[-voice]
6.2.2 Proto-Erythrean to Proto-North Erythreaneː oː → i u
6.2.2.1.6 Classical Arabic to Cypriot Arabicuː iː → u i
a → {u,o} / P_
a → {u,o} / _P
6.2.2.1.7 Classical Arabic to Egyptian Arabicu → {o,u} / short only, _#
6.2.2.1.10 Classical Arabic to Hassāniyya Arabic— j w → i u / #_CV
— j w → iː uː / #_CC
6.2.2.1.17 Classical Arabic to Tunisian Arabicaj aw → {aj,eː,iː aw,oː,uː}
6.2.2.1.18 Proto-Semitic to Biblical Hebrew— i iː u uː → eə iːə oə uːə / _R
— oː → uː
7 Algonquian7.3.1 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Arapahoi(ː) → u(ː) / o(ː)(C[-dental])(C[-dental])_
7.3.2 Proto-Arapaho-Atsina to Gros Ventrei → u / o(ː)_
7.4 Proto-Algonquian to Blackfooton → u / _iC
7.12 Proto-Algonquian to Menomineeiː oː oʔ → eː uː uʔ “[blocked when or a C+G sequence follows anywhere in the word, but does apply if æ(ː) intervenes before any following or C+G]”
wa ja → uə̯ iə̯ / C_
7.14 Proto-Algonquian to Mi’kmaqo(ː) waː eː iː → u o e i
{awa,iwa,iwi} → uː
8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonica → u / _Cu
{a,e,o,æ} i u y ø → ə i ua {u,ə} {ə,u} / _Ce
{a,æ,e,ø,i,y} o → i u / _Ci
e i {o,u} æ ø y → {ə,a} {i,ə} ə a {ə,u} {u,ə} / _Co
V → u / _Cu
8.1.1 Early Middle Japanese to Modern Japaneseau iu uu eu ou → ɔː juː uː joː oː
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolica → {a,o,u} / _Cu
e o u æ ø y → {a,e} {o,u} {a,o,u a {a,o,u} {o,u,i} / _Ca
a e i o u æ ø y → {a,i} {e,ja} {e,i} {ø,y,o} {o,u,y} {i,a,e} {e,ø} {ø,y,o,u} / _Ce
a e u æ ø y → {a,e} {e,i} {y,ø} {i,e} {i,e,ø} {ø,y,o,u} / _Ci
a e o i æ ø y → {a,i,e} {a,e} u {o,u} e {ø,y,o,u} {o,u} / _Co
a e {o,u} æ ø y → {a,o,u} {e,a} {o,u} {a,o,u} {e,i,u} {i,o,u,y,ø} / _Cu
8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusico → {o,u} / _CV
{u,ø,y} æ → {o,u} ia / _Ca
y → u / P_C{e,i}
æ ø → i {o,u} / _Ce
æ ø y → ia {o,u} i / _Ci
{u,æ} ø → {o,u} i / _Co
{u,æ,y} ø → {o,u} ia / _Cu
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkica e i u æ ø y → a {a,ʌ,e} {ɯ,i} {u,o} {ia,ja,ɛ} {ia,ja} ɯ / _Ca
a {e,i} o u æ ø y → {ɛ,a} ɛ {ø,o} {y,u} {ia,ja,ɛ} {ia,ja} {y,ø} / _Ci
a e i æ ø y → {o,ja,aj} {ʌ,ɜ} ɯ {ia,ja} {o,u} {u,o} / _Co
e i æ ø y → {ɛ,a,ʌ} {ɯ,i} {e,a} {u,o} ɯ / _Cu
8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchak{e,æ}b ub → ew uw
8.5.1.2 Proto-Kypchak to Kyrgyz{u,ɯ}w {i,y}w aw {æ,e}w → uː yː oː øː
8.5.2 Proto-Turkic to Sakhaa{ɡ̌(ɯ),b} {o{ɡ̌,b},aɡ̌u} u{ɡ̌,b} → ɰa wo uː
9 Austroasiatic9.1.2 Proto-Vietic to Middle Vietnamesea ɔ → ɨə uə
10 Austronesian10.1.1.1 Proto-Bali-Sasak-Sumbawan to Balineseej ow → i u
10.1.2.1 Proto-Philippine to Bicolə → u / _#
iw → uj
10.1.2.2 Proto-Philippine to Cebuanoə → u
iw → uj
10.1.2.3 Proto-Philippine to Hiligaynonə → u
iw → uj
10.1.2.4 Proto-Philippine to Ibanagiw → uj
10.1.2.6 Proto-Philippine to Ilocanoiw → uj
10.1.2.7 Proto-Philippine to Proto-Kalamiane → u / _Cu
e → u / uC_
10.1.2.8 Proto-Philippine to Kankanayiw → uj
10.1.2.9 Proto-Philippine to Tagaloguj iw → oj uj / _#
10.1.2.10 Proto-Philippine to Warayə → u
iw → uj
10.2.1 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Chamicwa → u / #_
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorroə → u
uj → {i,u}
iw → u
10.2.3 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Malayic— aj aw → i u / _#
10.2.4.1 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Javaneseə → u / _h#
iw uj → ju i / _#
— əw əj → i u / _#
10.2.4.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Madureseij uw → uj {uj,ój} / _#
10.2.4.3 Proto-Malayo-Javanic to Sundaneseiw uj → {ju,i} oj / _#
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauanwə → u / #_
10.2.6.1 Proto-North Sarawak to Kiputai au → ai̯ au̯ / _#
i u → əi̯ əu̯ / _#
iu̯ → ui̯
i u → əi̯ əu̯ / _(ʔ)#
əi̯ əu̯ → ai̯ au̯ / ! O[+voiced] earlier in the word
{i,ɛ} {u,ɔ} → iə̯ uə̯ / _{k,ŋ}# “(and also sporadically before final *t and *n and some other consonants)
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabau— a u → e uj / _{t,s}#
— u i → uə iə / _{k,ŋ,h,l,r}#
10.3.2 Proto-Oceanic to Hiwu(C)V[+ high] u(C)e u(C)o u(C)a → {u,i}(C) u(C)ə e(C)ə {u,ɵ}(C)ə
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejomua → ou
au → {u,o} “sometimes”
10.3.11.3 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Tannao e → {u,ə} i
10.3.11.3.2 Proto-Tanna to Lenakelkʷ → {w,u}
10.3.11.3.3 Proto-Tanna to North Tannakʷ → {w,u}
v → {w,u} (“sporadically”)
10.3.12 Proto-Oceanic to Vera’auCV[- high] → uCʊ
oa {ae,ea} → uɔ iɛ
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Onganu a ə → {u,o} {a,e} e
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamitew → ú / V_ (McAlpin uses the accented-vowel notation due to some apparent height-contrast neutralizations before /a/)
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamilaː eː iː oː uː → a ɛ i o u / _#
um → ũ / _#
i(ː) e(ː) → u(ː) o(ː) / {m,v,p}_C̣
o e → u i / _C{u,i} “(highly sporadic)”
— i(ː) e(ː) → u(ː) o(ː) / _ɭ
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow Iñupiaqə → u / u_
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic Iñupiaqə → u / u_
iv → uj / _u
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie Iñupiaqə → u / u_
15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales Iñupiaqə → u / u_
v → u
ɣ → u / “in some positions”
v → u / V_V
ɣ → u / {i,ə}_V
15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’iki a u → ii aa uu / C_ in U[+open -initial -final] such that U[+open]_
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’iki a u → ii aa uu / C_ in U[+open -initial -final] such that U[+open]_
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’iki a u → ii aa uu / C_ in U[+open -initial -final] such that U[+open]_
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanian{m̩,n̩} l̩ r̩ → e uj {ri,ir}
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanian{m̩,n̩} l̩ r̩ → e uj {ri,ir}
17.2 Proto-Indo-European to Common Anatolianei eu → ɛː uː
17.2.1 Common Anatolian to Hittiteaj aw → ɛː uː / !_{s,n,r,l}
17.3.1 Proto-Indo-European to Artsakh Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
ɛ o → i u / _N
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.2 Proto-Indo-European to Erevan Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
ɛ o → i u / _N
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.3 Proto-Indo-European to Istanbul Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
ɛ o → i u / _N
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.4 Proto-Indo-European to Kharpert Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
ɛ o → i u / _N
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.5 Proto-Indo-European to Sebastia Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
ɛ o → i u / _N
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.6 Proto-Indo-European to Southeast Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
ɛ o → i u / _N
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.3.7 Proto-Indo-European to Southwest Armenian{e,i}ː {u,o}ː → i u
ɛ o → i u / _N
e oj ɛa → i u ɛ / when unstressed
17.5 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic— oː → uː / in U#
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irishoː → uː / _(C…)#
oːi → uː / _#
— e o → i u / _C(…C){H,j}
oː → ua / _[anything], when stressed
17.5.2 Proto-Celtic to Middle Welshuː {oi,ɔː} → yː uː
ɛː → ui
ɔː → au / when stressed
17.7 Proto-Indo-European to Common Germanic{i,j} {u,w} → ij uw
eu ou → iu au
17.7.1 Common Germanic to Gothic— o e → u i
iw → ju / [- stress]
w → u̯ / V[- long]_{#,C}
Vw → u / _s (to wit, the vowel is deleted and the *w syllabifies)
17.7.2 Common Germanic to West Germanicoː → uː / _#
17.7.2.1 West Germanic to Anglo-Frisianæu → au (æ → a / _B in general?)
ia iu → jaː juː
17.7.2.1.2 Old English to Kentish Middle Englisheːɑw iːw → ew ju
17.7.2.1.3 Old English to Midlands Middle Englisheːɑw iːw → ew ju
17.7.2.1.6 Early Modern English to Australian Englishuː → ʊə → uː / _ɫ ! in Queensland and New South Wales
17.7.2.1.8 Old English to Northern Middle Englisheːɑw iːw → ew ju
17.7.2.1.9 Early Northern Middle English to Scotsoɡ → ʌu
ol al → ou ɑː → ʌu {ɑ,ɔ}
— uː → ʌu / when-stem final, in northern varieties
— øː → (j){u,ʌ} / _{k,x} (outcome varies depending upon dialect)
— ai oi ui ei au ou iu ɛ(o)u → eː oe əi iː {ɑː,ɔː} ʌu ju j(ʌ)u
— iː eː ɛː aː oː uː {øː,yː} → əi i {i,e} e o u ø
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsoː → ju / {n,x}_
oː → iu / _K
uː → u
ɔ{ɡ,j} → ʌu
l → u / {ɔ,ɑ}_
17.7.2.1.12 Old English to Southern Middle Englisheːɑw iːw → ew ju
17.7.2.2 West Germanic to Old Low Franconianeː oː → ie uo
17.7.2.2.1 Old Low Franconian to Middle Dutchiu → ju / #_ (in some northern dialects)
{ie,ia,io} uo → iə uə
{ol,al} {ar,er} or → ɔu aːr oːr / _C[+dental]
17.7.2.2.2 Middle Dutch to Modern Dutchl → u / o_{t,d}#
uː → ʌu (? conjectured based on the above diphthongization and on developments in Polder Dutch vowels)
17.7.2.2.3 Modern Dutch to Polder Dutch Vowel Shiftɛi œy ʌu → ai ay au
eː øː oː → ɛi œy ɔu
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germanuː yː iː → ou øy ei, except in certain unstressed endings and monosyllables, _C{C,V,#} (“especially before /xt/”), and Low German borrowings
uə yə iə → uː yː iː
ou øy ei → au oy ai
aːw → au
17.7.3 Common Germanic to Proto-Norsewi → u / Ci_C
Eβu Eβo → juː joː
aβ{u,o} → au
{æ,e}ːuː {æ,e}ːiː → eu ai
w{o,u}ːwuː j{e,i}ːjiː → uː iː
o(u) {ɔ,ɑ,au,ai,æ} {ja,jE,æ(i),e(i),y} → u a i
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norseoː → u / _#
a → u / %u / ! in #U
o {æ,e} → u i / ! in #U
o → u / V_
e(ː){B,i(ː)} → e(ː)u / {v,w}_
eː{Bː,i(ː)} → juː
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandic∅ → u / C_r#
u o a ø y e i → uː oː aː øi yː ei iː / _{ɲc,ɲɟ,ŋk,ŋɡ}
u oː aː ʏɪ {y,i} {y,i}ː æː eː ey → ʏ ou au ai y ɪ i je ei
17.7.3.1.2 Old Norse to Orkney Nornoː → u(ː)
joː → {u,o,ø} (looks like being in the ultima or the penult may have had something to do with it, but it isn’t clear to me)
au → (ɔ)u
17.7.3.1.3 Old Norse to Shetland Nornuː → {u,o,ɒ,ø} (conditioning unclear; it seems the presence of a velar consonant may have helped to retain the quality of /u/)
oː → u
{ɒ,ey} j{u,o,a}ː yː → o ø u / Ḱ_
aː → ɔ(u) / _{l,r}
17.7.4 Common Germanic to Vandalicoː → u
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greekoː → uː
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekoː → uː (?)
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittitekʷ ɡʷ ɡʷʱ → ku ɡu ku
{uː,eu,au} → u
17.10.1 Proto-Indo-Iranian to Proto-Indo-AryanR̊H → {u,i}R / _V (sporadic)
R̊H → {u,i}ːR / _C
uʐ aʐ iʐ → uː əː iː
17.10.1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Central Middle Indo-Aryane o → i u / _#
17.10.1.2 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Eastern Middle Indo-Aryane o → i u / _#
17.10.1.3 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Northwestern Middle Indo-Aryane o → i u / _#
17.10.1.4 Proto-Indo-Aryan to Western Middle Indo-Aryane o → i u / _#
17.10.1.5.1 Vedic Sanskrit to Classical Sanskritau aːu ai aːi → au oː ai eː / ! _V
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavic{a(ː)u,o(ː)u} e(ː)u → u ju
17.11.1 Proto-Slavic to Polishъl → ɫu / else
ьl → ɫu / C[+dental]_
a ɛ i ɔ u ɨ ã → aː ɛː iː ɔː uː ɨː ãː / _{C/U}[+voiced][lost yer] (i.e., a voiced consonant or a cluster with one)
i u → u i / {lʲ,j}_ (sporadic)
iː uː ɨː → i u ɨ
o → u / else
17.11.2 Proto-Slavic to Old Russianẽ õ → ja u
17.12 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Italiceu → ou
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latine o → i u / _ŋ
o → u / _{mb,mk,ɫ}
oː → uː / _r
oj → oi → oe → uː
aw → au
{ew,ow} → ou → uː
V → {i,u} / %(C)(C)_%P when unstressed
a o → e u / %(C)(C)_C(C)% when unstressed
a → e → u / %(C)(C)_ɫ when unstressed
e → u / %(C)(C)_ɫ when unstressed
ei oi ou → iː eː uː / %(C)(C)_ when unstressed
o → u / _C(C)# ! {u,w}_
w → u / t_
ɡʷ(ʱ) → ɡu / ŋ_
17.12.1.1.1 Classical Latin vs. Vulgar Latinuː → u
“In contrast, Romanian exhibits u, uː → u (and ultimately also ɔ, oː → o); and Sardinian and African Latin underwent a straight merger of the vowels by length without considering quality (e, eː → e; i, iː → i; u, uː → u; etc.)”
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalanuː → u / stressed
uː → u / _%”V
{u,o(ː)} → u / _%”V in East Catalan
o → u / _a
o → u / _%”V (irregular)
o → u / _{ɲ,nk,ŋ} when stressed
ɛj ɔj → jɛj uei / i {u,ui} / stressed
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to French— w → ɡu / “from Germanic loanwords”
— uː → u
ò → uo → uɛ / in U[+open] ! _N
kʷ → {v,u} / V_E
kʷ → j{v,u} / V_a
ɛ ɔ → iɛ uɛ / _{Cj,jC}
l → u / _{C,#}
{lːe,lːo} → u / {e,o}_# “[this is actually an analogical development, but it applies as regularly as a sound law]”
ó → ou → ɛu / in U[+open]
ó → ou / in U[+closed]
o → {ou,ɔ} “(the outcome fluctuates, but ɔ is often the result of analogy rather than strict sound change; always ou before another vowel)”
uɛ → ɛu
ou ɛu u uɛi → u œ y yi
ɔ → u / _”V
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to Italianau → u / #_ (sporadically, e.g. audire → udire)
ɔ → uo / stressed ! j_ or _{dʒ,L}
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portuguesew → u / _”V
uː → u
uiː → ui / _#
{u(ː),o(ː)} → o → u / _#
{olt,okt} → ujt → ut
o → u / _(”V)
o → u / _ɲ when stressed
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— ju → jeu
— o → u (during the literary period)
β → u / V_(s)#
l → u / _s# (in many dialects)
β → u / _l
p k tʃ b ɡ β j → b ɡ i {b,u,u→y→i} ∅ {u,u→y→i} i / _r
pw → upw → up → ub
βj → {udʒ,uj} (in northern dialects)
β → u / _j (in western dialects)
l{tj,tʃj} ldʒ → lts ldz → uts udz → us uz
lvj → lbj → ubj
l → u / _{t,s} (Languedoc)
l → u / _{d,s} (Rouergue)
l → u / _{t,d,s} (else)
b → {∅,u} / _rɡ
β → u / _k
βtʃ → u{ts,dz} → u{s,z}
βt βd → ut ud (else)
pt → {ut,it} “in a few words”
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romanian— iː o(ː) u(ː) → i o u
o e → u i / _N
m → u / a_nV
b → u / V_{l,r}
a o → ə u / ”U…_#
a o → ə u / #(C…)V…_…”U
o → u / #C…_…”U
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardiniano → u / _k (possibly restricted in occurrence)
r → urː / #_e / Logudorese
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to SpanishRaising of e {ɛ,a} ɔ o → i e o u; near j, in particular environments:
— ɛ ɔ u → e o u / _(C)j
b → u / _C
l → u / _C (sometimes)
17.12.2 Proto-Italic to Proto-Sibellianeu → ou
17.13 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-TocharianR H → uR ɨ / C_{C,#} when syllabic
oː(s,y) oːn → u {u,õ}
u → {ə,u}
uh1 u{h2,h3} → uː → wə wɨ
ow aw ew → ɛu au əw
17.13.1 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian A{a,ɛ}u əw → o u
17.13.2 Proto-Tocharian to Tocharian B{a,ɛ}u əw → au u
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.4.2 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Cocamaw → u / k_
o → u(a) / ! o(C…)_(C…)#
u → ũ (? possibly backwards?)
18.4.3 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guajajarao → u / ! o(C…)_(C…)#
18.4.5 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to GuarayoaN eN iN ɨN uN → ã ẽ ı̃ ɨ̃ ũ / _#
18.4.7 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Parintintínẽ ı̃ ũ → {ẽ,e} {ı̃,i} {ũ,õ}
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Sirionóo u → {u,o} {u,o,i}
18.4.9.1.3 Proto-Cinta Larga-Suruí-Zoró to Cinta Largao → u
18.4.10 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to UrubuaN iN uN → {aN,ã} ı̃ {uN,ũ} / _#
ɨ̃ ẽ õ → ∅ {ẽ,e} {o,õ,u,ũ}
20 Khoisan20.2.1 Proto-Kx’a to ǂHoaniaɔ → iu
20.2.3 Proto-Kx’a to Southeastern !Xunɛ ɔ → i u
21 Lakes Plain21.2.1 Proto-Tariku to Proto-Central TarikuiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.1 Proto-East Tariku to BiritaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.2 Proto-East Tariku to DoutaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.3 Proto-East Tariku to EritaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.4 Proto-East Tariku to KaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.5 Proto-East Tariku to ObokuitaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.6 Proto-East Tariku to SikaritaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.2.7 Proto-East Tariku to WaritaiiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
21.2.3 Proto-Tariku to Proto-West TarikuiC uC → î û / _{C,#}
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.1 Proto-Chibchan to Arhuaco∅ → u / w_V
23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to Chibchai → u / _(C)u
23.1.1.1.5 Proto-Chibchan to Motilóne → u / uC_
23.1.2 Proto-Lenmichian to Proto-Lencano a → {u,o} {a,e}
27 Mayan27.1 Proto-Mayan to Ch’olanaː eː oː → ɨ i u
27.9 Proto-Mayan to Tzeltalanaː eː oː → ɨ i u
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.2 Proto-Athabaskan to Babineu ɑ ʊ → {o,u} ə u
29.1.1.1.6 Proto-Athabaskan to Dakelhu {ɑ,ʊ} → {o,u} ə
29.1.1.1.7 Proto-Athabaskan to Deg Hit’ane u a {ɑ,ʊ} → a i u ə
29.1.1.1.8 Proto-Athabaskan to Dena’inae a u {ə,ʊ} → a u i ə
29.1.1.1.10 Proto-Athabaskan to Easter Gwich’ina u {ɑ,ə} ʊ → {i,e} ju a o
29.1.1.1.12 Proto-Athabaskan to Holikachuki e a u {ɑ,ʊ} → e a ɔ o ŭ
29.1.1.1.14 Proto-Athabaskan to Lower Koyukone a ɑ ʊ → a o ŏ ŭ
29.1.1.1.15 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Koyukone a ɑ ʊ → a o ŏ ŭ
29.1.1.1.16 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Kuskokwim Kolchane a {ɑ,ʊ} → a o ŭ
29.1.1.1.17 Proto-Athabaskan to Sarcee{e,ə} ʊ → ɑ u
29.1.1.1.33 Proto-Athabaskan to Tahltan-Kaska-Tagishɑ ə ʊ → a {i,e} u
29.1.1.1.38 Proto-Athabaskan to Lower Tananae a {ɑ,ʊ} → æ ɔ ŭ
29.1.1.1.39 Proto-Athabaskan to Upper Tanana{a,ɑ} e i u ʊ → e(a) {i,ea} ju {a,ɨ} o
30 Niger-Congo30.1 Proto-Potou-Akanic-Bantu to Proto-Bantuʋ̃ ɪ̃ → ũ ı̃ / #N[-labial]_
i ı̃ V[-round] → uɪ uɪ̃ V[+round] / Cʷ_
30.3.1.1.1 Proto-Gbe to Ajá{o,ɔ} {ɛ,e} → u i / _i
30.3.1.1.10 Proto-Vhe to Awalan{o,ɔ} ə → u i / _i
31 Nyulnyulan31.1 Proto-Nyulnyulan to Bardii → u / _ju
ubu aba → uː aː / when stressed
32 Oto-Manguean32.2 Proto-Oto-Manguean to Tlapanec{in,en} an → a u
{iHn,eHn,aHn} uHn → ã ũ
33 Penutian33.1.1.1 Proto-Costanoan to Chochenyoo → u / _(C…)i
33.1.1.2.1 Proto-Miwok to Proto-Western Miwokɨ → {u,i}
33.1.1.3 Proto-Costanoan to Mutsuno → u / _(C…)i
33.1.1.4 Proto-Costanoan to Rumseno → u / _(C…)i
33.3.1 Proto-Yokuts to General Yokutso → u / _Ci
33.3.2.2.2 Northern Yokuts to Kings Valley Yokutsi → u / uC_
33.3.3 Proto-Yokuts to PalewyamiV → u / C”uC_
34 Quechumaran34.4 Proto-Quechumaran to Huarásaw aj {uj,ij} → uː eː iː
35 Salishan35.1.5 Proto-Central Salish to Klallama3 → u3 / {Cʷ[+uvular],Kʷ,w}
a3 → u3 / _{Cu,Cʷ[+uvular],w}
35.1.13 Proto-Central Salish to Sechelt{u33} → u3
35.1.14 Proto-Central Salish to Sqamishu1 → {u11}
35.3 Shuswap to Eastern Shuswap Nasal-to-Vowel Shiftsem emˀ → u uʔ / w_ in U[- stressed]
36 Sino-Tibetan36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàw → u / _V
w → {v,u}
uj → (ɣ)u
uʔ → oʔ (occasionally → uɛʔ?)
uj → u(ɛ)i / m_
uj → uɛi / {P,C[+guttural],∅}_
uj → ui / {C[+dental],C[+sibilant]}_
ujʔ → uɛʔ (dialectally → uɔʔ?)
un → uɛn / ! {C[+dental],C[+sibilant]}_
juŋ → iuŋ / _{∅,x,ʋ,ʔ}
juŋ → iuŋ / _ɡ[+píng tone]
juŋ → uŋ (→ oŋ dialectally?)
jujŋ ujŋ → iuŋ uŋ
y → ɥ (→ y~u dialectally?) / C̣_
yʔ → oʔ (eventually → {ʊʔ,(i)uʔ?) / {l,C[+dental +sibilant]}_, in “QYS -k-types”
yʔ → {ɥʔ,yʔ,uʔ} / C̣, in -juət-types
yn → un / C̣_ (may have stayed yn or → ɥn in at least one area?)
je jeʔ yeʔ → ɛ ɛʔ uɛʔ / C̣_
yeʔ → yɛʔ (→ {uɔʔ,yɔʔ} in southern speech?)
jew → au / C̣(C?)_
jew → iau / else
yen → uɛn / C̣_
wɔ → ɔ (occasionally → uɔ after a guttural?)
wɔʔ → uɔʔ / C[+guttural]_
wɔn ja wa → uɔn ia ua
waʔ → uaʔ
aj jaj waj aw jaw → ai iai uai au iau
jawʔ wawʔ → iɔʔ uɔʔ
wan → uan / else
aŋ jaŋ → uaŋ aŋ / C̣_
waŋ → uaŋ
əjʔ əw {əm,ən} → eʔ ɛu ɛn
36.3.1.1 Proto-Naish to Lazea aS → ɑ {ɑ,u}
u o → v̩ u
36.3.1.2 Proto-Naish to Mosuo (Na)u o → v̩ u
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to Naxiu o → v̩ u
36.3.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to bTshan Laew iw → im ju
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kiaut uk → ud oɡ
uj → ui
36.3.2.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Japhugu o → ɯ u / _#
36.3.2.2.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Kham Toop → u
36.3.2.2.3 Proto-rGyalrongic to Patiim it ik is ij → em u e es e
36.3.2.2.5 Proto-rGyalrongic to Trungit → u
36.3.2.2.6 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tsa Ku Naout u{k,n} ur → ud uo uɛ
uj → ue
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu Tauk uŋ → {u,o} e
aw aj → au ai
iw ij → iu ei
36.3.2.2.8 Proto-rGyalrongic to Wassuaj → ui
is → eu
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.1.2.2.1 Huron to Wyandotẽ(ː) õ(ː) o(ː) → ɛ̃(ː) ɔ̃(ː) u(ː)
37.1.2.3 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Onondagaõ(ː) → ũ(ː)
37.1.2.4 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Proto-Mohawk-Oneidaẽ(ː) õ(ː) → ʌ̃(ː) ũ(ː)
37.1.2.4.1 Proto-Mohawk-Oneida to Mohawk— wə̃ → ũ / {h,s}_
37.1.2.6 Proto-Northern Iroquoian to Tuscaroraa(ː) o(ː) → ɔ(ː) u(ː) / ! “when both short and unstressed”
37.1.2.6.2 Tuscarora to Eastern Tuscaroraə̃(ː) a(ː) o(ː) → ɨ̃(ː) ɔ(ː) u(ː) (“in all positions”)
37.2 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Siouanẽ õ → ı̃ ũ
37.2.5 Proto-Siouan to Proto-Crow-Hidatsaã ı̃ ũ → a i u
37.2.5.2 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Hidatsask → tsuk / _”u
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchowɨ̆ i̯o → u ə
uə → ŭ
u̯ɨ u̯o → {ɨ,ə} u
uo ɨ̯u → u(ː) u / _C%
ɨ̯u → uː
o {u̯ɔ,ɨɔ,ɔ} → u oː
{uɨ̯,ua̯,ue̯} → uː
u̯əi uəi uai i̯əu iau → oːi uːi uːiau oːu
eu → uː
i̯əu → au
{uəi,uai} iau → uːi eːu
38.1.1.4 Proto-Tai to North Taiu̯o i̯o → u o
{u̯ɔ,u̯a} → ua~uə
uo → uu → u / _%
uɨ̯ ua̯ → ɨə uɔ̯ → ɨː ɔː
38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-Aiuə → ŭ
ua~uə → uː
ua~u@̯ → uː
ue̯ → u / _C%
ue̯ → uː
ɨo̯ ɨa̯ ie̯ ɨe̯ → uː aː eː iː
i̯əu → uː
uəi uai iau → iː oːi eːu
38.1.1.5.2 Southwest Tai to Lüo → u / _N
38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siameseu{o,ə} ɨu → uː ɨː
ɨ̯u i̯o → uː u
eu → uː
ɨ̯əu au → au aːu
uəi → uai
38.1.1.5.6 Southwest Tai to White Taio → u / _N
40 Totozoquean40.2 Proto-Totozoquean to Proto-Totonacano o̰ → u ṵ
41 Trans-New Guinea41.1 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Apalɨe u i → a {u,ɨ} {i,ɨ}
41.4 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kaetiu a → {u,o,y} {a,o}
41.7 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kâteu a → {u,ɔ} {ɔ,a}
41.8 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Kiwaiu i → {u,o} {i,e}
41.9 Proto-Trans New Guinea to Selepetu o a e → {u,ɔ} {o,ɔ} {a,ɔ} {e,o}
42 Uralic42.1 Proto-Uralic to Pre-Finniciw ow → y uː / _(C) (*)
iw → u / unstressed
42.1.1.1.1 Proto-Finnish to Standard Finnisheː øː oː → ie yø uo
42.1.1.1.2 Standard Finnish to Modern Standard Finnishie yɤ uo → iː yː uː / _A
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livonianɑː au → ɔː ɔu (though sometimes ɑː develops, apparently at least partially due to metathesis?)
eː øː oː ɤ(ː) → iːe yːø uːo ɨ(ː)
æy ey → æu eu
43 Uto-Aztecan43.5.1.1 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to KawaiisuuV Vː → uː Vː (not sure if this occurs before or after the previous change)
43.5.1.2 Proto-Mono-Kawaiisu to MonouV → u(i)
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basqueõ → ũ (Souletin)
i → u / _(C…)u (Roncalese)
a o e → ɛ u i / {i,u}(C…)_ (this [ɛ] is tentatively marked as such; Egurtzegi transcribes it as /e/ but says it’s not as close as /e/)
o → u / _n{C,#} (Souletin; some raising occurred elsewhere)
o e → u i / _$a (raising of *o is less common)
eʊ → {e,eɡu}
oɪ → uɪ (rare)
oa ea → u(e) i(e) / _#
45 Yuman-Cochimı́45.1.1 Proto-Pai to Chapaio → u
46 Vowel Shifts46.1 7-to-5 Vowel Merger (Bantu)ɪ ʊ → i u
46.4 Polder Dutch Vowel Shiftɛi œy ʌu → ai ay au
eː øː oː → ɛi œy ɔu
46.5 Old English-to-Scots Vowel Shiftsuː → ʌu / when-stem final, in northern varieties
øː → (j){u,ʌ} / _{k,x} (outcome varies depending upon dialect)
ai oi ui ei au ou iu ɛ(o)u → eː oe əi iː {ɑː,ɔː} ʌu ju j(ʌ)u
iː eː ɛː aː oː uː {øː,yː} → əi i {i,e} e o u ø
46.7 Great Vowel Shift (English)eː oː → iː uː
46.8 Greek Vowel Shiftoː → uː
46.10 Late Proto-Finnic to Savonian Vowel Shifteː øː oː → ie yø uo
ɑː æː ɑi æi → uɑ iæ ɑe æe
46.11 Middle Chinese to Cantonese Vowel Shift (“The Inner-Outer Flip”)iəu → au
46.13 Old Norse to Faroese Vowel Shiftoː → {ɔu,ɛu,œu} / œ “(except Suðuroy → ɔ)”
u → uː / short: ʊ / unstressed: {o,ɔ}
uː → ʉu / ʏ
46.14 Pre-Slavic Vowel Changesew → ju
aw → u
u → ŭ [ɤ?] → {e,o,ɤ,a} (strong)/∅ (weak) “in modern languages”
46.15 Proto-Japanese to Old Japanese Vowel Shifte o → i u / else
46.16 Development of Proto-Lolo-Burmese -i(C)# and -u(C)# to Lahu-u -up -ut -uk -um -un -uŋ → -u -ɔʔ -əʔ -uʔ -ɔ -ə -ɛ
47 Most-Wanted Sound Changes47.3 List 3: Vowelsy → u (some mainland Greek dialects, and Tsakonian; this particular sound change has been said in some places to be impossible) (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsakonian_language#Consonants)

with context involving /u/

254 matches

8 Altaic8.1 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Japonica → u / _Cu
V → u / _Cu
r → t / _{i,u}
8.1.1 Early Middle Japanese to Modern Japaneseɸ → h / ! _u
8.3 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Mongolica → {a,o,u} / _Cu
e → o / P_Cu
e → o / C_Pu
a e {o,u} æ ø y → {a,o,u} {e,a} {o,u} {a,o,u} {e,i,u} {i,o,u,y,ø} / _Cu
ŋ → ɡ / #_u
8.4 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Tungusicø → i / {s,ʃ,x}_Cu
{u,æ,y} ø → {o,u} ia / _Cu
8.5 Proto-Altaic to Proto-Turkicæ → ʌ / P_Cu
e i æ ø y → {ɛ,a,ʌ} {ɯ,i} {e,a} {u,o} ɯ / _Cu
8.5.1 Proto-Turkic to Proto-Kypchakɣ → w / {a,u,i,o}_
9 Austroasiatic9.1.2.2 Middle Vietnamese to Saigon Vietnameseə → ∅ / u_{m,j}
10 Austronesian10.1.2.7 Proto-Philippine to Proto-Kalamiane → u / _Cu
e → u / uC_
10.2.2 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Chamorro∅ → w / u_a
∅ → w / a_u
10.2.5 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Palauan∅ → w / u_V
10.2.6 Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-North Sarawakh → ʔ / a_{i,u}
10.2.6.2.1 Proto-Kenyah to Òma Lónghp → k / u_#
10.2.6.3 Proto-Malayic to Minangkabau— m p → n t / {u,i}_
10.3.6.3 Proto-Reefs/Santa Cruz to Natügut → l / _{u,i}
r → l / _{u,#}
10.3.9.1 Proto-Utupua to Asuboat r l → {j,s} {j,∅} j / _u
10.3.9.2 Proto-Utupua to Nebaor → {l,∅} / _u
10.3.9.3 Proto-Utupua to Tanibilip t {r,l} → ∅ s j / _u
10.3.10 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Vanikorop → ∅ / _u
10.3.10.1 Proto-Vanikoro to Bumap t → ∅ {s,k} / _u
10.3.10.2 Proto-Vanikoro to Tanemat → s / _u
10.3.10.3 Proto-Vanikoro to Vanot → s / _{u,i}
r → l / ! _{u,#}
10.3.11 Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Southern Vanuatum b → mʷ bʷ / _u
p → vʷ / _u (a change thetha reconstructs in order to account for phenomena in later posts about this group of languages)
10.3.11.1 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Anejomi → o / {u,w}_
10.3.11.3 Proto-Southern Vanuatu to Proto-Tannaa → o / _{P,Cu}
10.3.11.3.1 Proto-Tanna to Kwamerau → {e,i} / _Cu
10.3.11.3.3 Proto-Tanna to North Tannakʷ → ∅ / _u
10.3.11.3.4 Proto-Tanna to Southwest Tannau → {e,i} / _Cu
10.3.11.3.5 Proto-Tanna to Whitesandskʷ → ∅ / u_
kʷ → ∅ / _u
10.5 Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Onganb → ∅ / #_{u,i}
14 Elamo-Dravidian14.2 Proto-Elamo-Dravidian to Achaemanid Elamitec → s / #_{a,u}
14.3.1 Standard Tamil to Colloquial Tamilc → s / _{a,o,u,e}
o e → u i / _C{u,i} “(highly sporadic)”
15 Eskimo-Aleut15.1 Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to Proto-Aleutdʒ → ð / u_a (in eastern dialects)
15.2.1 Proto-Eskimo to Barrow Iñupiaqə → u / u_
v → ∅ / u_i
dʒ → ʁ / i_u
ədʒ → i / _{a,u} (except in #U)
15.2.2 Proto-Eskimo to Greenlandic Iñupiaqə → u / u_
v → ∅ / u_a
iv → uj / _u
dʒ → tʃ / i_{u,i}
ədʒ → i / _{a,u} (except in #U)
15.2.3 Proto-Eskimo to Mackenzie Iñupiaqə → u / u_
v → ∅ / u_i
ədʒ → i / _{a,u} (except in #U)
15.2.4 Proto-Eskimo to Wales Iñupiaqə → u / u_
v → ∅ / u_V
v → ∅ / V_u
dʒ → ʁ / i_u
ədʒ → i / _{a,u} (except in #U)
ɣ → ∅ / V_u
ɣ → ∅ / u_V
15.2.5 Proto-Eskimo to Kuskokwim Yup’ikə → i / u_
v → ∅ / u[+short]_V[+short]
v → ∅ / V[+short]_u[+short]
iv → j / #_u
s → dʒ / {i,u}_V
ə → ∅ / _dʒ{a,u}, except in #U
in → dʒ / _u (possibly only word-initially?)
15.2.6 Proto-Eskimo to Nunivak Yup’ikə → i / {u,a}_ (though aə seems to have become i in some circumstances)
v → ∅ / u[+short]_V[+short]
v → ∅ / V[+short]_u[+short]
iv → j / #_u
s → dʒ / {i,u}_V
ə → ∅ / _dʒ{a,u} except in #U
in → dʒ / _u (possibly only word-initially?)
15.2.7 Proto-Eskimo to Siberian Yup’ikə → i / {u,a}_
v → ∅ / u[+short]_V[+short]
v → ∅ / V[+short]_u[+short]
iv → j / #_u
s → dʒ / {i,u}_V
ə → ∅ / _dʒ{a,u} except in #U
in → dʒ / _u (possibly only word-initially?)
15.2.8 Proto-Eskimo to Unaaliq Yup’ikə → i / {u,a}_ (though aə seems to have become i in some circumstances)
v → ∅ / u[+short]_V[+short]
v → ∅ / V[+short]_u[+short]
iv → j / #_u
ə → ∅ / _dʒ{a,u} except in #U
s → dʒ / {i,u}_V
in → dʒ / _u (possibly only word-initially?)
16 Extended West Papuan16.1.1 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Nafrie → ə / _C{a,ə,u} (seems to have become a in a few instances)
16.1.2 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Central Sentanie → ə / _C{a,ə,u} (seems to have become a in a few instances)
16.1.3 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Eastern Sentanie → ə / _C{a,ə,u} (seems to have become a in a few instances)
16.1.4 Proto-Tabla-Sentani to Western Sentanie → ə / _C{a,ə,u} (seems to have become a in a few instances)
17 Indo-European17.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Gheg Albanianḱ → s / _{u̯,u,i̯,i}
s → ʃ / V{i̯,u̯,r,k}_V
17.1.2 Proto-Indo-European to Tosk Albanianḱ → s / _{u̯,u,i̯,i}
s → ʃ / V{i̯,u̯,r,k}_V
17.2.1 Common Anatolian to Hittitew → m / _u
w → m / u_
17.2.2 Common Anatolian to Luwianhh h → h ∅ / ”Vː_u
hh h → h ∅ / u_”Vː
17.2.4 Common Anatolian to Lydiand → tʃ / _{i,u}
17.2.5 Common Anatolian to Palaich → ∅ / ”Vː_u
h → ∅ / u_”Vː
17.5.1 Proto-Indo-European to Old Irisheː → iː / ! _{i,u}
ɡʷ → b / #_V ! _u(ː)
— o → a / _{(C…),u}#
— n → ∅ / {i,o,u}_{p,t,k,s}
17.7.2.1.4 Midlands Middle English to Early Modern Englishtj sj dj zj → tʃ ʃ dʒ ʒ / ! _uː (perhaps only before stressed uː?)
17.7.2.1.10 Old English to Scotsd~ð → d / V_u
l → ∅ / u_
17.7.2.1.13 Middle English to Yola∅ → ɛ / uː_d
17.7.2.3 Middle High German to Standard Germanw → ∅ / {ou,øy,yː}_
17.7.3.1 Proto-Norse to Old Norsea(ː) ae → o(ː) ɒø / #(C)(C)(C)_(C)(C)(C)u
e → jɒ / _(C)(C)(C)u ! {{h,k,ŋ}n,w,v,l,r}_
e → ja / _(C)(C)(C)u ! {{h,k,ŋ}n,w,v,l,r}_
17.7.3.1.1 Old Norse to Early Icelandicv → ∅ / {u,o,a}ː_
17.8.1 Proto-Indo-European to Aeolian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.2 Proto-Indo-European to Attic Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.3 Proto-Indo-European to Boeotian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.4 Proto-Indo-European to Coan Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.5 Proto-Indo-European to Cretan Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.6 Proto-Indo-European to Doric Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.7 Proto-Indo-European to Elian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.8 Proto-Indo-European to Ionic Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.9 Proto-Indo-European to Laconian Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.8.10 Proto-Indo-European to Mycenaean Greekkʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / _u
kʷ kʰʷ ɡʷ → k kʰ ɡ / u_
17.9 Proto-Indo-European to Hittitew → m / u_
17.11 Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Slavics → x / {i,u,r,k}_
17.11.2 Proto-Slavic to Old Russianj → ∅ / #_u
j → ∅ / V_u (sporadic)
17.12.1.1 Proto-Indo-European to Latino → u / _C(C)# ! {u,w}_
dʱ → b / uː_
17.12.1.1.2 Latin to Catalanau → a / _%”u
l → ∅ / {o,u}_CV
w → ∅ / u_#
17.12.1.1.3 Latin to Frenchl → ∅ / {i,u}_
17.12.1.1.4 Vulgar Latin to Italianr → ∅ / a_ju#
17.12.1.1.5 Latin to Portugueseau → a / _%”u
ɛ ɔ → e o / _(”u)#
e → j / {a,o,u}_
17.12.1.1.6 Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal— ɔ → y / _{u,P,k,ɡ,i} (in northwestern dialects)
— ɔ → ɥe / _{u,P,k,ɡ,i} (in western dialects, Limousin, and Auvergne)
— ɔ → ɥo / _{u,P,k,ɡ,i} (in Languedoc)
— ɔ → {ɥe,ɥo,ɔ} / _{u,P,k,ɡ,i} (in southern dialects)
— ɛ → jɛ / _{u,i,ʎ,rʲ,ʃ,ʒ,j,tʃ,dʒ} (except in some northern and western dialects, or if this u ← l or if this i ← ð)
— au → a / _(C…)u
w → v → ∅ / _u (“restored by analogy in many words”)
ɡ → ɡ / _{o,u/y}
ð → ∅ / au_
17.12.1.1.8 Latin to Romaniane → ə / ou_#
17.12.1.1.9 Latin to Sardiniane → ∅ / u_#
17.12.1.1.10 Vulgar Latin to Spanishf → h / ! _{ue,L}
18 Je-Tupı́-Carib18.4.3 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Guajajarab → ∅ / u_#
18.4.6 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Kamayuráp → h / _{o,u,w}
18.4.8 Proto-Tupí-Guaraní to Sirionóp → {h,∅} / _{u,o}
20 Khoisan20.2.1 Proto-Kx’a to ǂHoano → ∅ / u_
20.2.2 Proto-Kx’a to Northwestern !Xuno → ∅ / _u
20.2.3 Proto-Kx’a to Southeastern !Xuno → ∅ / _u
23 Macro-Chibchan23.1.1.1.2 Proto-Chibchan to Chibchaa → ∅ / _u
i → u / _(C)u
23.1.1.1.5 Proto-Chibchan to Motilóne → u / uC_
e → ∅ / u_C
23.1.1.1.6 Proto-Chibchan to Tuneboa → ∅ / _u
e → ∅ / u_C
24 Macro-Pama-Nyungan24.1.2 Proto-Paman to Awŋtim∅ → w / #(C)uː(C)_V ! _u
24.1.7 Proto-Paman to Yinwum∅ → w / #uː(C)_a
27 Mayan27.3 Proto-Mayan to Huastecanh → w / _{o,u}
29 Na-Dene29.1.1.1.3 Proto-Athabaskan to BeaverT → TŠ / _{i,e,u}, in the British Columbian dialect
29.1.1.1.18 Proto-Athabaskan to SekaniT → TŠ / _{i,e,u} ! in Ware Sekani
30 Niger-Congo30.1.1.2 Proto-Bantu to Tswanank k → kʰ h / _u
30.3.1.1.2 Proto-Ajá to Hwet d → tʃ dʒ / _{u,i}
30.3.1.1.9 Proto-Vhe to Avénot d → tʃ dʒ / _{u,i}
30.3.1.1.10 Proto-Vhe to Awalant d → tʃ dʒ / _{u,i}
χ ʁ → ʃ {ʒ,j} / _{u,i,j}
30.3.1.1.13 Proto-Vhe to Tɔ̣wunn → ŋ / _ũ
31 Nyulnyulan31.1 Proto-Nyulnyulan to Bardii → u / _ju
b → w / a_u
32 Oto-Manguean32.1.1 Proto-Chatino to Papabuco Chatinot → ɾ / _{u,ẽ} when unstressed
tʲ → s / _u
32.1.3 Proto-Chatino to Yaitepec Chatinokʷ → ʍ / ku_ (medial)
33 Penutian33.1.1 Proto-Utian to Proto-Costanoan (Ohlone)e → i / _(C…)u
k → s̪ / _{ɨ,u}
k → s̪ / {ɨ,u}_
33.3.1.1 General Yokuts to Buena Vista Yokutstʰ → s / #_u
33.3.2.2.2 Northern Yokuts to Kings Valley Yokutsi → u / uC_
33.3.3 Proto-Yokuts to PalewyamiV → u / C”uC_
34 Quechumaran34.2 Proto-Quechumaran to Boliviaʂ → ∅ / _u
j → ∅ / i_{a,u}
j → ∅ / u_ʎ
34.3 Proto-Quechumaran to Cuzcoh → ∅ / #q_{i,u}
34.4 Proto-Quechumaran to Huarásʂ → h / _{i,u}
34.7 Proto-Quechumaran to Riobambakh → kʰ / #_{i,u}
ʎ → ʒ / _{a,u}
34.8 Proto-Quechumaran to Santiagoʂ → h / _u
ʎ → ʒ / _{a,u}
j → ∅ / i_{a,u}
j → ∅ / u_ʎ
35 Salishan35.1.1 Proto-Central Salish to Comoxl(ʲ) → w / _u
l(ʲ) → w / u_
35.1.5 Proto-Central Salish to Klallamp(ʼ) m → ts(ʼ) ŋ / ! _u
a3 → u3 / _{Cu,Cʷ[+uvular],w}
35.1.8 Proto-Central Salish to Lummi Northern Straitsp(’) m → tʃ(’) ŋ / ! _u
a3 → o3 / _{Cu,C[+ uvular]ʷ,w}
35.1.9 Proto-Central Salish to Saanich Northern Straitsp(’) m → tʃ(’) ŋ / ! _u
35.1.10 Proto-Central Salish to Songish Northern Straitsp(’) m → tʃ(’) ŋ / ! _u
a3 → a3 / _{Cu,C[+ uvular]ʷ,w}
35.1.11 Proto-Central Salish to Sooke Northern Straitsp(’) m → tʃ(’) ŋ / ! _u
36 Sino-Tibetan36.2 Sin Sukchu to Guānhuàŋ → ∅ / _u / _V
ʔ → ∅ / _u (not always? Perhaps some variation with [ɣ] here?)
36.3.1.3 Proto-Naish to NaxiV% → mid tone / C_ru
36.3.2.1.1 Proto-rGyalrongic to Chos Kias → ∅ / u_
36.3.2.1.2 Proto-rGyalrongic to Hanniuk → ∅ / {u,a}_
36.3.2.2.7 Proto-rGyalrongic to Tzu Tas → ∅ / u_
37 Siouan-Iroquoian37.2 Proto-Siouan-Iroquoian to Proto-Siouanx → ç / _{i,u}
37.2.5.2 Proto-Crow-Hidatsa to Hidatsask → tsuk / _”u
38 Tai-Kadai38.1.1.3.1 Central Tai to Lungchowɨ → ∅ / _u
a → aː / _u,i
o → a / _u
ɛ i → eː iː / _u
38.1.1.4.2 North Tai to Po-Aiɨ → ∅ / _u
ə → a / _{u,ɨ}
ɛ e i → eː a iː / _u
38.1.1.5.4 Southwest Tai to Siamese{o,ə} ɛ → a ɛː / _u
42 Uralic42.1.1 Pre-Finnic to Proto-Finnicɑ → e / ”{o,u}(X)C_j
i → ∅ / {o,u}j_
42.1.1.1 Proto-Finnic to Proto-Finnishʋ → ∅ / #_{o,u,y}
42.1.2 Proto-Finnic to Livoniane → ɤ / _C(C){a,o,u}
43 Uto-Aztecan43.1 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Comanche∅ → h / Vu_k
43.4 Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Nahuatlt → tɬ / _{a,u}
44 Vasconic44.2 Proto-Basque to Basquen →m / u_V
i → u / _(C…)u (Roncalese)
a o e → ɛ u i / {i,u}(C…)_ (this [ɛ] is tentatively marked as such; Egurtzegi transcribes it as /e/ but says it’s not as close as /e/)
∅ → j / u_V (eastern dialects)
46 Vowel Shifts46.1 7-to-5 Vowel Merger (Bantu)S → F / _{i,u} (Do not necessarily have to be fricatives at the same POA; in some cases, the phones go to null or to /l/)
46.11 Middle Chinese to Cantonese Vowel Shift (“The Inner-Outer Flip”)∅ → ə / _u
ə → a / _{i,u}
a → aː / _{i,u}
a → ə → ∅ / i_u